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Non Clinical medical subjects

health

Healthy Personalities

healthPeople with healthy personalities are those who are judged to be well adjusted. They are so jugged because they are able to function efficiently in the world of people. They experience a kind of “Inner Harmony” in the sense that they are at peace with others as well as themselves.

“The core of a healthy personality is any image of the self that the individual can accept and live with, without feeling too guilty, anxious or hostile, without being self-defeated or destructive of others.”

Jourard has defined a person with a healthy personality as one who “is able to gratify his needs through behavior that conforms with both the norms of his society and the requirements of his conscience.”

Characteristics of Healthy Personalities: Of the many characteristics of healthy personalities, the following are the most common:

  1. Realistic self-appraisals
  2. Realistic appraisal of situations
  3. Realistic evaluation of achievements
  4. Acceptance of reality
  5. Acceptance of responsibility
  6. Autonomy
  7. Acceptable emotional control
  8. Goal orientation
  9. Outer orientation
  10. Social acceptance
  11. Philosophy-of-life-directed
  12. Happiness
  1. Realistic self-appraisals: The well adjusted person sees himself as he is, not as he would like to be. The gap between the real and the ideal self-concept, is very much smaller among the well-adjusted. Since the well-adjusted person can appraise himself, his abilities and his achievements realistically, he does not need to use defense mechanisms to try to convince himself and others that his failure to come up to his expectations is the fault of others or of environmental conditions over which he has no control. He accepts adverse evaluations as a form of constructive criticism and tries to improve qualities that others judge unfavorably. He is ready and willing to change, regard himself as worthy, even if not perfect.
  1. Realistic appraisal of situations: He approaches situations with a realistic attitude, accepting the bad with the good. He realizes that there must be rules of conduct which protects the rights of others and himself, and he is willing to abide by them even when they are not entirely to his liking. He finds that it pays to be a law-abiding citizen rather than a troublemaker or law-breaker. He recognizes that success comes only with hard work, the willingness to make personal sacrifices and pass up immediate pleasures in favor of the long term gains he is striving for.
  1. Realistic evaluation of achievements: A well-adjusted person is able to evaluate his achievements realistically and to react to them in a rational way. This contrasts with the maladjusted person who regards his successes as a personal triumph which shows others his superiority over them. The maladjusted person allows himself to develop a superiority complex which he expresses in boasting, bragging and derogatory comments about those whose achievements fall below this.

A well-adjusted person evaluates his failures realistically to see if they were actually failure for him or whether they were due to competition with persons whose abilities were greater than his. He also considers whether he tried hard enough and if he did not; whether his lack of effort was due to laziness, fear of failure, or some other cause. In addition, he assesses his aspirations to see if they were realistic and if not, he profits by his failure, setting his future aspirations at a more realistic level.

  1. Acceptance of reality: The person must learn to accept his limitations, either physical or psychological, if he cannot change them and to do what he can with what he has. He can also compensate for his limitations by improving those characteristics in which he is strongest.

The poorly adjusted person, by contrast, develops a martyr complex, feeling sorry for himself or blaming himself or others for his limitations.

  1. Acceptance of responsibility: The well adjusted person is enough of a realist to recognize that he should not accept responsibilities that he is unprepared to carry out successfully. He knows that by doing so he will not only win social disapproval for his failures but will undermine his self confidence to the point where he will be hesitant to accept future responsibilities. He accepts responsibility for himself and for his behavior. If things go wrong and if he is criticized, he accepts the blame and is willing to admit that he made a mistake. Acceptance of responsibility means that the well adjusted person is dependable.
  1. Autonomy: Autonomy shows itself in independence. An autonomous person does not depend on others when he is capable of being independent. The well-adjusted person shows his autonomy in several ways. In decision making, he is able to make important decisions with a minimum of worry, conflict, advice seeking and other types of running away behavior. After making a choice, he abides by it, until new factors of crucial importance enter into the picture.
  1. Acceptable emotional control: The person must assume the responsibility for keeping his emotions under control so that they will not hurt others or himself. A well adjusted person can live comfortably with his emotions. This is possible because he had developed, over a period, a degree of stress tolerance, anxiety tolerance, depression tolerance and pain tolerance.
  1. Goal orientation: The well adjusted person set realistic goals while those who are poorly adjusted set more unrealistic goals. The second major difference between well and poorly adjusted people in goal setting is that the well adjusted make it their business to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to reach their goals. The result is that a well adjusted person is a well organized one. He integrates his various functions and roles in life according to a consistent, harmonious pattern. He is thus able to make the best use of his time and effort and this increases his chances of reaching his goals.
  1. Outer orientation: The well adjusted person’s interest in others is revealed in a number of ways. He is unselfish about his time, effort and material possessions. He is willing to respond in any way he can to the needs of others and does not regard it as an imposition. The ability to empathize with others, to understand and to sympathize with them in happiness and sorrow without feeling envious of their successes or scornful of their failures.
  1. Social acceptance: The well adjusted persons see themselves as adequate to meet social challenges, demands and expectations and so they are willing to participate in social activities and are highly capable of identifying with other people. He can be natural, at ease and friendly in his relationships with others and all this increases his social acceptance. Even though he may have little in common with those with whom he is associated, he makes it his business to get along with them if circumstances make it impossible for him to seek the companionship of persons whose interests are more similar to his and who would meet his needs better.
  1. Philosophy-of-life-directed: As well adjusted people are goal-oriented, so do they direct their lives by a philosophy which helps them to formulate plans to meet their goals in a socially approved way. This philosophy of life may be based on religious beliefs, it may be based mainly on what they believe is right because it is best for all concerned or it may be based on personal experiences.
  1. Happiness: One of the outstanding characteristics of the well adjusted person is happiness. This means that in the well adjusted person happiness outways unhappiness and the person is an essentially happy person. Three conditions contribute to the happiness of the well adjusted person. All enhance the person’s self-concept and lead to reasonable self satisfaction. These conditions have been called the “Three A’s of Happiness”:
  • Achievement
  • Acceptance
  • Affection

Dr. Nahida M.Mulla.M.D (Hom) MACH
PRINCIPAL.Professor of Repertory & PG Guide.HOD  Paediatric OPD.,Child Counsellor.
A.M.Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College,  Hospital & PG Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum – 590010
E-Mail: drnahida_mulla@yahoo.com

Integrated approach in Psychological disorders

Dr. Smita N Nambison
Dr.K.M.Nisanth (Co-Author)  

Psychological and behavioral factors play an important role in ones life. The disharmony in equilibrium of normal psychological behaviors is a result of many factors. This is results in further mismanagement of relations, routine work, which manifests in the form of psychosomatic diseases. The aim of this paper is to present a different approach towards psychological disorders in conjugation with homeopathic treatment.

Integrated approach
This approach is amenable and encourages clinicians to implement seemingly disparate and competing treatment together. The approach is integrated in the sense that it blends together many approaches like homeopathy, positive counseling, Diet management, life style management.

Psychological disorders
Psychological disorders or mental disorders are abnormalities of the mind that result in persistent behavior patterns that seriously affect day-to-day life. Different psychological disorders can be classified as:

  • Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa;
  • Mood disorders, such as depression;
  • Personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder;
  • Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia;
  • Sexual disorders, such as sexual dysfunction; and others

These disorders affect personal relationships, career and distorts the normal Personality in any age group

Development of psychology
The roots of human behavior, researchers now know, begin to develop early – just weeks after conception. Developmental psychologist William Filer, Ph.D., who with his Columbia University has found that fetal heart rate slows when the mother is speaking, suggesting that the fetus not only hears and recognizes the sound, but is calmed by it.

A recent study by biostatistician Bernie Devlin, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, suggests that genes may have less impact on IQ than previously thought and that the environment of the womb may account for much more.

As Harvard’s Als observes, “The fetus gets an enormous amount of ‘hormonal bathing’ through the mother, so its chronobiological rhythms are influenced by the mother’s sleep/wake cycles, her eating patterns, her movements, stress, toxins taken by her”

This contributes in development of psychological behavior of child in post natal life.

Organon of medicine by Dr Hahnemann
Explains about mental and emotional diseases in §210-§230

According to Organon aphorism §216

The cases are not rare in which a so-called corporeal disease that threatens to be fatal—a suppuration of the lungs, or the deterioration of some other important viscus, or some other disease of acute character, E. G., in childbed, etc.—becomes transformed into insanity, into a kind of melancholia or into mania by a rapid increase of the psychical symptoms that were previously present, whereupon the corporeal symptoms lose all their danger;

So the patient seeking treatment for a corporeal disease or a mental disease should be analyzed by thorough case taking with perseverance.

Case taking (questionnaire)
Objective of Case-Taking: Collection of all the facts pertaining to the patient, which help in reaching to the totality of the patient and thereby help in finding the correct similimum. As it is also said that a case well taken is a case half cured, a detailed case taking is done under following heads

According to Dr. Stuart Close: “The purpose of homeopathic examination is to bring out the symptoms of the patient in such a way as to permit their comparison with the symptoms of the materia medica for the purpose of selecting the similar or Homeopathic remedy

§96: Besides this, the patients themselves differ so much in their dispositions, the some, especially the so-called hypochondriacs and other persons of great sensitiveness and impatient of suffering, portray, their symptoms in too vivid colors and, in order to induce the physician to give them relief, describe their ailments in exaggerated expressions.

§97: Other individuals of an opposite character, however, partly from false modesty, partly from a kind of mildness of disposition or weakness of mind, refrain from mentioning a number of their symptoms, describing them in vague terms, or allege some of them to be of no consequence.

As mentioned in $96 and $97, a single case taking may not retrieve the true mental symptoms to complete the full patient picture, a repeated case taking after making the patient comfortable is important

Digital Health Analysis by

  • Positive Health Calculator
  • Miasmatic Analysis
  • Thermal Analysis
  • Nutritional and Lifestyle analysis is done for complete Health Analysis of patient.

Positive Counseling Exercises
After case taking, repertorization, medicine selection, diet advice, lifestyle changes some positive counseling exercises are advised to the patient to be performed daily till next visit. These exercises are decided after case taking. These exercises mainly include nurturing the childhood hobbies which infuses a state of happiness and positive attitude during stressful conditions. Patients are asked to give a list things they like since childhood. In case patients are unable to mention anything, they are given a coloring book and set of colors and are asked to color whenever they feel stressed.

Diet Advice:
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter (brain chemical) that is involved in many vital body functions and is very important in the regulation of mood and sleep. Serotonin has come under a lot of attention recently because research has shown that low levels of this neurotransmitter can lead to increased incidences of aggressive behavior and increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some foods which increase the serotonin level are

Flaxseed/ Flaxseed oil , Whey protein ,  Bananas, High quality Eggs,  Sour Cherries, Dark Chocolate, asparagus, avocado, pecans, pineapple, eggplant, spinach, walnuts, oats, and coffee (if  used  sensibly).

Life style management
Activities which help to raise serotonin levels are:

  • Prayer, meditation or positive visualization,
  • Pursuing Hobbies or crafts either from childhood or adulthood, are relaxing
  • Listening to relaxing music, playing instruments etc
  • Photography
  • Playing any sport
  • This could include a relaxed swim or morning/evening walk, dancing,Singing, drawing, sewing, cooking etc
  • Thirty minutes of sunshine (early morning) per day can also elevate serotonin levels

Including any activity that results in a feeling of well-being and peace, can raise serotonin levels.

Case 1
A middle aged couple sought help to treat the wife suffering with Depression as diagnosed by a Psychiatrist. She was on all sorts of sedatives, antidepressant drugs since 6 months .Since 1,1/2 month she started observing weakness of memory, laziness, irritability, irregular menstrual cycle and constipation in addition to depression. Case taking revealed death of their 10 years old son due to cancer which happened 8 months back. Since then mother was unable to sleep and hears voice of his son especially at night. The lady belonged to a very rich family but the appearance was contradicting the status. She had dry, uncombed hair her clothes were mismatched and clumsy. She was not willing to answer the questions but wanted to get rid of the sick feeling which occupied her mind. She did not like people sympathizing with her She said she could see her son’s face everywhere and nothing else. She stopped all modern medicine since 1 month.

Treatment:

The lady was prescribed Natrum Mur 1M with Placebo daily bed time which produced dramatic improvement which was observed after 15 days of her visit.

The rubrics selected were

  • Mind; indifference, apathy; constipation, with
  • Mind; sadness; consolation agg.
  • Sleep; sleeplessness; grief, after
  • Generalities; food and drinks; fat and rich food; desires; salt, and

Diet advice: She was asked to take 1 spoon full Flax seeds, 1 banana, 1 walnut,small piece of chocolate when she felt sad daily.

She was asked about her hobbies for which she said she hardly remembers anything which liked before. A coloring book was given from our clinic. She was asked to color 1 page every time she felt sad. When she came back she has colored 12 pages. She was beautifully dressed and had dyed her hair. She started going to gym and rejoined the family business of restaurants which she stopped 1 year back after her son was diagnosed cancer.

Discussion:
Natrum Mur was administered after repertorization. The patient mentioned no complaints other than constipation, grief, sleeplessness and aggravation on consolation. The action of Natrum Mur on mind is of paramount importance. After her visit of 15 days she mentioned an increase in blood flow and relief in headache during menses. She specially mentioned about her feeling of happiness when she colored the book and took advised food items when she felt sad.

Case 2
A lady aged 41 yrs came with brown pigmentation on her face, her other complaints included obesity, constipation, gastritis, disturbed sleep with depression. Case taking revealed she wanted to keep herself busy, felt most active during evening and could work best late night. She felt hard to wake up early in the morning. She was very sad 2 years back after her daughter lost eye sight, since then her menses stopped suddenly and never appeared. “Those 6 months were very difficult years of my life, my daughter has to stop her studies and drop out from school. She constantly wept all day, until she could get her vision back.” Later after eye operation of her daughter cured the lost vision and life became normal but her pigmentation on the face kept increasing which covered her ¾ area of her face. Patient was thermally hot.

She said she felt lonely as her husband had a touring job

Treatment:
After repertorisation, Lachesis 200 single dose with placebo once daily were prescribed. On 2nd visit after 1 week, Aralia Racemosa 30 was given for a week.

  • Mind; grief; silent
  • Mind; work; easy at night
  • Face; freckles
  • Abdomen; pain; clothing; agg.
  • Female; menses; suppressed; suddenly
  • Female; waking; agg.

Skin care was advised as Cleaning, toning, sun screening daily. Almond oil application at night daily. Patient freckles started improving within 15 days. Treatment continued till 6 months with Lachasis 200 single dose after 2 months. Aralia Racemosa 30 once daily till the day when menses reappeared removing all pigmentation on face. Ferrum phos 6x daily for 1 month.

Discussion
Repertorization indicated Lachasis as the choice of remedy. Her feeling of discomfort on waking, loquacity confirmed the selection. Aralia Racemosa was prescribed on “Female; menses; suppressed; suddenly” .

– Local Application available in market are :

  • Alpha Hydroxy acids (Antioxidants)
  • Vitamin C (Citric Acid)
  • Retinoids (Vitamin A)
  • Almond oil application was used because Almonds are a rich source of vitamin E, containing 26 mg per 100 g. because of its antioxidant activity, vitamin E is vital in protecting skin cells from ultra violet light, pollution, drugs. Protects the fibroblast in the skin – these are the cells that make collagen, glycosaminoglycans, as well as the elastic fibers and glycoproteins found in the extracellular matrix of the skin.For Vitamin C and A, fruits like oranges, green peppers, watermelon, papaya, grapefruit, strawberries,, mango, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, and citrus juices were advised.

Conclusion:
Dietary and lifestyle changes supports early recovery from disease. It creates feeling of well being and encourages patient focus on positive aspect of life. These inclusion in conjugation with homeopathic  may lead to greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of dietary intervention among health practitioners and health care providers addressing depression and other psychological disorders and other diseases as well.

DR. SMITA N NAMBISON DHMS, BHMS (Grd) (Gold Medalist)
President & Research Head, Society of Advanced Homeopathic Sciences (NGO), Bhopal

DR.K.M.NISANTH (Co-Author)
DHMS, BHMS (Grd), M.D (Hom) (Gold Medalist)
Asst. Professor, Head of Surgery Department,GHMC Bhopal

psych

Terms in Psychology

psychDr Mansoor Ali

Psychology is the science of human and animal behavior, it attempt to use rational means to understand the action of people and lower animals.

History and developments
As psychology developed from the philosophy, and became a separate area of study in the late 1800s & early 1900s,many schools of psychology arouse. Each school have different point of view about the best way to study people.

The structuralist searched for the elements of mind; the functionalist studied the way in which mental process and behavior help the organism to adapt.
The behaviorist rejected the study of mind altogether and concentrated on the objective study of what people and animals do. The gestalt school studied mind and behaviour, emphasising the pattern of relationship &”fields of force” in mental and behavioral process.
The older school of psychology are now largely gone today

Two major view point dominate.
1.The humanistic view _ state that we can better understand human experience and behavior by studying the feelings, motives and wishes, as well as the behavior of a particular person.
2.The modern behaviorist view _ deals with the study of observable behavior _ not the study of unobservable inner states such as feelings _ is the proper subject of psychology.

Subfields  
Clinical psychology
Counseling psychology
School & educational psychology
Industrial & personal psychology
Social psychology
Developmental psychology
Personality development
Psychometric psychology
Engineering psychology
Miscellaneous.
Primary activity of psychologist
Teaching
Clinical practice
Administration
Basic research
Psychological testing
Counseling practice
Applied research
Industrial counseling
Clinical research
Miscellaneous

Methods  of psychology
Psychologist use 3 general methods
Natural observation _ Which is made as systemic as possible by the development of psychological tests.
Experimental methods _ Which permits independent variable to be manipulated & dependant variables to be measured.
Statistical methods _ To test he significance of differences obtained and to compute correlations between variables.

Personality
Defined as all the areas of development like physical, motor, language, mental, emotional, social, moral and other various components.
Personality develops from the interaction of a large  number of factors, some inborn, some learned. Personality can be defined as the way in which an individual typically react to his surroundings.

Determinants of personality
Physique
Glandular factor
Emotions
Early childhood experience
Family influences
Socio Cultural influences
Play mates and friends
Hereditary
School influences
Occupational
Financial

A well developed personality
Enjoys life
Is self confident
Satisfying relationship with people
Able to meet problems
Having justifiable anger
Is not afraid of people, things / situations
Realize that any unhappiness he experience has  understandable cause.
Able to look life from an objective point view

Personality tests
Projective techniques
Situational tests
Personality inventories

Perception
Perception is the process by which we obtain information about our environment. We perceive only those aspects of the environment to which we attend. Attending is generally considered to be a readiness to perceive.
Selective absorption of appropriate stimuli from the environment
The act of attending involve adjustments of the sense  organs, posture, change in muscle tension & also activities  in the CNS.
Object constancy & primitive organism tendencies are important for the achievement of stable perception of ourselves and the world around us. Object constancy is the tendency to perceive objects as constant even though the stimuli from them act on us in a variety of ways.
Important aspects of object constancy are shape, size & color. Primitive tendencies are important in perceptual stability, appear to be determined by the nature of the human nervous system. They include figure ground relationship and the principles of primitive grouping such as similarity, proximity, closure and continuity.
Perception of space is achieved through visual cues which are correlated with aspects of external world. Auditory perception of distance is achieved monaurally on the basis of loudness, complexity and special volume.

Learning
Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior which is a result of experiance,excluding changes due to injury and physiological adjustments. Learning makes possible adaptation to new situations & solutions of simple & complex problems.
Conditioning is the simplest form of learning involving the modification of reflexes, simple habits & emotional responses.
Operant conditioning occurs when reinforcement of an emitted response increases the frequency of occurrence of the response. In this type of conditioning the organism operates on its environment to gain some reward.

Reinforcement involve the presence of a satisfying stimulus or the absence of an aversive one _such as extremes of cold or disapproval.
Chaining refers to the process of learning a series of related responses, each of which serve as reinforcement for the previous response & provide a stimulus for the next one. The series is known as a behavior chain.
The concept of learning continuum emphasis that learned behavior ranges from the simplest type of habits, apparently acquired through condtionng,to highly complex verbal & motor skills.

Intentional learning is much more effective than incidental learning and is obviously superior when complex skills are involved. A widely used method of study is the “survey,question,read,recite & review” (SQ3R) system, but no study regimen will be of value unless the student is motivated to improve his performance.

Memory
Memory involves the making of an impression by an experience the retention of some record of this impression and the reentry of this record in to consciousness (behavior) as recall and recognition _ in short memory is the “static residue” of the past activity in a normal pathway.
A distinction has been made between short term and long term memory, the trace involved in short term memory is a normal activity, not a structural change as that presumed to underline long-term memory.
Memory appears in several different type of tasks, including recall, recognition and relearning. Recall generally considered to be the most difficult memory task because most of the related stimuli absent.
Recognition is a more sensitive test of memory than recall. In recognition we differentiated the familiar from the unfamiliar.
Relearning is attempting to regain material/a skill which has been partially or completely lost.
Forgetting is failing to retain what was once learned. Forgetting sometimes occurs because stimulation adequate to activate the memory trace is absent
Forgetting is least during inactivity or sleep because here is little or no interference. Emotional and physical shock can cause forgetting of recent events.
Memory training is successful to the degree that it increase the efficacy of learning, but it does not develop a memory faculty.

Thinking
Thinking is essentially the manipulation of images and ideas which represent aspects of the world that have falls within our previous experiance. Thinking is manipulation of the world internally, using symbols which represent previous experience.
The symbols most commonly used in thinking are numbers and language symbols;therfor words play an important role in thinking.
Thinking occurs in various forms, in free association, there is no conscious control over ones thoughts.
Creative thinking and reasoning are more controlled and more realistic : they involve rational attempts to solve a problem or question in the external world.
There are different theoretical approaches to the study of thinking.
Stimulus response theorists study thinking as an extension of the principles of simple learning.
Cognitive theorist emphasize hypothesis testing and the acquaints of meaning and understanding.
Thinking is being studied particularly from the view point of information storage and especially information processing.

Emotions
“A complex feeling / state accompanied by characteristic motor and glandular activities”
Emotions typically involve reaction through out the organism. The complexity of emotions is indicated in the many changes and interrelationships which occurs in emotional arousal.
Environmental factors play an undesirable oleic emotional expression. The activating or energizing dimensions of emotion suggests its motivational significance.
Emotional reactions may be analyzed from the view point of physiological process, subjective states and behavioral consequences, but cognition also plays a role.
Chronic emotional stress sometimes result in psychosomatic reactions, such as ulcers, which are physical disorder influenced by psychological factors.
Most commonly studied feelings are anxiety ,anger and affection for others. The pleasant _ unpleasant dimension is the most obvious dimension of an affective state.
Fears, attitudes and other affective states appear to be acquired through classical conditioning, they may be altered by the same procedures. Imitation and thinking also plays important roles in acquisition of affective states.
The behavioral accompaniments of emotions are continually evident in human life, particularly in frustration and conflict.

Emotional intelligence
Being able to motivate oneself and persist to face in frustrations
Control impulse and add gratification
Empathy and hope
Control moods and keep distress from swaying away the ability to think

Intelligence
A complex term dealing with the ability of a person /animal to adapt to a novel situations. In man it often involves an ability to utilize abstract concepts and to learn and grasp novel relationship.
The view of intelligence is composed of a general factor and specific factor, or many specific factors, has encountered considerable research interest, but the nature of intelligence is very much debated.
Post natal growth of intelligence undoubtedly related to physical development of the brain after birth. Studies of unusual environments indicate beyond doubt that early experience have a lasting influence upon intellectual development.
The mentally gifted and MR are considered to comprise the upper and lower 2% of the population. Studies of the development of adult intelligence shows that the higher level of performance is reached at different ages for different types of mental abilities, such as numerical ability, reasoning and perceptual skills. The individual mental activities in later life appear to be important factor in continued growth.
Aptitudes are regarded as the potential for acquiring a specific skill, physical or mental. A part from general intelligence, they can play an important role in ones capacity to perform a certain type of growth.
General intelligence, aptitudes, vocational interests and personality all are considered in vocational guidance, in which the aim is to enable an individual to help himself in carrier planning.
The  consistency of individual mental growth seems to be overestimated. In long term studies ,wide fluctuations have been observed, associated with emotional factors, personality factors, and the education level of the family.

Terminologies
Repression : Unconsciously excluding unpleasant thoughts from awareness. Preventing ego threatening ideas from returning to consciousness. A primary defense mechanism.

Regression : Going back to an earlier, sally less adequate, mode of response. In hypnosis behaving as one did at an earlier stage of life.

Sublimation : Satisfying a motive indirectly but in a socially acceptable manner.Considerd as a defense mechanism.

Suppression : Conscious inhibition of an activity, as when Some one suppresses a desire to strike some one else. (repression is unconscious )

Vocational guidance : Providing opportunities, through testing,counselling,and interviews, for an individual to discover fields of work most suited to his intelligence, aptitudes, interests and other personal traits.

Unconditioned response : An original or inborn response, such as salivation stimulated by food in the mouth, or withdrawal from an injurious stimuli.

Transference : In psycho analysis, situation in which the patient transfers to the therapist feelings and behaviour is appropriate to significant other persons in the patients life. Eg.The patient response to the therapists as though the therapist were his father, fiancé or teacher.

Sociopath disorder : A disorder in which the person fails to observe rules which govern conduct in his society.

Aptitude : A predisposition to react in a certain way; a readiness to react, a determining tendency.

E S P : Perception which allegedly occur with out sensory awarness, such as communication between two individuals when there appear to be no channels of information exchange.

I d : A Freudian term representing the primitive, animalistic urges which underline much behavior.

Gifted : Person with special talents, with an IQ above 130.

Habit : A recurring acquired mode of behaviour,such as a motor or verbal skill, a way of doing things or a way of thinking.

Instinct  : A descriptive term for a complex un learned adaptive response, an un learned pattern of reflexes appearing in all members of a species.
Oedipus complex : A Freudian term representing the sexual attachment of a son for his mother, sally regarded as repressed & disguised in various ways.  Also it is assumed that the son will be jealous of the father because the father can have intimacies with the mother that the son is denied.

Electra complex : A Freudian term representing the erotic attachment of a daughter to his father, with accompanying jealousy of the mother. This attachment may be repressed & disguised in various ways.

Psycho analysis : A system of understanding human behavior based on Freud’s writings. Emphasis is placed upon unconscious pious determinants of behavior.

R E M : Quick movement of the eye during sleep, often occurring in series, as measured by sensitive electrodes. Subjects awakened during REM periods usually reports that they have dreaming.

Reasoning : Solving some problem implicitly, sing symbols to represents objects or solutions. Thinking one’s way through a problem rather than engaging in overt trial & error.

Subconscious  : Literally what is below the level of awarness.It refers to a hypothetical region of the mind which serve as a repository of repressed and other experiences which, while influencing behavior in important ways, seldom come in to consciousness (awareness)
Experience which really come in to awareness are said to be in the pre conscious. Unconscious _ referring that which we are not aware at the moment.

 Ego : The individuals conceptions of himself. In psychoanalysis the part of personality which as an outcome of experience, retain the expressions of the Id and deals with the demands of the external environment.

Super ego : Generally, internal controls or standards. Super ego is derived from early influences. Super ego is one of the 3 chief intra psychic forces in the Freudian view, the others are

Reinforcement : Reduction or satisfaction of a drive ; reward. Anything which increase the probability of a response.

Recognition : Perceiving some thing as having been experienced before, as being familiar.

Projection : Attributing one’ own motives or thoughts to others.

Motivation : Inner influences or behavior as represented by physiological conditions ,interestes, attitudes & aspirations.

Illusion : A perception considered as mistaken because it does not agree with the objective measurement of the physical form or pattern, which is regarded as fundamental.

Hallucination : A false perception generally regarded as abnormal.

Frustration : A state of the organism which results when the satisfaction of the motivated behavior is rendered difficult or impossible.

Feeling : Affective experience represented by the individual as  pleasantness, excitements calmness, happiness etc.

Deja vu : The feeling that a new situation is familiar _ that one has” been there” before.

Compensation : Counter balancing some change, such as lowering of temperature or some defect, such as feeling of inferiority.

Cognition  : A general term indicating knowledge & awareness, it include perceiving, remembering, reasoning and other means of knowing about oneself and environment.

Aggression : Hostility which may involves actual attack, physical or verbal upon other people.

References
Mangal : Educational psychology
Kaplan : A comprehensive text book of psychiatry

Ego Defense Mechanism

Dr.Achama Lenu Thomas  BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Dept. of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala

Toward the end of the nineteenth century. it was clear to many that there were mental disorders with a psychological basis as well as those with an organic basis. But one major question remained to be answered- How do these psychologically caused mental disorder”, actually come about?

Freud and the beginnings of psychoanalysis.
The first systematic attempt to answer this question was made by Sigmund Freud. Freud was a brilliant young Viennese physician who at first specialized in neurology and received an appointment as lecturer on nervous diseases at the University of Vienna. On one occasion, however, he introduced to his audience a neurotic patient suffering from a persistent headache, and mistakenly diagnosed the case as chronic localized meningitis.

As a result of this error in diagnosis, he lost his job al though, as he pointed out in his autobiography, greater authorities than he were in the habit of diagnosing Similar cases as cerebral tumor. Freud went to Paris in 1885 to study under Charcot and later became acquainted. He was impressed by their use of hypnosis on hysterical patients and came away convinced that powerful mental processes may remain hidden from consciousness.

On his return to Vienna, Freud worked in collaboration with an older physician,_Joseph breuer. who had introduced an Interesting innovation in the use of hypnosis on his neurotic patients, chiefly women. He let the patient under hypnosis talk about her problems and about what bothered her- Under these cir- cumstances the patient usually spoke rather freely, displayed considerable emotion, and on awakening from the hypnotic state felt considerably relieved. Because of the emotional release involved, this method was called the “cathartic method.” This simple innovation in the use of hypnosis proved to be of great significance, for not only did it help the patient discharge their emotional tensions by discussion of her problems, but it revealed the nature of the difficulties that had brought about her neurotic symptoms. The patient saw no relationship between her problems and her hysterical symptoms, but the therapist could usually see it quite readily.

Thus was made the discovery of the “unconscious”—the realization of the important role played by unconscious processes in the determination of behavior. In 1893, Freud and Breuer published their joint paper 0n the Psychical Mechanism!, of Hysterical Phenomena, which constituted one of the great mile stones of psychodynamics.

