Prof. D N Sansanwal
Gurukul System of Education was in vogue in India. The main characteristics of Gurukul System were dedicated and knowledgeable teachers, individualized and learner centre teaching, and self-motivated students eager to learn. This system changed due to increase in number of students. Consequently, the number of teachers increased. Some teachers are born but rests of them have to be given rigorous training so as to develop required competency to become a teacher.
Teachers have been conscious about the quality of their teaching. To enhance the quality, some teachers use teaching aids, like, charts, models – static & working, specimen, slides, etc. because teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids. It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A – V Aids during teaching. The use of A – V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated persons becoming teachers.
Central Government realized the need of improving quality of education through the use of Television wherein most competent teacher teaches the topic with the help of most appropriate teaching aids. This helped in improving the quality of teaching in schools having no teacher to teach the subject, less competent teacher, schools having poor or no facility of teaching aids, etc. Programmes offered through television were produced by different State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) in different languages. Even the Video Instructional Materials were produced and made available to teachers; still majority of schools did not make use of them. Some of the reasons were no facility of TV and VCR, no electricity, TV and VCR not in working condition, not incorporated in the time table, lack of initiation on the part of teacher and Principal, etc. Along with A – V Aids, the print media has to go a long way in improving the quality of teaching and learning. Format in which the textbooks were written was not beneficial for teachers and students. Researchers started thinking and using different Theories of Learning for developing Instructional Material. This gives birth to Programmed Learning Material based on Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning. Programmed Learning Materials were compared with that of Lecture Method or Conventional Method. Programmed Learning Material alone as well as in combination with other methods for teaching different subjects was found to be effective in terms of achievement of students (Bhushan, 1973; Dewal, 1974; Pandya, 1974; Shitole, 1976; Kuruvilla, 1977; Patel, 1977; Sodhi, 1977; Verma, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mullick, 1979; Parlikar, 1979; Shah, 1979; Pandey, 1980; Seshadri, 1980; Shah, 1980; Trivedi, 1980; Inamdar, 1981; Man, 1981; Mavi, 1981; Suthar, 1981; Davies, 1982; Ravindranath, 1982; Menon, 1984; Choudhary, 1985; Gautam, 1986; Joshi, 1988; Thaker, 1993; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; Pandit, 2003; Dubey, 2004 & Kaur, 2005). PLM was found to be as effective as Structured Lecture Method in terms of achievement of students (Chandrakala, 1976; Govinda, 1976). Lecture Method was found more effective than Demonstration Method and Programmed Learning Method (Ghetiya, 1999). Also students expressed favourable opinion towards PLM (Govinda, 1976; Chauhan, 1973; Kuruvilla, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mavi, 1981; Davies, 1982; Menon, 1984; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; and Kaur, 2005). In addition to it, the developed Instructional Material was found to be significantly effective in enhancing creativity (Sharma, 1995), in developing better understanding about environment (Sharma, 2005) and in enhancing Reading Skills amongst students (Danikhel, 1998) and Reasoning amongst students (Suri, 2002). The findings of researches were in favour of Programmed Learning Material (PLM). The PLMs are no more in use because the development of PLM is tedious as well as costly and time consuming. The format of PLM has under gone a change along with name. Consequently, Modules were developed in particular format. At present, the Print Instructional Materials used in different Programmes offered by Open Universities are in Module format. All above mention efforts could not improve the quality of teaching to the level of satisfaction of teachers, students, parents and other stakeholders. Search is on for most effective tools to be used by teachers for quality education.
