Homoeopathic Medicines made out of Spiders (Arachinida) group of plants and their preparation, properties and clinical indications
Spiders form the largest and the most widely distributed order of class of animals called arachnida which also includes scorpions , false scorpions, mites and ticks. There are about 22000 different species of spiders of which about 500 are British.
There are about three subclasses of arachnida family. They are
There are two types of spiders
1. Aranomorphae or dipneumones with one pair of lungs. They spin cobwebs in air
2. Mygalomorphae or tetrapneumones with two pairs of lungs. They always live in funnels and tubular holes in ground.
Most species belongs to aranomorphae and they are called true spiders or tarantulas,
In the ancient Greece there lived a woman cached ARCHNE who was famous for her skill in weaving Her skill at her art make her very conceited thinking that there was no one better than her. In her conceit, she challenged godess ATHENE for a weaving. Arachne’s effort was very beautiful and it aroused jealousy in athene who was felt threatened by arachne. In her fit of rage she tore arachnes weaving into pieces. Arachne wasv ery upset and she hung herself whereupon Athene changed her into a spider and condemned her to go on weaving for ever. Hence the name arachnida which means children of Arachne.Lack of antennae distinguish spiders from insects. Only few spiders are poisonous to man.
Action of toxin
The symptoms of spider bite are very unpleasant, The venom is a neurotoxin which causes paralysis muscle cramps and severe pain. Breathing becomes difficult and victims run a high fever. The must dangerous of all spiders is the black widow spider which has a slimy black body. Its venom is said to be most poisonous and is 15 times more powerful than that of rattle snake.
The members of arachnidae family are
- Aranea didema
- Aranea scinencia
- Aranea ixobola
- Aranearum fceia
- Aranea ancuia
- Lateroductus mactans
- Laterodactus katipo
- Laterodactus haseiti
- Mygate lassidora
- Tarentula cubensis
- Tarentuta hispama
Spheres of action
1. Central nervous system by the action on CNS especially on the motor nerves of spinal cord it produces symptoms tike chorea, hysteria and involuntary movements. Its action on other important centers produces hyperesthesia and convulsions. Other nervous symptoms are anxiety , trembling restlessness , over sensitiveness and nervous prostration. Action on uterus and ovaries leads to neuralgia.
2. Cardio vascular system
Acts on heart and blood vessels and produces constriction of circular muscle fibers and cardiac muscle fibers. Action on papillary muscles of heart through spinal nerves produces murmurs
3. Arteries -constriction of blood vessels
4. Haematotoxic actions degeneration and destruction of blood vessels.
Common characteristic features
- Most of the spider remedies produce marked periodicity of complaints, so they are important remedies for intermittent ever
- Tarentula hisp – complaints recur at the same period annually or at the same hour every day or every other day
- Tarent cub – intermittent fever agg evening troubles occur at the same hour every day
- Aranea diadema– chill occurring at same hour every day or every other day
- Aranearum tela – periodical disease in broken down persons. Periodic headache with extreme nervous erythrism and obstinate intermittent
2- Side affinity
- Araenea diadema – right sided (right trifascia) nerve and right chest)
- Mygate lasi – right sided
- Theridion – left sided
- Tar-hisp – left sided affections but many symptoms then alternate to right and then to back
- Tar cub – left sided
- Trombidium – ieft sided
- Iatero mact – left sided
- Laterodactus kalipo-left sided
3. Chilliness and coldness – Almost alt spider remedies are chilly or cold
- Aranea diadema – great sensitiveness to cold or damp air. Extreme chilliness, chill as if bones are made of ice. Coldness with pain in long bones , any amount of covering gives no warmth.
- Aranearum tela- obstinate and continuous chillness with intermittent fever
- Lat-mactans- chilliness with icy coldness of extremities, skin icy cold like marble even in fever
- Tarentula-hisp – chilly/yet desire for and is ameliorated in open air
Aranea scinencia – intolerance of warm weather, all symptoms are aggravated in warm weather. Indolence, weakness and prostration
Lat mactans – severe prostration ,but patient cannot lie still due to restlessness
Tarentuia cub – easy and persistent prostration in septic conditions and diphtheria
4.Sexual complaints like increased desire nymphomania and chordee
- Tar-hisp- nymphomania and increased desire in both sexes.
