Loganiaceae are a family of Flowering plants classified in Order gentianales.
The family includes 13 genera,Distributed around the world’sTropics.
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with opposite, entire leaves connected by stipules or a stipular line, and with regular 4-5 flowers.
Used as arrow poison olden in days.
- Nux Vomica
- Curare Upas Tiente
- Hoang Nan
- Brucea Anti dysentrica
- Brucine (brucia)
- Hyper – reflexia produces over sensitivity, irritabilityViolent fitful convulsions, neuralgias.
- Blocks the action of neuro-transmitters.
Exhaustion & paralysis
- Fainting, hysteria, destructiveness,Suicidal tendency.
Sphere of action:
- Central nervous system, nerves.
- Gastro intestinal tract
- Resp. System
Patho-physiology on different systems:
- Stupefies mind,
- Relaxes sphincters,
- Paralysis of resp. Centers -Difficult, labored breathing.
- On nerves —Neuralgias, sharp, stitching pains, ptosis
- Acts on vasomotor nerves ,
- Leading to passive congestion
- Decreased action of smoothmuscles
- Irritation of mm, sluggish peristaltic action, ineffectual urging,
- Congestion resulting in protrusion of piles
- Increased bile production leading to bilious vomiting
- Constitution -Pale, anaemic, Dark skin, black hair
- Temperament – Nervous, irritable, hysterical temperament
- Diathesis – Rheumatic and gouty diathesis
- Miasm – Psora
- Thermal – Chilly
- torn to pieces
- shock is so sudden so as to paralyze the person
- paralyzed, I cannot move
- cannot weep
Two types of action
1. Hyper reflexia
2. Exhaustion & paralysis & death from it
1) Hypersensitivity- to External impressions, Jar, Motion, odor, Touch
2) Emotional excitability—slightest of emotion Aggravates general status,
< stress, over joy, sorrow ,Grief & unfortunate love
3)Nervousness- Extremely nervous before exams, Public appearances, Interviews, Poor concentration
4) Irritability—slightest of emotion irritates. Irritability increased by excitement from stimuli, alcohol, coffee, tobacco, light, odour, noise etc
5) Fears – of Darkness, being alone,Failures,Bad news (accidents)
6) Brooding- over past gloomy events, loves solitude, does not want anyone’s company
7) Wants to be left alone – talks to one’s ownself when alone.
8) Suicidal thoughts– wants to commit suicide but lacks courage to do that.
9) Easily angered-very excitable, quarrelsome, very abusive, uses bad language
10) Fault finding- finds fault with everything, nothing satisfies with him
11) Intolerance to contradiction-least contradiction < mental & physical complaints
12) Hysterical manifestations– Hysterical unconsciousness,Hysterical Women, Globus hystericus, hysterical Loss of voice
13) paralysis at the level of mind& intellect –exhaustion, desire to be quiet, aversion company, sight of people <, dipsomania
14) Silent grief
COMMON PHYSICAL FEATURES
1. Paralytic action: sluggishness, weakness & muscular paralysis, gradual paralysis of organs & systems, drooping of eyelids(gels, curare), diplopia
many medicines of this family has prominent action upon spinal cord. They act as depressants and has a paralysing action upon motor nerves with sparing of sensations.
2. Spasmodic affection:
most of them are useful in spasms, convulsion, tetanus with lock jaw, chorea etc.
3. Neuralgic pain– ciliary neuralgia– sharp , stitching pain
4. Fever with predominance of chill state
5. Tobacco aggravation-aversion to tobacco
gels: tobacco smoking causes occipital headache. Indicated in nervous affections of cigar makers.
Ignatia: cannot bear tobacco in any form. Toothache and congestive headache aggravated after smoking.
Nuxvomica: gastric disturbances from tobacco.
Spigelia: toothache from smoking. Repugnance to tobacco smoke and snuff.
6. Aggravation of complaints from coffee
Ignatia: <from coffee
Nuxvomica: Dyspepsia from drinking strong coffee.
Spigelia: Disike for Coffee.
An exception is Geisemium which has > from alcoholic stimulants.
7. Genarel aggravation during summer season
Brucea: Headache in the evening, after having walked long in sun
Gelsemium: General depression from heat of sun. Occipital headache. spreading all over with dim vision and dizziness.
Spigelia: Headache increasing and decreasing with the sun.