— USE OF COMPUTER
The lust for quality is still on. This is the age of INFORMATION dominated by the Digital Technology. The Digital Technology has influenced all aspects of human life. Education is not an exception. Now the technology is in the process of change from Digital to Photon. Shortly Photonic Technology will be available for the use of the society. At present majority of devices are based on Digital Technology. One such device is Computer. The Computer is an electronic device that has the capacity to store, retrieve & process both qualitative & quantitative information fast and accurately. The computers were never developed for improving quality of teaching – learning process. But researchers started using Computers for teaching purpose. It gave birth to Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Computer Based Instruction (CBI), etc. People started developing CAI for teaching different subjects at School as well as Higher Education level. The developed CAIs were compared with the Lecture Method / Traditional Method and found that the developed CAIs were significantly superior to Lecture Method / Traditional Method in teaching different subjects (Hayes, 1987; Perkins, 1987; Cates, 1988; Cohen, 1988; Karvelis, 1988; Lawson, 1988; Yates, 1988; Bonk, 1989; Conlin, 1989; Drexell, 1989; Fillingim, 1989; Isler-Hamilies, 1989; Koza, 1989; and Prabhakar, 1995) Further, the Traditional method of Teaching was found to be more effective in comparison to CAI (Hulick, 1987; Oates, 1988; Cosmos, 1988; Benson, 1989; Park, 1990; and Clem, 1990). The Model of Supplemental CAI was found to be effective in improving educable mentally handicapped students’ achievement in Mathematics and Spelling (Ankney, 1987). Language Impaired Children benefited from written format, like, dialogue with a computer (Ward, 1987). Setting goals, following instructions, accessing information to accomplish the task, and evaluating performance benefited students with learning disabilities when they were engaged with CAI activities (McPherson, 1991). Older Adults successfully used the computer and were able to improve their knowledge about Health with a CAI lesson (McNeely, 1988). CAI was effective in Language acquisition (Edfelt, 1989) and teaching abbreviation (Edward, 1989). CAI had a positive impact on reading comprehension for average reader but not for learning disabled readers (Trahan, 1989). CAI, Tutorial Retrieval Text, and Programmed Lecture were equally effective in promoting learning (Whitakar, 1990). Use of software improved achievement in learning calculus and did not cause damaging effects when access was denied (Cunningham, 1991). CAI was found to be effective in terms of achievement of Science Process Skills (Vensel, 1988), in increasing Meta-cognitive Writing Skills (Bonk et al., 1989), in teaching reference skills to seventh grade students (Driscoll, 1990), in increasing the rate of the acquisition of School Readiness Skills of pre-school children (Legenhausen, 1991) and in improving writing skill (Powell-Hart, 1992). In spite of benefit of CAI in different aspects of learning, CAI has not entered into the Classrooms as most of the developed CAIs were not based on sound Theories of Learning. People involved in developing CAI were not having the sound base of Instructional Design. Secondly, the courses are changing, the schools also do not have sufficient computer facility, teachers are not trained in the use of CAI, etc. The use of Computers was not only for teaching but also for Psychological Testing, Evaluation; database Management, Library Management, etc.
Networking of computers gave birth to Information Technology (IT). UNESCO considered Information Technology as “Scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and management techniques used in information handling and processing, their application, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and associated social, economical and cultural matters”. According to Smith & Cambell (1982), a mosaic of technologies, products and techniques have combined to provide new electronic dimensions to information management. This mosaic is known by the name of Information Technology. OECD (1987) treated Information Technology as “a term – used to cover technologies used in the collection, processing and transmission of information. It includes micro-electronic and info-electronic based technologies incorporated in many products and production processes and increasingly affecting the service sector. It covers inter alias computers, electronic office equipment, telecommunication, industrial robot and computer controlled machine, electronic components and software products.”
Darnton and Giacoletto (1992) defined IT as the systematic study of artifacts that can be used to give form or description to facts in order to provide meaning or support for decision making, and artifacts that can be used for the organization, processing, communication and application of information. Sansanwal (2000) defined IT as the use of hardware and software for efficient management of information, i.e storage, retrieval, processing, communication, diffusion and sharing of information for social, economical and cultural upliftment.
The Information Technology leads to development of Websites. Government, Corporate sector, educational institutions, etc. started uploading the information on their websites. It provides facilities for Chat, e-mail, surfing, etc. It opens up a new source of information which increased the limitation of access to information. Prior to IT, people were using only the print material for searching the information. It limited the search. This limitation has been overcome by the IT.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with ease and fast. But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any other media is also to be transmitted to the users. Thus, the ICT = IT + Other media. It has opened new avenues, like, Online learning, e-learning, Virtual University, e-coaching, e-education, e-journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in imparting information fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can access it anywhere. It will be cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. It has broken the monotony and provided variety in the teaching – learning situation. The ICT being latest, it can be used both at school and higher education levels in the following areas:
- Diagnostic Testing
- Remedial Teaching
- Psychological Testing
- Development of Virtual Laboratory
- Online Tutoring
- Development of Reasoning & Thinking
- Instructional Material Development
— USE OF ICT IN TEACHING
Teaching at School as well as Higher Education, mostly, concentrates on giving information which is not the sole objective of Teaching. Along with giving information, the other objectives are:
- developing understanding and application of the concepts
- developing expression power
- developing reasoning and thinking power
- development of judgment and decision making ability
- improving comprehension, speed and vocabulary
- developing self-concept and value clarification
- developing proper study habits
- developing tolerance and ambiguity, risk taking capacity, scientific temper, etc.