- Mygale- violent painful erection and chordee
- Theridion – sexual desire decreased, weak erection during coition, hysteria during puberty and climaxis
- Later-kattpo- itching of perpuce
- Aranea diadema- menses early,
5. Angina pectoris
Later-mactans- violent pains in chest radiating to neck and shoulders and to left arm and ringers- Screams with pains as if
he will lose his breath and die
Tarent-hisp- angina pectoris ameliorated in open air, constrictive feeling in chest
6. Chorea and convulsions.
- Mygale lassidora- twitching of fascial muscles with hot and flushed face. Constant motion of whole body, uncontrollable movements of hands and legs which stops only during sleep
- Tarent hisp- violent involuntary movements of different parts of body, chorea of right arm and left leg
- Tarentula cub – left sided chorea
- Lat-hasseili- malignant conditions with pyeamia. Great edema of the neighbor hood of wound
- Lafcero-kalipo -affected area is scarlet red with stinging and burning pains
- Mygale – redness along the course of lymphatics with anxiety and twitching of limbs. Local inflammation from foot to knee
- leaving large violet spot which changed hi a few hours to green, red to blue discoloration along the course of lymphatics
- Tar-hisp – affects the lymphatic leading to congestion cellulites and lymphadenitis
8. Sleep disorders – almost all spiders disturbs sleep except aranea scinencia and aranearum tela which has very much disposition to sleep
- Aranea diadema – restlessness and frequent waking with sensation of enlargement and heaviness of arm as if arms and hands were enormously swollen
- Lat-hasseltt – sleeplessness in malignant septic conditions ^ Tar cub- sleep prevented by harsh cough
- Tar-hisp-sleeplessness awakens with weeping arid is cross
- Thehdion – late sleep in morning; bites tongue in sleep
9. Palpitation and changes in circulation: almost all spiders produces rapidity of pulse rate
- Theridion- rapid pulse in morning
- Mygaie- palpitation and rapid pulse
- Latroductus mactans- very rapid pulse 130-140/min too rapid to count and too thready to be felt especially in angina
- Tarentula hisp- trembling and tremulousness of hearts from a bad news- Pulse hard and irregular
Exception – Aranearum teia – reduces pulse rate
Laterodactas katipo-almost pulse less/ very slow about 12-14/min
11.Fear apprehension and anxiety- almost all spiders have great fear of death
Lat-mact – extreme anxiety, feels she will lose her reason and die,fear of death especially in -angina,
Lact kalipo– Anxious and extreme pallor
- Mygale- fear of death
- Thendion- despondent want of self confidence, great inclination to be startled
- Taren-hisp – fear when outside her usual surroundings. Fear of death and of impending calamity
- Aranea diadema- fear of death
- Taren.hisp – never sits at one place, always in motion although motion does not relieve.
- Lat.mact- restlessness and prostration with angina pectoris
- Mygaie.lass- restlessness, constant motion of hands and feet.
- Tarenbuia cub – restless feet
- Therid- restless/ busy starts, desire to occupy himself
13. Twitching of muscles and other nervous symptoms
- Aranea diad-numbness of parts supplied by ulnar nerve
- Aranea scinencia – constant twitching of tower eyelids
- Aranearum tela- numbness of hands and legs
- Lat-katipo – twitching of muscles ,nervous twitching all over with spasm of masseeter muscles
- Tanhisp – twitching of muscles/ nerves highly strung restless and hyperesthesia of skin eye and fingertips
- Theridion-hypersensitiveness, every shrill sound and reverberation penetrates the whole body especially teeth
- Mygate- twitching and contraction of fascia. muscles » Scorpio-tetanus and strabismus