Nuxvomica: Headache aggravated from sunshine.
8. Aggravation from change of weather
gelsemium: complaints from sudden change from hot or dry to damp weather<damp, cold atmosphere.
Spigelia: sensitive to wet, stormy weather.
Nuxvomica: though sensitive to cold the general< in dry weather> in wet weather.
9. Action on cardiovascular system:
gelemium: irregular beating of heart; sensation as if unless on the , go the heart will stop beating. A feeling as if it were necessary to keep in motion or else hearts action would cease to beat. Pulse soft, feeble and slow but greatly accelerated on motion.
10. Action upon urinary organs- partial paralysis of bladder with ineffectual urging for stool, irritable bladder
11. Action on genitalia- Irregularities of menses, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, suppressed menses from grief, spermatorrhoea from grief
1. Aggravation:12. Action on digestive organs: gastric irritation with ineffectual desire for stool, heavy feeling in stomach after eating, sensitive abdomen
- Sudden joy (excitement)
- Slightest motion
- Mental exertion
- Early morning
Generally all complaints in this group start early in the morning, increases through day subside in the evening
Reflex action is diminished or abolished (opp. Nux-v.) and this is one great indication for its employment in homeopathic practice.
Muscular paralysis without impairing sensation or consciousness. Paralysis of respiratory muscles. Debility of the aged, (Bar-c.) and from
loss of fluids. Catalepsy. Nervous debility. Trismus. Glycosuria with motor paralysis. Curare decreases the output of adrenalin. Vomiting of bile in cirrhosis of liver.
Paralysis, facial, mouth, threatening respiration.
Reflex action is diminished or abolished.
Discharges are fetid. Diabetes mellitus. Catalepsy. Leprosy.
Sensation as if the brain were full of fluid. As of a heavy weight hung to the parts–arms, legs etc.
Many symptoms appear on right side.
Alkaloid of Nux Vomica (STRYCHNINUM)
- Its primary function is to stimulate the motor centers and the reflex action of the spinal cord.
- Homeopathic to spasms of muscles, cramps from an undue reflex excitability of the cord, spasms of the bladder, etc.
- Stimulates the central nervous system, mental activities, special senses rendered more acute.
- Respiration increased. All reflexes are made more active. Stiffness in muscles and face and neck.
- The muscles relax between paroxysms
- Worse slightest touch, sound, odor.
- Influences more directly the spinal cord and is less appropriate in visceral derangements than Nux.
- The pains and sensations come suddenly and return at intervals.
STRYCHNOS GAULTHERIANA– HOANG-NAN
It has a great local reputation as being a remedy for leprosy, hydrophobia and snake bites.
In animals poisoned with it, we notice tetanic convulsions beginning in the hind legs and thence spreading over the rest of the body.
In homoeopathy its use is confined to carbuncles, leprosy and syphilis, but it should be strictly remembered that its application is based on the universal principle of similia, the same as in other remedies.
Removes fetor and haemorrhage in cancer, revives the healing process.
* Follows Arsenic.
Although the brucea symptoms are similar to the pathogenesis of nux-v. The bark has been experimented with independently. Brucea contains strychnine and the symptoms are included in the pathogenesis of strychninum and nux vomica.
- The homeopathic preparation of nux-v. Is, however, prepared from the seed.
- Paralyzed lower limbs, worse least touch, cries for fear of being touched.
- Tetanic spasms with undisturbed consciousness, worse from noise or liquids.
- Painful jerking of legs, cramp-like pain in knees, rigid and lame limbs of paralytics.
- For the pain in the passing of kidney stones or gallstones.
One characteristic symptom of brucea antidysenterica is “headache with extreme drowsiness, disappearing in evening.” another is: “sensation of throbbing in pit of stomach and in entire abdomen.”
Nux vomica–Poison nut.
Adapted to thin, irritable, careful, zealous persons with dark hair and bilious or sanguine temperament. Disposed to be quarrelsome, spiteful, malicious; nervous and melancholic.
- Debauchers of a thin, irritable, nervous disposition : prone to indigestion and haemorrhoids (persons with light hair, blue eyes, lob.).
- “Nux is chiefly successful with persons of an ardent character; of an irritable, impatient temperament, disposed to anger, spite or deception.”-Hahnemann.
- Anxiety with irritability and inclination to commit suicide, but is afraid to die.