With the present infrastructure, class size, availability of teachers, quality of teachers, training of teachers, etc., it is difficult to achieve all the objectives. Further, most of the teachers use Lecture Method which does not have potentiality of achieving majority of above mentioned objectives. The objectives are multi-dimensional in nature, so for their achievement multiple methods should be used in an integrated fashion. At present ICT may be of some use. It is a well known fact that not a single teacher is capable of giving up to date and complete information in his own subject. The ICT can fill this gap because it can provide access to different sources of information. It will provide correct information as comprehensive as possible in different formats with different examples. ICT provides Online interaction facility. Students and teachers can exchange their ideas and views, and get clarification on any topic from different experts, practitioners, etc. It helps learners to broaden the information base. ICT provides variety in the presentation of content which helps learners in concentration, better understanding, and long retention of information which is not possible otherwise. The learners can get opportunity to work on any live project with learners and experts from other countries. The super highway and cyber space also help in qualitative improvement of Teaching – Learning Process. ICT provides flexibility to learners which is denied by the traditional process and method. Flexibility is a must for mastery learning and quality learning.
On INTERNET many websites are available freely which may be utilized by teachers and students for understanding different concepts, improving vocabulary, developing Reasoning & Thinking, etc. ICT can help in preparing students for SAT, GRE, TOEFL, etc.
— USE OF ICT IN DIAGNOSTIC TESTING
The common observation is that the quality of teaching in the classroom is on the decline. More and more students are depending on the private tutorial classes. The private tuition also has become a business. This phenomenon is not only in India but in other countries too. There are about 800 students from USA who have enrolled themselves for Private tuition in Mathematics. It means tuitions are also being outsourced. This is being done through the use of ICT. There are students who fail to understand certain concepts or retain certain information. This can be assessed by introducing the diagnosis in the process of teaching – learning. Today, t his is not being done. The reasons might be large class size, non-availability of diagnostic tests in different subjects, lack of training, money and desire on the part of teacher, etc. This is the age of technology. These difficulties can be easily over come with the help of ICT. Sansanwal (2005) developed Computer Based Diagnostic Testing in Mathematics and Sansanwal and Lulla (2007) developed Computer Based Diagnostic Testing in Chemistry. Both these were tried out in CBSE affiliated schools situated in Indore. These developed Computer Based Diagnostic Tests work well and helped the teachers as well as students in identifying the gray area of each and every student. This can be put on the website of the school and the student can access it from home also. The student can prepare the topic / chapter and can take the test to find exactly what he has not understood? The teacher cannot do this manually. The student progress can be monitored and his performance can be improved. This will develop confidence in students and may change their attitude towards the subject. It may also help in reducing the suicidal tendency among students. Students may start enjoying learning. Further, the following are the main advantages of Computer Based Diagnostic Test.
- They do not require any special setting or arrangement. The only requirement is computer systems and software.
- The student can use it even from home if made available on school website.
- They do not need any special assistance from teacher. Unlike the paper-pencil test, it does not require paper setting and paper correction on the part of the teacher.
- It saves time on the part of the teacher and students.
- The feedback is given immediately after the test is over, which gives an intrinsic reinforcement to the student.
- The student finds it more interesting and motivating as compared to the paper-pencil diagnostic test.
- It can be updated from time to time.
- It is economical in terms of money as it requires only one time investment.
There are some limitations of Computer Based Diagnostic Testing (CBDT). These are as follows:
- The learner might find it uninteresting or monotonous as compared to paper pencil test.