Freud soon discovered. moreover, that he could dispense with the hypnotic state entirely. By encouraging the patient to say freely whatever came into her mind without regard to logic or decency- Freud found that she would eventually overcome inner obstacles to remembering and would discuss her Problem
freely. The new method was called free association, and the term psycho analysis was given to the principles involved in analyzing and interpreting what  the patient said.. and in helping her gain insight and achieve a more adequate adjustment.

Freud devoted the remainder of his long and energetic life to the development and elaboration of the psychoanalytic model. His views were formally introduced to American scientists in 1909, when he delivered a now-famous series of lectures at dark University at the invitation of G. Stanley Hall, the eminent American psychologist who was then president of the university. These Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis led to a great deal of controversy that helped publicize the concepts of psychoanalysis to both scientists and the general public.

Basic principles of the psychoanalytic model.
The psychoanalytic model is both highly systematized and complex, and we shall not at- tempt to deal with it in detail. Its general principles. however, may be sketched as follows:

1- Id, ego, and superego. Basically the individual’s behavior is assumed to result from the interaction of three key subsystems within the personality: the id, ego, and superego.

The id is the source of instinctual drives,which are considered to be of two types (a). constructive drive primarily of sexual nature. which constitute the libido or basic energy of life, and (b) destructive  drives which tend towards  aggression, destruction, and  eventual death. Thus life or constructive, in- stincts are opposed by death, or destructive, instincts. Here it may be noted that Freud used the term sex in a broad sense to  refer to almost anything pleasurable, from eating to creativity. The id is completely selfish, condeemed only with the immediate gratification of instinctual needs without reference to reality or moral considerations. Hence it is said to operate i terms of  pleasure principle.

RELATION OF ID, EGO, AND SUPEREGO
While the id can generate mental images and wish-fulfilling fantasies, referred to as the primary process, it cannot undertake the action needed to meet instinctual demands.

Consequently a second key subsystem develops-the ego which mediates between the demands of the id and the realities of the external world. The basic purpose of the ego is to meet id demands, but in such a way as to ensure the well-being and survival of the individual. This requires the use of reason and other intellectual resources in dealing with the external world, as well as the exercise of control over id demands. Such adaptive measures o f the ego are referred to as the secondary process and the ego is said to operas in terms of the reality principle. Freud viewed id demands especially  sexual and aggressive strivings as inherently in conflict with rules and prohibitions imposed by society.

Since the. id-ego relationship is merely one of expediency, Freud introduced a third key subsystem—the superego-which is the out-growth of learning the taboos and moral values of society. The superego is essentially what we refer to as conscience, and is  concerned with right  and wrong. As the superego
develops, we find an additional inner control system coming into operation to cope with the uninhibited desires of the id. However, the superego also operates through the ego system and strives to compel the ego to inhibit desires that are considered wrong or immoral.

The interplay between these intrapsychic subsystems of id, ego, and superego is of crucial significance in determining behavior.Often inner conflicts arise because each sub- system is striving for somewhat different goals. Neuroses and other mental disorders result when the individual is unable to resolve these conflicts.

2, Anxiety, defense mechanisms, and the unconscious. The concept of anxiety is prominent in the psychoanalytic model. Freud distinguished among three types of anxiety, or psychic -pain. that people can suffer from  reality anxiety, arising from dangers or threats in the external world (b) neurotic anxiety, caused by the id’s impulses threatening to break through ego controls, resulting  in behavior that will be punished  someway; and (c) morall anxiety, arising from a real or contemplated action in conflict with the individual’s super ego or moral values, and arousing feelings of guilty

Anxiety is a warning of impending danger as well as a painful experience, so it forces the individual to undertake corrective action. Often the ego can cope with the anxiety by rational measures; if these do not suffice, however. the ego resorts to irrational protective measures—such as rationalization or repres sion—which are referred to as ego-defense mechanisms and will he examined in detail later .These defense mechanisms alleviate the painful anxiety, but they do so by distorting reality instead of dealing directly with the problem. This creates an undesirable schism between actual reality and the way the individual sees reality.

Another important concept in the psychoanalytic model is that of the unconscious, Freud thought that the conscious represents a relatively small area of the mind while the unconscious  part like the submerged part of an ice berg, is the much larger portion. In the depths are the unconscious are the hurtful  memories, forbidden desires, and other experiences that have been pushed out of the conscious. Al- though the individual is unaware of such unconscious material, it continues to seek expression and may be reflected in fantasies and dreams when ego controls are temporarily lowered. Until such unconscious material is brought to awareness and integrated into the ego structure—for example, via psychoanalysis-it presumably leads to irrational and mal-adaptive behavior.

3. Psychosexual development. Freud viewed personality development as a succession of stages, each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving libidinal (sexual) pleasure-5i’ The five stages as he outlined them were

a) Oral stage.
During the first two years of life the mouth is the principal erogenous zone; the infant’s greatest source of gratification is assumed to be sucking.

b) Anal stage. From age 2 to age 3. the membranes of the anal region presumably provide the major source of pleasurable stimulation.

c) Phallic stage.
From age 3 to age 5 or 6, self-manipulation of the genitals provides the major source of pleasurable sensation.

d) Latency stage
. In the years from 6 to 13,, sexual motivations presumably recede in importance as the child becomes preoccupied with developing skills and other activities.

e) Genital stage.
After puberty the deepest feelings of pleasure presumably come from heterosexual relations.

Freud believed that gratification during each stage is important if the individual is not to be fixated at that level. For example, an individual who does not receive adequate oral gratification during infancy ^may^be prone to excessive eating or drinking in adult life.

In general, each stage of development places demands on the individual that must be met. and arouses conflicts that must be resolved. One of the most important conflicts occurs during the phallic stage, when the pleasures of masturbation and accompanying fantasies pave the way for the Oedipus complex- Oedipus, according to Greek mythology, unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Each young boy. Freud thought, symbolically relives the Oedipus drama. He has incestuous cravings for his; mother and views his father as a hated rival; however, he also dreads the wrath of his dominant male parent and fears especially that his father may harm

The female Oedipus (Electra) complex is more intricate, but it is based essentially on the view that the girl wants lo possess her father and replace her mother. For either sex, resolution of the Oedipal conflict is considered essential if the young adult is to develop satisfactory heterosexual relationships.

Impact on our views of psychopathology. Ac- cording to the psychoanalytic model, people are dominated by instinctual biological drives as well as by unconscious desires and motives.
Although there is a constructive libidinal side in each individual, there are also the darker forces of aggression leading toward destruction and death. And although the ego tends toward rationality, the counter forces of intra- psychic conflict, defense mechanisms, and the unconscious all tend toward a high degree of irrationality and maladaptive behavior. In addition, behavior is further determined through past learning, especially from early experiences. About the best we can hope for is a compromise from which we will realize as much instinctual gratification as possible with miinimal punishment and guilt.

Thus the psychoanalytic model presents a negativistic and deterministic view of human behavior that minimizes rationality and freedom for self-determination. On a group level it interprets violence, war. and related phenomena as the inevitable product of the aggressive and destructive instincts present in human nature.

Many of Freud’s ideas have been revised or discarded as a result of subsequent research findings, and the psychoanalytic model is no longer widely used as a principal frame work for organizing and interpreting scientific observations about psychopathology, However two  of Freud’s contributions stand out as particularly noteworthy:

1. The development of psychoanalytical techniques-for example. free association and dream analysis .for becoming acquainted with both the conscious and unconscious aspects of the mental life of the individual. the data thus obtained led Freud to emphasize (a) the dynamic role of unconscious motives and ego-defense processes, (b) the importance of early childhood experiences in later personality adjustment and maladjustment (c)the importance of sexual  factors in human  behavior and mental disorders although  as we have said, Freud used the term sex in a much broader sense than it is ordinarily used, the idea caught the popular fancy, and the role of sexual factors in human behavior was finally  brought out into the open as an appropriate topic- for scientific investigation,

2. The demonstration that certain abnormal mental phenomena-such as  repression of traumatic experiences and irrational fears occurred as a result of  attempts lo cope  with difficult problems ,and were  simply exaggeration.

Built-in” psychological coping and damage-repair mechanisms
There appear to be a number of coping and damage-repair mechanisms built into the human system which operate on a psychological level. While learning may influence these reaction patterns, they appear to operate automatically and to be part of the coping resources of human beings. Among the more common and important of these mechanisms, a re the following:

Crying.
“Crying it out” seems to be a common means of alleviating emotional tension and hurt. This reaction-is commonly seen in children who have bean frustrated or hurt, but It is not uncommon among adults. This pattern is particularly apparent as part of the “grief work” one goes through to regain emotional equilibrium after a period of bereavement for the foss of a loved one.

Talking It out
This pattern is so widely used that Its importance is often overlooked.
Yet people who have undergone traumatic experiences seem to have a need to repetitively tell others about the experience as a means of alleviating tension and desensitizing themselves to the point where the experience can be accepted as something in the past and integrated into the self-structure.

Laughing it of. Viewing setbacks and hurts with a sense of humor and trying to joke about them and laugh them off is another common damage-repair mechanism. In essence this pattern appears to both alleviate emotional tension and also help the Individual see the experience In a broader perspective. Historically this reaction has been emphasized in the role of the clown who presumably laughs to cover his Inner sadness: in fact. when this mechanism fails, the individual often bursts into tears.

Seeking support
In times of stress, infants often put their arms around their mothers and cling to  them for protection and support. On an adult level, we see the same pattern In more sophisticated form, as in the increased need of critically ill patients for affection and companionship. But even in less severe stress situations, many people turn to others for emotional support until they can regain their own equilibrium.

Dreaming and nightmares.
Individuals who have undergone highly traumatic experiences—for example, severe earthquakes, fires, airplane crashes, or other civilian catastrophes—often report repetitive dreams or nightmares in which they relive the traumatic experience. As in the case of repetitive talking, this pattern appears to desensitize the individual to the traumatic experience so that he can accept it as something in the past and integrate it into his self-structure without undue disruption.

These built-in reaction patterns may be used in varying degrees and combinations depending on the individual, the social setting, and the nature of the traumatic event which resulted in the psychological hurt or damage.

Repression is an extremely important self- defense mechanism in that it affords protection from sudden, traumatic experiences until time has somewhat desensitized the individual to the shock. Repression may also help the individual to control dangerous and unacceptedable desires-and at the same time alleviate the anxiety associated with such desires. The reality of repression in freeing the individual from anxiety has been demonstrated in an interesting study by Sommerschield and Reyher (1973). They induced posthypnotic conflicts in their subjects and found that various symptoms, including gastric distress, tension, and anxiety, appeared as the hypnotically induced repression weakened and the conflict threatened to enter consciousness.

Repression, in varying degrees, enters into many other defense mechanisms. There is some evidence that it is only when repression fails that stronger, more maladaptive defenses are tried.

4. Rationalisation. Rationalization is justifying maladaptive behavior by faulty logic or ascribing it to noble motives that did not in fact inspire it. Rationalization has two major defensive values: (a) it helps justify_specific behaviors, and b) it aids in softening the dis- appointment connected with unattainable goals

“Typically, rationalization involves thinking up logjcal. socially approved reasons For past. present, or proposed behaviors. With a little effort a person may be able to justify to himself spending money needed for essentials on lavish entertainment, neglecting work for cultural pursuits, or marrying someone whom he does not love- Even callous brutality can be rationalized as necessary or even praise worthy. Adolf Killer saw the extermination of the Jews as his patriotic duty.

Rationalization is also used to soften the disappointment of thwarted desires. “A common example of such rationalization is the “sour grapes” reaction-stemming from Ae- sop’s fable of the fox who, unable to reach a cluster of delicious grapes, decided he did not want them after all because they were proba- bly sour. Similarly, students may justify their mediocre college performance On the grounds that they are refusing to gel involved in the “competitive rat race” of model society. One way of reducing the discrepancy embodied in failure to take action toward a desired goal is to decide that the goal is really not anything worth having anyway.

Frequently,. of course, it is difficult to tell where an objective consideration of realities leaves off and rationalisation begins. Behaviors that commonly indicate rationalization are (a) hunting for reasons to justify one’s behavior or beliefs; (b) being unable to recognize inconsistencies or contradictory evidence; and (c) becoming upset when one’s “reasons” are questioned- Such questioning is a threat to the defenses the individual has managed to construct against self-devaluation.

5. Projection. Projection is a defensive reaction by means of which (a) others are seen as responsible for one’s own shortcomings, mistakes, and misdeeds; and (b) others are seen as responsible for one’s unacceptable impulses, thoughts, and desires,

Projection is perhaps most commonly evidenced by the first tendency. The student who fails an examination may feel that the teacher was unfair; “the delinquent teen-ager may blame her problems on a rejecting and non understanding parent; and even the small boy being punished for fighting may protest, “it wasn’t my fault-he hit me first.” Fate and bad luck are particularly overworked objects of projection. Even inanimate objects are not exempt from blame. The three-year-old who fails off a hobby horse may attack it with blows and kicks; the basketball player who slips  return to inspect ‘the alleged slippery spot. In extreme cases  individual may become convinced that other persons or forces  are systematically working against him. Such ideas may develop into delusions of persecution involving the supposed plots and conspiracies of “the enemy.”

In other projective reactions, the individual attributes his own unacceptable desires and thoughts to others. This tendency appears to be particularly common among those with rig- id moral values and strict conscience development. For example, a man who is sexually attracted to children may Insist that a child is behaving seductively toward him- Consequently, the child becomes the offender, while the man remains conveniently “pure,” un- aware of his own unacceptable inclinations

6. Reaction .formation. Sometimes an individual protects himself from dangerous de- sires by not only repressing them, but actually developing conscious attitudes and behavior patterns that are just the opposite. Thus he may conceal hate with a facade of love, cruel- try with kindness, or desires for sexual promiscuity with moralistic sexual attitudes and behavior. In this way the individual erects obstacles or barriers that reinforce his repression and keep his real desires and feelings from conscious awareness and from being carried out overtly.

On a simple level, reaction formation is il- lustrated by the old story about the spinster who looks hopefully under her bed each night for fear that a man may be lurking there. On a more complex level, reaction formation may be manifested by people who crusade against loose morals, alcohol, “pornography,” gambling. and other real or alleged evils. Often such people have a background of earlier difficulties with these problems themselves. and their zealous crusading appears to be a means of safeguarding themselves against recurrence of their difficulties.

Self-appointed protectors of the public morals may gain vicarious satisfaction- for example. by reviewing “pornographic” materials without endangering their self-concepts. In some cases reaction formation is more subtle, as when. say. a juror demands the severest penalty under the law for an infraction  tat he himself has been tempted to commit

Reaction formation. like repression. may have adjstive value in helping the individual maintain socially approved behavior and avoid awareness of threatening and self-de- valuating desires- But because this mechanism, too, is self-deceptive and not subject to conscious control, it often results in exaggerated and rigid fears or beliefs that may com- plicate an individual’s adjustive reactions and lead to excessive harshness or severity in deal ing with the lapses of others.

7. Displacement. In displacement there is a shift of emotion or symbolic meaning from a person or object toward which it was original- ly-directed to another person or object. Often displacement involves difficult emotions, such as hostility and anxiety. A common subject for cartoons about displacement is the meek office clerk who has been refused a raise by his domineering boss. Instead of expressing his hostility toward his employer-which would be dangerous—he goes home and snaps irritably at his wife because dinner is a few minutes late.

In some instances the individual whose hostility has been aroused by an outside person or event may turn the hostility inward, engaging in exaggerated self-accusations and recriminations, and feel severe guilt and self-devaluation. Such intropunitive reactions do protect the individual from expressing dangerous hostility toward others, but may lead to depression and even to attempted or actual suicide.

Through a process of symbolic association, displacement may become extremely complex and deviant. Swearing is commonly used as a means of discharging pent-up feelings. Destructive criticism and vindictive gossip frequently are only disguised methods of expressing hostility. In a study of skydivers. Fens’, and Epstein (1969) found that the fear and anxiety associated with skydiving was displaced onto other situations unrelated lo parachuting. It is as if the jumper were saying’. ‘This feeling of fear that 1 have, it is of other things, not parachuting'” , This type of defensive reaction is referred to as “stimulus displacement”: while the fear or anxiety remains, it is displaced ;o other situations.

8. Emotional Insulation. Here the individual reduces his emotional involvement in situations that are viewed as disappointing and hurtful,

Since many disappointments are encountered in life, people usually learn to keep their anticipations within limits. Until hoped for event occurs, their are careful to avoid premature celebrations or to let their hopes run too high. The boy who looks forward to a date with a very attractive girl may not let himself get too excited or enthusiastic for fear she may not like him. Such reactions are well ex- pressed in the common saying, “I didn’t dare even hope.”

In more extreme cases of long-continued frustration, as in chronic unemployment or prison confinement, many persons lose hope, become resigned and apathetic, and adapt themselves to a restricted way of life. Such “broken” Individuals thus protect themselves from the bitter hurt of sustained frustration
by becoming passive recipients of whatever life brings them. Similarly, in extreme forms of alienation the individual may become non- involved and apathetic, feeling Isolated, bewildered, and without hope. In certain mental disorders, too, such as chronic schizophrenia, there is often an extreme use of insulation that apparently protects the individual from emotional involvement in a life situation and world that have proved unbearably hurtful.

Up to a point, emotional insulation is an important means of defense against unnecessary disappointment and hurt. But life involves calculated risks, and most people are willing to take a chance on active participation. Emotional insulation provides a protective shell that prevents a repetition of previous pain, but it reduces the individual’s healthy, vigorous participation in life.

9. Intellectualization (isolation).
This defense mechanism is related to both emotional insulation and rationalization. Here the emotional reaction that would normally accompany a painful event is avoided by a rational explanation that divests the event of personal significance and painful feeling. The hurt over a parent’s death is reduced by saying that he or she lived a full life or died mercifully with- out pain. Failures and disappointments are softened by pointing out that “it could have been worse.” Cynicism may become a convenient means of reducing guilt feelings over not living up to one’s ideals. Even the verbalization of good intentions, as in a glib admission that “I should work harder” or should be less selfish and more interested in the welfare of others,” seems to cut off a good deal of guilt and relieve one of the necessity of positive action.

Intellectualization may be employed under extremely stressful conditions as well as in dealing with the milder stresses of everyday life. Bluestone and McGahee have found that this defense mechanism was often used by prisoners awaiting execution. They have de scribed the pattern as follows: ” ‘So they’ll kill me; and that’s that’-this said with a shrug of the shoulders suggests that the affect appropriate to the thought has somehow been isolated”

10. Undoing (atonement).
Undoing is de- signed to negate or annul some disapproved thought, impulse, or act. Apologizing for wrongs, repentance, doing penance, and undergoing punishment are all forms of undoing.

Undoing apparently develops out of early training in which the child learns that once he apologizes, makes some restitution, or is punished for disapproved behavior, his misdeed is negated and he can start over with a clean slate and with renewed parental approval. As a consequence of such early learning, people commonly develop methods of atoning for or undoing their misdeeds—methods to avoid or ameliorate the punishment and self-devaluation that would otherwise result, The unfaithful husband may bring his wife presents; the unethical executive may give huge sums of money to charity.

The opportunity for confession and the assurance of forgiveness in some religions appear to meet a deep human need to be able to get rid of guilt feelings and make a new beginning. As an ego-defense mechanism, however. undoing operates on an unconscious level, The individual assuages feelings of guilt by making some kind of reparation, but without conscious awareness of the intent of the action.

11. Regression. Regression is a defense mechanism in which one returns to (lie use of reaction patterns long since outgrown. When a new addition to the family has seemingly undermined his status, a little boy may revert to bed-wetting and other infantile behavior that once brought him parental attention; the young bride may return home to her mother at the first sign of trouble.

Summary chart of ego-defense mechanisms

  1. Denial of reality. Protecting self from unpleasant reality by refusal to perceive or face it
  2. Fantasy. Gratifying frustrated desires by imaginary achievements
  3. Repression. Preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness
  4. Rationalization. Attempting to prove that one’s behavior is “rational” and justifiable and thus worthy of self and social approval
  5. Projection. Placing blame for difficulties upon others or attributing one’s own unethical desires to others
  6. Reaction formation. Preventing dangerous desires from being expressed by exaggerating opposed attitudes and types of behavior and using them as “barriers”
  7. Displacement. Discharging pent-up feelings, usually of hostility, on objects less dangerous than those which initially aroused the emotions
  8. Emotional insulation. Reducing ego involvement and withdrawing into passivity to protect self from hurt
  9. Intellectualization (isolation). Cutting off affective charge from hurtful situations or separating incompatible attitudes by logic-tight compartments
  10. Undoing. Atoning for and thus counteracting immoral desires or acts
  11. Regression. Retreating to earlier developmental level ‘ involving less mature responses and usually a lower level of aspiration
  12. Identification. Increasing feelings of worth by Identifying sell with person or institution of illustrious standing
  13. Introjection. Incorporating external values and standards into ego structure so individual is not at their mercy as external threats
  14. Compensation. Covering up weakness by emphasizing desirable [‘ail or making up for frustration in one area by over gratification in another
  15. Acting-out. Reducing the anxiety aroused by forbidden or dangerous desires by permitting their expression, young bride may return home to her mother  &the first sign of trouble.

The developmental process from dependence to independence is by no means an easy one. Consequently, it is not surprising that in the face of severe stress or new challenges, an individual may retreat to a less mature level of adjustment. We might expect something akin to regression to occur merely on the basis of the frequent failure of newly learned reactions to bring satisfaction. In looking for other, more successful modes of adjustment, it would be only natural to try out discarded pat- terns that previously had brought satisfaction.

However, regression is a more comprehensive reaction than merely trying out older modes of response when new ones have failed. For in regression the individual re- treats from reality to a legs demanding personal status—one that involves lowered aspirations and more readily accomplished satisfactions.

This point is well illustrated by Bettelheim’s reference to a general “regression to infantile behavior” seen in nearly all the prisoners at the Nazi concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald.

“The prisoners lived, like children, only in the immediate present: . . . they became unable -o plan for the future or to give up immediate pleasure satisfactions to gain greater ones in the near future. . . – They were boastful, telling tales about what they had accomplished in their former lives, or how they succeeded in cheating foremen or guards, and how they sabotaged the work. Like children, they felt not at all set back or ashamed when it be came known that they had lied about their prowess.”

In our discussion of the psychoses, we shall describe patients whose regression is so extreme that they are no longer able to dress, feed, or otherwise take care of themselves

12. Identification.
Identification often lakes place in imitative learning, as when a boy identifies with his father and uses him as a model. Identification may also operate as a defense mechanism in enhancing feelings of worth and protecting the individual against self-devaluation.

The growing child soon learns that the way in which he is evaluated by others depends heavily on his Family and other group memberships. During adolescence and adulthood, the mechanism of identification is expanded to include a wide range of persons and groups.

Not only does society evaluate the individual in the light of his group memberships, but he comes to evaluate himself in the light of them. Students may identify with the college they attend, and many employees identify with the power and prestige of the company for which they work. By doing so, they take as their own some of the desirable attributes of the groups to which they belong. Particularly for persons who feel basically inferior, such identifications may have important supportive and defensive value.

When feelings of adequacy and worth are. based too heavily on identification with others,however, the individual becomes highly vulnerable to stress situations in which such identifications prove devaluating, for example, when the values and behavior of the group prove disillusioning, when the group suffers humiliation, or when the group is rele- gated to low social status. In such cases, the individual’s identifications lead to self-devaluation rather than to self-enhancement. This is one reason it is difficult for an athletic coach to hold his job when his team loses consistently.

13.Introjection is closely related to identification. As a defense reaction it involves the acceptance of others’ values and norms as one’s own even when they are contrary to one’s previous assumptions. After revolutions leading to dictatorial forms of government, for example, many people interject the new values and beliefs as a protection for themselves. By internalizing the socially pre- scribed values and norms, they can then trust themselves to avoid behavior that would brine social retaliation and punishment.

In describing the use of intoreject ion under extreme conditions;, it is again useful to refer to the experiences of Bettelheim at the Nazi concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald- Under the cruel and insidious camp experiences, previous values and identifications were broken down and new norm’; were introjected—Nazi norms.

“A prisoner had reached the final  stage of adjustment to the camp situation his personality so as to accept as his own the value of the Gestapo. … old prisoners were sometimes instrumental in getting rid of the until, in this making a feature of Gestapo ideology a feature of their own behavior.”

Introjection has been referred to as “identification with the aggressor” and is a defensive reaction that seems to follow the principle. ” you can’t beat ’em, join ’em.” However, it is evident that inrojection may lead to seriously distorted and maladaptive behavior.

14. Compensation. Compensatory reactions are defenses against feelings of inferiority and inadequacy growing out of real or imagined personal defects or weaknesses, as well as out of the individual’s inevitable failures and setbacks. Such reactions may take. many forms and may represent constructive, deliberate, task-oriented behavior, as in the case of an individual who attempts to overcome a physical handicap through increased effort and persistence- Demosthenes, the great orator, had to overcome early stuttering, and Wilma Rudolph, crippled and unable to walk until she was eight years old. became an Olympic track winner. Compensatory reactions of this type may be a deciding factor in success, as biographers are quick to point out,

More commonly, compensatory reactions are indirect; there is an attempt to substitute for the defect in some way or to draw attention away from it. The physically unattractive boy or girl may develop an exceptionally pleasing personality, the puny boy may turn from athletics to scholarship, and the mediocre nobody may become the Grand Imperial Potentate of some secret order. Much of the cosmetics industry has developed ground minimizing  undesirable facial features and emphasizing desirable ones.

15. Acting out. Acting out is a reaction in which the individual reduces the anxiety and tension associated with dangerous desires by actually permitting their expression. For ex- ample, a person who feels mistreated and dis- criminated against may lash out in physical violence against those viewed as responsible. Often the damage or destruction of property, as in instances of vandalism, appears to be serving this function.

All of us have probably experienced times of acute conflict or stress when tension and anxiety have built up to such a level that almost any action that would “get it over with” is welcome. Soldiers under the stress of waiting have been known to leave their relatively safe  shelter and blindly attack the enemy. But al- though such acting-out behavior may momentarily reduce tension and anxiety, it is obviously not well designed to deal effectively with the stress situation eliciting the anxiety. Under most circumstances acting out is not feasible except for those who have relatively weak reality and value controls; most people are deterred not only by their values but by the likelihood of social disapproval, punishment, personal injury, or other aversive results.

Evaluation of ego-defense mechanisms.
These defense mechanisms are ordinarily used in combination, rather than singly, and often they are combined with task-oriented behavior- Because they are essential for softening failure, alleviating anxiety and hurt, and protecting one’s feelings of adequacy and worth, we may consider them to be normal adjustive reactions unless they seriously interface with the effective resolution of stress situations. Both the “positive” and “negative” functions of such defenses have been weli illustrated in an investigation of the ego defenses used by thirty hospitalized women who were awaiting the outcome of breast tumor biopsy. These researchers found the defense mechanisms of denial and rationalization to be highly effective in coping with anxiety, particularly when used in combination. They also found, however, that many of the women who allayed their anxieties with these defenses did not seek early enough medical help.

In summary, it may be emphasized that these defense mechanisms are, in the main, learned; they are designed to deal with inner hurt, anxiety, and self-devaluation; they oper- ate on relatively automatic and habitual levels; and they typically involve some measure of self-deception and reality distortion.

Decompensation under excessive stress
When the individual’s coping behavior fails to deal effectively with the stress situation, there is a lowering of integrated functioning ‘and eventually a breakdown of the system. This lowering of integration is referred to as de- compensation. Whether stress becomes “excessive” depends, of course, not only on the nature of the adjustive demand but also on the individual’s available resources for coping with it. Decompensation has been observed on biological, psychological, and group levels.

Biological decompensation. A model that helps explain the course of biological decompensation under excessive stress has been advanced by Selye (1956, 19G9) in his formulation of the general adaptation syndrome. Selye found that the body’s reaction to sustained and excessive stress typically occurs in three major phases: (a) alarm and mobilization—representing a general call to arms of the body’s defensive forces; (b) stage of resistance—in
which biological adaptation is optimal in terms of bodily resources; and (c) exhaustion and disintegration -in which bodily resources are depleted and the organism loses its abilily to resist so that further exposure to the stress can lead to disintegration and death.

Where decompensation does not run its en- tire course and result in the death of the organism, maintenance mechanisms attempt to repair damage and reorganize normal function. If the stress has resulted in extensive damage, this restorative process is often a matter of reorganizing “remaining part’ and
resources,” but there >s n permanent lowering of the previous level of integration and functioning.

Dr Achama Lenu Thomas  BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Dept. of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala

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anatomy

The Relationship of Anatomy with Materia Medica

anatomyDr R D Pavalan

Abstract:
The whole Relationship of Anatomy with Materia Medica is mainly revolving around the sphere of action of remedies and their localization

Partially we know about the sphere of action of the most of the remedies, but it is not yet fully understood

The reason for this is, our drug provings are mostly concentrating on subjectivity of the prover, we never (can’t) allow the drug proving to its pathological level or we never done it on lower animals because of various reasons.

The Relationship of Anatomy with Materia Medica  :
Most of the knowledge what now we have about the sphere of action is mainly from toxicology or from clinical proving

The lack of understanding about localization is so true, if we consider the mental symptoms, which are still the main key for the selection of simillimum

The knowledge on CNS (neurology) is still in rudimentary form since it is a recently evolving science and most of the knowledge what we acquire in this field is only after 1950

This knowledge was not available during HAHNEMANNIAN time (proving) or HERRING’S period (reproving)

So now, we are only reading about the mental symptoms, though it is very important, we never bother about which part of the brain is involved in all these things and what is the mechanism behind this.

In the present study I deliberately made an attempt to relate the action of the drug to physical level, as well as to correlate the recent development in the neurology, to localize the brain part which could be responsible for the development of mental symptoms in different drugs, so that we can understand in deep about the sphere of action of the drug in relation to physical body, brain and mental symptoms.

This kind of study ‘ll be useful in treating the Psychiatric and Psychosomatic diseases.

Though it is a retrograde theoretical study to correlate the drug symptoms with the part of the brain, it ‘ll be a new area for the study of materia medica with the help of Knowledge of ANATOMY.

Of course, lots of sophisticated clinical trials are required to prove these facts, I honestly put my theoretical view in front of this learned gathering

The plan… Drugs and their localization…

Physical level :

  • Parts of the body, Organs of the body– with example case
  • System of the body  – with case 

Mental level:

  • Drugs and parts of brain (brain mapping)
  • Drug personalities – mental evolution – localization
  • Their behavioural pattern
  • Psychiatric illness and their localization

Conclusion note :
Parts of the body / Organ remedies
The characterizing value of Locality is often underrated by contemporary homeopathic practitioners. This may stem from a confusion between how we look at Local disease (as described in aphorisms 185-203 in Hahnemann’s Organon), versus how we can look at Locality as a characterizing dimension of complex symptomatology.