- Lafc-haseltf- paralysis of lower limbs
14. Depression and sadness – depression is a feature of many spider remedies.
- Tar.hisp-depression with prostration. Melancholy with quick change of mood and becomes cheerful Longs for death
- Mygate-sad alt day, depressed with anxious expression
- Theridion – depression with headache and weep
- Lat-katipo-nervous depression
15. Septic conditions
Tarentula.cuben- malignant septic conditions/ carbuncles, boils/anthrax, abscess etc with atrocious burning pains. A good remedy for plague
Tat. hasseli _ septic states with pain and pyeamia
16- Amelioration by smoking
Aranea diad_ pain in right trifascial nerve is ameliorated by smoking in open air. Headache relieved by smoking in openair
Tarentcula.hisp – foxy cunning manipulative in nature, complaints more when somebody observes her. Feigns sickness airways in motion
18. Intercostals neuralgia
Aranea diadema – sever intractable pains along nerves aggravated m damp weather and has marked periodicity
Theridion – pain in upper part of chest and apex of right lung with tendency to pthisis
19.1rritability, anger and excitement.
- Tar.hisp – irritable and anger from contradiction
- Mygale-excitement about business
- Thehdion-excitement aggravated at night
- Lat mactans-screams with excitement
20.Affections of bones caries and necrosis
Theridion- caries and necrosis of bones. Pain In all bones as if broken
Aranea diadema – pain in tendoachilles, periostitis of os calcis, necrosis and bones feels a& if made of ice
Aranea diadema – haemoptysis in anemic subjects. Hemorrhage from uterus and lungs.
Latmactans – haemorrhage, black blood , non coagulable
Individual medicines in brief
Common name – papal cross spider. Proved by gravogl
- Periodicity and coldness
- Great tendency to coldness, hydrogenoid constitution of gravogl
- Feels as if parts were enlarged and heavier, wakes up at night with hand feeling twice their natural size
- Pain m right trifascial nerve revived by smoking in open sir
- Pain in os calcis, violent dull boring pains in bones due to simple periostitis or associated with caries
- Fever and coldness with pain In long bones and feeling of stone in abdomen at same hour daily
- Attacks are sudden and violent
- Right sided remedy General amelioration by lying down but foot achels aggravated by lying down
Hydrogenoid remedy of gravogl , compliant are aggravated in damp wet weather or even taking food stuffs containing water or living in marshy places or near rivers or aggravation near damp dwellings. Malarial constitution, where every damp day or place favors chillness
Intermittent fever excessive chilliness, nothing relieves. Any amount of covering doss gives no warmth. Aggravated by every spell of damp weather, Chilliness as if bones were made of ice with bone pains. Chill occurring at the same hour every day, every other day of every week or at some regular periods Headache
Headache after hearing and is relieved by smoking in open air- Sudden violent pains in upper and lower jaws at night immediately after lying down. Right sided trigeminal neuralgia relieved by smoking in open air,
Violent dull boring pain in lower extremities especially tendoachilis .Affections of os calcis, necrosis and caries. Bone feels as if made of ice. Numbness of parts supplied by ulnar nerve.
Common name ;- grey spider. They do not spin a web and is found on walls.
Constant twitching of lower eyelids
Eyes Inflamed, weak, watery and swollen
Dull, stupid head ache in the postero inferior part of head,
Intolerance of warm weather, all symptoms are <ed in a warm room
Source ; cobweb of black spider Found in cellars and dark spaces.
- Symptoms appear suddenly with cool clammy skin
- Disposition to sleep
- Lowers the frequency of pulse by acting on arterial system
- Numbness m hands and legs <ed by rest
- Continued chilliness
- Periodical diseases in broken down persons,
- Cardiac sleeplessness with increased muscular energy could not be kept in bed- Dances and jumps about the room at night
- Dry spasmodic asthma, harassing irritating cough.
- Periodic head ache with extreme nervous erythism and obstinate intermittent
This medicine is prepared from a small female spider of arachnida family which is small and obese and black all over except for a red or orange marking in the shape of an hour glass on the ventral aspect of the belly. After mating the female eats the male which is much smaller than compared to the male. So this spider is called black widow spider. This spider prefers to reside m dim and remote haunts away from public notice. Tincture is prepared from the whole spider. Venom of this spider is the most poisonous and is about 15 times more poisonous than the venom of rattle snake.