- Hypochondriac: literary, studious persons, who are too much at home, suffer from want of exercise, with gastric, abdominal complaints and costiveness; especially in drunkards.
- Oversensitive: to external impressions; to noise, odors, light or music (nux m.); trifling ailments are unbearable (cham.); every harmless word offends (ign.).
- Persons who are very particular, careful, but inclined to become easily excited or angered: irascible and tenacious.
- Bad effects of : coffee, tobacco, alcoholic stimulants; highly spiced or seasoned food; over-eating (ant. c.); long-continued mental over-exertion; sedentary habits; loss of sleep (coc., colch., nit. Ac.); aromatic or patent medicine; sitting on cold stones, especially in warm weather.
- One of the best remedies with which to commence treatment of cases that have been drugged by mixtures, bitters, vegetable pills, nostrums or quack remedies, especially aromatic or “hot medicines, ” but only if symptoms correspond.
- Convulsions, with consciousness (strych.); < anger, emotion, touch, motion
- Pains are tingling, sticking, hard, aching, worse from motion and contact.
- Tendency to faint (nux m., sulph.); from odors; in morning; after eating; after every labor pain.
- Cannot keep from falling asleep in the evening while sitting or reading hours before bedtime, and awakes at 3 or 4 a.m. ; falls into a dreamy sleep at daybreak from which he is hard to arouse, and then feels tired and weak (reverse of, puls.).
- Catarrh: snuffles of infants (am. c., samb.); coryza, dry at night, fluent by day; < in warm room, >> in cold air; from sitting in cold places, on stone steps.
- Eructation: sour, bitter; nausea and vomiting every morning with depression of spirits; after eating.
- Nausea: constant; after eating; in morning; from smoking; and feels “if i could only vomit i would be so much better.”
- Stomach : pressure an hour or two after eating as from a stone (immediately after, kali bi., nux m.); pyrosis, tightness, must loosen clothing; cannot use the mind for two or three hours after a meal; sleepy after dinner; from anxiety, worry, brandy, coffee, drugs, night watching, high living, etc.
- Constipation; with frequent unsuccessful desire, passing small quantities of faeces (in upper abdomen, ign., ver.); sensation as if not finished.
- Ffrequent desire for stool; anxious, ineffectual, >> for a time after stool; in morning after rising; after mental exertion (inactive, no desire, bry., op., sulph.).
- Alternate constipation and diarrhoea (sulph., ver.), in persons who have taken purgatives all their lives.
- Menses : too early, profuse, lasts too long; or keeping on several days longer, with complaints at onset and remaining after; every two weeks; irregular, never at right time; stopping and starting again (sulph.); during and after, < of old symptoms.
- Labor pains : violent, spasmodic; cause urging to stool or to urinate; < in back; prefers a warm room.
- Strangulated hernia, especially umbilical.
- Backache: must sit up or turn over in bed; lumbago; from sexual weakness, from masturbation.
- Repugnance to cold or to cold air; chilly, on least movement; from being uncovered; must be covered in every stage of fever– chill, heat or sweat.
- Fever : great heat, whole body burning hot (acon.), face red and hot (bell.), yet patient cannot move or uncover without being chilly.
- Relations. Complementary : sulphur in nearly all diseases.
- Inimical : to, zinc.; must not be used before or after.
- Follows well : after, ars., ipec., phos., sep., sulph.
- Is followed well : by, bry., puls., sulph.
- Nux should be given on retiring or, what is better, several hours before going to bed; it acts best during repose of mind and body.
- Aggravation. Morning; waking at 4 a.m. ; mental exertion; after eating or over-eating; touch, noise, anger, spices, narcotics, dry weather; in cold air.
- Aamelioration. In evening, while at rest; lying down, and in damp wet weather (caust.).
Ignatia amara—St. Ignatius bean.
Especially suited to nervous temperament; women of a sensitive, easily excited nature; dark hair and skin but mild disposition, quick to perceive, rapid in execution. In striking contrast with the fair complexion, yielding, lachrymose, but slow and indecisive, pulsatilla.
- The remedy of great contradictions
- Bad effects of anger, grief, or disappointed love (cal. p., hyos.); broods in solitude over imaginary trouble
- Headache, as if a nail was driven out through the side, relieved by lying on it (Coff., Nux, Thuja).
- Cannot bear tobacco; smoking or being in tobacco smoke, produces or aggravates headache.