The observation that we can generalize modalities and sensations and apply them by analogy across localities, along with the central importance of the mental/emotional state suggested by Hahnemann’s aphorisms 210-213, the writings of Kent, and the teachings of many contemporary lecturers, has sadly placed Locality somewhere in the background of our attention.

” The seat of the disease … deserves to be more particularly emphasized, as it frequently furnishes a characteristic symptom, since almost every medicine acts more and also more decidedly on certain particular parts of the living organism.”

A Contribution to the Judgement Concerning the Characteristic Value of Symptoms  – Boeninghausen

Perhaps no other name is as closely related to the topic of Locality, as that of James Compton Burnett (1840-1901).

BURNETT…
Burnett was born in Redlynch, England in 1840. He attended medical school in Vienna in 1865, where he remained 2 additional years studying Anatomy, receiving a gold medal for his accomplishments in that field. He graduated from Glasgow in 1872, and completed an internship for his MD degree at Barnhill Parochial Hospital and Asylum in Glasgow in 1876.

  • Rademacher published his 1600-page Erfahrungsheillehre (empiric medical practice) in 1841, giving birth to the practice of Organopathy
  • Rademacher’s Organopathy – drawing on Paracelsus to rationally support his empirical observations
  • As with Hahnemann, Rademacher did not seek the nature of these diseases in the “invisible interior of the organism,” but rather identified them by similitude to their remedial substance – a Celandine liver disease, a Cardus Mariae liver disease, etc.
  • Remedies were selected on the basis of their affinity for the organ in which the disease was felt to reside, and differentiated further on the basis of the “genus” of the disease – a concept less well defined than Hahnemann’s totality of symptoms, and based on empiricism and considerations arcane to the practice.
  • This concept of “specificity of seat” of a remedy, and Burnett’s borrowed Organopathic concept of organ-specific remedies for diseases “of the organs,” seem to stand in conflict with the homoeopathic understanding of disease originating in the dynamic plane, and of remedies acting on the dynamis, rather than on specific tissues of the body.
  • Burnett fuels this seeming contradiction with his assertion (in Diseases of the Liver):
  • “That the organ in the organism does indeed possess not only autonomy but hegemony, i.e. the organ is an independent state in itself and in and on the organism exercises an important influence. 

James Tyler Kent speaks to this in his 1912 article, Remedies Related to Pathological Tissue Changes.

  • Disease may exist, and remedies may act, on the dynamic plane; but there are clearly observable patterns in which these dynamic disharmonies manifest and eventuate in the tissues.
  • The medicinal disease of Lycopodium, and those natural diseases bearing similitude to Lycopodium, exist in the dynamis, and not really in the gut, the liver, or the right side of the body; yet these dynamic diseases preferentially manifest in these tissues.
  • It would be difficult to describe Lycopodium without referring to its specificity of seat in the gut, the biliary tree and the right side of the body; and it would be difficult to prescribe this remedy in a case where disharmony was not expressed in these localities.
  • Where does Locality come in as a characterizing dimension of disease or of remedial action?
  • In the study of remedies, there is often a clear display of “seat” in a remedy. The figures below display the number of references to several remedies in each region-of-body section of the Repertory.
  • This figure is for Ledum, Rhododendron, andKalmia, three members of the botanical family Ericaceae.
  • These remedies display a strong specificity of seat for rheumatic affections of the joints, synovial tissues and connective tissues of the body, seen in the prominence of symptoms in the Head Pain, Back, Extremities and Extremities Pain sections of the repertory.
  • The second figure  is for Uva-ursi, Oxydendron, Epigea and Chimaphilla, four other members of the botanical family Ericaceae.
  • For these remedies, a strong specificity of seat is demonstrated for the urinary tract, with a preponderance of symptoms in the Bladder, Kidney, Prostate, Urethra and Urine sections of the Repertory.
  • This particular graph depicting the distribution of the Drug Mercurius Dulcis in the synthesis repertory – 9.1
  • Here in THIS remedy a strong specificity of seat is demonstrated for the gut, ear with a preponderance of symptoms in the mouth, Ear, Rectum and Stool of the Repertory.
  • This is not to suggest that these remedies act directly  on or through those tissues – but rather, that the disharmonies with which these remedies are associated manifest preferentially in these localities. And this allows us to have a purely homoeopathic perspective on Burnett’s “organ remedies”
  • Chelidonium is not really a remedy that acts on the body through the liver, but a remedy whose dynamic disharmony expresses preferentially in (whose specificity of seat is in) the liver and biliary tree.
  • Burnett suggested so much himself, when in his Diseases of the Spleen, he wrote:
  • “I am not maintaining that treating an organ affection by an organ remedy after the manner of Hohenheim, Rademacher and their respective co-doctrinaires, will stand as a medical system in itself, but that it is eminently workable, and is largely of the nature of elementary homoeopathy, is, in fact, specificity of seat…
  • Whatever else Cantharis may be, it is first and foremost a kidney medicine; whatever else Digitalis may be, it is primarily a heart medicine; and let Belladonna be what it may, it is before all things an artery medicine, and just in this sense Ceanothus Americanus is a spleen medicine. 

Burnet’s case…
This charwoman was, it was said, suffering from an incurable disease of the heart, causing her terrible distress; on rising in the morning she would have to fight for her breath, so that it would take her often three-quarters of an hour to get dressed, having to pause and rest from the dyspnoea and its effects, nevertheless she persisted in thus getting up and dressing, and did as much charing as she could get.

Her pride would not allow her to beg of her friends. Such was the story, and I really felt curious to see the charwoman, and promised to do what I could, though from the account given me by the general’s wife, I certainly thought it quite a hopeless case.

Burnet’s case…

  • A careful physical examination. showed that the heart-sounds were normal, but there was much beating visible in the neck, arid the heart’s action was labored. In the left hypochondrium there was a mass corresponding to the position of the spleen, and a dull percussion note was elicited not only in the left hypochondrium, but also in the right, and all across the epigastrium, or pit of the stomach, from side to side.
  • The following notes were put down at the time: “Heart-sounds, normal; apex beat, exaggerated; splenetic dullness extending up to the left mamma; the whole region very tender, so much so that she cannot bear her clothes or any other pressure.”
  • The prescription was: Ceanothus Americanus 1x 3ij, five drops in water three times a day.

Burnet’s case…

  • The pain was improving after taking the regular medicine more than 1 month
  • There is still some tenderness on pressure, and the swelled spleen can still be felt towards the median line and inferiorly. She can now do her work (charing) very much better.
  • R. Tr. Ceanoth-Am. 1, four drops in water three times a day. 

Burnet’s case…

  • Her Liver seems considerably enlarged, and there is still too much beating of the blood-vessels (Veins) in the neck.
  • In my opinion the condition of the blood-vessels calls for Ferrum 6, which I now -prescribe, and when that has done its duty-as it surely will – the liver will call for attention.
  • But what I wanted to bring out was the specific affinity of Ceanothus Americanus for the spleen, and its consequent brilliant effects, as the simile only grounded on the homoeopathic specificity of seat, which some say has no existence.

 Burnet’s case…
This poor woman thus took Ceanothus during about four months in small appreciable doses: at first the 1x and then the 1 centesimal. The existence of the hypertrophy was ascertained by percussion and palpation; and subsequently I ascertained by the same means that it had ceased to exist.

Although patient took the drug for four months I could not find that it affected any other organ-liver, kidney, bowel – save and except the spleen.

Burnet’s case…

  • The secretions and excretions were not affected in the least degree; the remedial action must, therefore, be considered specific.
  • My conception of the cure is simply this, that the specific Ceanothus stimulus persistently applied restored the spleen tissue to the normal. This homoeopathic specificity of seat suffices only in simple local disturbances; it is only a simile, not a simillimum.
  • The latter would, I apprehend, have affected the liver also and the right heart, and I should then not have needed further detail treatment.

Discussion…
In this case, the apparently peculiar symptoms originally attributed to heart disease are fully explainable as merely resulting from mammoth splenomegaly. As such, these symptoms lose their aphorism 153 status as characterizing symptoms, and the only symptoms of genuine note remaining in the case are “massive splenomegaly” and “splenic pain worse pressure (of clothes, etc.)”.

The rubric {ABDOMEN – ENLARGED – Spleen} lists 61 remedies in the Quantum view of the Synthesis Repertory (Kent listed 51), with Ceanothus, China and Iodium in boldtype.

{ABDOMEN – PAIN – pressing – Spleen – pressure agg.} lists only Ceanothus andZincum.

{ABDOMEN – PAIN – Spleen – lying on left side, while} lists Agar, Cean, Cocc andColch.

Discussion…
We find in Hering, for Ceanothus, “Enlarged spleen, extending to within an inch of crest of ilium, with severe pain in side.” – the only remedy in our materia medica described for such massive enlargement of the spleen, and one of our remedies with a primary“specificity of seat” for the spleen.

Here an “organopathic” remedy is indicated – not because Burnett made a decision to abandon Hahnemann and resort to organopathy, but because the focal involvement of a particular tissue – a locality – was overwhelmingly the most characterizing feature of the case.

CASE No. 1
Case summery
This 58 years old gentle man came with c/o, severe pain and paresthesia over the Left forearm and Left hand fingers. The fingers are very sensitive and he did not allow me to touch his hand due to sensitiveness and pain. All these complaints started after he underwent surgery for his Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Since it was triple vessel disease he under went CABG 6 months before.

For CABG the graft was taken from the Left Radial artery. That area healed with much fibrosis. After the surgery 4th week he developed sever pain over the site of graft taken, and ultimately diagnosed as having “CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME”. Immediately the pt. was taken to the theater and under went a minor surgery where the adhesions were removed.

Since then the pt. was having severe hyperesthesia over the fingers. He could not able to do any work with his Left hand. Can not able to drive a car.

When consulted the pt. was told the sensitiveness ‘ll be reduced gradually, nothing much to do. He was advised to do some physiotherapy which he could not continue because of severe pain and sensitiveness. since the complaints were not improving for the past 6 months pt. wanted to have a homoeopathic consultation.

Prescription:
On the basis that the nerve has been compressed as well as during the reduction surgery the median nerve could have handled frequently – which were the reason for the development of the present hyperesthesia – Hypericum 6c was given daily dose for 1 week.

Follow up 1 : With in the first week itself  more than 90% improvement was there. Hypericum 6c was repeated for another 2 weeks daily dose

Follow up 2:

                There was no further improvement
Hypericum 30 / 3 doses with in 24 hours

Follow up 3:

Patient feels better. Almost there was no sensitiveness in the hand.
The remaining complaints were removed by the higher potency.

The controversies….

  • But in our daily practice most of the time a local remedy may not permanently remove the disease.
  • Most of the occasions we need to affect the patient constitutionally in order to get a complete restoration of health
  • The following 2 cases are examples for that…

Case No. 2
Aphorism 186:

… affections of the external part requiring machanical skill, properly belong to surgery alone; as for instance, when external obstrucles are to be removed that prevent the vital force from the accomplishing cure. E.G. reduction of dislocation, setting a fractured bone, the union of edges of wounds by sutures; opening of cavities for the outlet of pent-up discharges etc…

… but when in such injuries the whole living organism requires, as it always does, active dynamic aid to put in a position to accomplish the work of healing …

 … then the help of dynamic physician and his helpful homoeopathy come in to requisition…
– Page No. 218, ORGANON OF MEDICIEN… SIXTH EDITION… by Samuel Hahnemann

Name of the patient : Mrs. B

  • Age : 28 years
  • Sex : Female
  • Religion : Hindu
  • Occupation : House maker
  • Address : Coimbatore
  • Date : 20-04-2007
  • Socioeconomic status : Upper Middleclass 

Chief ComplaintsPatient C/ O,

  1. Loss of smell, after sustained head injury since 3 years
  2. Late menses since 2 years
  3. Attacks of vomiting, head ache, vertigo on and off since 6 months
  4. Swelling over the front of the neck since 1 week

History of present complaints:
Complaining of, loss of smell after sustained head injury in a Road traffic accident before 3 years. While traveling in a two wheeler she fell down and became unconscious. Admitted in to the ICU of a general hospital. She recovered from unconsciousness but lost the smell. The Neurologist told, it is difficult to get the smell in future hence there is neuronal damage.

Complaining of, late menses since two years. Before that this late menses was on and off since menarche, for the past two years it is always late, once in 50 days.

She had, frequent attacks of nausea, vomiting, head ache and vertigo since 6 months. 1 week before she developed similar attacks with swelling of neck and all over the body admitted in to Kongunad Hospitals, Coimbatore there diagnosed as having Hypothyroidism and advised to take T. Eltraxin 1½ tablets OD. (see report, Before treatment) And calcium supplements. She was advised that she may need to take this medicine for life time.   

History of past illness and treatmentNAD

Family historyFather  – HTN, Mother – Epilepsy (GTCS), Maternal Gr. Father – Lipoma

Patient as a wholeDevelopmental landmarks  : Normal., Hyperactive in childhood

Physical generals:

1.  Appetite   : Good, can not  tolerate hunger = faintness

2.  Desires      : Fish, Fruit juices

3.  Aversion : Sweet

4.  Thirst             : Takes only 4 – 5  glasses/day

5. Bowel habits: Occasional constipation

6. Bladder habits : Normal

7. Sleep and dreams : Refreshing,  wants to cover whole body. Startling during sleep especially when transition of conscious to unconscious.

8. Perspiration : More over the back part of the body.

9. Thermal reaction: < in winter, can not tolerate cold.

10. Female complaints : Menarche at the age of 13. Irregular bleeding up to the age of 17.  became late on and off. For the past 2 years regular late menses, once in 45-50 days, duration – 5 days, during menses – vomiting and diarrhea. Leg pain and sleeplessness before menses.

Life space investigation :Patient hailed from upper middle class family. Childhood history was uneventful. Relation with parents and sibling are good. Patient was hyperactive during childhood. She told that during her childhood both parents were working in different places and could not able to take care on her. She got married at the age of 23. Has one female child. Her relation with her husband is good. She is a house maker. She keeps her house very neat and decorates her house with lot of articles.

She told “people who come to my home never leave immediately. They see all the materials show cased there and tell “this is like a museum”. She is artistic, and much interested in interior decoration. She gets anger very easily and expresses it. She used to weep for trivial things. After weeping  she feels better. When asked about specific fears she volunteered that she is having tremendous fear on Cats. She tells I feel very weak now – a – days.

Objective symptoms(Mind) : Talks a lot.  Loquacity +

General physical examination:

  • Appearance       :  Dark Complexion, lean, active.
  • Built                   :  Poor built up
  • Nourishment     : Good
  • No Pallor/ Cyanosis/ Clubbing/ Edema/ Icterus/ Lymphadenopathy
  • Oral cavity          :  Black color discoloration of the tongue.
  • Nails & skin        : Normal
  • Neck examination :  Mild uniform swelling over the anterior part of the neck, moves on deglutition.
  • Vital signs:
  • Pulse : 72/ Min,  Temp : 98 ­0  F, RR : 16/ Min , BP : 100/ 70 mm of Hg 

Provisional diagnosisHypothyroidism

Investigations:Routine Blood / Urine – NAD

Discharge summery
Basis of Prescription…

Follow up criteria:

Subjective:                               Objective:

  • Mental state                           Thyroid profile                                              (TSH level)
  • General well being
  • Weakness
  • Menstrual regularities

 First prescription: 20 – 04 – 2007
Tuberculinum 1M / 1 Dose, early morning on empty stomach.
S.L. – 15 packs/ 1 OD.
patient is asked to reduce the  T. Eltroxin  – to 1/day
24 – 04 – 07
Patient called and told, first time after the accident since 3 years she got the smell of coffee prepared by her in home. (Neurologist told that she may not get the smell back)

18 – 07 – 07 Patient feels better. Patient came with TSH report which shows very low level of TSH :     (TSH level – < 0.01mIU/ ML)

Rx.To continue Phosphorous 0/2
To stop T. Eltroxin

This reduction

  • In the TSH
  • Probably ‘cos
  • Of continuation
  • Of T. Eltraxin.
  • Adv. To stop  

The pattern of cure…herring’s law
A local Disease, in most of the occasions need a constitutional remedy… 

Neuroscientists are beginning to understand the neural circuitry of the brain that controls anxiety. The structures of the brain involved include the limbic system, the frontal lobes of the cortex, parts of the thalamus and basal ganglia, the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus and the white mater connections between them such as the internal capsule and cingulum.

While the general areas involved are beginning to be recognized, much is unknown about the specific functions of the areas and the nature of the signals between them.

Single remedy rubric – Merc.

  • MIND – ANARCHIST – revolutionary
  • MERC.gl1.fr,vh,vml2
  • MIND – COMPLAINING – relations and surroundings, of
  • Merc.hr1,kr1
  • MIND – DELUSIONS – animals – jumping – her; jump at
  • Merc.k1,st
  • MIND – ESCAPE, attempts to – crime, for a fear of having committed a
  • Merc.k,kr1
  • MIND – EXCITEMENT – lascivious, with painful nocturnal erections
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – EXCITEMENT – waking, on – frightened, as if
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – FEAR – night – grief; with
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – FEAR – wrong, of something – commit something
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – GRIEF – fear at night, with
  • Merc.hr1,kr1
  • MIND – KILL; desire to – husband; impulse to kill her beloved – menses agg.; during
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – KILL; desire to – husband; impulse to kill her beloved – razor; therefore implores him to hide his
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – KILL; desire to – hysterical sadness, with
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – MANIA – liver complaints, with
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – MISCHIEVOUS – imbecility, in
  • Merc.kr1
  • MIND – SUSPICIOUS – daytime
  • Merc.a1,k
  • MIND – TRAVELLING – desire for – almost uncontrollable desire to travel far away
  • Merc.kr1 

Sadam husaine..

  • Saddam Hussein was the ruthless dictator of Iraq from 1979 until 2003
  • April 28, 1937 — December 30, 2006
  • Father abandoned his family
  • Mother married to another man  – who is immoral, brutal, illiterate
  • Sadam moved to his uncle’s place
  • Not interested in studies – in politics
  • Tried military – failed
  • Joined in the baath – party
  • Tried to associnate then president –      failed – flee from country
  • Arrested – tortured – his party gained the power
  • Released – vice president – 10 years
  • Then president – 1979
  • Ruled with brutal hand – used fear and terror – to stay in power 

Top 5 Crimes of Saddam Hussein

  • Reprisal Against Dujail
  • Chemical Weapons Against Kurds
  • Anfal Campaign  (spoil – kurdhish)
  • Invasion of Kuwait 

Localization of drugs – brain mapping
Evolution of nervous system…

When examined as a series, researches demonstrate clearly that the vertibrate brain has evolved by a gradual “cephalic shift” of function from the lower brain stem (Fish) to the Higher cerebral cortex (Man).

It also is evident that certain neural structures attain considerable size and obvious functional importance in lower forms, but become proportionately smaller and therefore less conspicuous in higher forms (Olfactory bulb, optic lobe)

Though Brodmann classified the brain in to 57 areas, no single function of the body or mind is localized to single part of the brain. It is the combination of different part of the brain come in to play for executing a single function.

When the single area of brain may have specific function to do, but most of the day to day functions need more than one area to work together. If more than one area involves in a particular function the resultant functions will be more than the summation of their individual functions.. (ie. 2 + 3 > 5)

So each and every functions ‘ll primarily have one area and associated with many other areas.

  • Brodmann
  • Motor  area
  • Primary motor 4,
  • Secondary motor 6, 8
  • Motor planning 6, 13-16; 24, 32-33; 40
  • Motor Imagery 5, 7, 4, 6, 8; 24, 32-33
  • Motor Learning 4, 1-3, 6, 8; 23, 26, 29-31
  • Inhibition of blinking 4 

Area 4 – Primary Motor Cortex – motor homunculus
Area 6 – Pre-Motor and Supplementary Motor Cortex (may contribute to planning of complex coordinated movements.)

GENERALS – PARALYSIS – right (33) : CAUST. CROT-C.
GENERALS – PARALYSIS – left (39) : ACH. NUX-V. RHUS-T.
MIND – TALKING – slow learning to talk (21)
agar. AGRA. aloe bar-c. Bell. borx. calc. calc-p. caust. mag-c. med. NAT-M. nux-m. op. ph-ac. phos. sanic. sil. sulph. thuj. tub. 

GENERALS – WALKING – learning to walk – late (34)
acon. Agar. all-s. arg-n. Ars. ars-s-f. aur-m-n. Bar-c. bell. CALC. calc-f. CALC-P. Carb-v. CAUST. cupr. ferr. fl-ac. kali-i. lil-t. lyc. mag-c. med. merc. NAT-M. nux-v. Ph-ac. Phos. pin-s. Sanic. sep. Sil. sulph. thlas. thuj.

EXTREMITIES – MOTION – control of, lost (6) : Bell. chinin-s. Gels. merc-c. op. Stram.

Area 8 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in management of uncertainty (increasing uncertainty increases activation here, fMRI). Hope occurs here, a high-order expectation positively correlated with uncertainty. This area also includes frontal eye fields where conscious control of eyes is believed to take place. 

MIND – DESPAIR (193)
AMBR. AUR. CALC. COFF. HELL. IGN. LYC. NAT-M. PSOR. SULPH. VERAT.
EYE – MOVEMENT – involuntary ( = Nystagmus)
Agar. atra-r. bell. ben-n. bufo Calc. canth. caust. cupr. gels. hyos. ix. kali-i. Mag-p. meny. Nux-v. spig. stram. sulph. syph. zinc.

Area 9 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – sustaining attention and working memory. Lesions cause difficulty in inhibiting responses.

  • MIND – ABRUPT (24) – CALC. NUX-V.
  • MIND – INDISCRETION (41)- PULS. 

Area 10 – Frontopolar area (involved in strategic processes of memory retrieval and executive function)

MIND – EXHILARATION – recall things long forgotten, can (1) : Gels. 

MIND – MEMORY – active (96) : BELL. COFF.. HYOS. LACH. LYC. NAT-M. OP.

Area 11 – Orbitofrontal area (orbital and rectus gyri, plus part of the rostral part of the superior frontal gyrus). involved in planning, reasoning, and decision making. Perhaps the only cortical constraint of the hypothalamus.

Area 12 – Orbitofrontal area

MIND – IRRESOLUTION (197) : BAR-C. HELL. IGN. LACH. ONOS. OP. PETR.

MIND – PROGRAMMING – everything (2) : •ARS. nat-m.

MIND – REASON increased, power of (18) : •bry. Calc. carb-v. Cham. coff-t. Lyc. merc. mur-ac. nit-ac. nux-v. olib-sac. phos. puls. rhus-t. sep. spig. staph. Sulph.

Sensory

  • Proprioception 1-3, 4, 8
  • Touch, temperature, vibration 1-3, 4, 5, 7, 13-16
  • Somatosensory integration 40 

Areas 1, 2 & 3 – Primary Somatosensory Cortex (rostral to caudal is 3, 1, 2) -Homunculus representation: legs and trunk fold over midline; arms and hands (most tissue dedicated) are along middle of strip; face (with much tissue dedicated to lips) near bottom.

Area 5 – Somatosensory Association Cortex

Area 7 – Somatosensory Association Cortex (involved in locating objects in space; where vision and proprioception converge, enabling us to determine where objects are in relation to parts of the body. Generally, use in visuo-motor coordination such as in reaching to grasp an object).

MIND – DISTANCES – inaccurate judgement of (25)
agar. anac. arg-n. atro. bros-gau. Cann-i. cann-xyz. carb-an. coca cypra-eg. dat-m. des-ac. glon. hyos. irid-met. lac-h. magn-gr. nux-m. onos. op. ozone podo. sal-fr. stann. Stram.

MIND – SIZE – incorrect judgement of (7) : agar. calc. cann-i. chinin-s. onos. plat. stram.

Area 17 – Primary Visual Cortex (V1) – highly specialized for processing information about static and moving objects and is excellent in pattern recognition.

MIND – DELUSIONS – objects; about – far off; too : anac. sal-fr. stann.

MIND – DELUSIONS – objects; about – large : hyos. nux-m.

MIND – DELUSIONS – objects; about – recede : cic.

MIND – DELUSIONS – objects; about – reel : bell. bry. glon. merc-i-r.

Area 18 – Secondary visual Association Cortex (V2) – bulk of the volume of the occipital lobe.

Area 19 – Tertiary visual association cortex (V3) – with area 18, involved in feature-extraction, shape recognition, and visual attention.

Area 20 – Inferior Temporal gyrus – high-level visual processes and recognition

MIND – DELUSIONS – objects; about – different; appear : cic. germ-met. nat-m.

VISION – ACUTE (52) : con. agath-a. anac. ang. ant-c. arge-pl. aspar. bamb-a. BELL. Bufo camph. carb-an. Chin. choc. cic. coff. colch. coli. Con. conch. cycl. falco-pe. fic-m. fl-ac. galla-q-r. haliae-lc. hell. hyos. ign. lac-del. lac-loxod-a. lac-lup. lach. luna m-arct. Nux-v. ozone ph-ac. Plut-n. positr. ribo. sal-al. sanguis-s. sars. seneg. spig. suis-pan. suprar. tung-met. valer. viol-o. visc.

Area 21 – Middle Temporal gyrus – auditory processing and language, notably left side

Area 22 – Superior Temporal Gyrus, includes Wernicke’s area in its posterior. Left side involved in generation and understanding of words. Right side, melody, pitch, and sound intensity. 

MIND – COMPREHENSION – easy (43) : aesc. ambr. anac. ang. anh. aur. bar-c. bell. borx. brom. buth-a. calc-f. camph. cann-i. cann-s. cann-xyz. caust. COFF. hyos. ign. LACH. lyc. lyss. meph. olib-sac. OP. PHOS. Pip-m. Plat. puls. querc-r. rhus-t. sabad. sal-al. sel. sep. sulph. tab. thiop. ulm-c. valer. Verat. Viol-o. 

MIND – FORGETFUL – words while speaking; of (79) : ARN. BOTH. CANN-I. PH-AC. 

MIND – MISTAKES; making – speaking, in – words (10) : am-br. bov. cham. Chin. Lyc. mang. merc. nat-m. Nux-m. sil.

HEARING – ACUTE – music, to (16) : ACON. aloe ambr. bufo Cact. carb-v. Cham. Coff. Lyc. Nat-c. NUX-V. ph-ac. Sep. sulph. Tab. viol-o.

Area 23 – Ventral posterior cingulate cortex

Area 24 – Ventral anterior cingulate cortex – motivation, will

MIND – AMBITION – increased (55) : acon. alum. anac. apis ars. asar. aur. Aur-m-n. bov. calc. camph. canth. carb-an. carc. Caust. cina Cocain. cocc. coloc. con. crot-c. crot-h. cupr. cycl. dros. form. graph. ignis-alc. kali-c. kola lac-e. lac-leo. Lach. lyc. nat-ar. nat-m. NUX-V. Pall. phos. PLAT. polys. puls. ran-b. rhus-t. sars. sil. spig. staph. Sulph. tanac. ulm-c. vanad. VERAT. vesp. vip.

MIND – AMBITION – loss of (31) : am-m. Ambr. apoc. arag. arb-m. arg-n. ars. bar-c. bro-r. calc-sil. caps. caust. clem. cocain. dios. dream-p. erig. nat-p. pall. petr. plac. polys. rob. ros-ca. Sep. skat. Sulph. tax-br. tub. ulx-eu. viol-o.

Anatomical aspects of Mind…

Olfactory

  • Area – primary – Ant. Perforated substance, Gyrus ambiens, Gyrus Semilunaris, Cortical medical part of Amygdala
  • Secondary – Ento Rhinal area
  • Function – Detection of particular smell may cause a person to have a specific memories that may involve strong emotions. 

NOSE – ODORS; imaginary and real (42)
agn. alum. am-m. ambr. anac. ars. Aur. bell. benz-ac. calc. canth. chin. cina con. corv-cor. dig. Graph. hep. kali-bi. kreos. laur. lyc. M-ambo. M-arct. manc. Meny. merc. mez. mosch. Nit-ac. Nux-v. par. ph-ac. phos. plb. Puls. Seneg. sep. sil. sulph. valer. Verat.

MIND – DELUSIONS – smell, of (25)
Agn. Anac. aran-ix. ars. Aster. bell. calc. carc. cic. cina corv-cor. der. euph-a. Kali-bi. lach. lact-v. manc. musca-d. Op. par. puls. Sang. sulph. valer. zinc-m. 

HEAD – PAIN – odors – strong – from (23)
acon. anac. arg-n. Aur. aur-s. Bell. cham. chin. Coff. Colch. ephe-si. gink-b. graph. Ign. kali-p. Lyc. nux-v. ozone Phos. scut. sel. Sil. Sulph.

MIND – ANGER – odors – agg. (2) : colch. lac-h.

Amygdala: Root of inferior horn of lateral ventricle, deep to the Gyrus ambiens, Semilunaris, uncinate gyrus, cont. behind the tail of caudate nucleus. Having stong connections to the Hypothalamus

Function – agonistic behavior with aggressive reaction or fear response.

Lesion – loss of aggression, docile with occasional hypersexual behavior.

  • MIND – LASCIVIOUS
  • MIND – NYMPHOMANIA
  • MIND – SATYRIASIS
  • MIND – AMATIVENESS
  • MIND – AMOROUS
  • MIND – LEWDNESS
  • MIND – LIBERTINISM
  • MIND – MORAL FEELING; want of
  • MIND – OBSCENE, lewd
  • MIND – DELIRIUM – erotic . Etc.
  • Main drugs – Plat., Hyos., Vert., Canth., Phos., Lach.
  • MIND – FEAR – sudden (= panic attacks) (24) : Acon. apis arg-n. Ars. atra-r. bamb-a. Cann-i. carb-v. carc. cypra-eg. diosm. gard-j. gels. glon. heli-n. kali-ar. kali-c. levo. meli-a. merc. nit-ac. ozone Ruta ther. 

Septal area:

  • Paraterminal gyrus, Septal nuclei of septum pellucidum
  • Function – inhibits aggressiveness and produces pleasure reaction – a pleasure centre 

MIND – INDIFFERENCE – everything, to (106)
CADM-MET. CARB-V. PH-AC. STAPH. THYR.