The venom produces tetanic effects which lasts for several days, The symptoms of bite are pain in chest similar to angina pectoris, haemorrhage of black blood, noncoagulable, sensation of constriction and difficulty in breathing and talking with slow action of heart,
The venom causes interference with the passage of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction where normal response depends upon release of acetyl choline thus delaying nerve impulses,
Appetence of patient
Patient has an expression of grave anxiety with fear of dying and has a characteristic gait, bending forward -with hands held against the abdomen.
- Picture of angina pectoris accompanied by restlessness and prostration
- Chilliness especially icy coldness of extremities
- Left sided remedy
- Severe prostration but patient cannot lie still due to great restlessness
- Constricting and cramping pains Heart
Violent pericardial pains extending to axilla down the left arms and forearms to the fingers with intense numbness of extremities and apnoea. Most violent precordial pains as if paralysed. Pulse too frequent that it cannot be counted and so feeble that it could scarcely be felt. Screams fearfully that she will loss her breath and die. Intense numbness associated with nausea and vomiting of blood. Anxiety and sinking in stomach. Extreme apnoea with gasping respiration
- Haematoxy lon -feels as if a bar placed upon chest
- Cereus bonplandii – convulsive pains in heart, patient cannot breathe, feel as if transfixed.
- Lachesis – pain shoots to the left elbow
- Actea racemosa – as if arm is bound to the body
- Crataegus –pain radiates beneath left scapula
- Magnolia grandifloria – angina, endo and pericarditis- Alternate pains between spleen and heart. Oppression of chest with inability to expand lungs. Feels as if a large bolus of food distended stomach. Sensation as If heart had stopped beating
- Cactus – feeing of constriction
Skin icy Cold marble even in fever.
Common name – New Zealand spider
- Affected area scarlet red with burning and stinging pains
- Lassitude and twitching
- Pulse slow scarcely more than 12-14/minute
- NERVOUS TWITCHING ALL OVER BODY
- Intermittent fever, extremities cold and flaccid with cold clammy skin
- Lymphangitis, whole area edematous and swollen
Common name – new saith water black spider
- Chronic blood poisoning, arrests the intense pain in pyeamia
- Great oedema of neighbor hood of wounds with paralysis of lower limbs
- Constant delusion of flying
- Vertigo with tendency to fall forward
- Sever violent burning pains/ malignant conditions with pyeamia. Septic states with pain and sleeplessness.
Common name -Black cuban spider.TINCTURE OF WHOLE SPIDER IS — USED.
Chorea is the most important feature . twitching of facial muscles. Hot flushed face , head jerks to one side. Unsteady gait twitching and jerking of arms and legs. Limbs drag when walking. Words jerked out when an effort is made to speak
Constant motion of whole body , uncontrollable movements of hands and legs usually night
Violent twitching and jerking which stops only during sleep
Agaricus – angular choreic movements/ Itching of eyelids and different parts of body as if frost bitten, eyelids are in constant
- Actea racemosa – left sided affections, associated with myalgia or rheumatism. Reflex affections of uterine displacement
- Tarentula hisp – chorea of right arm and legs stops during sleep
- Ignatia – chorea of emotional origin
- Zizia- choreic movements continues during steep
- Stramon – graceful gyratory movements, tongue protruded rapidly head thrown alternately backwards and forwards. Spasmodic twitching of body
- Scutellaria – chorea with night terrors and fear
- Sumbul – associated with cardiac irritability
- Zinc bromafcum causticum – chorea after suppressed eruptions in individuals of rheumatic diathesis
- Cup-metabolism- violent twitching of fascial muscles during sleep agg mornings
Delirious talk of business, depressed and despondent, restless at night with fear of death. weakness and tremulousness of whole body. Palpitation of heart with anxious expression and nausea
Chordee with protracted gonorrhea
Redness along course of lymphatic with anxiety and twitching of limbs. Local inflammation from foot to knee leaving large violet spots which changed to green in a few hours. Restlessness and constant motion of hands and feet.