- Oversensitiveness to pain (Coff., Cham.).
- Constipation: from carriage riding; of a paralytic origin; with excessive urging, felt more in upper abdomen (Ver.); with great pain, dreads to go to closet; in women who are habitual coffee drinkers.
- Prolapsus ani from moderate straining at stool, stooping or lifting (Nit. ac., Pod., Ruta); < when the stool is loose.
- Haemorrhoids: prolapse with every stool, have to be replaced; sharp stitches shoot up the rectum (Nit. a.); < for hours after stool (Rat., Sulph.).
- Fever: red face during chill (Fer.); chill with thirst, during chill only; >> by external heat; heat without thirst, < by covering (>> by covering, Nux).
- The bad effects of Ign. are antidoted by Puls.
- Aggravation. From tobacco, coffee, brandy, contact, motion, strong odors, mental emotions, grief.
- Amelioration. Warmth, hard pressure (Cinch.); swallowing, walking.
- Yellow jasmine.
- Complete relaxation and prostration of whole muscular system, with entire motor paralysis.
- Bad effects from fright, fear, exciting news and sudden emotions (Ign.- from pleasant surprise, Coff.).
- Headache : preceded by blindness (Kali bi.), >> by profuse urination.
- Lack of muscular co-ordination; confused; muscles refuse to obey the will.
- Headache : beginning in the cervical spine; pains extend over the head, causing a bursting sensation in forehead and eyeballs (Sang., Sil., begins in same way, but semi-lateral); < by mental exertion; from smoking; heat of sun; lying with head low.
- Sensation of band around the head above eyes (Carb. ac., Sulph.); scalp sore to touch.
- Fears that unless on the move heart will cease beating (fears it would cease beating if she moved, Dig.).
- Slow pulse of old age.
- Great heaviness of the eyelids; cannot keep them open (Caust., Graph., Sep.).
- Chill without thirst, especially along the spine, running up and down the back in rapid, wave-like succession from sacrum to occiput.
- Relations. Compare : Bap. in threatening typhoid fever; Ipecac. in dumb ague, after suppression by quinine.
- Aggravation. Damp weather; before a thunderstorm; mental emotion or excitement; bad news; tobacco smoking; when thinking of his ailments; when spoken to of his loss.
- Adapted to anaemic debilitated subjects of rheumatic diathesis; to scrofulous children afflicted with ascarides and lumbrici (Cina, Stan.).
- Persons with light hair; pale, thin, bloated, weak; wrinkled, yellow, earthy skin.
- Body painfully sensitive to touch; part touched feels chilly; touch sends shudder through the whole frame (Kali c.).
- Afraid of sharp, pointed things, pins, needles, etc.
- Rheumatic affections of heart (Kali, Led., Naja); systolic blowing at apex. Aneurism.
- Nervous headache; periodical, beginning in morning at base of brain, spreading over the head and locating in eye, orbit at temple of left side (right side, Sang., Sil.); pain pulsating, violent, throbbing.
- Headache; at sunrise, at its height at noon, declines till sunset (Nat. m., Tab.).
- Sensation : as if eyes were too large for the orbits (Act., Com.); sensitive to touch; as if a band around head (Cac., Carb. ac., Sulph.).
- Copious offensive mucus from posterior nares, drops into throat, causing choking at night (Hydr.).
- Sharp, stabbing, sticking pains through eyeballs back into the head; from cold, damp, rainy weather.
- Prosopalgia : periodical, left-sided, orbit, eye, malar bone, teeth; from morning until sunset; pain tearing, burning, cheek dark red; during cold, rainy weather; from tea.
- Toothache from tobacco smoking; >> only on lying down and while eating (Plan.); worse from cold air and water; returns from thinking about it.
- Scirrhus of sigmoid or rectum, atrocious unbearable pain (Alumen).
- Dyspnoea : must lie on right side or with head high (Cac., Spong.); pains in chest are stitching, needle-like.
- Chest affections with stitching pains synchronous with pulse, < from motion, < cold, wet weather.
- Palpitation : violent, visible and audible; from least motion; when bending forward; systolic blowing at apex.
- Stammering, repeats first syllable three or four times; with abdominal ailments; with helminthiasis.
- Aggravation. From motion, noise, touch, turning the eyes; from every shaking; commotion, or concussion.
- Amelioration. Lying on right side, with the head high (Ars., Cac., Spong.).