Hippocampus…

  • Area – induseum greasium, longitudinal striea, gyrus fasciolaris, dentate gyrus, uncus
  • Function – long term memory 

MIND – MEMORY – loss of memory (68)
absin. agath-a. ail. Anac. Arg-n. bamb-a. bar-c. BELL. bry. calc-p. Camph. carbn-s. Cic. Coli. Con. convo-s. cori-r. cycl. des-ac. Dig. diph-t-tpt. elec. euon-a. fago. graph. hell. hippoc-k. HYOS. Hyper. kali-br. kali-c. kali-m. kali-p. kali-x. lac-e. lat-h. lyc. mand. med. Nat-m. nat-s. nux-m. olnd. onos. op. perh-mal. PETR. ph-ac. phos. plb. pneu. podo. psor. puls. rhod. rhus-t. sel. sil. spig. staph. Stram. sulfa. sulph. syph. tab. trif-p. VERAT. visc.

Hypothalamus …

Function – internal environment

                                Regulation of complex mood

                                Pituitary – stress hormone –    emotions

Lateral – pleasure & rage

Medial – aversion, displeasure, loud laughter

Limbic system:

Mid brain – emotional facial responses, CVS & RS control (connected to hypothalamus)

Fore brain

– prefrontal – 9 -12 area – depth of feeling, thinking, judgment, foresight and tactfulness

Orbito frontal – mood control, mental state

Psychical cortex – anterior part of temporal lobe – hallucination memory and dreams

Controlling the emotions…

Limbic system…

Thalamus …

Ant . Nucleus – lesion – loss of recent memory – korsakoff’s psychosis

Dorsomedial – integration of somatic and visceral impulses – conn. prefrontal cortex, – mood or feeling tone to emotional aspect of behavior

MIND – MEMORY – weakness of memory – happened, for what has – just happened (14) : absin. adam. allox. androc. anh. carb-ac. Carb-v. coli. cycl. graph. hydr. irid-met. Med. sacch-a.

Other emotions …

  • Pleasure – hippocampus, septal nuclei
  • Motivation – cingulate gyrus
  • Fear – amygdala
  • Joy – Globus pallidus
  • Guilt and Anxiety – orbito frontal cortex
  • Love & sadness – caudate nucleus 

Psychiatric diseases and homoeopathy
Patient was under regular Allopathic anti psychotic and antihypertensive drugs for the past 10 years. She was having remission and recurrence through out the year. Especially before menstrual nisus she ‘ll have either one panic or depressive attack. Pt. told if she takes Allopathic drugs or not the, effects ‘ll be same.  The social stressors are continuous and acting on her, especially from her husband’s side. He was fed-up with the issue.

Counseling was given to her husband also, and the importance of supportive life situation to the patient is clearly explained.

Discussion …

  • After full case taking, the importance was given to the Physical generals on that basis Sepia 0/1 was given as daily dose. Patient was slowly improving.
  • The potency was increased gradually up to 0/7,
  • In between twice she had episodes of head ache and was tackled with Nat. Mur. 0/1 and 0/2.
  • Her BP became normal, we slowly tapered the BP tablets and Anti psychotic tablets. For the period of 6 months and both the drugs were with drawn.
  • Now for the past 6 months patient was on regular follow ups, with occasional mild symptoms which she can cope up very well. Patient says she is ok.

Neuroendocrine regulation:
The Hypothalamus is central to the regulation of the neuroendocrine axes and it self receives many neuronal inputs that use Biogenic amine neuro transmitors.

Various neuroendocrine dysregulation have been reported in patients with Mood disorders, and thus the abnormal regulation of Neuroendocrine axes may be the result of abnormal functioning of biogenic amine – containing neurons

Discussion… (from Kaplan’s)
Although it is possible for a particular disregulation of a neuroendocrine axes (such as Thyroid or Adrenal Axes) to be involved in the cause of Mood Disorder, the Dysregulations are more likely reflections of a fundamental underlying brain disorder.

The major neuroendocrine axes of interest in mood disorders are the Adrenal, Thyroid and Growth Harmon axes.

Other neuroendocrine abnormalities that have been described in patients with mood disorder include decreased Nocturnal secreation of Malatonin, Decreased Prolactin, Decreased Basal levels of FSH and LH and decreased testosterone levels in males.

Discussion…
So Hypothalamus is a major structure which has specific role over the development of BPD. Since the patient’s symptoms have been improved very well with Sepia and the related remedy Nat. Mur. – these drugs probably ‘ll have some or other action over the HYPOTHALAMUS.

Conclusion…
If we deeply look in to the evolution of drug personality as well as the localization of Psychiatric illness, most of the time it will point towards the higher centers especially Amygdala, Hippocampus, Limbic system, Basal ganglia and Hypothalamus.

The Hypothalamus is a head ganglion, head of the endocrinal orchestra, through altering the internal environment by means of controlling releasing factors, and endocrine glands it controls almost all the part of the body. It function is indispensable in reproduction.

Conclusion…
Several studies on the hypothalamus suggests that Hypothalamus can affect each and every part of the body including Mind. Though it is called the biological clock, the functions of the hypothalamus has not yet been understood thoroughly.

There is no single or comprehensive investigations are available to know whether the Hypothalamus is functioning normal?

Conclusion…

  • The homoeopathic constitutional remedy has been selected on the basis of Mind
  • Physical generals – which includes
  • Appetite (desire and aversion)
  • Thirst
  • Sleep
  • Sex
  • Menses
  • Perspiration
  • Hot or Chilly etc.

If we single out any one organ in brain which affects all the above said functions which are used for constitutional prescription,  it is none other than HYPOTHALAMUS

Thus, Homoeopathic remedies probably acting on HYPOTHALAMUS and altering the internal environment to make the sick to cure as it is termed.

The sphere of action of constitutinal homoeopathic remedies could be  on hypothalamus

NB: this is only my theoretical conclusion. Much sophisticated clinical trials are needed to prove or disprove this Hypothesis.

  • None of the diseases in this universe can be called as incurable…
  • It is only our lack of wisdom which made it incurable…
  • I believe, it is possible to acquire the wisdom enough to heal the so called incurable diseases… 

Dr R D Pavalan, MD (Hom.), M. Sc. (Psy.)
Reader, RVS Homoeopathic Medical College, Sulur,
Coimbatore 641 402

The gift of intuition

Dr  Aadil Chimthanawala

A middle aged lady visited my clinic in early September last year. She went on to tell that her husband who was 42 years old has had low grade fever since past one month and was not responding to any form of routine medications. All his investigations were within normal limits and the treating physician was administering him anti tubercular drugs. She requested me to visit her house and examine her husband and if homoeopathy could help him.

I went to her house and was taken to her bedroom. As soon as I saw the patient, I felt a hunch that I was dealing with a Cancer patient. Neither was he very weak nor had he lost any significant weight, yet something inside me, even before the examination, told me that “this man has cancer.” I examined him in detail but could not find any physical fault. Since all his investigations were done quite recently, I asked for a repeat Ultra-sonography of the abdomen. Alas for the patient – he did have a mass in the liver – Primary liver cancer. His sad demise 2 months later was a blow to the family.

A rather heart touching event was narrated by a friend Rashmi who is a Nagpurian. She said “my maternal grandmother, resident of Mumbai, aged 76 years was a Diabetic on Insulin since past 30 years. On 24th March this year she had consumed fish. Next day she started having diarrhea that continued for a week. After some medications, it stopped and she only complained of weakness. On the 6th April, I happened to telephone her. Hearing her voice, I felt that something was not alright with her, although she had no complaints. I asked my mother to leave for Mumbai immediately the next morning. On reaching there, my mother reported that everything was fine and grandmother was recouping. On 9th April, my grandmother, mother and uncle were sitting leisurely. Suddenly, my granny said “I have a chest discomfort” and collapsed in my mother’s lap. Though she left us for her heavenly abode, the only solace was that she passed suddenly in my mother’s lap.”

Another of my close friends – a Homoeopath remarked “I do many things through my gut-feeling. What I normally guess becomes almost the right thing for me. For example I saw my wife first at a bus stop while going to the college. From the very beginning I knew that she is the one whom I am going to marry whatever happens. Many difficulties came and passed by, but she did become my wife. Now, call this love at first sight or the deep inner feeling…”

These three examples and many more make us realize that we all are born with a sense that lets us know the difference between right and wrong, about someone – good or evil. One may call it by several names – gut feeling, a hunch, sixth sense, the inner voice, conscience, or intuition. They are all interrelated, but actually different in the aspect of reasoning. Again these are quite different from True Predictions or Prophesy which very few souls possess.

The inner voice can be looked at in many different aspects. A ‘normal’ person sees it as the voice deep within that keeps him on the right track. An anxious or a depressed person sees it as a critic pointing out every mistake. When we are lost and need directions from a stranger, we would generally ask people near by whom we feel are the right persons to ask and not anybody. This feeling of a transient internal connection with strangers is the inner voice. It happens to most of us day in and day out. It works from the moment that we confront a situation.

Our “conscience” is the voice of the Self which says ‘yes’ or ‘no’ when we are involved in a moral dilemma. It is the guiding voice within; it is how one distinguishes right from wrong. Conscience tells us to behave in the right manner and reminds us of the consequences.

Intuition means “in to you” in Latin. It is a feeling of sudden mental apprehension without reasoning. Swami Muktananda, once said, “Intuition is the spiritual faculty that doesn’t explain; it just points the way. It is your divine Spirit talking to you. If you will stop for a moment and acknowledge it, you will begin to realize the incredible perspective you have. You don’t have to get any special training to start using it. All you need to do is raise your awareness about it and set your intention to harness it.”

All said and done, intuition is an incredible resource that we have been given to help us live a good quality life. Unfortunately, not many people know what it is or how to use it. Intuitive messages range from an insignificant feeling / thought that comes from somewhere inside and usually evolves as a hunch. Our inner self is persistent and consistent. It will keep trying to get our attention until we finally wise up! A “hunch” is accurate information from a higher intelligence; hence one can rely upon it. An intuitive message ranges from hearing actual words, seeing a clear picture, having a dream or a deep inner knowing. We should become familiar with how our inner self communicates with us. Once we receive the message, we should research upon it and then use our common sense.

Many people who have over the years, developed their own intuitions give certain tips to enhance our intuitive powers –

1. One should practice taking time out every day to experience silence. Calming our mind with meditation and releasing our need to think, analyze and knowing everything.

2. One should be open to this gift and accept what it has to tell us. There are several occasions when our ego thinks it has it “all figured out.” But our true path may look quite different than the one we are on.

3. When we ask ourselves questions, we gain an additional insight and clarity. When we ask a question like “What is the next step I need to take?” know that we already know what we need to know. We need to trust ourselves. We already have everything we need inside.

4. Keeping a daily diary is a great practice. When we write, we tap our thoughts, feelings, ideas and direction that we are not consciously aware of. Writing allows the truth to come forth and is an easy way to gain insight of our inner self.

After loading our minds with information about an issue, we need to give intuition time to work on it. And then become open to the answer. Most of us are likely to experience an “Aha” moment, which is a moment of instant awareness, where to answer sprouts from “out of the blue.” There are several occasions when we have an important decision to make and are not 100% sure about something happening. At this juncture, instead of being impulsive, we should stop and think before making a decision. Usually this is our intuition trying to tell us that something is not quite right. Likewise, if we feel that we should go for it, we should definitely do it, so that we don’t miss a valuable opportunity.

INFINE -Intuition is our very own best friend. It is always there for us. It waits patiently and gives the absolute advice. All we need to do is ask! Like any good friendship, all it takes to nurture it with a little more time and attention. If we decide to be close and intimate with our intuition, it is most likely our lives will transform into something wonderful because the best advice comes from the deep recesses of our soul. This is the gift of Intuition.

Whatever u do – do it well

Dr  Aadil Chimthanawala
MD (Hom), DNB (Med), BHMS, MBBS, PGNAHI, FNAHI
Homoeopathic Cardiologist
“Aadil Homoeo Heart Care Centre”, Opposite Gujarat Lodge, Hanuman Lane
Sitabuldi, NAGPUR -12.
Ph: 0712-2532008
Mail : adilch@rediffmail.com

patient1 (2)

Homeopathy and Interpersonal Relationship

patient1 (2)Dr. Ajit Kulkarni M.D.(Hom.)
Email : dr_ajitkulkarni@rediffmail.com

Human mind is the most fascinating and most illusionary subject to understand in its entirety. All homoeopathic physicians know the importance of mental state and its appreciation in the avenue of selection of a proper homoeopathic remedy and the management of a patient. In the homoeopathic clinical practice, exploring and understanding the mental state is the most difficult and exasperating aspect for a homoeopathic physician because the mental state is a vibrant and free flowing. It is not a concrete and material like a physical body and it needs to be precisely fathomed in its depth and extent.

The human being and the society:
The human being is born and develops in a social setup. For a child, the family – parents and other relatives is the primary unit and this unit is the part of a larger social unit.

The family unit influences, moulds and shapes up the personality in the initial development of a child. The child learns the basic processes like thinking, feeling, judging and acting through models, imitation etc… Through the progressive learning, child becomes gradually socialized. This socialization does not take place through isolation, but through continuous and intimate inter-personal relationship (I.P.R). With the dominance of genetic milieu, the child’s overall evolution marches ahead under the influence of family set-up, school set-up followed by the continuous process of socialization.

Growth and development are the inseparable phenomena leading towards maturity involving both evolution and involution. An individual makes-up the society. The society shapes the individual and the society is also shaped by the individuals.

Inter-personal relationship:
I.P.R. is the substratum of society. It begins soon after birth, when the child arrives in the world. Progressive socialization results when the child comes in contact with different persons, thus spawning the inter-personal relationships. The personal desires, aptitudes, attitudes, pleasures, ethics, beliefs, faiths, id, ego, circumstances etc. contribute towards origin, development, maintenance or destruction of I.P.R. Harmony is essential for the sustenance of sound I.P.R. We find many persons in the society having different emotional and intellectual set-ups. The areas of work are quite different, rather antagonistic, but still I.P.R. of a healthy type exists for a long time even though it may have a trifling basis or only one common harmonious basis like art, music, sports or ethics. In contrast to this, one may encounter the disturbed I.P.R. between the persons having several identical views.

Change is the characteristic of universal phenomena. Circumstance(s) is the reflection of time and space, the integral part of universe. Under the time-space continuum, the circumstance(s) may give the opportunity to form or strengthen the I.P.R. or it may give negative feedback for I.P.R. which may become unpropitious or be irreparably spoiled.

Inter-personal relationship and dis-ease :
Dis-ease implies ill-at-ease : at the physical level, the mental level and at both the levels. The human mind gets developed, vitalized / devitalized, rejuvenated / cracked down through inter-personal relationship. Disturbed I.P.R. causes stress and strain on the mind and if the mind is not capable of mobilizing its resources to effectively cope with; critical threshold value is achieved leading to the development of disease process which is manifested in acute or chronic phases depending on the stressors, genetic predisposition, reservoir of energy and the timing when stressors are operative. To illustrate: Elevation of blood pressure after an acute emotional upset is a known phenomenon observed in clinical practice. D. U., Migraine, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, anxiety neurosis, ulcerative colitis, chronic somatization disorder and many psycho-somatic illnesses can be linked to prolonged disturbed I.P.R.

The disturbed I.P.R. acts as a maintaining / precipitating cause of the dis-ease which gets manifested in the intra-psychic conflict à somatization mechanism, which again may act as a stressor. Thus the cause becomes an effect and effect again becomes the cause: vicious cycle is thus set-up and continued.

The consideration of inter-personal relationship may give a new dimension to our thinking of disease phenomenon. ‘Stressors’ which deviate the immune response as well as related change in hormonal balance can be better identified.

As heredity has a significant role in the area of individual resistance, the constitutional predisposition on the part of a sick individual is of paramount importance.

Homoeopathy and inter-personal relationship:
Hahnemann demanded understanding of the individual, the total human being, the MAN behind sickness. The motto in Homoeopathy is: ‘Treat the patient as a WHOLE and not merely a disease’.

Homoeopathy deals with MAN. We understand Homoeopathy as a HOLISTIC medicine.

Do we conceive of these fundamental ideas in their entirety and perspectivity and implement them effectively into our practice when we claim ourselves as homoeopathic physicians?

We claim to treat the sick PATIENT and we do not know the I.P.R. of the patient; we don’t know the significance of I.P.R.; we don’t know what is going on in the life of the patient and yet we claim as physicians of HOLISTIC medicine! What we travesty!

Can the understanding of a sick individual be adequate and possible without knowing the IPR in detail? 

Inclusion of I.P.R. in detail should become the necessary part of the interview, of totality of sickness: for it will replace clarity, in place of confusion.

The understanding of the patient as a PERSON will be severely hampered if a homoeopathic physician doesn’t know the impact, depth and consequence of I.P.R. over the sick individual. The understanding of psycho-dynamic and psycho-somatic mental state, somatization mechanism, cause — effect relationship, intra-psychic conflict-all will be adversely affected as far as erecting the proper, integrated totality is concerned and the entire management of a case.

Unfortunately many homoeopathic physicians are entirely oblivious of this concept or very little is known about this type of approach of eliciting the totality through I.P.R.

The proper analysis of I.P.R. will not only give the mental characteristics (which are difficult to derive or infer otherwise) but also help select the proper homoeopathic Rx.

One sided diseases’ or diseases where data is inadequate, homoeopathic physician is stumbled to the extent of losing the case. I.P.R. elicited skillfully in such cases will bring forth the personality traits and will help fish out an accurate homoeopathic remedy. Interview of a patient through IPR is a very interesting aspect and a physician gets the inner state of the mind through deeper relations. Experience reveals that ‘Key-note prescribing’ has many pitfalls and demerits. There are more problems in the follow-up of a case as key-note prescribing involves multiple, changeable, zigzag and jumping method resulting in utter confusion.

The entire management of a case that also includes psychotherapy and counseling can be sorted out; individual strategy can be planned out if we have adequate information about I.P.R. of the patient.

Logical Application of the Law of Similars:
The homoeopathic remedy has an immense potential to affect the personality of the patient. Intelligence and emotions are the two basic qualities of human mind and the human pharmacology – as explored through provings yield disturbances in both of these fields; in addition, the somatic semeiology is also recorded. By using the methods of inductive and deductive reasoning, Jungian Psychology, Freud’s psycho-analysis, Behaviorism concept, Transactional psycho-analysis, Piaget’s cognitive theory, Eriksson’s psycho-social theory etc. one can structuralize the personality: the individual characteristics, behavioral responses as per circumstance(s), dispositions and expressions etc. out of vast proving data available to us in the homoeopathic materia medica. Each homoeopathic polycrest drug is a PERSON having its own characteristic individual features. The semblance between the natural person existing in the society and the artificial person grasped through homoeopathic provings will yield an accurate homoeopathic constitutional drug, as it will cover the ‘essence’ of the personality.

INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP OF SOME POLYCREST REMEDIES:
As the subject is vast, we will consider here I.P.R. of some frequently used and well-proved homoeopathic remedies in a succinct way.

THE NATRUMS :
There are two definite Natrums- introverted and extroverted. The introverted are the silent sufferers who go on burning themselves. In both of them, getting hurt deeply and not able to come out of the hurt feeling is common. The extroverted Natrums are the aggressive, irritable, and domineering fellows having ‘fighting’ spirit. In addition to these, they have an anti-authority element due to which Natrums find themselves in conflict with many persons. The typical Natrum personality doesn’t like the domination of authoritatives like father, mother, GF, GM, at home or of boss / colleagues at work area. Provided that the circumstances are favorable, he will fight outrageously and exhibit his grievances in an agitational and aggressive way; or he will exhibit his impulsive and impatient character to the stimuli of circumstance(s), by hurting the concerned person irrespective of the respect, caliber, age or prestige possessed by that person.

Another response shown by the Natrum personality is the feeling of hostility, resentment, indignation or suppressed anger, being expressed by seeking the solitude. The Natrum person will go alone and will weep outside. Many Natrum personalities are characterized by outward serenity but inward turmoil and ‘brooding’ is quite characteristic. The Natrum person is highly sentimental and is governed more by emotions than by intelligence – hence attachment is strong as far as I.P.R. is concerned and breaking up the bond often causes a hostile response and the domineering, egoistic behavior of Natrum may end up the inter-national relationship.

If the circumstances are such that expressions are not possible, Natrum person will exhibit his irascibility over other persons, other than the one to whom there is a hostile response e.g. domination at the work area by a boss will get discharged in the form of anger, or domination etc. over the wife or children.

I.P.R. in Natrum personality is usually disturbed and relatives of the Natrum person usually complaint a lot about the negative aspect of Natrum mind. Natrum makes his own life miserable and that of others too. He adds salt in IPR and make everything bitter.

THE MAGNESIUM PERSON:
The Mag. behavioral response is characterized by an inward response. Instead of ‘fighting’ spirit which is observed in extroverted Natrum (other drugs are Staphysagria, Tarentula, Lachesis etc.), we come across the withdrawal phenomenon. The genesis of withdrawal in Magnesium lies in childhood repression, suppression, vexation etc. that results in strong feeling of being neglected and rejected. Magnesium person prefers isolation, remains segregated, and becomes asocial and reserved.

Magnesium should be projected when we come across the history of death of mother or father at an early age and there is h/o deprivation of love. Characteristically though there is over-crowding of emotions, desires, aspirations and anxieties coming out of insecurity, outward expressions are poor. The person becomes introvert and gets himself entrapped into the capsule of his own and the feeling of being neglected is augmented by the insult or misbehavior committed by other persons. Hence sensitivity to insult is quite marked.

Mixing is a problem to the magnesium personality: to children as well as to adults. Shyness is marked in children and they fear a lot about strangers. Temperamental incompetence to protest and communication difficulty make mixing difficult. He doesn’t express his sentiments, thoughts, agonies, anxieties and grievances and rather becomes more introvert.

Another strong characteristic of magnesium is that thought there is a lack of expression at the conscious level. At the sub-conscious field, we come across expressions in the form of dreams. Variable forms of dreams are covered in magnesium.

Mag. Is full with anxieties, fears, and a host of negative emotions but they are kept inside. Others, hence, are unable to sense Mag. Sufferings and emotions are not shared and the problems are continued.

THE KALIS:
Kalis make the acquaintance very readily. As they are characterized by inherent / spontaneous attachment of a strong type, at the outset, they appear to be extrovert and quite easily mixing with friends, relatives, neighbors etc. However this attachment itself is a source of many conflicts resulting in pathological I.P.R. that produces various manifestations at the somatic and psychic level.

The bonds of love and affection soon get established in Kali I.P.R. It is difficult for a Kali person to remain segregated in the society. A Kali woman will try to develop an amicable relationship with other persons. For maintaining the I.P.R. sound, she will even sacrifice to some extent but in return will expect the same from others. If she doesn’t get any positive response, she soon gets depressed and sad. Irritability, agitation occurs out of retaliation.

Instead of ‘fight’ response observed in Natrum, Lycopodium, Lachesis etc., we find ‘flight’ response in Kali. The Kali person is overwhelmed by anxiety and anticipation. He / she is so encased into the capsule of ‘fear, fright, anxiety state.’ It will not be wrong to write that Kali runs and walks out the anxiety. If the husband / children are late in coming home, the Kali woman will become anxious, depressed and will wonder to and fro in the veranda, will telephone many times and will heave a sign of relief when they come home. The elderly Kali woman whose sons are away in other city for education will enquire a lot about them, will write letters often and make plenty of suggestions about their health and behavior.

Underneath the disposition of attachment lies the irritability that comes as a counter response to threats (to the attachment) that make her sad, depressed and lachrymose. Brooding is quite marked over the incidences that have insulted her. This mental portrait added with anxiety represents the ‘anxiety neurosis’ with depression.

As far as I.P.R. is concerned, Kalis are attached to people. They do not want to cut off relations on there own. They are rigid, moralistic and refrain themselves from doing wrong deeds. They are ego-centric, family oriented and cocoons.

INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP ‘BREAK’:
Some prominent remedies are discussed in succinct.

i)  Pulsatilla: Will try to prevent a rapture as I.P.R. is like and O2 Puls is like a leech.

ii) Lycopodium: Will employ wit for conciliation and will try to keep his dignity through non-rupture. Rupture, according to Lyco. amounts to defeat. However, Lyco. lacks the sweetness of Puls.

iii) Ars-alb: A continuous, critical and censorious harping leads to severing relations with those not performing of his standards.

iv) Nat-mur: Although there is an internal need for unconditional love, Nat-m. will cut off relations out of hurt feeling; to forget or to forgive is difficult; she will add more salt and will make the I.P.R. complex of irreversible.

v) Sulphur: Quick to quarrel but equally quick to forgive and make up and hence there is no real falling out. The quarrel is more intellectual.

vi) Calcarea: Wants a home; is generous; but if offended, will withdraw in its own shell. Will protect its security and will see that it is not jeopartized.

vii) Kali-carb: Attachment a source of troubles; rigidity, conservatism, and weak will lead to cold war; Kali-c. On her own will not cut off; she is more practical and well-grounded and will keep it hanging.

viii) Sepia: Continuous ragging and detached attitude (sell imposed, in Kali-c it is imposed upon by others) results in seyering the relationships, however, Sep. doesn’t have to break the relations with others, as others break with her first.

ix) Staphysagria: Jorial, conciliatory until his sensitive mind, rather sensitive pride is maintained; once offended, pent-up emotions will explode resulting in severing the relations.

x) Kali-iod: Its crude, rude and harsh behaviour expressed through abusiveness raptures the relations.

INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP AND MIASMS:-
Exploration of the dispositional characters and the behavioural responses yield the miasmatic dominance.

  • The emotive responses of high order expressed in I.P.R. but with base-line of I.P.R. being maintained indicate PSORIC miasm. Healthy attitude towards I.P.R.  is kept up thought with emotional overtone on many occasions.
  • The sycotic stigma demonstrates pathological I.P.R. The negative attitudes and characters viz. suspiciousness, vindictiveness etc. make I.P.R. disturbed. The states in ineldncholy, gloominess etc. develop as a consequence to chronic disturbed I.P.R.
  • Unpredictable, erratic behaviour in tandem with emotional overtone complicate I.P.R. in Tubercular Miasmatic subjects.
  • The syphilitics reflect the irreversible

Co Dependency

Dr. Samir Chaukkar

What is codependency? What’s the definition?
There are many definitions used to talk about codependency today. The original concept of codependency was developed to acknowledge the responses and behaviors people develop from living with an alcoholic or substance abuser. A number of attributes can be developed as a result of those conditions.

However, over the years, codependency has expanded into a definition which describes a dysfunctional pattern of living and problem solving developed during childhood by family rules.

One of many definitions of codependency is: a set of *maladaptive, *compulsive behaviors learned by family members in order to survive in a family which is experiencing *great emotional pain and stress.

How do I know if I’m codependent?
Generally, if you’re feeling unfulfilled consistently in relationships, you tend to be indirect, don’t assert yourself when you have a need, if you’re able to recognize you don’t play as much as others, or other people point out you could be more playful. Things like this can indicate you’re codependent.

Isn’t everyone codependent?
There are some natural and healthy behaviors mothers do with children that look like codependency. Are people mutually interdependent on each other? Yes. There is perhaps a continuum of codependency, that most people might fall on. Maybe this continuum exists because so many people are taught not to be assertive, or to ask directly for their needs to be met? We probably can’t say though that everyone is codependent. Many people probably don’t feel fulfilled because of other things going on in the system at large.

How can counseling help?
For people with codependency, individual counseling can teach assertiveness, listening, and communication. Counseling can help you become more aware of non-helpful actions/behaviors, and work with you on developing new, healthier coping skills.

In the case of codependency though, counseling only helps if the counselor is aware of their own tendency towards codependence, or if the counselor has some understanding about the addictive push in our society. Counselors, in the case of codependency, need to present good boundary setting and healthy living themselves during sessions with clients. If a counselor develops a working relationship with a client that has codependent qualities, again, the pattern is repeated, and therapy may not be as helpful. Some statistics show 50-80% of counselors have not addressed their own codependency issues. So one must be careful in choosing a counselor for this kind of support.

What are some of the symptoms?
• controlling behavior
• distrust
• perfectionism
• avoidance of feelings
• intimacy problems
• caretaking behavior
• hyper vigilance (a heightened awareness for potential threat/danger)
• physical illness related to stress

Characteristics of Co-dependency
 
Following is a commonly used list of characteristics of codependency.
1. My good feelings about who I am stem from being liked by you
2. My good feelings about who I am stem from receiving approval from you
3. Your struggle affects my serenity. My mental attention focuses on solving your problems/relieving your pain
4. My mental attention is focused on you
5. My mental attention is focused on protecting you
6. My mental attention is focused on manipulating you to do it my way
7. My self-esteem is bolstered by solving your problems
8. My self-esteem is bolstered by relieving your pain
9. My own hobbies/interests are put to one side. My time is spent sharing your hobbies/interests
10. Your clothing and personal appearance are dictated by my desires and I feel you are a reflection of me
11. Your behaviour is dictated by my desires and I feel you are a reflection of me
12. I am not aware of how I feel. I am aware of how you feel.
13. I am not aware of what I want – I ask what you want. I am not aware – I assume
14. The dreams I have for my future are linked to you
15. My fear of rejection determines what I say or do
16. My fear of your anger determines what I say or do
17. I use giving as a way of feeling safe in our relationship
18. My social circle diminishes as I involve myself with you
19. I put my values aside in order to connect with you
20. I value your opinion and way of doing things more than my own
21. The quality of my life is in relation to the quality of yours

Typical Characteristics of a Co-dependant
• I assume responsibility for other’s feelings and behaviors.
• I feel overly responsible for other’s feelings and behaviors.
• I have difficulty in identifying feelings — Am I Angry? Lonely? Sad? Happy? Joyful?
• I have difficulty expressing feelings — I am feeling … Happy, Sad, Hurt, Joyful.
• I tend to fear and/or worry how others may respond to my feelings.
• I have difficulty in forming and/or maintaining close relationships.
• I am afraid of being hurt and/or rejected by others.
• I am perfectionist and place too many expectations on myself and others.
• I have difficulty making decisions.
• I tend to minimize, alter or even deny the truth about how I feel.
• Other people’s actions and attitudes tend to determine how I respond/react.
• I tend to put other people’s wants and needs first.
• My fear of other’s feelings (anger) determines what I say and do.
• I question or ignore my own values to connect with significant others. I value other’s opinions more than my own.
• My self-esteem is bolstered by outer/other influences. I cannot acknowledge good things about myself.
• My serenity and mental attention is determined by how other’s are feeling and/or behaving.
• I tend to judge everything I do, think, or say harshly; by someone else’s standards — nothing is done, said, or thought “Good Enough”.
• I do not know or believe that being vulnerable and asking for help is both OKAY andNORMAL.
• I do not know that it is OKAY to talk about problems outside the family; or that feelings just are — and it is better to share them than to deny, minimize or justify them.
• I tend to put other people’s wants and needs before my own.
• I am steadfastly loyal — even when the loyalty is unjustified — and personally harmful.
• I have to be “needed” in order to have a relationship with others.