Common name – Cuban spider, mygale cubensis, aranea peluda .Tincture of whole spider is used
Source -It is a large brown hairy spider found in Texas and south Carolina, There is an interesting story of this remedy as described by T.F. Allen. Tarentula cubensis was being shipped to london in a container with alchohol to preserve it . on the way the container broke alcohol ran out and the specimen decomposed. However a potency was made from it. So it is an important remedy for carbuncles boils and swellings
Haemotoxic – acts on Mood, so indicated for malignant suppurative conditions like carbuncles, felons abscess and
anthrax. Most severe types of inflammations and pains are met with by this remedy
- Periodicity -troubles occur at the same time every year
- Atrocious burning and stinging pains, violent, aggravated at night, patient is forced to get up and walk about
- Bluish purple hue of affected parts
- Early and persistent prostration in septic conditions and diphtheria
- Remedy for pains of death , soothes the last struggles
- Pthisis especially about the genitals.
- Restless feet
- Intermittent fever agg at night with septic chills,
- Remedy for plague as preventive and curative
- Lt sided chorea
- Whooping cough violence with dryness & hoarseness & and rawness of chest. After paroxysm gets out of breath
- Steep prevented by harsh cough
Malignant sappurative conditions like anthrax and carbuncle. felons ,abscess gangrene etc.red spots and pimples, bluish purple hue of affected parts. Carbuncles with atrocious burning pains. Abscess where pain and inflammation predominates, Scirurrhus cancer of breast, Senile ulcers.
Common name-orange spider, found in orange tree,
Tincture is prepared from live spider. There are 3 orange spots posterior and orange spot on belly. Highly poisonous. Produces highly sensitive nervous conditions with weakness trembling and anxiety
- Sensitive to noise , every shrill sound and reverberations penetrates her whole body especially teeth, increases vertigo which then causes nausea
- Vertigo with nausea and vomiting on least motion, agg by closing eyes
- Inclined to be startled
- Time passes too quickly. Desire to occupy himself though he finds peace in nothing.
- Aggravation- vibratory motions, w, step and closing eyes
- Headache if others walk over the floor, hypersensitive to noise agg from motion
- Hysteria, weakness coidness and trembling of whole body
- Bites point of tongue during sleep
- Constant desire to eat and drink but he does not know what to eat.
- Sea sickness of nervous women. They shut their eyes to get rid of the motion of the vessel Traveling and motion sickness
- Sensitiveness of spine, hyperasthesia, sits Sideways in a chair toavoid pressure of back of chair against spine.
- Pthisis florida – violent stitches high up in the left chest through toback. Oversensitive to all external Impressions esp noise, cracking of paper drives her to despair. Sensitive to light , jar and motion. Sensitive to touch.
- Canes and necrosis of bones/ rickets and scrofulous disorders of bones
- Pain in left floating ribs, cardiac anxiety and pain.
Common name – red acarus of the fiy
Specific in the treatment of dysentery. Symptom are agg by food or drink.
Much pain before and after stool, stool only after eating. Griping in hypochondria agg morning. Congestion of liver with urgent desire to stool on using. Brown thin bloody stools with tenesmus.
Salivation strabismus and tetanus
Common name – lycosa tarentula, tarentula ans Spanish spider
Tincture is prepared from live Spanish spider
Poisoning effects-Bite is painful and causes agitation and a state called tarentism or tarentcutism. Symptoms are either accompanied by an irresistible urge to dance with frantic agitation,
Tarentism which was impossible to control could be suppressed and cured by music with a strong rhythmic beat and fastness. The victim on hearing music will become excited and dance faster and faster till they felt down tired sweating and got rid of the poison.
Venom has affinity for motor and sensory functions of nervous system
resulting in severe restlessness and uncontrollable agitation. Extreme sensitivity and excitability of all senses, light and glazing colours aggravates, also noise fright aggravates.
Affects the circulatory system and lymphatic leading to congestion , cellulites and lymphadenitis.
