**Dr A B Ram Jyothis **

**Study on Analgesic Activity of ****Morphinum 4X ****and ****Arnica 3X ****in Experimental Animal Model**

(This Scientific paper was presented in Homoeopathic Conference – 2006 held at Fr.Muller Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, Derelakatte, Mangalore on 10 th December 2006.)

**Introduction:**

The purpose of fundamental research is to describe and possibly to understand the phenomena purported by homoeopathy, using the experimental method. Experimental method is based on the assumption that any hypothesis should be testable, i. e. measurements can be done to prove or disprove it. To do this, we need specific and carefully selected experimental models.

Similar to clinical study, laboratory research is able to show biological activity of homeopathic medicines that cannot be explained as a placebo response. Laboratory research is also capable of shedding some new light on how the homeopathic medicines may work. This study seeks to test the analgesic effects of Morphinum 4X and Arnica 3X on animals so that researchers can apply the information for human health and to understand biological phenomena of higher potencies.

**Objectives:**

1) To evaluate the effects of Homoeopathic potencies in Experimental Animal.

2) To evaluate the Analgesic Property of Morphinum4X and Arnica 3X. by Eddy’s hot plate Method.

**Materials and Methods:**

Testing Potencies:

Morphinum 4X and Arnica 3X were prepared with Sac Lac and Aqua distillata respectively.

**Experimental Animals:**

Male albino mice (Swiss strain) were used. Four groups (I-IV), each comprising of six animals weighing between (20-25g) were selected.

GROUP-I -Control group treated with Aqua distillata (10ml/kg, p.o)

GROUP-II – Group treated with Pentazocine (5mg/kg, i.p)

GROUP III – Group treated with Morphinum 4X (10ml/kg, p.o)

GROUP IV – Group treated with Arnica 3X (10ml/kg, p.o)

For Group I, III, and IV, three treatments were given at an interval of one hour and experiment was conducted one hour after the last treatment. For Group II, one dose was given 30 minutes prior to the experiment.

**Eddy’s hot plate**:

In this method heat is used as a source of pain. Animals are individually placed on a hot plate maintained at constant temperature (55◦C) and the reaction of animals, such as paw licking or jump response is taken as the end point. Analgesics increase the reaction time.

**Statistical Analysis**

The results were statistically processed by Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) to compare the effects on treatment groups before and after treatment with control group and Dunnet’s t test were used to determine the effect of each treatment against control group.

The null hypothesis (H0) was assumed that there was no difference in effects of treatments between the treatment groups compared with control group and alternate hypothesis (H1) was assumed there was significant difference in effect of treatment between the treatment groups compared with control group.

**Observation and Result**

Control group exhibit no increase in reaction time.

Group treated with Pentazocine exhibit increase in reaction time up to 10 sec.

Group treated with Arnica 3X exhibit increase in reaction time up to 6.3 sec.

Group treated with Morphinum 4X exhibit increase in reaction time up to 8.83 sec

The standard drug, Pentazocine (5mg/Kg, i.p) increase the reaction time by 65% (P<0.001), Morphinum 4X (10 ml/Kg, o.p) increase the reaction time by 49.03% (P<0.001) and Arnica 3X (10 ml/Kg, o.p) increase the reaction time by 46.51% (P<0.001).

Table – 1

**ANALGESIC EFFECT – EDDY’S HOT PLATE**

Group | Treatment | Dose | Basal reaction time.(sec) | Reaction time after treatment. (sec) | % increasein reaction time |

1 | Control | 10ml/kg p.o | 4.66±0.33 | 4.66±0.33 | 0% |

2 | Pentazocine | 5mg/kg i.p | 3.5±0.22 | 10±0.73 | 65% |

3 | Arnica 3X | 10ml/kg p.o | 4.3±0.21 | 6.3±0.44 | 46.51% |

4 | Morphinum 4X | 10ml/kg p.o | 4.5±0.34 | 8.83±0.47 | 49.03% |

Number of animals used in each group: 6

The results are in Mean±SEM

**Before Treatment:**

Table -2

Analysis of variance table for Analgesic activity before treatment.

Source of variation | df | Sum of squares | Mean sum of squares | F-ratio | F-table value |

TreatmentError | 4-1=323- 3=20 | 4.839.67 | 1.610.483 | 3.33^{***} |
4.94 |

Total | 24- 1=23 | 14.5 |

***P > 0.01, df 3, 20.

From the table 2, calculated F- value (3.33) is compared with table F- value (4.94) with 3, 20 df at 1% level of significance. Therefore the calculated F value is less than table F value. So the null hypothesis is accepted and there is no significant difference in the Analgesic activity among the groups before treatment.

**After Treatment:**

Table – 3

**Analysis of variance table for Analgesic activity after treatment.
**

Source of variation | df | Sum of squares | Mean sum of squares | F-ratio | F-table value |

TreatmentError | 4-1=323- 3=20 | 104.4635.5 | 34.821.77 | 19.67^{***} |
4.94 |

Total | 24- 1=23 | 139.96 |

***P < 0.01, df 3, 20.

From the table 3, calculated F- value (19.67) is compared with table F- value (4.94) with 3, 20 df at 1% level of significance. Therefore the calculated F value is greater than table F value. So the null hypothesis is rejected and there is significant difference in the Analgesic activity among the groups after treatment.

**Dunnet’s t test table against control for Analgesic activity**

Statistic | Pentazocine | Arnica 3X | Morphinum 3X |

t | 10.45^{****} |
3.28^{****} |
8.18^{****} |

****P < 0.001, df 20.

Discussion and Conclusion

In homoeopathy, Potentized Morphinum and Arnica are used for unbearable pain. Morphinum is indicated in neuralgia where the pains are so violent as to threaten convulsions, pain causing twitching for jerking of limbs. Arnica is indicated when there is sore, lame bruised feeling and neuralgias originating in disturbances of pneumo-gastric. The result of the present study verifies that dynamised Morphinum and Arnica are potent analgesics.

In conclusion, research in homoeopathy will never end up with a final explanation, because homoeopathy is such a large field that there is not an experiment nor an experimental line which can clarify every thing and convince everybody. It is only through accumulation of knowledge and elimination of error that we are getting nearer to the truth. The homoeopathic drug, characterized by infinitesimal doses and by dynamization according to Hahnemann’s preparation technique has a marked informational character. The possibility of storing information from molecules can be used for therapeutical as well as experimental purpose.

The result of the study justify the opportunity of future researches concerning the intimate mechanism of action of homoeopathic potencies in accordance with principle of similia.

**Dr A B Ram Jyothis.**B.H.M.S, M.D (Hom) Homoeopathic Pharmacy.

Lecturer. Fr.Muller’s Homeopathic Medical College. Mangalorev