Control Patterns
 
The following “control patterns” are often a large part of codependant behavior.
1. I must be “needed” in order to have a relationship with others.
2. I value other’s approval of my thinking, feelings, and behavior over my own.
3. I agree with others so they will like me.
4. I focus my attention on protecting others.
5. I believe most people are incapable of taking care of themselves.
6. I keep score of “good deeds and favors”, becoming very hurt when they are not repaid.
7. I am very skilled at guessing how other people are feeling.
8. I can anticipate other’s needs and desires, meeting them before they are asked to be met.
9. I become resentful when others will not let me help them.
10. I am calm and efficient in other people’s crisis situations.
11. I feel good about myself only when I am helping others.
12. I freely offer others advice and directions without being asked.
13. I put aside my own interests and concerns in order to do what others want.
14. I ask for help and nurturing only when I am ill, and then reluctantly.
15. I cannot tolerate seeing others in pain.
16. I lavish gifts and favors on those I care about.
17. I use sex to gain approval and acceptance.
18. I attempt to convince others of how they “truly” think and “should” feel.
19. I perceive myself as completely unselfish and dedicated to the well-being of others.

 Are you codependent?
• Do you feel responsible for other people–their feelings, thoughts, actions, choices, wants, needs, well-being and destiny?
• Do you feel compelled to help people solve their problems or by trying to take care of their feelings?
• Do you find it easier to feel and express anger about injustices done to others than about injustices done to you?
• Do you feel safest and most comfortable when you are giving to others?
• Do you feel insecure and guilty when someone gives to you?
• Do you feel empty, bored and worthless if you don’t have someone else to take care of, a problem to solve, or a crisis to deal with?
• Are you often unable to stop talking, thinking and worrying about other people and their problems?
• Do you lose interest in your own life when you are in love?
• Do you stay in relationships that don’t work and tolerate abuse in order to keep people loving you?
• Do you leave bad relationships only to form new ones that don’t work, either?

eyes

Eyes – Communication, Decoding & Homeopathy

eyesDr. Ajit Kulkarni M.D.(Hom.)
Email : dr_ajitkulkarni@rediffmail.com

“Life lives, life dies. Life laughs, life cries. Life gives up and life tries. But life looks different through everyone’s eyes.”

1. A. Eye: The greatest wonder
Humans are the best of the creations in the process of evolution. Before you finish reading this sentence, approximately one hundred billion (100,000,000,000) operations will have been completed inside your eyes. However fantastic it may seem, you have the privileged possession of the Universe’s ultimate technology. No scientist has ever come close to fully grasping it, let alone inventing anything remotely similar.

Whatever you have in your life is meaningful through your senses—vision and others. Your family, your house, your office, your friends and everything else in your surroundings, you quickly identify thanks to your vision. Without eyes, you could never get a quick, complete sense of everything that’s happening around you. Without them, you could never imagine colors, forms, scenes, human faces, or what the word beauty means. But you do have eyes, and thanks to them, you can now read these printed words before you.

Our body is a repository of wonder. It encompasses an unimaginable set of complex abilities in its limited dimensions. From whistling a tune to the thought of splitting of an atom, we are wonderfully created. Yet, the greatest wonder of all is the creation of an eye. It is so wonderful that it makes our existence fascinating. The body is an intelligent tool that surpasses all species on earth! It genuinely reflects the innermost of our being- our emotions, attitudes, appetites, feelings, imaginations and above all our true image through the signals and cues of the body language.

The core elements of body language are gestures, postures, facial expressions, appearance, eye expressions, modulations of voice and the use of space and distancing. Although each element has its own place in the study of kinesics, facial and specially the eye expressions have their outstanding fields of observation, perception, interpretation and operation.

Verbal communication, which includes rhythm, pitch and tone as well as the actual words, only accounts for 35% of total communication. This leaves a pretty hefty chunk of the communication up to body language. More interesting is the fact that people make eye contact only about 20% of the time. So what are our eyes doing for the remaining 80%? The answer: a volley of movement as we switch in and out of different modes of information recall (recalling past experiences) and construction (creating new information from previous experiences)

The eyes give the most revealing and accurate of all the human communication signals because they are a focal point of the body and the pupils work independently. A blink. A wink. A sidelong glance. Your eyes speak volumes to the others around you – and every time, a raised brow or wide stare at you is a valuable clue to the other’s unspoken words. One should spot the eyes if they are angry, epoxy, bored, surprised, greedy, frightful, sad, lying, accusing, cruel, foxy, pitiful, mischievous etc. etc.
Why to say that eyes are powerful? Gaze at someone’s eyes and see what happens. It arouses strong emotions in others, either you may become a soul mate or you may get a slap on your face!

1. B. Eye: a symbol of consciousness
The eye identifies universal physical perspectives of the terrain. The act of seeing is regarded as a sign of life. Power of eye represents the power of the whole person. Eye is considered to be a symbol of higher consciousness. It represents in-sight; it represents physical, psychic and spiritual awareness. It is a symbol of wisdom and of clear perception. All things are viewed through an eye of conscious creation in the alchemy of time. It is the center of the spiral of creation. The Eye is the Eclipse of consciousness at the end of time. Everything sweeps forth from the ‘eye’ – experience consciously – then return to the eye as the patterns of virtual reality.
The opening of the eye is basically Iris – Isis – I. It is symbolic of time of awakening, the evolution of consciousness. Hence Eye represents I. The eye has a pupil. We are pupils in this universe (i.e. university) experiencing consciously through the lens of time.

It is believed that we have a third eye just above eyebrows in the center of forehead. This is related in the realm of mysticism as the spiritual center which can perceive extrasensory dimensions and spiritual realities. Directly in line with this center, in the middle of the brain, lies pineal gland, this releases the chemical that controls high consciousness. It is believed that this was once an eye that over the centuries became buried in the center of the brain. In the Hindu pantheon of Gods, Siva is endowed with three eyes and Indra has eyes all over his body. Some deities are described as having thousand eyes. Many Buddhist Temples exhibit all-seeing eye on their towers. In the case of Siva, having three eyes signifies power; it also signifies knowledge of everything around. Vishnu’s eyes are half-closed in the sleeping posture, but they are wide awake within, aware of and regulating every object and phenomenon in the entire universe.

The eyes are described as the windows of the soul…and the mirrors of the heart. Emerson precisely puts up the importance of eyes, “The eye can threaten like a loaded and leveled gun, or can insult like hissing and kicking; or in its altered mood, by beams of kindness, makes the heart dance with joy.”

A variety of metaphoric expressions are used for the kind of look and attitude the eyes convey. A major function of the eye is to retrieve the implicit meaning in a communicative event. The eyes can be steely, knowing, mocking, cunning, piercing, shifty, wise, inviting, scary, disinterested, appreciative, pitiful, disappointed, depressed, cruel, emotionless or blank.

1. C. Brain and Eyes
To see an object, all you have to do is to turn your gaze at it. You don’t need to bother giving “project, capture, and analyze” orders to your eyes, the components inside them, the optical nerves running to the back of your brain, nor to the brain itself. You need only look, just like the rest of the billions of creatures who have ever lived on our planet. Without having to work out the optical measurements, your eye’s lens can focus onto distant objects. Without needing to accurately compute the precise contractions of various muscles surrounding the lens, you only desire to see, and within a fraction of a second, that process is carried out for you. Like many people, you may never have realized what a miracle it is that thousands of independent processes can operate in a perfect harmony to enable you to see.

The sense organs are the portals of our awareness. It is through the sense organs that every one of us is connected to the outer world. Eye is singular in being a facial and a sense organ par excellence, but essentially it is an extension of the brain. To limit this reality only to anatomical region where the eye as an organ is located is an injustice to the potential, to the visual field and to the perception the eye renders to each of us under the reign of brain. I was not struck with the statement the eye being an extension of brain. In our college life, no professor gave us such thinking. We learnt that brain and eyes are the separate organs, although connected. I wonder at the Almighty’s creation of the human body. The brain extended its region as it wanted to look at the world through the eyes. Open the eyes to see the outer world and close it to look within. The journey of both is complex, deep and enlightening. The statement ‘The eyes are the window to the soul’ is worth recalling in the context of spiritualism.

Researchers Arendt and Wittbrodt while elucidating on the evolutionary origin of the human eye, writes, “It is not surprising that cells of human eyes come from the brain. We still have light-sensitive cells in our brains which detect light and influence our daily rhythms of activity.” “Quite possibly, the human eye has originated from light sensitive cells in the brain. Only later in evolution would such brain cells have relocated into an eye and gained the potential of conferring the vision.”

Neuroscientists have concluded that it is the eye that scans when our brain is processing information about other people’s emotions. The amygdala are found in each site of brain in medial temporal lobe and are known to process information about facial expressions.

1. D. Face and Eyes

Face is, truly, the mirror of life. A face is often called as an organ of emotions. Our face is exquisitely expressive. It defines our identity. It speaks for itself. One can categorically make a statement that the face is mightier than the word.

Facial expressions are clearly related to expressions via eye. Face is the most important part of “face to face” bodily encounters. The expressions on face are retrieved and comprehended via eye, and the facial expressions depend on the support of the expression via eye. Smile is among many expressions that depend not only on facial parts, such as lips, mouth and cheeks, but also on the expression given out by eye.

Areas of face involved in emotions indicate that fear and sadness are best produced by and nudged from the eyes and eyelids area. A combination of cheeks, mouth, eyes, and eyelids reveals happiness. Surprise is identified in brows and forehead more clearly. Surprise is identified also in eyes and eyelids as well as the combination of cheeks and lip movements.

1. E. The function of seeing the ‘true’ image
The eye might be a window to the outside world, but in our sense of sight it plays only the role of an instrument. The spot where vision is established is deep inside the brain.

To recap the steps of seeing: Beams of light enter the eye and pass through the cornea, the pupil and lens. The cornea’s convex structure and the lens break up the light beams and, after turning the picture or image of the scene upside down, direct it to the retina. The job of the lens is to focus light rays on the back of the eyeball – the retina. The lens works much like the lens of a movie projector. If you sit in the dark theater and look behind at the stream of light coming from the projection booth, you will notice that light goes through a powerful lens, which is focusing the images onto the screen, so you can see the movie clearly. In the eye’s case, however, the film screen is the retina. Light-sensitive receptor cells—the cones and rods—then convert the light into electrical signals, to be sent to the brain. The image that comes from the retina is an upside-down picture of the world. But the brain reverses this accordingly, letting these electrical impulses provide it with information about the object—its type, size, color, and distance. This entire process takes place in less than a tenth of a second.

During the assembly of a visual image, a staggering number of processes take place in less than a second. No computer in the world has yet been able to match this speed. But equally as staggering is the fact that the brain’s optic nerves invariably restore reversed images from the retina back to their original state.

After the retina converts beams of light into electrical signals, they are sent to the brain via the optic nerves in a thousandth of a second. Signals received from each eye contain all the visual information about the object one perceives. The brain combines the two images received from each eye to create the single three-dimensional image you see. It also chooses out the shapes and colors that are of interest in that image and determines the distance involved. In other words, it is the brain—not the eye—that sees.

Optic nerve is the great messenger in the back of the eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes that we see into millions of nerve messages. Then, the optic nerve carries those messages from the eye to the brain! The optic nerve serves as a high-speed telephone line connecting the eye to the brain. When we see an image, our eye “telephones” our brain with a report on what we are seeing so the brain can translate that report into “building,” “banana,” “sky,” or “tree,” or whatever the form of an image.

2. A. The eyes and mind: synthesis through body language
The eye is not just an organ for letting things in, but can also let out what is inside us (the ear on the other hand let the things only in). Watering of eyes, a peripheral expression reflects the inner state of mind like grief and sadness. We cannot hide our emotions consciously. Our eyes reflect every minute change in our mental state, unknowingly and unconsciously. The retina imprints a true image as it is reflected. You stand before the mirror and you will find that the mirror doesn’t add anything of its own. The eye doesn’t add anything of its own in reflection. It sees as it is – a virtual reality. But it is the perception of the mind that rules over the eye.

Remember that awareness consists in taking full account of the truth. “The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend.” The eye reflects the true portrait of the mental state.
The eye conveys, receives, and interprets nonverbal information. This process has several levels:
1. The level of anatomical facilitation and constraints.
2. The physical perspectives more or less universal (Gibson, 1950), and seen through the human eye.
3. The social, cultural and linguistic regulation of the process of seeing by the eye.
4. The interpersonal norms and interpretation of nonverbal communication through the eye.
Glances, stares and eye movements are believed to reflect mental state such as anxiety, anger and sadness. When a person has his eyes closed, rapid eye movements (REM) can be observed visually through the eyelids and slow eye movements are also noted at the time of sleepiness.

An old saying goes, ‘look a patient in the eye when you talk to him.’ Looking into the eyes reflects emotions, convictions and moods. It also reflects the hidden facets of personality, the intent and the motive.

Fairy eyes
2. B. How the eyes communicate
There are three ways in which eyes are used to communicate
1) Dominance versus submission
2) Involvement versus detachment
3) Positive versus negative attitude

There are three levels of consciousness and control
1) Conscious use of eyes to communicate, such as the flirting blink and the intimate nose-wrinkling.
2) The very extensive category of unconscious but learned behavior governing where the eyes are directed.
3) The response of the eye itself which is completely outside both awareness and control-changes in the sparkle of the eye and the pupillary reflexes.

2. C. Eye contact
Eye contact is one of the most important aspects of non verbal communication and is critical in making the right impression when the people meet on the very first time. Believe it or not, the first impression of others is established within the first few seconds of meeting.
Normally, human being maintains eye contact for around 60-70% of the time. A visual connection is made as one person gazes into the eyes of another. Highly emotional link is established as two people simultaneously observe each other’s eyes. Gazing at other’s eyes arouses strong emotions. Thus eye contact rarely last longer than few seconds before one or both viewers experience a powerful urge to glance away. Any longer eye contact runs the risk of making the other person feel self-conscious or uncomfortable.

We generally begin a conversation by looking away and end it by looking back at the listener; we alternate between gazing at and gazing away. If we study the body language of eyes we find that there is more direct gaze when people like each other and co-operate. On the other hand people make less eye contact when they dislike each other or disagree.  A point of note is that in primates the unwavering gaze evolved as a sign of dominance and threats, while gaze avoidance originated as a submissive cue.

Confident people usually make more frequent eye contact when communicating. Nervous and surprised people can be wide eyed while untrustworthy and defensive people will often squint and dart their eyes from left to right. Open and warm communicators may also appear to be wide eyed which can also be a sign of intelligence or attentive listening. Open communicators will also make use of smiling eyes. In contrast an angry person may stare with squinted eyes for an uncomfortable length of time. Autistic children fail to use socially normal patterns of eye contact. In adults, eye contact shows personal involvement and creates intimate bonds. Mutual gaze narrows the physical gap. It’s not the quantity of eye contact, but the quality that matters!

2. D. Konopacki’s interpretation of four basic eye movements

  • Eyes focused straight ahead: It means the listener is receiving your words passively and may be daydreaming.
  • Eyes positioned upward to right: The listener is paying attention — either relating your words to a recent experience or analyzing the logic of your statements.
  • Eyes positioned upward to left: A listener looking to the left is analyzing information using the right side of the brain — the emotional side — relating your words to a more distant experience.
  • Eyes cast downward: It means the listener is concentrating — either in a positive or a negative way. On the negative side, the listener may be thinking about how to end the conversation.

2. E. Gaze
Gazing means looking intentionally.
Types of Gaze
a) Mutual gaze: Give a feeling of intimacy, mutual attraction, and attentiveness.
b) Business gaze: When we direct our gaze at this area, we have a look of seriousness; hence the other person realizes that we mean business. As long as we keep to this label of gazing we will be in control of the interaction.
c) Social gaze: To create a social atmosphere, the gaze must drop below the other person’s eye level; the triangle is located between the eyes and the mouth.
d) Intimate gaze: The gaze area ascribed to intimacy ‘extends across the eyes and below the chin to other parts of the person’s body’. The triangle of greater intimacy covers the area between the eyes down to the crotch. Those who use this gaze are indicating their interest in each other.
e) Natural gaze: This gaze can last from 5 to 10 seconds. We use it when we talk to another person in an excited, enthusiastic and confident manner. It is natural in one-to-one conversation. The 5-second period makes listeners feel comfortable.

2. F. The brows, lids and the eyes
Primarily, the brows have two major movements, brows up/down and squeeze. The brows up/down alone does not convey the whole meaning of emotions; they are used in conjunction with the brows squeeze and different combinations of the lids. Generally, brows squeeze is in every emotion; regardless of type of emotion, it denotes thought.

The upper lids tell us the alertness of a character, and the lower lids intensify emotions. The eyeballs mainly just communicate where a character is looking. The subtext of that can lead to some powerful emotion, but the eyeballs themselves don’t say a whole lot; it’s the entire eye area acting together that creates a feeling. Hence it is necessary to study the eye as a unit. It is the cluster of movements to be studied in totality.

3. A. Examples of Body-language of eyes:

  • Eyebrows raised = surprise
  • Raised eyebrows with deep breathing and redness in eye = anger
  • Winking = humorous, not believing what you say
  • Closing both eyes = reflective thinking
  • Closing both eyes while you are talking and nodding = negative opinion
  • Looking with eyes half closed = doubting
  • Frequent blinking = sadness, suspicion
  • Looking to other side when you are talking = ignoring, suggesting to leave
  • Looking into eyes and half smiling = love
  • Bright eyes = intelligence, insight, psychic awareness
  • Green eyes = jealousy

3. B. Decoding eye messages: some examples
Dreamy eyes –
a. Blinking: A rapid closing and opening of the eyes. The normal, resting blink rate of a human is 20 closures per minute. Significantly faster rates reflect emotional stress. Blinking denote suspicion, aggression, egoism and stranger anxiety.

b. Eyes as lie detectors: When we recall visual information we look diagonally up to the left. On the other hand, when we look up to the right we are constructing visual information. Both visual and auditory construction has often been mislabeled as lying; this is only half true. Looking up to the right indicates they’re making things up but does not mean lying necessarily as they may be guessing or confused and not actually intending to deceive. Looking directly right means possibly constructing sentences – i.e. telling the truth but not sure how to frame into words.

There is also a small percentage of people with what is called the thousand-mile stare. These people look like they are looking right through you when communicating but actually require very little eye movement when retrieving or constructing information.

c. The dilating pupils: The size of the pupils may reveal a great deal about a person’s current state. The pupils dilate and contract as the attitude and mood change from positive to negative and vice versa. Strong emotions, convictions, and moods often stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and cause dilation of the pupils. Conversely negative mood causes the pupils to contract-commonly known as ‘beady little eyes’ or ‘snake eyes’.

It is found that women’s pupils dilate faster than men’s to create rapport with what their brain sees as another person’s eyes. Studies have shown that humans (especially females) are judged as more attractive if their pupils are wide open and more dilated than is normal. Centuries ago, prostitutes used to put drops of belladonna (atropine) into their eyes to dilate their pupils and to appear more desirable.
Romantic encounters mostly take place in dim light as that causes the pupils to dilate.
Humans are the only primates with pronounced whites of the eyes.

d. The eye brow flash: This is a universal, unconscious, inborn and a long distance ‘hello’ greeting signal. The purpose is to draw attention to the face so that clear signals can be exchanged. Flash and smile help develop rapport. The golden rule is always eyebrow flash people you like or those who you want to like you.

e. The looking up cluster: Lowering the head and looking up is a submissive gesture. There is some childish tinge in this gesture, too.
f. Eye block gesture: Unconsciously used gesture, as a person becomes bored or uninterested in you or thinks that he is superior. In eye block gesture eyelids close or remain closed for a longer time. If accompanied by head-tilt-back gesture, a person gives an impression that he is ‘looking down his nose’. This eye block gesture emits negative vibes.
It has more recently been discovered that people close their eyes briefly before giving a false answer.

g. Flashbulb eyes: An involuntary and dramatic widening of the eyes, performed in situations of intense emotion, such as anger, surprise and fear. Flashbulb eyes are controlled by impulses from the nervous system’s fight-or-flight division.
h. Eyebrow raiser: It is performed by lifting the arch of short hair above the eye, and by elevating the eyebrow by contracting the occipito-frontalis muscle. It occurs in uncertainty, disbelief, surprise or exasperation. Women widen their eyes by raising their eyebrows and eyelids to create ‘baby face’ appearance. This has powerful effect on men by releasing hormones into the brain, which stimulate the desire to protect and defend females.

Eyebrow raiser adds intensity to a facial expression. It strengthens a dominant stare, exaggerate a submissive pout, or boost the energy of a smile and in association with head-tilt-back, it suggests disdain, haughtiness, or pride.

i. Eyebrow lower: Projected by frowning or scowling, as in anger, concentration, displeasure, or thought; depress, knit, pucker, or wrinkle the brow by contracting the corrugator, procerus, and orbicularis oculi muscles.
This is a sensitive indicator of disagreement, doubt, or uncertainty. Slightly lowered eyebrows may telegraph unvoiced disagreement among the group.

j. Staring: There is also a small percentage of people with what is called the thousand- mile stare. These people look like they are looking right through you when communicating but actually require very little eye movement when retrieving or constructing information.

4. A. Love and eyes
The eyes are the immediate and powerful communicators of our emotions. It is almost impossible to mistake the feelings that the eyes convey. The communication between mother and child soon after birth is chiefly through the eyes. The child searches her mother’s face until it focuses on her eyes and then smiles, reassured by the glow of love it finds there. Let us take up the example of Love – a basic, complex and multi-faceted emotion and you see, the relation between love and eyes is eternal. It is the eyes that lead one to fall in love and the same bears the brunt of suffering caused by separation – sleeplessness, crying, anxiety, depression, humiliation and anger. It is the eyes that reveal one’s suffering caused by broken love, in spite of his efforts to hide the grievances. It is the eye that gives hope to a lover. Eyes communicate a lover’s physical state and mental distress caused by love. It is the eyes that crave to see the lover and when this wish is fulfilled, all the agony becomes a remote event. Even the secret glance of a lover is enough to console. There is no sign more revealing than tears that expose the love locked in. The disappointment in love and consequent frozen emotions get a permanent place in eyes and such eyes can be caught by a discernible physician.

4. B. Tears in the eyes
For crying out loud, the eye has its own special bathing system – tears! Above the outer corner of each eye are the lachrymal glands, which make tears. Every time we blink the eye, a tiny bit of tear fluid comes out of the upper eyelid. It helps wash away germs, dust, or other particles. It also keeps the eye from drying out. Then the fluid drains out of the eye by going into the lachrymal duct.
And how about the last time you felt sad, scared, or upset? Your eyes got a message from your brain to make you cry, and the lachrymal glands made many, many tears.

4. C. Interpretation of Dreams of eyes

  • Dreams of eyes reveal dreamer’s attitude to and understanding of the world
  • Clear, strong eyes = good insight, clear perception
  • Eyes with little or no vision= inability to make a sense of the world
  • Warm or smiling eyes = inner peace, contentment
  • Worried or concerned eyes = isolation
  • Cloudy eyes = financial problems
  • Injured or diseased eyes = defamation
  • Eyebrows = dignity, honor
  • Hair shedding off from eyebrows = worried about status
  • Eyelashes = secrets or secretive pursuits
  • Wide and open eyes = excitement
  • Narrow eyes = deceit or cheating
  • Darker eyes = emotional disappointments

5. A. Homoeopathic perspectives
The holistic nature of homoeopathy ‘sees’ no boundary to incorporate the pearls of knowledge and significance from the universe into its domain which constitutes to make the concept of totality more meaningful. Let us illustrate ‘revealing through the eyes’ with homoeopathic remedies.

We have a host of remedies for disappointed love. The chief ones are Nat-mur, Acid-phos, Aur-met etc. In Nat-mur eyes appear wet with tears. It is as if all disappointment and sadness has been locked in the eyes. You open up the mind in the interview and you may note wet eyes but it is not heavy trickling down. The patient tries to control, he can’t cry (rubric: crying, difficult). Brooding as a triggering factor causes the eyes to be wetly. Nat-mur has ailments from suppressed tears also. The eyes of Nat-mur project a combination of love-sickness, anger, sadness and a defeated, hurt feeling.

Acid-phos has profound grief and consequent indifference. He develops apathy and emotional numbness. Prolonged chagrin exhausts the system and this is reflected in the eyes in 3 ways: eyes become lusterless, staring and sunken. He answers reluctantly, slowly and shortly. While answering there is minimal or no eye contact. The eyes show the utter feelings of despair and grief.

Aur-met has the emotional causative modalities of grief, anger, guilt, disappointed love etc. There is more gaze avoidance due to guilty feelings. I remember a case of ulcerative colitis where a patient spoke with me with hands on forehead, looking down and closing the eyes throughout the interview. Also remember Aurum met for violent anger where eyes become red and dilated. In a milestone movie of Sholay, Sanjivkumar vividly depicts the state of the Aurum met eyes. Eyes of Aurum met reveal forsakenness, hostility, guilt and despair.

Calcareas, Barytas, Kalis, Silicates, Lithiums etc. keep minimal eye contact out of shyness. Guilty conscience, however, refrains one from keeping eye contact. I remember during my childhood I ate 4 laddus when I was hungry. My father brought it from the temple to distribute to all family members. After realizing my mistake I had no courage to look at anybody.

No homoeopath can ever afford to overlook Pulsatilla eyes. It’s like a tank of tears. You turn the valve on and the stream of tears starts flowing. Pulsatilla can hardly narrate her symptoms without weeping. Pulsatilla eyes give a message that she is in need of sympathy and her watering eyes definitely takes it from you. Lachesis sees through and through. It has penetrating eyes, angry and passionate eyes, wild and unsteady eyes and eyes full with envy and jealousy-green eyes. I remember a case of 13 years old boy who wanted to take revenge against the murderer of his father. When his father’s issue came up in the interview, his eyes turned fierce. Lachesis also exhibits sensual eyes and they could be torturing to the others. The eyes of Lachesis are so powerful that it has the ability to infect others. Mischievous eyes of Tarentula are spotted easily esp. in pediatric prescribing. The tinge of smile on the face coupled with foxiness is recognizable to an astute observer.

I recall a schizophrenic with a typical stare. She was absorbed in her state. I desperately tried for totality but nothing came out and I prescribed Helleborus nigra with a good response. A young lady with fissure-in-ano was prescribed Lachesis successfully as she blinked innumerable times during interview and the prime cause of blinking was suspiciousness coupled with egoism.

While giving a workshop outside India, I was confronted with a case in a group. I interviewed a lady for 2 hours and she didn’t look at me at all. No eye contact for two hours! Amazing. This gave me the theme of ‘disconnected.’ Her life situation confirmed the theme. Non-aligned in the family she was, with a strong humiliated feeling and extreme hostility against husband, she was barking against husband in a filthy language. She was a victim of cancer which represents the theme of disconnectedness. I fished out Lyssin which considerably helped her. In the live subsequent follow-up in the workshop, the patient spoke with me with a good eye-contact. The language of the eyes gave me the central connecting thread running at disease process level, emotional level, life situation level and at system level.

Who can forget the eyes of Phosphorus? Catherine Coulter describes this well, “This sparkling element captures the attention, and the Phosphorus individual has a similar eye-catching appeal; he attracts by his looks and manner. Particularly arresting are the eyes: shining with a soft, luminous quality that draws another closer or with a captivating brightness, they are emblematic of the whole person.” Carcinocin eyes reveal innocence, truth and diligence coupled with longing for true love and affection. The responsive eye contact eases a physician who can be sure that the patient is cooperative. There is no malice in the eyes and eyes are full with sympathy and affection.  I close off your eyes, my readers, from this article, with the message of every patient ‘look me in the eyes…

Is there anything eyes don’t reveal?

References:
1. The healing power of Illness: Thorwald dethlefsen
2. Nature and Human Personality Homoeopathic archetypes: Catherine Coulter
3. A Select Homoeopathic Materia Medica: P.I. Tarkas & Ajit Kulkarni
4. Center of Nonverbal Studies: David Givens
5. Body Language: Allan Pease
6. Nonverbal consciousness and Homoeopathy, A thesis: Ajit Kulkarni
7. Communication via eye and face in Indian contexts: M. S. Thirumalai

Stress and Homoeopathy

Dr  Ajit Kulkarni 

“It is important that a traffic sign’s meaning be understood at first glance.” – D.Samoilov & V.Yudin

INTRODUCTION
The word “stress” is a general term denoting different meanings for different individuals. It is the ‘spice’ of life for some, while to others it is a scourge to be avoided at all costs. What is stressful to one person may be a source of pleasure for another. It is immaterial whether the stress producing factor or stressor is pleasant or unpleasant.

Stress results from the interaction between a person and his environment. Individual perceptions of and attitude towards stress have an important bearing from causal and management point of view. The effect of stress may not be the same on the same person at various stages of life, nor are the perception and interpretation of stress alike in people of different backgrounds. To illustrate: Thunder and lightening may be a frightening experience for a child, but a farmer will welcome and enjoy these harbingers of rain for his crops.

Stress, Constraint and Demand
Stress is ubiquitous. It is always with us. We all constantly experience stress, given the complexity of life. Very few are conscious of stress. Very few perceive the genesis of stress and very few have the capacity to overcome stress. Stress is essentially a response to demands, and this response is nonspecific in nature. Every demand made on the body is unique, that is, specific. Physical factors like heat, cold, exertion produce their specific responses. In stress more demand is expected for the sake of homeostasis.

The stressors increase the demand for readjustment, for performance of adaptive functions which re-establish harmony. The rise in demands is independent of the specific activity that causes the increase. In that sense, the response is non-specific. In reality, it is a person’s own response to stressors. This response demands extra energy and one has to pay a price for the expenditure of energy!

From organizational point of view, “Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.” The constraints prevent him from doing what he desires, and demand refers to the loss of something desired. Two conditions are necessary for the potential stress to become actual stress. There must be uncertainty over the outcome and the outcome must be important.

Stress in itself is neither good nor bad. It is a mechanism built into our organism, not for the purpose of making us sick but to enable us to respond more effectively to challenges. Stress is not what happens but how a person reacts to what happens.