Doctrine of signature in tarentula
1.Tarentuia hispania digs a vertical hole in the ground and covers l with the web so that it resembles the surroundings. Thus it lures its unsuspecting prey. Such Is the intelligence of the spider. Tarentula hispania patients are also extremely intelligent to the extend of being foxy and cunning.
2.The spider waits for its prey quietly and when the prey falls into its trap, it pounces on its prey with a sudden and violent attack and quickly goes back into its hole. This violence is seen in tarantula hispana patients in violent movements like twitching jerking and epilepsy. Tremulous violence in mental sphere also.
3.The spiders are well known for their amatory dance. During mating season the male spider dances a around the female.The female select one and kills and eat others. This violence and destructiveness ‘s seen in tarantula hispania patients also, They are active quick acting and very angry If contradicted. Very aggressive and progressing to a state of tearing clothes. Destructiveness more when he is being observed.
4.Spiders uses their webs to communicate with each other. A long string connects the legs of spiders. But the spider will not get caught in its own web although the strings are sticky. Here also we can see the cunning destructive nature of spider.
Tarentuia hispania patients are also very cumnning. They know how to get the things they want. They are great manipulators prone to lying and deception- Kleptomania and feigning sickness. Tarentuia hispania patients will often magnify their symptom for secondary gains.
5.Hurried nature of tarentuta hispania patients are attributed to the hurried activity in the nests or tarantula hispanias, Tarantula hispania patients are compelled to move about constantly. Lower extremities are most restless. Tosses about in bed , when he wakeup bed is in complete disarray. Restlessness with anxiety. Apprehension and feels as if something bad will happen. Hurried and annoyed if people in front of them walk slowly. Walks very fast or will often run out of their restless compulsion. Industrious effective and highly productive in their work. Their hurried nature can be attributed to the poison which hyperacceIe rates their nervous system
6.Tarentula hispania migrate annually through a town named tarentum. Spiders got their names tarentula from this town.
Patients bitten by spiders will have annual return of their symptom at same time but with decrease of violence. There is marked periodicity of symptoms.
Nervous and hysterical temperament with tendency to chorea, Foxy mental state manipulative and cunning. We can describe
tarentula hispania patients by two word VIOLENCE AND TORMENT- Suited esp to mobile restless patients who cannot stay quiet in one place and moves constancy- Women with changing contradictory personality. Change from happiness to melancholy and calm and gentile behavior to violence,
- Restlessness , can never sit still. Restless mentality and physically, keeps in constant motion even though motion
aggravates. Compelled to be busy.
- Sensitive to music / better by music and rhythm, massaging ,riding on horseback, dancing and rubbing. At first the patient is exited , later relief of complaints by dancing and perspiration
- Chorea and involuntary movements. Constant motion or different parts of body with special affinity to right arm and left leg. Movements stops only during sleep.
- Chilly, yet desire for and relieved in open air
- Aversion to colours red green and black
- Twitching of muscles nerves etc and startles from sleep
- Hysterical disposition, feigns sickness when observed, better when alone, sudden changes in mood. Selfish hateful foxy and cunning- Strange fancies with regard to colour. Aversion to all striking colours.
- Complaints recur at the same time or period annually
- Right sided complaints
- Hyperasthesia of skin , eyes, genitals and fingertips
- Sudden attacks of chorea/ constriction
- Different parts takes a purplish hue
- Nymphomania, increased sexual desire going to a state of mania
Hysteria and foxiness when she finds people observing her she feigns all sort of sickness like fainting and other manipulations. Feigning , demeanour, shy but actually very cunning.
Destructiveness, insanity violent and destructive/ injure herself or others and at last says sorry and apologize- Always ‘n motion, compulsive mania, doesn’t want others sitting quietly and lazy. She drives them and make them do something. Kleptomania. Anorexia nervosa, because of fear that she will put on weight.
Music- great sensitiveness to music, ail complaints are relieved by music. Anxiety felt in stomach. Sudden alterations of mood.
Dr Rajitha K.N BHMS,MD(Hom)
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College. Trivandrum,Kerala
Email : [email protected]