Last moment revision in Vitamins and Minerals

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Last moment revision in Vitamin and Minerals
Dr.Kamaljeet Kaur Sidhu {BHMS}

 Deficiency diseases and Sources of Nutrients: Nutrient Constituent Deficiency Diseases Sources Daily Requirements
Vitamin A Retinol, Retinoic Acid, Beta-Carotene Night-blindness Carrots, Papaya, Milk, Cheese, Fish Liver Oil, Green Vegetables etc. 900 mcg/day for male

700 mcg/day female

Vitamin B1 Thiamine Beriberi Brewer’s Yeast, Whole Grain, Oatmeal, Legumes, Peanuts, Dried Soybean, Sunflower Seeds etc. 1.2 mg/day male

1.1 mg?day female

Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Ariboflavinosis Beef Liver, Lamb, Milk, Mushroom, Spinach, Almonds etc. 1.3 mg/day male

1.1 mg/day female

Vitamin B3 Niacin or Nicotinic Acid Pellagra Tuna, Chicken, Turkey, Mushrooms , Bacon, Broccoli, Veal etc. 16 mg/day male

14 mg/day females

Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid Acne, Paresthesia Chicken Liver, Sunflower Seeds, Salmon, Avocados, Corn, Broccoli, Mushroom etc. 5 mg/day
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine Dandruff-like eruptions, Pink eye, Epilepsy Fish, Beef Liver, Potatoes & other starchy vegetables, Fruit (other than citrus) etc. 1.3 mg /day male &female
Vitamin B7 Biotin Growth & Neurological Disorders in Infants Raw Egg Yolk, Liver, Peanuts, Yeast, Whole-wheat Bread, Cheddar Cheese, Pork etc. 30 mcg/day
Vitamin B9 Folic Acid Macrocytic Anaemia, Birth Defects Dark Leafy Greens like Spinach, Asparagus, Broccoli, Citrus Fruits, Beans, Peas, Lentils, Avocados etc. 400 mcg /day male

600 mcg /day female

Vitamin B12 Various Cobalamins Macrocytic Anaemia, Memory Loss, Pernicious Anaemia, Mania, Psychosis, Paralysis Seafood, Beef, Chicken, Eggs etc. 2.4 mcg/day
Vitamin C L-Ascorbic Acid Scurvy Amla, Guava, Chillis, Kiwi, Broccoli, Orange, Papaya, Lemon, etc. 90 mg/day male

75 mg/day female

Vitamin D Calciferol (D2) & Cholecalciferol (D3) Rickets, Osteomalacia Sunlight, Mushrooms, Alfalfa, Fish Liver Oils, Cooked Egg Yolk, etc. 15 mcg/day

10-15 min. sunlight without sunscreen in morning.

Vitamin E Tochopherols & Tocotrienols Red Blood Cell Destruction, Ataxia, Retinopathy, Peripheral Neuropathy, Reproductive Failure Wheat Germ Oil, Canola Oil, Sunflower Oil, Almond Oil, Hazelnuts, Peanuts etc. Not more than 15 mcg/day
Essential Fatty Acids Omega 3 (Alpha Linolenic Acid) and Omega 6 (Linolenic Acid) Several bodily processes afflicted, Skin Ailments Fish Oils, Flaxseed Oil, Hemp Oil, Olive Oil, Pumpkin Seeds, Leafy Vegetables etc.
Vitamin K Phylloquinone (K1), Menaquinone (K2) Lack of Clotting of Blood, Lack of Tissue Renewal Green Leafy Vegetables etc.
Iron Anaemia, Arrhythmia Bananas, Apple, Green Vegetables, Broccoli, Beans, Pumpkin Seeds etc.
Potassium High Blood Pressure, Arrhythmia, Muscle Weakness, Myalgia, Muscle Cramps, Constipation, Respiratory Depression, Paralysis Meat, Milk, Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains etc.
Calcium Osteoporosis, Hypocalcemia, Ostopenia Milk and Milk Products, Eggs, Wheatgrass etc.
Magnesium Deterioration of Metabolism & Cellular Functioning, Heart Attacks, Insulin Resistance Nuts and Seeds, Green Vegetables, Dark Chocolate, Whole Grains etc.
Sodium Cognitive Impairment, Headaches, Nausea, Seizure, Coma, Electrolytic Imbalance Salt, Fish, Meat, Vegetables etc.
Chlorine Salt, Milk, Meats, Vegetables etc.
Phosphorous Meat, Fish, Poultry, Eggs, Milk, Bananas etc.
Iodine Goitre, Cretinism, Deterioration of Metabolism & cellular Functioning Iodised Salt, Sea Food, Green vegetables,Raw milk,Eggs etc.
Protein Kwashiorkor Meat, Seafood, Eggs, Pulses & Legumes, Milk & Milk Products etc.
Protein-Energy Marasmus Grains, Pulses & Legumes, Meat, Milk & Milk Products, Eggs, Seafood etc.
  • IMPORTANT POINTS:-
  • Vitamin A,E,K are fat soluble vitamins.
  • Vitamin B,C are water soluble vitamins
  • NIGHT BLINDNESS:- caused by vitamin A deficiency.Patient is unable to see in night or less light .
  • BERI-BERI:-  caused by  vitamin B-1 deficiency, also known as thiamine deficiency.

There are two types of the disease: wet beriberi  and dry beriberi.
Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. In extreme cases, wet beriberi can cause heart failure. Dry beriberi damages the nerves and can lead to decreased muscle strength and eventually, muscle paralysis.

Today, beriberi mostly occurs in people with an alcohol use disorder

Wet beriberi symptoms include:

  • shortness of breath during physical activity
  • waking up short of breath
  • rapid heart rate
  • swollen lower legs

Dry beriberi symptoms include:

  • decreased muscle function, particularly in the lower legs
  • tingling or loss of feeling in the feet and hands
  • pain
  • mental confusion
  • difficulty speaking
  • vomiting
  • involuntary eye movement
  • paralysis

In extreme cases, beriberi is associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are two forms of brain damage caused by thiamine deficiency.

Wernicke encephalopathy damages regions of the brain called the thalamus and hypothalamus. This condition can cause:

  • confusion
  • memory loss
  • loss of muscle coordination
  • visual problems such as rapid eye movement and double vision

Korsakoff syndrome is the result of permanent damage to the region of the brain where memories form. It can cause:

  • loss of memory
  • inability to form new memories
  • hallucination

PELLAGRA

4-D’s related to it are:-

Diarrhea,dermatitis,dementia,death. Caused by Vit .B3 deficiency.

SCURVY:- Caused by Vit. C deficiency

Sign –symptoms:-

Pain areas: in the joints, bones, or muscles

Whole body: fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, or malaise

Skin: rash of small purplish spots, rashes, or red spots

Also common: bleeding gums, bruising, coiled hair, failure to thrive, irritability, joint swelling, muscle weakness, poor wound healing, swollen gums, tooth loss, or weight loss.