Stress Concepts Vis-a–Vis Homoeopathic Concepts
Homoeopathy, an out and out rational therapeutical system with its holistic, integrated, multi-disciplinary, totalistic view approaches the subject of stress in a convincing rational way. The subject of stress as studied by several research investigators amply substantiates the basic concepts of homoeopathy.

1. “The first thing one should bear in mind about stress is that a variety of dissimilar situations are capable of producing stress; and hence that no single one can, in itself, be pinpointed as the cause of the reaction as such”.

That the cause of the disease is multi-factorial and that the disease is not caused by a single factor is the very basis of homoeopathic philosophy. Homoeopathy believes that every disease is general and no disease is local although it may have local manifestations. The very concept of totality behoves the causal considerations through all angles possible. The rubric” Ailments From” has the strategy of studying the clusters. The aetiological perspective is studied in homoeopathy in depth. However, it is not only the aetiological factor in the form of a stressor, which is studied in homoeopathy, but also the unique reaction rendered by an individual towards the stress.

2. “The ‘stressful’ state is not merely a psycho-physiological reaction to stressors but an ‘integrated’ parameter of psychic and somatic activity.”

Homoeopathy firmly believes in ‘integrated’ thinking. While taking into account the physio-pathological changes occurring as a reaction to stress, it seeks to see the ‘man’ behind sickness. It doesn’t see the sickness only at physio-pathological level.

3. “The activity that develops in the course of internal and external environmental stressors is highly ‘individualistic.’

It is precisely here that homoeopathic way of thinking gets corroborated, as the strategy is to plan the treatment modality that specifically caters to the needs of the sick individual. The central tenet of prescribing i.e. individualization focuses on ‘individualistic’ response. It focuses on the study how every individual is different from all other individuals in the world.

4. “The stress has a ‘dynamic’ influence on man’s activity.”

The sources of stress are all around us. We can categorize stress broadly into two types – predictable and unpredictable. The first category includes those events that affect our lives over a period of time, e.g. the birth of a child is a predictable stressor. On the other hand, some of life’s more serious stressors arrive entirely unpredictably, or we may fail to predict them, e.g. the sudden death of a newborn baby. Unpredictable stressors present greater challenges, they put a load and they demand more mobilization of resources for the sake of re-adjustment.

Predictable and unpredictable stressors can be physical or psychological and the areas through which stressors can put up demands are protean, but they have one thing in common, that is, individualistic response of dynamic type. Homoeopathy expounds the concept of dynamism both at the causal and reflective planes.

5. “The concept of ‘stress’ and ‘personality’ are usually considered as quite separate, but this is a grievous error.”

This statement by H.J. Eysenck justifies the concept of treating a patient in totality. The stress and personality are inseparable just as matter and energy. The very notion of stress cannot be understood without the specification of the particular organism involved in the stressful situation. This specification experienced by an individual in the form of strain is important, as the stress acts only as a stimulus. It counts, hence, whether an individual has produced strain out of stimulus of stress.

The concept of totality in homoeopathy posits the pattern of indivisibility where the cause and effects are merged together. The dis-ease, the dis-stress is inseparably linked to personality in homoeopathic thinking.

6. “The relationship between stress and strain can only be understood in terms of a system of individual differences.”

The process of discrimination as followed in homoeopathic clinical practice for the purpose of arriving at similimum through individual differences corroborates the above view. One has to understand the finer shades of personality both at the sick individual and materia medica level to understand the problem, to resolve the problem and to select an appropriate homoeopathic remedy.

7. “The structural patterns of personality, its psychological determinants, the individual’s resistibility and the genetic information are the major factors that determine how to cope with stress.”

The individual is all-important: for a homoeopathic physician. He needs to go: right round the individual in order to know him. The science of homoeopathy demands perceiving the individual as he is !

To understand a patient as a PERSON, through his psyche and soma, through evolution, through (stressful) life experiences, through multiple layers of dispositions, temperamental traits and body gestures, through all ramifications, focusing on unique individualistic pattern, is the centrality of homoeopathic approach.

8. “Disease is not mere surrender to attack but also fight for health; unless there is fight there is no disease.”
Han Selye’s statement quoted from “The stress of life”is vindication of holistic health concept forwarded by homoeopathy where disease is regarded as an adaptive effort on the part of the organism through which it expresses itself. Disease is not regarded as an enemy but as a defense posture endeavored by the system in favor of health, to maintain the equilibrium, peace – within and without.

Incidentally I take the opportunity to express comments on Han Selye’s theory of GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome) by Edward Whitmont.

Whitmont writes, “Selye considers illness GAS to an intruding ‘noxious agent’. This syndrome consists of the three stages of alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion.”

“While explaining gross invasive disorders such as infections, strain and even emotional upsets, Selye’s stress theory fails to explain ‘spontaneous’ disorders arising in the absence of any apparent overstress. (Selye is aware that a certain amount of stress is unavoidable). What then is the origin of such spontaneously arising endogenous illness? Under what circumstances does stress lead to illness, and in what form does it constitute a ’normal’ even indispensable aspect of life’s tension? ”

The trend is psychology today is to look at the positive aspect of stress, called ‘eustress.’ During the follow-up of a case with homoeopathic treatment, it is important for a homoeopathic physician to see how far the treatment is helping the patients to mobilize their resources for adjustment to the external and internal environment.

To recapitulate: The philosophical and practical implications which flow from the recent research findings on stress and its management seem to have identical dimensions with the holistic concepts of homoeopathy.

Homoeopathic Materia Medica through the Perspectives of Stress:
Hahnemann contributed human pharmacology and opened a new vista of understanding the drug effects at the human level. The exploration of the human mind yielded a wider database. The variable emotional feelings (psycho-pharmacology), intellectual aberrations, somatic semeiology and also symptoms at the spirit level were produced, thus synchronizing mind, body and spirit. Through the proving methodology,

Hahnemann brought the illness at the forefront of our existence, at the humanistic experiential level. Could the potential action of a remedy be regarded as a stressor for a prover who gives variable expressions as a result of altered state of susceptibility? These expressions, if intertwoven logically, form a synthetic whole to develop the conceptual image of a remedy where stressors, stress, strain and consequent expressions are explained rationally.

To apply the homoeopathic materia medica in its full potentiality, the following points can be thought of.

1.The Stressors: Its true nature; type; its full information from genesis point of view. In other words, O.D.P. i.e. origin, duration and progress.

2. The Stress: Its true nature; how an individual has reacted to the stressors, what are the deviations and at what level; the aptitudes and attitudes of the individual involved; individual’s temperamental / personality traits, dispositional characters / mental state-original and modified.

3. Resources: Physical /psychological, as well as familial, financial, inter-personal etc. i.e. internal and external. The hereditary stock will define the miasmatic (over) tone. In other words assessment of capabilities; at the physical level – physical strength /stamina / immunological status etc., at the mental level – will /drive /motivation etc.

4. Strain: Individual’s state as a whole; unique in its own way as a result of stress. This trinity – stressors, stress, resources – is responsible for strain and the strain gives rise to deviations at mental and physical level. Stressors, stress, resources and strain – these four lead a homoeopathic physician to ‘Problem Definition’. Unless problem is understood in its depth and extent, application of materia medica will jeopardize both the patient and the physician.

5. Deviations: Stressors —–Stress —-Strain influx brings on to the surface the latent / hidden dispositions or intensifies them to make them more potentially threatening or damaging. The field of expressions in toto should be elicited from location, sensation, modalities and concomitant point of view, as also from body language, dreams, delusions etc.

6. Core / Essence / Kernel / Nucleus / Spirit / Heart / Soul: All the components in the data as dealt with earlier should be processed from generalization method, which will reflect deeper insight to harmonize tune, rhythm and music from correspondence point of view for selection of appropriate homoeopathic remedy.

Applying homoeopathic remedies in stress
Stress can develop through various sources and we can categorize our remedies accordingly. Only important remedies are listed.

Work

Ammonium group
Arg-nit
Ars.alb
Aurum. group
Bryonia
Calc-fluor
Carbon group
Carcinocinum
Conium
Kali – ph
Lycopodium
Nux-vomica
Ophidia group
Silicea
Tuberculinum

 Family

Acid-fluor
Anacardium
Calc group
Chamomilla
Coffea cruda
Kali group
Natrum group
Paladium
Acid-phos
Platinum
Pulsatilla
Sepia
Staphisagria
Thuja

 Society

Acid-nit
Alumina
Ambra grisea
Anacardium
Baryta group
Hepar sulph
Hura
Hyoscyamus
Magnesium group
Medorrhinum
Merc sol
Natrum-carb
Phosphorus
Stramonium
Syphilinum

`Stress’ as reflected in some prominent remedies is presented succinctly.
Nux., the most workaholic of our materia medica, develops the stress out of his ambitious nature and resorts to stimulants that land him more in trouble; the vicious cycle is continued. Nux. can’t constraint himself from the stress and abrases and abuses others being short- fused. His violent anger produces stress in all – the boss, the subordinates and the family members.

Carc. is also workaholic. It has stress from two dispositions-performance and conscientiousness. He wants to do the work perfectly and ideally. The rigid moral values have to be maintained; they are not to be compromised. The sensitive, soft, tender mind gets affected soon, producing guilty feelings if mistakes are done by him. The responsibilities produce stress, the commitments developed out of duty-bound nature motivate for work. Being a gentleman, he can’t hurt others, he can’t square a person. He burns inside due to strain. Rejection, deprivation of love, reproaches, struggles; prolonged suppressions make him vulnerable to produce stress. Prolonged active stress leads to cancer like diseases. Unpredictable stress comes from humiliation, sexual abuse etc.

Aurum represents high sense of duty, which compels him to work as an unstoppable machine `Robot’. He wants to be the best. He thinks that he has neglected his duty. This leads to anxiety of conscience—-self-reproach—-worthless feeling—- disgust of life ——-suicidal disposition. His violent anger stresses the concerned and suicide done secretively makes the life of others stressful.

Stressors for Arg-nit are blocked exits (crowds, closed places, bridges, tunnels, high places, aero planes, precipice etc.) or stressful events where he can’t find a way out. A ‘trapped’ person. Remains in tenseness. The hurried behavior coupled with anxiety leads to confusion and consequent mistakes. Impulsive, eccentric, whimsical nature and hidden irrational motives cause stress in others. His I.B.S. is stressful for his wife who doesn’t understand what to cook.

‘Fragile’ ego is the cause of stress in Silicea. He can’t endure for long –neither the physical stress nor the mental one. He breaks down and goes into neurosis. Conscience with lack of grit play a major role in development of stress in Silicea. He is a person of ‘caliber without fiber’. Routinism, dependency, conservatism, and lack of determination make him defensive and withdrawing and he can’t capitalize; hence remain stressed.

Lachesis is indeed a stressor for everyone in work area, in family or in society. His vigor coupled with jealousy, vindictiveness, revengefulness and possessiveness keep ‘nerves on edge’. Worse: whatever restricts or enforces. Better: whatever detents, expands, radiates, stimulates or releases. Lach. releases his stress through conversation (loquacity), creative ventilation, through seminal emissions.

Arsenic drives everyone in all fields. His anxiety, domineering attitude and restlessness make others to dance as per his dictation. Insecurity inside drives him to seek security outside. Ars. is always strained. A fire brigade indeed!

Syph is a stressor nosode. He is pervert, unstrung, hooligan, cruel, and liar. He makes things more complex and produces stress. He is an exploiter, a schemer in work area, but want of idealism and perversion ruin the business. He is anti-social and creates threatening situations.

The examples could be extended but we delimit ourselves in view of space.

Hahnemann expected higher purpose of life. Homoeopathy assists the vital economy to achieve the pleasant stress of fulfillment, eustress, without the harmful consequences of damaging stress, distress. Stress is a perpetual phenomenon, no one can abolish it. One has to master it, and homoeopathy, with its holistic healing, assists in mastering it! Definition of cure will be incomplete without harmony, without peace and without self-satisfying creativity!

References:

1. Stress – an owner’s manual – Arthur Rowshan
2. Stress-Research -Edited by Cary L. Cooper
3. Alchemy of healing – E.C. Whitmont
4. The Stress of Life – Han Selye
5. Perceiving-1 – Dr. M. L .Dhawale (I.C.R. Publication)
6. A Select Homoeopathic. Materia Medica part I & II– Dr. P.I. Tarkas & Dr. Ajit
Kulkarni
7. Kali Family and Its Relations – Dr. Ajit Kulkarni

Dr  Ajit Kulkarni  M.D. (Hom.)
Director, Homoeopathic
Research Institute, 38, Bhawani Peth, Satara
Ph.(02162)284286/234842
Email : dr_ajitkulkarni@rediffmail.com

patients4

Mental Disease & Mental Symptoms in Homoeopathy

patients4Dr S G Biju
Mental Diseases and Mental Symptoms are usually misinterpreted by Homoeopaths. Those symptoms of Mental Disease are not Mental Symptoms. They are the symptoms of a disease. Those symptoms in the mental level that have no connection with the physical disorders are mental symptoms. Mental symptoms and mental characteristics are also different. So we can have the following 3 categories of mental strategies.

1. Mental Symptoms of Mental Disease
2. Mental Symptoms that have no relationship with corporeal Disease.
3. Mental Characteristics (that individualize the patient).

Out of the aforesaid 3 categories Mental Characteristics are having a higher rank of Importance. Mental Characteristics will guide a Homoeopath to the exact similimum or constitutional remedy in Mental Disease, Corporeal Disease and even in psycho-somatic disorders.

Mental Symptoms of Mental Diseases

It is of least value in the selection of a remedy because it is a disease symptom only. It is just like the step ladder fever of typhoid or flapping of ala nasa of pneumonia.

Eg: Delusions, Hallucinations, Suspiciousness etc. are the symptoms of schizophrenia. So they have little or no importance in selecting the remedy in cases of schizophrenia.

HYOSCYAMUS, LACH, STRAM etc will be the similimum if we worked out the cases with the said symptoms. Dr.Samuel Hahnemann Discussed abut treatment of Mental Diseases in Aphorism – 210 to 230
He classified Mental Diseases in to two
Mental Disease of Corporeal origin.
Mental Disease of non-corporeal origin.

In the present era mental diseases of corporeal origin are very rare. Non corporeal mental diseases are common and corporeal disease of mental origin is the commonest form of clinical presentation.

According to psychiatric terminology Non corporeal Mental diseases can be classified under the following headings.
1. Neurosis
2. Psychosis
3. Behavioral Abnormalities
4. Alcoholism & Drug dependency.

Hahnemann said that mental diseases are psoric in origin chronic in nature, shall be treated with antipsoric remedies. As we know there is no existence of a single miasm in any human being. Each Person has a miasmatic combination with a particular ratio. Each disease shall be interpreted in terms of miasmatic combination with a particular ratio. One thing is crystal clear. One miasm will be prominent in each and every one and in each and every disease. This miasmatic ratio of person shall be changed according to the following factors.
1. Age – As age advances virulent miasms achieve an upper hand (If not treated prominently)
2. Family History of Disease – Change of ratio is depending up on the miasmatic ratio of paternal and maternal tree.
3. External influences – Environment and life style shall contribute an advancement of miasmatic growth.
4. Treatment taken: Homoeopathic, Ayurvedic, allopathic or any other system of medicine shall make changes in miasmatic ratio either in favor or against virulent Miasms

The prominent miasm under each type of mental disease shall be interpreted as follows.

1. Neurosis – Psoric Prominent (Except OCN)
2. Psychosis – Sycosis
3. Behavioral Abnormalities – Tubercular
4. Alcoholism & Drug Dependency – Syphilitic

Among these cases most difficult to treat and cure is Psycosis – (Sycosis). Following disorders come under Psycosis and Sycosis Prominent Miasmatic ratio.

1. Maniac Depressive Psycosis (unipolar & Bipolar)
2. Schizophrenia
3. Paranoia
4. OCN (Obsessive Compulsive Neurosis)

Pathological Rubrics
for the aforesaid types of mental diseases are as follows.
MIND – MANIA Alternating with depression (Bipolar)
MIND – EUPHORIA – Alternating with Sadness (Bipolar)
MIND – SADNESS
MIND – Schizophrenia
MIND – Thoughts Persistent

Usual Symptamatology of the said diseases are as follows.
1. Suspiciousness
2. Auditory hallucinations
3. Visual hallucinations
4. Delusions
5. Fear of being attacked
6. Suicidal Disposition

Those practitioners who are not well versed with mental symptoms/mental disease may get exhilarated by hearing mental symptoms of mental diseases. Mental symptoms may come like a land slide.. Those who know the symptamatology of mental diseases will recognize the mental symptoms of the mental disease as disease symptoms and they will withstand their temptation to jump in to a remedy and will restrain themselves from considering such a symptom for selection of a remedy. In cases of Psychosis (sycosis) the physician should consider symptoms he collected from the following sectors.

1. Perspiration
2. Menstruation
3. Sleep pattern
4. Family History of Corporeal Diseases
5. Food & Drinks, Desire/Aversion, Aggravation/Amelioration.
6. Qualified mental Generals (Mental Symptoms associated with a physical General eg: Irritability Before menstruation: FOLLICULINUM, Aur Sulp, Sepia )
7. Mental Ailments from (Where family history of Mental Disease is absent)

Cases with family history of Psychiatric Disorders should be treated with Nosodes preferably MEDORRHINUM. DNA in high potency is also found effective.

If at all a case of Psychosis is declared cured it is better to follow up the case with a nosode to prevent the recurrence.

Neurosis should be treated and cured with antipsoric remedies. As an intercurrent remedy SULPHUR should be given to all neurosis cases except OCN.

Behavioral Abnormalities: It is treatable and curable with Homoeopathic potencies. The multitude of symptamatology of Behavioral abnormalities should not be listed under disease symptoms as it individualizes the patient. Behavior and character define a person. So the sympamatology of Behavioral abnormalities are Individualizing characteristic symptoms of the patient. All cured cases of behavioral abnormalities should be followed by a dose of TUBERCULINUM in high potencies to prevent the advancement of virulent Miasms.

Alcoholism & Drug Dependency: Treatment of after effects of alcoholism and drug dependency is an easy job as it is usually based on pathological symptoms of advanced pathology. Alcoholism & Drug dependency it self is an advanced syphilitic miasm. So such cases should be treated with antisyphilitic remedies in low potencies. To save the alcoholics from his habit physician should create an interest for withdrawal from alcohol and drug before starting treatment. To prevent the temptation to be addicted to drug such cases should be followed with a dose of SYPHILINUM in very high potencies.

Mental Symptoms

Mental Symptoms and mental disease are entirely different entities. Mental Symptoms should define the constitution of the patient. It should be a patient symptom or a person symptom. For clinical purpose mental symptoms may be divided in to 3.

1. Person Mental Symptoms
2. Patient Mental Symptoms
3. Qualified Mental Symptoms.

Qualified Mental Generals are discussed already. While selecting a qualified mental General for repertorisation it should be considered with high intensity. If a mental symptom is qualified with a physical general that can be considered with 3 mark intensity. Never give less than 2 intensity for a qualified mental General.
Eg: Perspiration during anxiety – ACID PHOS, ACID FLOUR, SEP.

Person Mental Symptoms & Patient Mental symptoms are confusing statements for one who heard these terms first time in his life. If we are practicing it regularly it is quiet interesting.
Mental Symptoms that are considered along with the physical symptoms for fulfilling the concept of totality but is to be removed by the treatment are Patient Mental Symptoms. Those Mental Symptoms individualize the patient but not to be removed by treatment are Person Mental Symptoms.

Are You Confused Again?
Let us see the said Mental Symptoms through certain examples.
If patient is doubtful about recovery while curing his disease the doubtfulness about recovery should also be removed by selecting a remedy from the following list that can cover his physical particulars too.
ARS, Ign, Stann Met, Lycopodium, Leptandra

But if patient is hopeful about recovery if at all we are selecting SANGUNARIA on the basis of that symptom, his hopefulness will persist.
If patient is in despair about recovery selecting, CALC, COLOCYNT, CAMPHOR or SYPHILINUM will bring hope in to the mind of patient along with curing the physical disease.

Person Mental Symptoms are a group of Never Changing Symptoms that can individualize the case.
Patient symptoms are the symptoms that can be and should be changed with a properly selected Remedy.
Desire for creative activity is a person symptom, by selecting COFFEA or PHOS one can cure the disease of such a person but can’t remove the creativity.

Benevolence is a quality of a person that guides the physician for selection of a curative remedy for him like CARCINOCIN or NAT CARB. But CARC or NAT- C can only cure his disease not able to remove the benevolence in him.

HG (Hand Gestures) is one of the major person symptoms to be observed by the physician. Positive mannerisms, gestures and personal qualities in the mental level will lead the physician to an all time effective curative remedy and that should be the area to be concentrated by those who are playing with mental symptoms.

Dr.S.G.Biju
Web Site: www.drbijuonline.com
Email : drbijugnair@sify.com

reading4

How to read body language

reading4If the eyes are the windows of the soul, then the body is the mirror of our feelings.  If we are feeling great it shows in how we hold and use our  body.  Conversely, if we look at someone else’s body we can often tell how  they are feeling by the signals their body is giving.

So when it comes to dating, using/reading body language signals is a great  tool. You can observe this by watching a couple flirting with each other.

In case you don’t think learning how to read and use body language is not important, here are some statistics about the messages we receive from  someone we meet.

  • 7% of the information we receive is from what they actually say.
  • 38% of information we receive is from the tone, inflection and speed of their voice.
  • A staggering 55% of the information we receive is from their body language.

These non-verbal signals will help you in dealing with the person but stay focussed on what the person is saying.  If you focus too much on their body  language signals, you and/or the other person may feel uncomfortable.

It is useful to be able to read people’s body language, but it is equally useful  to learn how to get your body to send the right signals and eliminate the  wrong signals.    See below for some body language signals.

Be warned: body language is very much open to interpretation. Many   signals have different meanings depending on the person/situation. Keep this  mind when you assess a body language signal.

Note: Look for 3 or 4 signals that convey a similar message or the one-   off inconsistent signal.  Also, consciously practise reading/doing some of   the signals as much as you can.  Learning, as you practise, what works   and what doesn’t work for you will help you gain confidence to use body  language techniques consciously.

Download the book : www.similima.com/pdf/read-body-language.pdf

Masters of Body Language

Dr. Gabriel and Nili Raam
When Negotiating, Look For  Nonverbal Cues

Your mother probably taught you that it’s rude to stare. But when you negotiate a business deal, close observation of your opponent makes sense.

By inspecting your opponent’s every physical move, you can often de termine  whether he or she is holding something back or not telling the truth.

The key is not to stare so much that you make your opponent uncomfortable, but to  be aware of his or her movements through casual glances and friendly eye contact. It will almost certainly give you an edge.

What should you look for?
Experts who study body language suggest a two -step process. First, identify a subject’s mannerisms during the initial, friendly stages of a discussion. As the negotiation unfolds, see whether your opponent suddenly adopts  different behavior. “You have to watch people a long time to establish what their  baseline mode is,” said David Hayano, author of “Poker Faces.” “Once you know  how they normally behave, you may be able to tell when they start to put on an act.”

Hayano is a retired professor of anthropology at California State University at  Northridge, who has analyzed the body language of poker players, and he’s found  that the rapport-building stage is a valuable time to study your opponent. Why?

Because that’s when you get to know someone’s “natural” behavior. “If you are dealing with a very talkative executive who all of a sudden gets meek during the  heat of the negotiation, then something strange is going on,” he said. It may be a  clue that your opponent is hiding something; other clues are exaggerated  movements or excessive enthusiasm.

A range of nonverbal clues may serve as red flags during a negotiation. Experts  suggest paying special attention to a person’s hands and face. “There are many  revealing body signals that may indicate a hidden agenda,” said Donald Moine, an organizational psychologist at the Association for Human Achievement in Rolling Hills Estates, Calif.

Download : www.similima.com/pdf/negotiating-non-verbal.pdf

Need For Studying Pathology in Homeopathy

Dr  R  Santhana Pandian, B.Sc., D.M.S., M.B.S.
Visiting Professor-Vinayaga Mission Homeopathic Medical College, Salem.
Vinayaka Mission University

Homoeopathy is based on the law of Similars. A similar drug should possess the property of similar manifestations like the disease with which the patient is suffering from. Disease is studied as symptoms.

A symptom is having
1. Location    –    Anatomy
2. Sensation – Derangement of physiology i.e. pathology.  Derangement of anatomical structure.  Apart from these..
3. Abnormal functions – manifest as abnormal symptoms and structural changes. While studying a drug, it is said to be pathogenesis. A drug is studied in the following headlines, as we study a case.  (Location, sensation, modality and concomitants).

A drug produces pathogenesis i.e. the effect of pathological manifestations caused by the drug.

Hence the drug should be capable of producing similar pathological manifestations as found in the patient. Hence the homeopath should know the pathology of the particular patient as special pathology. While studying the case cured by homeopathic drug it is understood that it has cured the pathological changes.  These pathological changes cured by the drugs are included in the drug pathogenesis in due course of time.

This is abundantly present in the drug pictures of the Materia Medicas developed in course of time since the inception of Materia Medica Pura.

How many confine themselves with the Materia Medica Pura alone? Why?
Clinical provings in due course of time enriched the Materia Medica containing the special pathological changes.  Cured by these drugs as part and parcel of the homeopathic drug manifestation.  This is clinical evolution of the Materia Medica and repertory.  The days are not far away to include the X Ray findings, Scan findings cured in the Materia Medica.

Hence a student of homeopathy should be a master of pathology, special pathology for the understanding of the same in the patient to find out the similimum.

Pathology in homeopathy
Pathology deals with causes, effects and changes in the living entity.  Hahnemann explained the causes as partly physical and partly psychical.  All the causes whether living or nonliving as physical entities are well known in the present world.  Physical agencies, chemicals, living agencies as microbes, parasites etc. When Hahneman expressed that the causes are partly physical & psychical, why did he say that the diseases of man are not caused by any substance any agridity, that is to say any disease matter?

Everybody knows now about psychromatic diseases.

The allopaths of this time were using purgatives; bloodletting was rampant and they said that the discharges, excessive blood as the cause of the disease.  Hahnemann refuted the same scientifically.  Further when homeopathic medicines were used he found that no diarrhea or any discharge happened during the cure.  So he refuted this false theory and he found that there is no such matter.  As such he said that the derangement is dynamic one.

Knowledge of the disease is not more symptoms alone but the causes. Thus Hahnemann says in paragraph 5 “Attention to exiting and fundamental causes and other circumstances as help to cure”.  The old pathologists of his time considered that the evacuations and discharges as the disease.  Hahnemann condemned that as blindness of the old pathology.

We can say that Hahnemann was the founder of modern pathology. He stated the causes scientifically and studied the effects as symptoms in non-surgical cases.  When he distinctly mentioned that in non-surgical diseases no matter has to be removed, he was very careful to understand where the disease tissues should be removed as in surgery.  Here lies the knowledge of disease both in surgical and non-surgical diseases. Hahnemann thus advocated surgery according to the nature of the disease.

During Hahnemann’s time the interior was invisible. So he considered the activities as vital operations in regard to sensations and functions.  Sensations and functions are physiology; when they deranged they denote pathology.

Page 51 Introduction-Para 14 Organon 6th edition Hahnemann says “these matters the true physician regards as actual symptoms of the disease”. This para is enough to say that the pathological changes and the products are the symptoms of the disease and to form the accurate portrait of it.  This is a great discovery.  The present day pathology, practice of medicine, clinical medicine are based on this discovery of Hahnemann.

Hahnemann did not accept anything that could not be demonstrated in Page 36 Introduction para 9 – He says,

a) Spiritual corporeal organism and it is a highly potentialised entity.
b) Sensational and functional vital changes are called as diseases.
c) The changes are produced by dynamic influences.

He puts several questions to the allopaths of his time? What?
In page 45 he says that the causes cannot be material.  This particular assertion was made by Hahnemann as the allopaths considered that some as Prima causa morbi.

Page 45 Introduction – Hahnemann says that the least foreign material substance is promptly ejected by the vital force as though it were a poison.  This knowledge is equal to the knowledge of present day inflammation chapters in pathology.  He says that the vital principle every where present in our body never rests until it is removed by pain, fever, suppuration, gangrene.

Page 46 Introduction, Hahnemann accepts that the application of material substance on the skin or to a wound has propagated disease by infection.  His open-mindedness to know about is well known from his question who can prove it?

His observations are correct according to Modern pathology for e.g. Page 46 Introduction, The more careful and prompt (syphilis) washing of the genital does not protect the system from infection with venereal chancroid disease.  The slightest breath of air emanating from the body of a person affected with Small pox will suffice to produce the horrible disease to a healthy child.  He wants to know, how does it occur in acute diseases as well as in chronic diseases?

Page 55 Introduction, he uses the term unreasoning life preserving power.  This very important term resembles the defensive mechanisms that the modern pathology ascribes as immediate hypersensitiveness in acute infectious diseases and delayed hypersensitiveness in chronic diseases.  He further asserts that these mechanisms depend on the organic laws of the body.  (The organic laws are studied in Physiology, Biophysics and in Bio-chemistry now a days).

Comments (my view) – All the pathological changes are the defensive mechanism of the living body.  You can see the various types of inflammations, degenerations, fibrotic changes hypertrophies, atropy, exudation, tumours, etc.  The defensive mechanism does not remain within the reasonable limitation and that itself becomes abnormal and gives troubles.  So Hahnemann used the term unreasoning life preserving power.

Page 55 Introduction – Hahnemann says “on all these efforts more or less of the affected parts are sacrificed and destroyed in order to save the rest”.

In page 56 Introduction he portrays the pathological (study this page) changes.  He includes the causes of Psora, syphilis, psychosis which tortured mankind which has groaned for hundreds and thousands of years due to these chronic miasms.  He says that, the vital force could not diminish not one of them in the slightest degree.

Hahnemann asserts that the internal operations cannot be perceived.  (Comment – The changes that occur in cells, tissues, organs could not be studied during Hahnemann’s time).

In page 65 Introduction, He says the vital force which of itself can only act according to the physical constitution of our organism.  (Comment – The physical constitution contains various tissues, organs, as such the changes n diseases vary for e.g. Liver tissue can regenerate when its pattern is left.  It can undergo fibrosis at the same time when the pattern is changed).

Psora is termed as atopy in modern medicine
Physical constitution is mostly genetic in origin but it can also be modified according to the environment.  Hahnemann was the first on to speak about the congenital corporeal constitution and circumstances, see para 81 Organon.  In modern pathology Psora is described as Atopy.  See atopic dermatitits in text books of medicine.  Aetiology – Inheritance, early environment acts as effecting cause.  There is instability of the autonomic nervous system of unexplained mechanism without obvious cause or as a result of emotional tension.  Asthma, vasomotor rhinitis and intense itching develops.  Electro encephalographic tracings are abnormal.  Very high serum immuno globulin level occurs in atopic dermatitis with or without asthma or vasomotor rhinitis.

The presence regain is also a feature of atopy.  Atopic dermatitis is more of a genetic association than a direct cause and effect link.  Atopic individuals are often above over intelligence but are excitable and prone to feeling of insecurity.  There may be an unsatisfactory relationship with their parents particularly with the mother.  Threat to security may coincide with exacerbations at times of detachment from parents, change of school, change of occupations, marriage.  Other factors include changes of temperature or of humidity, airborne, ingested or injected allergens, contact with rough clothing’s, drugs and infections, the atopic individual reacts to every day stimuli with a mechanism designed for use n emergencies,  thus pollens dust may cause asthma, vasomotor rhinitis and possible atopic dermatitis.

Staphylococccal infections when occur, the staphyloderma may be extensive and severe particularly in patients receiving systemic treatment with cortico steroids.  Virus infection with herpes simplex or vacccinia is a serious complication.  A generalized eruption may result.  It may be fatal in infancy.

Atopic dermatitis may start as early as the second month as a papulo vesicular and eythematous squamous condition involving parts easily rubbed by the infant – the face, neck, antecubital regions, wrists, hands, popliteal spaces, calves, ankles, and feet.  The trunk may escape or it may show a patchy ill-defined faintly pink popular and scaly eruptions, the lesions may be exudative, infected.  The condition usually becomes milder when the child starts to walk and to do things for itself.

Scratching may cease for several years but there is usually a recurrence at puberty when the condition localized more to the bends of the elbows and of the knees, the wrists, hands, the face and neck and sometimes the genito crural regions and the feet.  The severity may be less when adult life is reached but in some patients there is indefinite persistence and in others it may start in adult life.  Xeroderma is often present.

Treatment: whole patient with his characteristic personality and problems rather than the management of the skin condition itself.  This is the modern view.  Anybody having the knowledge of Psora would agree that Hahnemann was ahead of all the Modern pathologists.  Kindly note that Psora of Hahnemann and atopy of the present day pathologists are one and the same. 

Regarding syphilis lets us see what is said by Hahnemann.
Introduction to Organon page 42, he condemns the cauterization of chancre.  It is only a local lesion as an effect of syphilis.  By destroying the effect cause could not be removed.  After the infection has spread all over the chancre develops.  Hahnemann said that the internal derangement takes place.  The same thing is said by the pathologists of the present day and then only as a reaction primary, secondary, other lesions occur. So by mere cauterization of the chancre syphilis could not be cured.  The view of Hahnemann is perfect in consonance with that of Modern pathology.  Hahnemann says “the most careful washing of genitals does not protect the system from infection with venereal disease.

He says that the slightest breath of air emanating from the body of a person affected with small pox will suffice to produce this horrible disease in a healthy child. Comment – Now we say that, it is an air- borne infection.

By explaining syphilis and its manifestations Hahnemann becomes the founder of infectious granulomatous diseases of chronic nature.  Exactly he found out the nature of Gonorrhea s a chronic disease.  He distinctly separated the acute diseases and chronic diseases and there by his clinical acumen and the pathology behind them was well known to him.

He used the term Dynamic whenever he wanted to explain the invisibility of the processes. See page 97 Organon of medicine 6th edition.

In para 15 of 6th edition Hahnemann clearly explains that the vital force and the organism constitute a unity.  So any derangement of the organism constitutes disease – pathology.

Hahnemann was the first one to say that the morbific noxious influences do not posses the power of morbidly deranging the healthy man unconditionally- he speaks about the sufficient disposal and susceptibility.

Comment – at present day we study the same as the mode of infection, dose of infection, immunity etc.  Here Hahnemann’s forethought is well known as it is in Modern pathology.

Hahnemann was the first on who discovered the cholera vibrio.
See page 128 Richard Hachl.  The most striking infection took place and made astounding progress – whenever in the stuffy spaces of ships, filled as they are with musty aquaous vapours the cholera miasm found in element favourable to its over multiplication and throve to an enormously increased swarm of these infinitely small, invisible, living organisms which are so murderously hostile to human life and which most probably form the infectious matter of cholera.  These are the words and sentences of Hahnemann.

In page 411, Richrd Hahl in a book on Hahnemann: Hahnemann says “ I request that the different kinds of dropsy are not differentiated and the same kind of dropsy is always mentioned.  The diversion into leucoplogmatic and inflammatory is not sufficient”.  These are the writing of Hahnemann.

Thus Hahnemann is the Modern pathologist, Bacteriologist and a Diagnostician. As such pathology, bacteriology, parasitology are very important for the homeopathic practice.

While teaching materia medica the special pathology related to the pathogenesis should be taught. 

Some examples.

  1. Cattarrhal inflammation of the stomach – Abies canadenses. Uterine displacement
  2. Gastric ulcer                                           –        Abies nigra.
  3. Diabetic carbuncle, diabetic Mel,            –       Abroma Augusta
  4. Menstrual disorders                                 –        Abroma Radix
  5. Tubercular Pleurisy with effusion              –        Abrothnum
  6. Epilepsy                                                    –        Absinthium
  7. Haemoptysis                                             –        Acalypha Indica
  8. Rectal haemorrhage                                  –                  ”
  9. Cardiac Dropsy with albuminuria          –        Acetanildium
  10. Epithelial Cancer                                      –        Acetic Acid
  11. Hyper cholhydria                                     –        Acetic Acid
  12. Boils carbuncles                              –        Achyranthes aspera
  13. Rheumatoid arthiritis-small joints          –        Actaea spicata
  14. Congenital syphilis               – aethiops mecurialis mineralis
  15. Corneal ulcer                         –        aethiops anti monalis
  16. Neuralgia, Neuritis with spasm      –        Agaricus
  17. Angioneurotic Oedema                  –        Agaricus
  18. Gingivitis                                         –        Agave Americana
  19. Sprains & Strains                            –        Agnus Castus
  20. Adenoids                                          –        Agraphis Nutans
  21. Follicular Tonsillitis                       –  Ailawnthus Glandulosa
  22. Anaemia in females                        –        Aletris Farinosa
  23. Diabetes insipidus                          –        Alfalfa
  24. Frontal sinusitis                              –        Allium Cepa
  25. Pulmonary tuberculosis haemoptisis      –        Allium sativum
  26. Chronic herpes                                        –        Alnus
  27. Re -establishing physiological equilibrium after large drugging  – Aloes
  28. Diarrhea and Dysentery                           -Alstonia Scholaris
  29. Fibrotic indurations, tongue, rectum,   Uterus, glands     –        Alumen
  30. Epithelioma ulcers with induration        –        Alumen
  31. Paresis                                                       –        Alumina
  32. Chronic affections of brain, spine,
  33. Nerves – epilepsy, phlebitis      –        Alumina silicate
  34. Geriatrics   hearing impaired, cardiac
  35. Palpitation                                  –        AmbraGrisea
  36. Allergic conjunctivitis            –        Ambrosia
  37. Chronic bronchitis                  –        Ammoniacom dorema
  38. Gout, albuminuria                    –        Ammonium Benzoicum
  39. Aphonia                                           –       Ammon caust
  40. Syncope                                           –       Ammon caust
  41. Larygitis Bronchitis                    –    Ammon Iod.

These are certain examples from Boericke Materia Medica.  The same process from all the drugs in the materia medica will help a lot to study the relationship of materia medica pathology in clinical application.

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General Psychology for Postgraduate Students

Based on the CCH Syllabus
Hour-wise distribution of Topics(20 Hours)

1. Introduction
2. History of the development of psychology
3. Branches of Psychology
4. Schools of Psychology
5. Concept of Mind – Mesmer
6. Concept of Mind – Hypnosis
7. Sigmund Freud
8. Contemporary Schools of Psychology
9. Attention
10. Perception
11. Learning
12. Intelligence
13. Memory
14. Causes of Forgetting
15. Cognition, Ideation. Imagination
16. Emotion, Instinct & Sentiment
17. Conation” Drives & Motives
18. Behavior
19. Methods of studying Behavior
20. Relation between Body & Mind in Health & Disease

Introduction
Psychology originated in man’s curiosity about the nature of his activities and experience. The great thinkers believed in an invisible something in man as the cause of behavior and experience. This was name ‘psyche’, which means soul or mind. lit was in the year 1590 that Croukle used the term psychology, derived from two Greek words ‘psyche’ and “logos”. Logos means a talk. Thus psychology means talk about the soul. But in modem rimes psychology is defined in a different way.

Psychology is as old as civilization. Historically psychology is the outgrowth of philosophy. It was the philosophers who turned their attention to the nature of human mind. Till the beginning of 19th century, Psychology had developed as a branch of philosophy; but in an attempt to be more scientific psychology has now become an independent science. The formal launching of psychology as a separate science occurred when Wilhelm Woundt, the famous psychologist, opened the first psychological institute at the  university of Leipzig in Germany.

Definition of  Psychology
In ancient times psychology was defined as the science of soul, i.e. the nature and character of soul. Different answers were given, and all of them were vague, since it was difficult to say where the soul exists, or what exactly it is. In the absence of a clear and definite knowledge, it was unscientific to define psychology as the science of soul. .

Later psychology came to be defined as the science of Consciousness. (William J James). Psychology was to investigate our internal experience, i.e. Thoughts, sensation and feelings. In this sense, psychology deals with all aspects of man’s conscious life such as ‘ knowing, feeling and willing. This definition was also rejected on the ground that conscious experience is strictly private and purely subjective. All internal processes are not conscious; there are unconscious processes also in our mind. The occurrence of dreams, disorders of personality and hypnotism prove this. Our aim should be to study the whole mind, and not merely the conscious part alone.

Another definition is that Psychology is the science of Behavior. (J.B.Watson, thefounder of Behaviorist school of psychology). Behavior to Watson is purely a ‘Stimulus-Response’ affair. But according to modem psychology, behavior includes external behavior as well as internal experiences.

According to modern concept, psychology is the science of human behavior and experience. Psychology is often referred to as the biosocial science, Man is a biological and social organism. Social interaction is man’s one of the most obvious traits, because it is fundamental to human existence. Behavior alone can be observed and studied. Psychology studies the behavior of the individual throughout the span of his life. It studies all aspects of cognitive activities like perception, intelligence, memory and forgetting, emotional activities

Psychology is considered as a Science, because it is the systematic study of human experience and behavior. The term no longer refers only to the study of the external world, but also to methods used in obtaining and interpreting available data. Science is aimed at an increased understanding of man and his universe, as well as betterment of man. Science systematizes common sense knowledge, which is not accurate. Scientific knowledge on the other hand is precise, complete and reliable. Psychology is a science, because it uses scientific _ methods. Description, production and control are the three related stages in scientific procedure. By adopting scientific methods, psychology becomes an objective science, which aims at precision and validity.

Psychology as a science is empirical. It rests on experiment and observation, rather than opinion, argument or belief. . The advantage of experimental methods is repetition of experiments, control of conditions, verification results and measurement of results. But in -psychology, experimental method has some limitations due to the fact that human beings are the subjects of experiments. Psychologists also make use of descriptive approach, which includes naturalistic observation, use of surveys and clinical methods.

History of the development of Psychology
Psychology is the study of human nature.
History: 3 stages in the development of psychology.

1. Primitive mysticism

2. Branch of philosophy

3. Natural science

Primitive mysticism; – oldest concept
Originated in man’s consciousness to an inner spirit, a little man located somewhere in the body.
A man within a man – the soul imprisoned in the body. which regulates man’s nature, and behavior. In religions, the soul was recognized as a spiritual entity.

Branch of philosophy
Early Greek philosophers spoke of the psyche – the soul as the center of experience. The name psychology was then derived from the word psyche. Sometimes the word mind was used instead of soul. According to Plato mind was an assemblage of ideas. So psychology was referred to as the study of feeling and ideas.

Mind is a function of bodily processes,, Heart was supposed to activate all bodily processes and hence it was expressed that mind is located in the heart. Later Brain was explained as the activator of bodily functions, hence the seat of mind. Psychology was defined as the science of consciousness, i.e. whatever we are aware of. Unconscious experiences and facts of  behavior was not included in the definition of psychology. Later, philosophers continued to theorize about the nature of human experiences and behavior.

In 1690, the Englishman John Locke in his ‘Essay concerning Human Understanding’ put forth the idea that human knowledge is acquired during life, not inherited or based as ‘ innate ideas’. This is only partially true.

Many philosophers tried to explain the nature of mind and body relationship-
e.g. : Wilheim Leibiniz- Harmony between mind and body is predetermined by God.

Separate Natural Science
Psychology did not exist as a separate scientific discipline, until the end of 19th Century. Modem Psychology has its origin in Wilheim Wundt’s laboratory of experimental psychology established in Leibiniz in 1879.

Psychology emerged out of two traditions: Philosophy and Natural science. Many basic concepts of psychology trace their origin back to philosophy. Development of other natural sciences like physics, and, later biological sciences also influenced the growth and development of psychology as a natural science.

Wilheim Wundt (1839-1920)
He was a medical graduate, teacher in philosophy. His interests turned towards research in .physiology, particularly sense perceptions led to interests in psychology.

William James (1842-1910)
 Began as a medical student. He wrote the book – Principles of Psychology.
He was interested in analyzing how the mind functioned rather than observing its .
Wundt was not impressed by James. He commented, “It is literature, it is beautiful but it  is psychology.”
However &both played a major rote shaping the direction of psychology as a discipline.
He emphasized the importance of making careful observation and asking proper questions.

MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Definition -Psychology is the Science of behavior in relation with the environment.
Behavior may vary according to different factors:

1. Childhood, adulthood, old age
2. Conscious and unconscious Behavior
3. Normal and Abnormal behavior
4. Subjective and Objective behavior

Behavior-may be
1.Expressed / Social/ Outward
2 Intrapsychic (Unconscious processes)
3.Biological

Branches of psychology
1. Theoretical or Pure Psychology
2. Practical or Applied Psychology

Theoretical Psychology
1.Physiological – Studies the physiological basis of behavior.
2.Psychology of Cognition – deals with mental activities and processes like perception, thinking, understanding, reasoning etc.
3. Abnormal psychology- Studies the causes, types and development of abnormal behavior
4. Differential psychology- Studies the individual differences in behavior pattern, components of differentiation.
5. Parapsychology – Studies the basis of supernatural things or activities, superstitions, extra sensory perceptions etc.
6 Soc/a/ psychology- dynamics of group behavior- influence of culture, propaganda. etc.
7. Animal psychology

Applied Psychology
1. Child psychology: Developmental changes in behavior and attitudes with age.

2. Educational psychology :
Problems of education
Age level education
Methods of teaching
Detection of subnormal individuals etc

3. Industrial and Business psychology:
Setup of the building, institution and other arrangement
Selection of personnel for various jobs
Problems of occupational set up

4. Criminal Psychology:
Criminal behavior, causes and types.
Types of punishments
Rehabilitation

5. Psychology of war
Selection of personal for battlefield
Problems and counseling.

6. Psychometircs:
Developing various psychological tools for assessment techniques.

7. Counseling psychology :
Problematic Cases
Scientific assessment of a person
Positive and negative counseling

8. Clinical psychology:
Final word for other branches of psychology
Diagnosis
Treatment methods
Psychotherapy
Rehabilitation
Research methods

Download the complete notes : www.similima.com/pdf/psychology-postgraduates.pdf

marriage

Marriage – A Psychological Approach

marriageDr Mansoor Ali
“Those out want to get in while those in want to get out
The most important thing in life is having a good marriage and family life; or in other words achieving an everlasting intimacy with someone of other sex remain a major life goal for most people.

Marriage. means sharing in many areas of life such as;

  • Economic. a sharing of the accumulation, use and distribution of money. 
  • Emotional. a sharing of emotional and fantasy levels of life. 
  • Geographical. sharing space time and geographical proximity. 
  • Legal. a couple’s involvement in the civil and legal process of a society
  • Recreational. a sharing of recreation and pleasure-involves not only a recreation together but sharing your spouse for recreation with his/her own set of companions
  • Religious. a sharing of beliefs ,values and traditions 
  • Sexual. a unique sharing of the physical, sensual and sexual aspects of two people 
  • Social a sharing of social and interpersonal activities 

LOVE
Love can mean anything from the expression of tender affection for someone to a passionate attachment to another person. Love is usually equated with romantic love and means a strong emotional attachment to a person of the opposite sex, a tendency to idealize that person.

Usually we are not aware of this until we meet someone of the opposite sex who closely resembles it.
When this happens, especially in love at first sight, the psychic image may be projected on to someone of the opposite sex without sufficient regard for what other person is really like. Frequently the result is misunderstanding and bitter disappointment. For this reason psychologist warn of the dangers of romantic love.

In contrast mature love is based on self love and the ability to give as well as to receive love. Loving relationship are normally achieved only through personal maturity and considerable give and take in intimate relationship.

Intimacy refers to an informal warm relationship, a close personal attachment to another person in which the partners share their innermost thoughts and feelings which help both partners to grow fully as persons.

Similarity of social characteristics remain the most reliable predictors of attraction and a lasting marriage relationship. We tend to be most compatible with someone who comes from the same background as ourselves in terms of economic status, social class, educational level and religion.
Similarities of personal characteristics; Couples with high degree of similarity in physical attractiveness, attitudes and interests, self esteems drive and neurotic tendencies move towards marriage faster than do other couples.

Men are more attracted to women with similar attitudes on sex, while women are more attracted to men with similar attitudes on religon,on the basis of personal characteristics such as intelligence, self-confidence and successfulness.

Actually we had to use our heart as well as brain and to take both emotional and rational influences in to consideration in making a wise decision about marriage.

Reason for marriage
Pregnancy-Probably many of this marriage would not have occurred had the woman not being pregnant.
Rebellion-is a motivation for marriage and occur in many homes. This is a demonstration of one’s control over one’s own life, and possibly an attempt to demonstrate independence.

Escape-from an unhappy home environment.
Loneliness-the main reason people marry is to find companionship, which provide marriage partners with an emotional home base to see them through the ups and downs of life.

Physical appearance-is a factor that probably influences everyone to some degree or another. Our society is highly influenced by the cult of youth and beauty.

Social pressure-may be direct or indirect and can come from friends, parents, relatives etc; Engagement and marriage maybe a means of getting status.
Guilt and pity-marrying a person because one feels sorry for him/her because of physical deffect,illiness or having a poor lot in life doesn’t make a stable relationship.

Fulfillment of psychological needs-many individuals putting higher priority on the fulfillment of psychological needs, rather than on traditional needs of financial security or having children.

When you are happy in the marriage relationship, you are happy despite day to day disappointments in your surroundings.

But when you are not happy in your marriage relationship, then you tend to look for happiness more in your children job or material things. The greater investment of women in their marriage relationship leads married women to report higher happiness than single women, but they also complain of more marital unhappiness than their husbands.

MARRIAGABILITY TRAITS
Since  most people eventually get married, it is important to  be aware of the traits that make an individual a better partner  and give him/her more potential to make a marriage work. If  these elements are present, there is a greater likelihood of marital satisfaction and stability.

Adaptability and flexibility. are necessary ingredients. This means the person must be able to adjust to change with a minimum rigidity, he must be able to accept the differences in his partner.

Empathy. is the ability to be sensitive to the needs, hurts and desires of others, feeling with them and experience their world from their prespective.If they hurt, we hurt. Empathy is a positive characteristic that necessary for all interpersonal relationship.

Ability to work through problems. Problems, conflicts and differences are part and parcel of marriage. couple who accept and properly dispel and control their emotional reactions, clarify and define their problems and work together towards solutions will in all likelihood remain married.

Ability to give and receive love. The giving of love involves more than just verbalizing it. It must also be evident in tangible ways that are identifiable and recognizable to both partners

Emotional stability. Accepting one’s emotions and controlling them -lend balance to a relationship. Extreme flair ups and decisions based upon emotional responses do not lend themselves to stable relationships.

The more similar the family backgrounds the more contributions each can make to the marriage relationship. Naturally the more mature the couple the more easily the adjustment can be made. The greater the differences – economic, cultural, religious etc; more adjustment must be made.

Similarity between the couples If a couple has similar interests, likes and dislikes, friends, educational level and religion, the marriage relationship is greatly enhanced.

Communication  is the ability to share in such a way that the other person can understand and accept what is being said
.
There are differences in ability, styles and beliefs about communication. Free interchange of ideas is essential.

One of the most important area in marital adjustment is learning to communicate effectively with the partner.

If a person has experienced warm and satisfying relationship with both his father and mother, his marriage will be influenced positively
If the parents were affectionate ,firm, consistent and fairly well adjusted in their own marriage, this contributes to the new marriage relationship. if each person has friends, and these become and remain mutual friends after marriage, the marriage will be enhanced.
Commitment. One final element that must be present for any possibility of success is commitment. Commitment should be not  simply to each other as we are but to the highest potentialities we can achieve together.

THE ROLE OF SEX IN MARRIAGE
Sex is the high premium fuel that brings power and propulsion to a marriage. When sexual side of the marriage is satisfying to both parties, other problems can be worked out. When it is not satisfying to one or both, it is difficult and in many times impossible to workout other problems.

To say “I love you”
To relive tension
To fulfill the desire for sexual ecstasy
To conceive children 

1. To say I love “you”
It is often said that women proceed through love to sex where as men proceed from sex to love. Large number of husbands find both honeymoons and the early months of marriage sexually fustrating,while for many women this time is horrifying. They never really say “I love you” during this period.
The union of one body with another in sexual intercourse that is tender and considerate is the greatest expression of affection that two people can experience.

Sexual intercourse is women’s greatest offering. It is both an act of giving, the giving of herself, an act of accepting, the accepting of loved one, literally into herself.
Sexual intercourse, properly practiced is an act of      tenderness. The considerate husband will predetermine what the wife desires the act, that she is neither tired, upset nor angry that both are free from interruption by the children, in-laws, neighbors hat she feels secure and content, and that she desires more than anything in the world to be in her husband’s arm with her body close to his.

2.To relive tension
The proper role of sex is to achieve both for husband and wife the deep sense of physical and psychological relaxation.
The release of tension following the act of love is one of deep relaxation, a sinking in to unconsciousness of the world that support us in confidence and contentment. Without satisfying sexual relations marriage fails.

2.To fulfill the desire for sexual ecstasy.
Woman has greater capacity for sexual ecstasy than man   does. She can have multiple orgasm during one intercourse, where as man can have only one. She can have intercourse more frequently and the degree of her ecstasy is greater than man’s.
Love reaches its fulfillment in the sexual orgasm, the climax. It is the peak of giving and receiving’ the completion of victory and surrender. Marriage without sexual ecstasy for woman is unreal and unconvincing. Marriage for such woman is a life without living, despair without hope.
Woman goes through love to sexual ecstasy, men through sexual ecstasy to greater love. Within his body and glands there is pressure which can only be relived through orgasm.
Woman often get angry at men because of man’s attitude towards sex.Such anger is justified when men act irresponsibly often pressing their desire for sex when they have little or no affection for a woman.

4.To conceive children
When a man and women deeply love each other, they desire to realize the sharing of this love in the birth of a child to their union. Children properly conceived are the blessings of a shared love.

Role of husband and wife
The role of husband and wife in a marriage can be symmetrical or complimentary. This part is based on sound psychological principles of behavior for husbands and wives in Indian traditional marriage

The Husbands Responsibilities

The husband has certain responsibilities in a   traditional marriage

The husband should know and understand his role.
The husband is to realize that he and his wife are equal in the sight of God but they have different roles.
A husband traditionally has been expected to provide for the physical, psychological and spiritual needs of his wife. Husband is regarded has the final human authority in the home, even though he consults his wife before making decisions. Such an arrangement can provide a sense of security to the wife, especially if the husband is wise, strong loving and sensitive to her needs.

The husband is to love his wife.
Love is more than a romantic feeling, it is also a commitment. A husband’s commitment gives stability to the marriage and security to his wife.

Small expressions of affections.
A husband should also remember small expressions of affection such as flowers, phone calls or compliments.

The husband is to be an example.
As iron sharpens iron, so one man sharpens another. Often a wife is a reflection of her husband’s attitudes. One person can sharpen and build the character of another person, particularly a mate.

A husband should be polite and considerate.
A man should be considerate of his wife and treat her with respect

He should tell his wife that he loves her.
Many wives complain that their husbands seldom or never do so. It is important for a husband to show his wife that he loves  her, but he should also tell her so verbally, his facial expression should convey the same message. He also need to tell her why he loves her the most important reason being because she is who she is.

Husband need to give his wife” strokes”.
Wives need to hear genuine compliments for things thy do well and for the love they demonstrate.

He should observe 4 cautions
1. A husband should not publicly criticize his wife, nor should be privately criticize her about inferior qualities that are unchangeable. Nothing is more detrimental to a relationship than criticizing another person in public.
2. He should avoid comparing his wife to another woman.
3. He should avoid going to bed angry. Anger should be dealt with immediately by sharing it with ones spouse. Both should forgive each other, whether they agree on an issue or not, by bed time.
4.A  husband should not expect more from his wife than other people.

The Wife’s Responsibilities
A wife who recognises, accepts and fulfills her basic responsibilities will be rewarded with a much more stable marriage.

1. A wife should know her role.
Husband and wife are equal but they have different roles and different functions. However wives needs to submit to their  husbands.
To be subjective or submissive does not mean being a slave or a brainless speechless dormant. It is basically an attitude of respect for him and recognition of his leadership in the home.

2. She should show respect.
A wife can help her husband by giving him appropriate recognition and praise. She should avoid exposing her husband’s faults in public.

3. She should be a good manager.
A good wife should be a woman with keen business sense, perhaps even more important in the economic circumstances of our country today.

3. A wife should know the difference between the sexual needs of the male and female.
Husband is more physical in his needs and response, whereas wife more emotional in his needs and response. Man can become sexually aroused quickly and tend to be more sexually assertive, sometimes desiring sexual intercourse more frequently than his wife. Many women become unresponsive because their husbands inconsiderately run through the sexual act. Many husbands need to develop the capacity of lengthening sexual engagement to their wives to derive more enjoyment.

5. She should avoid 3 negatives vanity, gossip and laziness.
Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, inner beauty that supplements outward attractiveness is the best preventative of vanity. As for gossiping, it is listed as one of the most deadly violation of moral principles.

 6.She should display certain +ve attitudes and qualities.
She should recognize the importance of quietness, being sensible and exercising self-control wife who know the importance of being kind and using wise words has an appealing dignity.

7.A wife should know how to love her husband.
She must understand the importance of romantic gestures, what please him ,what encourages and admires her husband.

8.She should observe 4 don’ts
Don’t nag_ A quarrelsome wife will create irresolvable problems.
Don’t become overly involved in outside activities so that house responsibilities are shrunken.
Don’t continually question your husband’s decisions.
Don’t be un-attractive in bed. Wives and husbands should look their best at night for each other.

DIVORCE AND REMARRIAGE
The divorce rate has risen dramatically in the past few years. The divorce rate tend to be higher among people who marry in their teens, after only a courtship and who come from an unhappy or broken home. Divorce rates are also higher among those from lower educational and socioeconomic backgrounds and those don’t have religious affiliation.

Many separations come only after along, anguished process of mental alienation, sometimes after the children have grown up and left home.

Divorce has helped the women to develop the feeling of independence in them and make them feel equal partner, yet it must be advocated that divorce should not be easily granted by the courts.

In view of its serious repercussion of family life ,divorce should not be within easy reach of partners. Divorce should be granted only when it has become unavoidable and is in the interests of both the husband and wife and the society at a large.

Causes of divorce
Couples today expect more from their marriage than couples in the past. This is especially true for highly educated and professional couples, who are more inclined to expect psychological fulfillment in their marriage and to seek a divorce when it is missing. Those with less education and blue collar jobs are more likely to remain in an unhappy marriage.
Wives are more likely to mention physical and mental cruelty and problems of money or drinking, while husbands more frequently mentioned cruelty, neglect of the   home and children, infidelity and sexual incompatibility.
Many emotional problems such as uncontrolled anger, depression, worry, lack of empathy or low self-image are the heart of numerous marital problems.

The divorce experience.
Getting a divorce is usually a complex process because several things are happening at once.

The Emotional divorce
is most likely to occur first. The partners tend to withdraw emotionally from each other or to co_ exist with a great deal of mutual antagonism. This cold war atmosphere does more damage to the children’s.

The Legal divorce
is necessary if the individuals ever want to remarry. The law allows for divorce a specified period of physical separation. The legal aspect of divorce are not only expensive but emotionally exhausting as well.

The economic divorce
deals with the settlement of property and money. Fathers are generally responsible for child support payment until their children become of legal age.

The co-parental divorce
deals with the custody of the children and visitation rights. The partner who is not granted physical and legal custody of the children is usually granted certain visitation rights.

The community divorce
means disapproval and rejection by friends and acquaintances.

The psychic divorce
is the last and most difficult part of divorce. It consist of separating one’s self from the influence of one’s partner and becoming an autonomous social being again. It is one of the most constructive aspects of divorce in which the individual may experience much personal growth.

RE-MARRIAGE
More men than women remarry and usually with in a short period of time. In most instances a divorced person marry another divorced person, probably because they shared similar experiences and motivations.

Second marriage is usually satisfactory, because they had a greater experience of living with another person. However greater personal maturity also plays a significant part with successfully re married persons often saying “I had learned a lot about myself too “.

Marital adjustments.
It is usually easier to adjust to someone who comes from a similar background. Individual who marry from  mixed backgrounds whether in social class, religion or even intact or broken homes face greater risk in their marriage, many of which they may become aware of only after they have began living together.

A couple who have everything going for them may fail disastrously in their marriage, while another couple with everything against them may achieve a highly satisfactory relationship.

To achieve satisfaction in marriage, both partners re adjusting their understanding of what they can reasonably expect of each other in their respective roles. Decision making has also become democratic.

One of the most important areas of marital adjustment is learning to communicate effectively with the partner. The most common conflict involves a breakdown in communication, loss of shared goals or sexual incompatibility.

Over the course of time the average marriage in our society tends to become devitalized, partners usually speak to each other less often, exchange less information, provide less self disclosure, engage in more fault finding and having less accurate understanding of each other. In short the partners tend to grow apart.

Couples sharing power more or less equally experience fewer conflicts and greater satisfaction in marriage. The least satisfying to both partners is the female dominated relationship.

Some degree of conflict is inevitable in such an intimate relationship but how they handle them that make the difference in marriage. Most satisfied women readily admitted having disagreements and conflicts but felt they had learned how to handle these in an agreeable manner.

Wish you a happy and prosperous married life

Ego Defense Mechanism

Dr Achama Lenu Thomas  BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Dept. of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala

Toward the end of the nineteenth century. it was clear to many that there were mental disorders with a psychological basis as well as those with an organic basis. But one major question remained to be answered- How do these psychologically caused mental disorder”, actually come about?

Freud and the beginnings of psychoanalysis.
The first systematic attempt to answer this question was made by Sigmund Freud. Freud was a brilliant young Viennese physician who at first specialized in neurology and received an appointment as lecturer on nervous diseases at the University of Vienna. On one occasion, however, he introduced to his audience a neurotic patient suffering from a persistent headache, and mistakenly diagnosed the case as chronic localized meningitis.

As a result of this error in diagnosis, he lost his job al though, as he pointed out in his autobiography, greater authorities than he were in the habit of diagnosing Similar cases as cerebral tumor. Freud went to Paris in 1885 to study under Charcot and later became acquainted. He was impressed by their use of hypnosis on hysterical patients and came away convinced that powerful mental processes may remain hidden from consciousness.

On his return to Vienna, Freud worked in collaboration with an older physician,_Joseph breuer. who had introduced an Interesting innovation in the use of hypnosis on his neurotic patients, chiefly women. He let the patient under hypnosis talk about her problems and about what bothered her- Under these cir- cumstances the patient usually spoke rather freely, displayed considerable emotion, and on awakening from the hypnotic state felt considerably relieved. Because of the emotional release involved, this method was called the “cathartic method.” This simple innovation in the use of hypnosis proved to be of great significance, for not only did it help the patient discharge their emotional tensions by discussion of her problems, but it revealed the nature of the difficulties that had brought about her neurotic symptoms. The patient saw no relationship between her problems and her hysterical symptoms, but the therapist could usually see it quite readily.

Thus was made the discovery of the “unconscious”—the realization of the important role played by unconscious processes in the determination of behavior. In 1893, Freud and Breuer published their joint paper 0n the Psychical Mechanism!, of Hysterical Phenomena, which constituted one of the great mile stones of psychodynamics.

Freud soon discovered. moreover, that he could dispense with the hypnotic state entirely. By encouraging the patient to say freely whatever came into her mind without regard to logic or decency- Freud found that she would eventually overcome inner obstacles to remembering and would discuss her Problem
freely. The new method was called free association, and the term psycho analysis was given to the principles involved in analyzing and interpreting what  the patient said.. and in helping her gain insight and achieve a more adequate adjustment.

Freud devoted the remainder of his long and energetic life to the development and elaboration of the psychoanalytic model. His views were formally introduced to American scientists in 1909, when he delivered a now-famous series of lectures at dark University at the invitation of G. Stanley Hall, the eminent American psychologist who was then president of the university. These Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis led to a great deal of controversy that helped publicize the concepts of psychoanalysis to both scientists and the general public.

Basic principles of the psychoanalytic model.
The psychoanalytic model is both highly systematized and complex, and we shall not at- tempt to deal with it in detail. Its general principles. however, may be sketched as follows:

1- Id, ego, and superego. Basically the individual’s behavior is assumed to result from the interaction of three key subsystems within the personality: the id, ego, and superego.

The id is the source of instinctual drives,which are considered to be of two types (a). constructive drive primarily of sexual nature. which constitute the libido or basic energy of life, and (b) destructive  drives which tend towards  aggression, destruction, and  eventual death. Thus life or constructive, in- stincts are opposed by death, or destructive, instincts. Here it may be noted that Freud used the term sex in a broad sense to  refer to almost anything pleasurable, from eating to creativity. The id is completely selfish, condeemed only with the immediate gratification of instinctual needs without reference to reality or moral considerations. Hence it is said to operate i terms of  pleasure principle.

Relation of id, ego, and superego
While the id can generate mental images and wish-fulfilling fantasies, referred to as the primary process, it cannot undertake the action needed to meet instinctual demands.

Consequently a second key subsystem develops-the ego which mediates between the demands of the id and the realities of the external world. The basic purpose of the ego is to meet id demands, but in such a way as to ensure the well-being and survival of the individual. This requires the use of reason and other intellectual resources in dealing with the external world, as well as the exercise of control over id demands. Such adaptive measures of the ego are referred to as the secondary process and the ego is said to operas in terms of the reality principle. Freud viewed id demands especially  sexual and aggressive strivings as inherently in conflict with rules and prohibitions imposed by society.

Since the. id-ego relationship is merely one of expediency, Freud introduced a third key subsystem—the superego-which is the out-growth of learning the taboos and moral values of society. The superego is essentially what we refer to as conscience, and is  concerned with right  and wrong. As the superego
develops, we find an additional inner control system coming into operation to cope with the uninhibited desires of the id. However, the superego also operates through the ego system and strives to compel the ego to inhibit desires that are considered wrong or immoral.

The interplay between these intrapsychic subsystems of id, ego, and superego is of crucial significance in determining behavior.Often inner conflicts arise because each sub- system is striving for somewhat different goals. Neuroses and other mental disorders result when the individual is unable to resolve these conflicts.

2, Anxiety, defense mechanisms, and the unconscious. The concept of anxiety is prominent in the psychoanalytic model. Freud distinguished among three types of anxiety, or psychic -pain. that people can suffer from  reality anxiety, arising from dangers or threats in the external world (b) neurotic anxiety, caused by the id’s impulses threatening to break through ego controls, resulting  in behavior that will be punished  someway; and (c) morall anxiety, arising from a real or contemplated action in conflict with the individual’s super ego or moral values, and arousing feelings of guilty

Anxiety is a warning of impending danger as well as a painful experience, so it forces the individual to undertake corrective action. Often the ego can cope with the anxiety by rational measures; if these do not suffice, however. the ego resorts to irrational protective measures—such as rationalization or repres sion—which are referred to as ego-defense mechanisms and will he examined in detail later .These defense mechanisms alleviate the painful anxiety, but they do so by distorting reality instead of dealing directly with the problem. This creates an undesirable schism between actual reality and the way the individual sees reality.

Another important concept in the psychoanalytic model is that of the unconscious, Freud thought that the conscious represents a relatively small area of the mind while the unconscious  part like the submerged part of an ice berg, is the much larger portion. In the depths are the unconscious are the hurtful  memories, forbidden desires, and other experiences that have been pushed out of the conscious. Al- though the individual is unaware of such unconscious material, it continues to seek expression and may be reflected in fantasies and dreams when ego controls are temporarily lowered. Until such unconscious material is brought to awareness and integrated into the ego structure—for example, via psychoanalysis-it presumably leads to irrational and mal-adaptive behavior.

3. Psychosexual development. Freud viewed personality development as a succession of stages, each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving libidinal (sexual) pleasure-5i’ The five stages as he outlined them were

a) Oral stage.
During the first two years of life the mouth is the principal erogenous zone; the infant’s greatest source of gratification is assumed to be sucking.

b) Anal stage. From age 2 to age 3. the membranes of the anal region presumably provide the major source of pleasurable stimulation.

c) Phallic stage.
From age 3 to age 5 or 6, self-manipulation of the genitals provides the major source of pleasurable sensation.

d) Latency stage
. In the years from 6 to 13,, sexual motivations presumably recede in importance as the child becomes preoccupied with developing skills and other activities.

e) Genital stage.
After puberty the deepest feelings of pleasure presumably come from heterosexual relations.

Freud believed that gratification during each stage is important if the individual is not to be fixated at that level. For example, an individual who does not receive adequate oral gratification during infancy ^may^be prone to excessive eating or drinking in adult life.

In general, each stage of development places demands on the individual that must be met. and arouses conflicts that must be resolved. One of the most important conflicts occurs during the phallic stage, when the pleasures of masturbation and accompanying fantasies pave the way for the Oedipus complex- Oedipus, according to Greek mythology, unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Each young boy. Freud thought, symbolically relives the Oedipus drama. He has incestuous cravings for his; mother and views his father as a hated rival; however, he also dreads the wrath of his dominant male parent and fears especially that his father may harm

The female Oedipus (Electra) complex is more intricate, but it is based essentially on the view that the girl wants lo possess her father and replace her mother. For either sex, resolution of the Oedipal conflict is considered essential if the young adult is to develop satisfactory heterosexual relationships.

Impact on our views of psychopathology. Ac- cording to the psychoanalytic model, people are dominated by instinctual biological drives as well as by unconscious desires and motives.
Although there is a constructive libidinal side in each individual, there are also the darker forces of aggression leading toward destruction and death. And although the ego tends toward rationality, the counter forces of intra- psychic conflict, defense mechanisms, and the unconscious all tend toward a high degree of irrationality and maladaptive behavior. In addition, behavior is further determined through past learning, especially from early experiences. About the best we can hope for is a compromise from which we will realize as much instinctual gratification as possible with miinimal punishment and guilt.

Thus the psychoanalytic model presents a negativistic and deterministic view of human behavior that minimizes rationality and freedom for self-determination. On a group level it interprets violence, war. and related phenomena as the inevitable product of the aggressive and destructive instincts present in human nature.

Many of Freud’s ideas have been revised or discarded as a result of subsequent research findings, and the psychoanalytic model is no longer widely used as a principal frame work for organizing and interpreting scientific observations about psychopathology, However two  of Freud’s contributions stand out as particularly noteworthy:

1. The development of psychoanalytical techniques-for example. free association and dream analysis .for becoming acquainted with both the conscious and unconscious aspects of the mental life of the individual. the data thus obtained led Freud to emphasize (a) the dynamic role of unconscious motives and ego-defense processes, (b) the importance of early childhood experiences in later personality adjustment and maladjustment (c)the importance of sexual  factors in human  behavior and mental disorders although  as we have said, Freud used the term sex in a much broader sense than it is ordinarily used, the idea caught the popular fancy, and the role of sexual factors in human behavior was finally  brought out into the open as an appropriate topic- for scientific investigation,

2. The demonstration that certain abnormal mental phenomena-such as  repression of traumatic experiences and irrational fears occurred as a result of  attempts lo cope  with difficult problems ,and were  simply exaggeration.

Built-in psychological coping and damage-repair mechanisms
There appear to be a number of coping and damage-repair mechanisms built into the human system which operate on a psychological level. While learning may influence these reaction patterns, they appear to operate automatically and to be part of the coping resources of human beings. Among the more common and important of these mechanisms, are the following:

Crying.
“Crying it out” seems to be a common means of alleviating emotional tension and hurt. This reaction-is commonly seen in children who have been frustrated or hurt, but It is not uncommon among adults. This pattern is particularly apparent as part of the “grief work” one goes through to regain emotional equilibrium after a period of bereavement for the foss of a loved one.

Talking It out
This pattern is so widely used that Its importance is often overlooked.
Yet people who have undergone traumatic experiences seem to have a need to repetitively tell others about the experience as a means of alleviating tension and desensitizing themselves to the point where the experience can be accepted as something in the past and integrated into the self-structure.

Laughing it of. Viewing setbacks and hurts with a sense of humor and trying to joke about them and laugh them off is another common damage-repair mechanism. In essence this pattern appears to both alleviate emotional tension and also help the Individual see the experience In a broader perspective. Historically this reaction has been emphasized in the role of the clown who presumably laughs to cover his Inner sadness: in fact. when this mechanism fails, the individual often bursts into tears.

Seeking support
In times of stress, infants often put their arms around their mothers and cling to  them for protection and support. On an adult level, we see the same pattern In more sophisticated form, as in the increased need of critically ill patients for affection and companionship. But even in less severe stress situations, many people turn to others for emotional support until they can regain their own equilibrium.

Dreaming and nightmares.
Individuals who have undergone highly traumatic experiences—for example, severe earthquakes, fires, airplane crashes, or other civilian catastrophes—often report repetitive dreams or nightmares in which they relive the traumatic experience. As in the case of repetitive talking, this pattern appears to desensitize the individual to the traumatic experience so that he can accept it as something in the past and integrate it into his self-structure without undue disruption.

These built-in reaction patterns may be used in varying degrees and combinations depending on the individual, the social setting, and the nature of the traumatic event which resulted in the psychological hurt or damage.

Repression is an extremely important self- defense mechanism in that it affords protection from sudden, traumatic experiences until time has somewhat desensitized the individual to the shock. Repression may also help the individual to control dangerous and unacceptedable desires-and at the same time alleviate the anxiety associated with such desires. The reality of repression in freeing the individual from anxiety has been demonstrated in an interesting study by Sommerschield and Reyher (1973). They induced posthypnotic conflicts in their subjects and found that various symptoms, including gastric distress, tension, and anxiety, appeared as the hypnotically induced repression weakened and the conflict threatened to enter consciousness.

Repression, in varying degrees, enters into many other defense mechanisms. There is some evidence that it is only when repression fails that stronger, more maladaptive defenses are tried.

4. Rationalisation. Rationalization is justifying maladaptive behavior by faulty logic or ascribing it to noble motives that did not in fact inspire it. Rationalization has two major defensive values: (a) it helps justify_specific behaviors, and b) it aids in softening the dis- appointment connected with unattainable goals

“Typically, rationalization involves thinking up logjcal. socially approved reasons For past. present, or proposed behaviors. With a little effort a person may be able to justify to himself spending money needed for essentials on lavish entertainment, neglecting work for cultural pursuits, or marrying someone whom he does not love- Even callous brutality can be rationalized as necessary or even praise worthy. Adolf Killer saw the extermination of the Jews as his patriotic duty.

Rationalization is also used to soften the disappointment of thwarted desires. “A common example of such rationalization is the “sour grapes” reaction-stemming from Ae- sop’s fable of the fox who, unable to reach a cluster of delicious grapes, decided he did not want them after all because they were proba- bly sour. Similarly, students may justify their mediocre college performance On the grounds that they are refusing to gel involved in the “competitive rat race” of model society. One way of reducing the discrepancy embodied in failure to take action toward a desired goal is to decide that the goal is really not anything worth having anyway.

Frequently,. of course, it is difficult to tell where an objective consideration of realities leaves off and rationalisation begins. Behaviors that commonly indicate rationalization are (a) hunting for reasons to justify one’s behavior or beliefs; (b) being unable to recognize inconsistencies or contradictory evidence; and (c) becoming upset when one’s “reasons” are questioned- Such questioning is a threat to the defenses the individual has managed to construct against self-devaluation.

5. Projection. Projection is a defensive reaction by means of which (a) others are seen as responsible for one’s own shortcomings, mistakes, and misdeeds; and (b) others are seen as responsible for one’s unacceptable impulses, thoughts, and desires,

Projection is perhaps most commonly evidenced by the first tendency. The student who fails an examination may feel that the teacher was unfair; “the delinquent teen-ager may blame her problems on a rejecting and non understanding parent; and even the small boy being punished for fighting may protest, “it wasn’t my fault-he hit me first.” Fate and bad luck are particularly overworked objects of projection. Even inanimate objects are not exempt from blame. The three-year-old who fails off a hobby horse may attack it with blows and kicks; the basketball player who slips  return to inspect ‘the alleged slippery spot. In extreme cases  individual may become convinced that other persons or forces  are systematically working against him. Such ideas may develop into delusions of persecution involving the supposed plots and conspiracies of “the enemy.”

In other projective reactions, the individual attributes his own unacceptable desires and thoughts to others. This tendency appears to be particularly common among those with rig- id moral values and strict conscience development. For example, a man who is sexually attracted to children may Insist that a child is behaving seductively toward him- Consequently, the child becomes the offender, while the man remains conveniently “pure,” un- aware of his own unacceptable inclinations.

6. Reaction .formation. Sometimes an individual protects himself from dangerous de- sires by not only repressing them, but actually developing conscious attitudes and behavior patterns that are just the opposite. Thus he may conceal hate with a facade of love, cruel- try with kindness, or desires for sexual promiscuity with moralistic sexual attitudes and behavior. In this way the individual erects obstacles or barriers that reinforce his repression and keep his real desires and feelings from conscious awareness and from being carried out overtly.

On a simple level, reaction formation is il- lustrated by the old story about the spinster who looks hopefully under her bed each night for fear that a man may be lurking there. On a more complex level, reaction formation may be manifested by people who crusade against loose morals, alcohol, “pornography,” gambling. and other real or alleged evils. Often such people have a background of earlier difficulties with these problems themselves. and their zealous crusading appears to be a means of safeguarding themselves against recurrence of their difficulties.

Self-appointed protectors of the public morals may gain vicarious satisfaction- for example. by reviewing “pornographic” materials without endangering their self-concepts. In some cases reaction formation is more subtle, as when. say. a juror demands the severest penalty under the law for an infraction  tat he himself has been tempted to commit

Reaction formation. like repression. may have adjstive value in helping the individual maintain socially approved behavior and avoid awareness of threatening and self-de- valuating desires- But because this mechanism, too, is self-deceptive and not subject to conscious control, it often results in exaggerated and rigid fears or beliefs that may com- plicate an individual’s adjustive reactions and lead to excessive harshness or severity in deal ing with the lapses of others.

7. Displacement. In displacement there is a shift of emotion or symbolic meaning from a person or object toward which it was original- ly-directed to another person or object. Often displacement involves difficult emotions, such as hostility and anxiety. A common subject for cartoons about displacement is the meek office clerk who has been refused a raise by his domineering boss. Instead of expressing his hostility toward his employer-which would be dangerous—he goes home and snaps irritably at his wife because dinner is a few minutes late.

In some instances the individual whose hostility has been aroused by an outside person or event may turn the hostility inward, engaging in exaggerated self-accusations and recriminations, and feel severe guilt and self-devaluation. Such intropunitive reactions do protect the individual from expressing dangerous hostility toward others, but may lead to depression and even to attempted or actual suicide.

Through a process of symbolic association, displacement may become extremely complex and deviant. Swearing is commonly used as a means of discharging pent-up feelings. Destructive criticism and vindictive gossip frequently are only disguised methods of expressing hostility. In a study of skydivers. Fens’, and Epstein (1969) found that the fear and anxiety associated with skydiving was displaced onto other situations unrelated lo parachuting. It is as if the jumper were saying’. ‘This feeling of fear that 1 have, it is of other things, not parachuting'” , This type of defensive reaction is referred to as “stimulus displacement”: while the fear or anxiety remains, it is displaced ;o other situations.

8. Emotional Insulation. Here the individual reduces his emotional involvement in situations that are viewed as disappointing and hurtful,

Since many disappointments are encountered in life, people usually learn to keep their anticipations within limits. Until hoped for event occurs, their are careful to avoid premature celebrations or to let their hopes run too high. The boy who looks forward to a date with a very attractive girl may not let himself get too excited or enthusiastic for fear she may not like him. Such reactions are well ex- pressed in the common saying, “I didn’t dare even hope.”

In more extreme cases of long-continued frustration, as in chronic unemployment or prison confinement, many persons lose hope, become resigned and apathetic, and adapt themselves to a restricted way of life. Such “broken” Individuals thus protect themselves from the bitter hurt of sustained frustration
by becoming passive recipients of whatever life brings them. Similarly, in extreme forms of alienation the individual may become non- involved and apathetic, feeling Isolated, bewildered, and without hope. In certain mental disorders, too, such as chronic schizophrenia, there is often an extreme use of insulation that apparently protects the individual from emotional involvement in a life situation and world that have proved unbearably hurtful.

Up to a point, emotional insulation is an important means of defense against unnecessary disappointment and hurt. But life involves calculated risks, and most people are willing to take a chance on active participation. Emotional insulation provides a protective shell that prevents a repetition of previous pain, but it reduces the individual’s healthy, vigorous participation in life.

9. Intellectualization (isolation).
This defense mechanism is related to both emotional insulation and rationalization. Here the emotional reaction that would normally accompany a painful event is avoided by a rational explanation that divests the event of personal significance and painful feeling. The hurt over a parent’s death is reduced by saying that he or she lived a full life or died mercifully with- out pain. Failures and disappointments are softened by pointing out that “it could have been worse.” Cynicism may become a convenient means of reducing guilt feelings over not living up to one’s ideals. Even the verbalization of good intentions, as in a glib admission that “I should work harder” or should be less selfish and more interested in the welfare of others,” seems to cut off a good deal of guilt and relieve one of the necessity of positive action.

Intellectualization may be employed under extremely stressful conditions as well as in dealing with the milder stresses of everyday life. Bluestone and McGahee have found that this defense mechanism was often used by prisoners awaiting execution. They have described the pattern as follows: ” ‘So they’ll kill me; and that’s that’-this said with a shrug of the shoulders suggests that the affect appropriate to the thought has somehow been isolated”

10. Undoing (atonement).
Undoing is de- signed to negate or annul some disapproved thought, impulse, or act. Apologizing for wrongs, repentance, doing penance, and undergoing punishment are all forms of undoing.

Undoing apparently develops out of early training in which the child learns that once he apologizes, makes some restitution, or is punished for disapproved behavior, his misdeed is negated and he can start over with a clean slate and with renewed parental approval. As a consequence of such early learning, people commonly develop methods of atoning for or undoing their misdeeds—methods to avoid or ameliorate the punishment and self-devaluation that would otherwise result, The unfaithful husband may bring his wife presents; the unethical executive may give huge sums of money to charity.

The opportunity for confession and the assurance of forgiveness in some religions appear to meet a deep human need to be able to get rid of guilt feelings and make a new beginning. As an ego-defense mechanism, however. undoing operates on an unconscious level, The individual assuages feelings of guilt by making some kind of reparation, but without conscious awareness of the intent of the action.

11. Regression. Regression is a defense mechanism in which one returns to (lie use of reaction patterns long since outgrown. When a new addition to the family has seemingly undermined his status, a little boy may revert to bed-wetting and other infantile behavior that once brought him parental attention; the young bride may return home to her mother at the first sign of trouble.

Summary chart of ego-defense mechanisms

  • Denial of reality. Protecting self from unpleasant reality by refusal to perceive or face it
  • Fantasy. Gratifying frustrated desires by imaginary achievements
  • Repression. Preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness
  • Rationalization. Attempting to prove that one’s behavior is “rational” and justifiable and thus worthy of self and social approval
  • Projection. Placing blame for difficulties upon others or attributing one’s own unethical desires to others
  • Reaction formation. Preventing dangerous desires from being expressed by exaggerating opposed attitudes and types of behavior and using them as “barriers”
  • Displacement. Discharging pent-up feelings, usually of hostility, on objects less dangerous than those which initially aroused the emotions
  • Emotional insulation. Reducing ego involvement and withdrawing into passivity to protect self from hurt
  • Intellectualization (isolation). Cutting off affective charge from hurtful situations or separating incompatible attitudes by logic-tight compartments
  • Undoing. Atoning for and thus counteracting immoral desires or acts
  • Regression. Retreating to earlier developmental level ‘ involving less mature responses and usually a lower level of aspiration
  • Identification. Increasing feelings of worth by Identifying sell with person or institution of illustrious standing
  • Introjection. Incorporating external values and standards into ego structure so individual is not at their mercy as external threats
  • Compensation. Covering up weakness by emphasizing desirable [‘ail or making up for frustration in one area by over gratification in another
  • Acting-out. Reducing the anxiety aroused by forbidden or dangerous desires by permitting their expression, young bride may return home to her mother  &the first sign of trouble.

The developmental process from dependence to independence is by no means an easy one. Consequently, it is not surprising that in the face of severe stress or new challenges, an individual may retreat to a less mature level of adjustment. We might expect something akin to regression to occur merely on the basis of the frequent failure of newly learned reactions to bring satisfaction. In looking for other, more successful modes of adjustment, it would be only natural to try out discarded pat- terns that previously had brought satisfaction-

However, regression is a more comprehensive reaction than merely trying out older modes of response when new ones have failed. For in regression the individual re- treats from reality to a legs demanding personal status—one that involves lowered aspirations and more readily accomplished satisfactions.
This point is well illustrated by Bettelheim’s reference to a general “regression to infantile behavior” seen in nearly all the prisoners at the Nazi concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald.

“The prisoners lived, like children, only in the immediate present: . . . they became unable -o plan for the future or to give up immediate pleasure satisfactions to gain greater ones in the near future. . . – They were boastful, telling tales about what they had accomplished in their former lives, or how they succeeded in cheating foremen or guards, and how they sabotaged the work. Like children, they felt not at all set back or ashamed when it became known that they had lied about their prowess.”

In our discussion of the psychoses, we shall describe patients whose regression is so extreme that they are no longer able to dress, feed, or otherwise take care of themselves

12. Identification.
Identification often lakes place in imitative learning, as when a boy identifies with his father and uses him as a model. Identification may also operate as a defense mechanism in enhancing feelings of worth and protecting the individual against self-devaluation.

The growing child soon learns that the way in which he is evaluated by others depends heavily on his Family and other group memberships. During adolescence and adulthood, the mechanism of identification is expanded to include a wide range of persons and groups.

Not only does society evaluate the individual in the light of his group memberships, but he comes to evaluate himself in the light of them. Students may identify with the college they attend, and many employees identify with the power and prestige of the company for which they work. By doing so, they take as their own some of the desirable attributes of the groups to which they belong. Particularly for persons who feel basically inferior, such identifications may have important supportive and defensive value.

When feelings of adequacy and worth are. based too heavily on identification with others,however, the individual becomes highly vulnerable to stress situations in which such identifications prove devaluating, for example, when the values and behavior of the group prove disillusioning, when the group suffers humiliation, or when the group is rele- gated to low social status. In such cases, the individual’s identifications lead to self-devaluation rather than to self-enhancement. This is one reason it is difficult for an athletic coach to hold his job when his team loses consistently.

13.Introjection is closely related to identification. As a defense reaction it involves the acceptance of others’ values and norms as one’s own even when they are contrary to one’s previous assumptions. After revolutions leading to dictatorial forms of government, for example, many people interject the new values and beliefs as a protection for themselves. By internalizing the socially pre- scribed values and norms, they can then trust themselves to avoid behavior that would brine social retaliation and punishment.

In describing the use of intoreject ion under extreme conditions;, it is again useful to refer to the experiences of Bettelheim at the Nazi concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald- Under the cruel and insidious camp experiences, previous values and identifications were broken down and new norm’; were introjected—Nazi norms.

“A prisoner had reached the final  stage of adjustment to the camp situation his personality so as to accept as his own the value of the Gestapo. … old prisoners were sometimes instrumental in getting rid of the until, in this making a feature of Gestapo ideology a feature of their own behavior.”

Introjection has been referred to as “identification with the aggressor” and is a defensive reaction that seems to follow the principle. ” you can’t beat ’em, join ’em.” However, it is evident that inrojection may lead to seriously distorted and maladaptive behavior.

14. Compensation. Compensatory reactions are defenses against feelings of inferiority and inadequacy growing out of real or imagined personal defects or weaknesses, as well as out of the individual’s inevitable failures and setbacks. Such reactions may take. many forms and may represent constructive, deliberate, task-oriented behavior, as in the case of an individual who attempts to overcome a physical handicap through increased effort and persistence- Demosthenes, the great orator, had to overcome early stuttering, and Wilma Rudolph, crippled and unable to walk until she was eight years old. became an Olympic track winner. Compensatory reactions of this type may be a deciding factor in success, as biographers are quick to point out,

More commonly, compensatory reactions are indirect; there is an attempt to substitute for the defect in some way or to draw attention away from it. The physically unattractive boy or girl may develop an exceptionally pleasing personality, the puny boy may turn from athletics to scholarship, and the mediocre nobody may become the Grand Imperial Potentate of some secret order. Much of the cosmetics industry has developed ground minimizing  undesirable facial features and emphasizing desirable ones.

15. Acting out. Acting out is a reaction in which the individual reduces the anxiety and tension associated with dangerous desires by actually permitting their expression. For ex- ample, a person who feels mistreated and dis- criminated against may lash out in physical violence against those viewed as responsible. Often the damage or destruction of property, as in instances of vandalism, appears to be serving this function.

All of us have probably experienced times of acute conflict or stress when tension and anxiety have built up to such a level that almost any action that would “get it over with” is welcome. Soldiers under the stress of waiting have been known to leave their relatively safe  shelter and blindly attack the enemy. But al- though such acting-out behavior may momentarily reduce tension and anxiety, it is obviously not well designed to deal effectively with the stress situation eliciting the anxiety. Under most circumstances acting out is not feasible except for those who have relatively weak reality and value controls; most people are deterred not only by their values but by the likelihood of social disapproval, punishment, personal injury, or other aversive results.

Evaluation of ego-defense mechanisms.
These defense mechanisms are ordinarily used in combination, rather than singly, and often they are combined with task-oriented behavior- Because they are essential for softening failure, alleviating anxiety and hurt, and protecting one’s feelings of adequacy and worth, we may consider them to be normal adjustive reactions unless they seriously interface with the effective resolution of stress situations. Both the “positive” and “negative” functions of such defenses have been weli illustrated in an investigation of the ego defenses used by thirty hospitalized women who were awaiting the outcome of breast tumor biopsy. These researchers found the defense mechanisms of denial and rationalization to be highly effective in coping with anxiety, particularly when used in combination. They also found, however, that many of the women who allayed their anxieties with these defenses did not seek early enough medical help.

In summary, it may be emphasized that these defense mechanisms are, in the main, learned; they are designed to deal with inner hurt, anxiety, and self-devaluation; they oper- ate on relatively automatic and habitual levels; and they typically involve some measure of self-deception and reality distortion.

Decompensation under excessive stress
When the individual’s coping behavior fails to deal effectively with the stress situation, there is a lowering of integrated functioning ‘and eventually a breakdown of the system. This lowering of integration is referred to as de- compensation. Whether stress becomes “excessive” depends, of course, not only on the nature of the adjustive demand but also on the individual’s available resources for coping with it. Decompensation has been observed on biological, psychological, and group levels.

Biological decompensation. A model that helps explain the course of biological decompensation under excessive stress has been advanced by Selye (1956, 19G9) in his formulation of the general adaptation syndrome. Selye found that the body’s reaction to sustained and excessive stress typically occurs in three major phases: (a) alarm and mobilization—representing a general call to arms of the body’s defensive forces; (b) stage of resistance—in which biological adaptation is optimal in terms of bodily resources; and (c) exhaustion and disintegration -in which bodily resources are depleted and the organism loses its abilily to resist so that further exposure to the stress can lead to disintegration and death.

Where decompensation does not run its en- tire course and result in the death of the organism, maintenance mechanisms attempt to repair damage and reorganize normal function. If the stress has resulted in extensive damage, this restorative process is often a matter of reorganizing “remaining part’ and resources,” but there >s n permanent lowering of the previous level of integration and functioning.