- The teacher might find CBDT difficult to administer if he / she is not a computer savvy.
- It faces certain constraints, like, power cut, when it is being administered.
- The learner might not take it seriously as he / she is used to the traditional paper and pencil tests.
- The development of CBDT is costly and tedious as compared to paper and pencil test.
- The use of CBDT requires many computers which may not be available in all the schools.
- The learners who are not computer friendly might not feel at ease while giving the test on Computer.
- Certain technical problems might crop up which can distract the learner while giving the test.
- All teachers may not be competent to develop diagnostic test and especially CBDT.
- Teacher may not know computer languages that may be used for developing CBDT.
— USE OF ICT IN REMEDIAL TEACHING
Once the ICT is used for diagnosis purpose, the next step is to organize Remedial Teaching Programme. The Remedial Teaching can be done by the teacher if some common mistakes are identified. It may not be feasible to organize Remedial programme for individual students. At this point, the ICT can be used for giving individual Remedial Programme. It may be Online or off line. The instructional material if designed specifically for meeting the individual needs of students and uploaded on the School website and then the ICT can be used for providing Remedial teaching Programme.
— USE OF ICT IN EVALUATION
At present the paper pencil tests are conducted for evaluating the academic performance of students. These tests are conducted in the group setting. The content coverage is poor and students cannot use them at their own. These tests are evaluated by the teachers and they may not give feedback immediately to each and every student. It may be due to this that students are unable to know their weakness and do not make any attempt to improve upon them. The ICT can be made use in the evaluation. One such attempt has been made by Sansanwal and Dahiya (2006) who developed Computer Based Test in Research Methodology and Statistics. It has been titled as Test your Understanding: Research Methods and Statistics. This test can be used by individual student to evaluate his learning. The student can instantaneously get the feedback about the status of his understanding. If the answer is wrong, he even can get the correct answer. It goes a long way in improving the learning and teacher has no role to play in it. It is left up to students to use it. Such tests can be uploaded on the website for wider use. The students from other institutes can also make use of it. Not only the students even the teachers can also use it to assess their own understanding of the subject. If used by teachers before teaching the topic, they can prepare the topic properly. Such software can be used for internal assessment. Thus, ICT can be used to improve the quality of pre as well as in-service teacher’s training.
— USE OF ICT IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
There are individual differences. Through research some correlates of academic achievement have been studied. Rarely this information is used by school / college teachers. Many of them even do not know about such researches. Even if they know, they do not make use of it at the time of forming the groups for different academic activities. One of the major reasons is that the school / college does not have a trained psychologists who can assess the students on some of the correlates of academic achievement. Further, the psychological testing is laborious and involves money and time. Even the appropriate psychological tests are not available. This is the age of digital technology. It can be used to digitalize all the psychological tests including the scoring and evaluation. The same may be available on the website and students and teachers can use them whenever required. Even student can use it individually and can share the result with the teacher who can help the student to improve his academic performance. The digitalized psychological tests will be easy to use and economical also. Thus ICT can be used in psychological testing also.
— USE OF ICT IN DEVELPING VIRTUAL LABORATORY
The students understand better, if they do some practical related to the concept. It makes learning easy and interesting. Laboratory helps in developing scientific temper. But the fact is that practical are not done by each student in each school. There are many schools which do not have laboratory. Sometime if laboratory is available, the instrument is not available. The students are not given freedom to do experiments at their own. Some good schools have laboratories all classes right from class I to XII. They allow students to play with the material available in the laboratory under the supervision of teacher. The teachers also make use of laboratories during their teaching. At higher level, the schools are asked not have practical where in animals are used. Animals based practicals are done in Biology. In short, there are many restrictions under which the students have to work in the laboratory. Now it is possible to have Virtual laboratory. Once the Virtual Laboratory is developed, it can provide lots of freedom to students. The students can manipulate any attribute or variable related to the experiment and can see how it affects the outcome. Suppose a student wants to study the factors that can affect the focal length of a mirror. At present in the real laboratory, the student cannot manipulate many variables that he thinks might be related. But Virtual laboratory can provide lots of freedom to the student. That is, student can take different types and shapes of objects, change the distance between mirror and object to any extent, change the thickness of the mirror, etc. and can see how such attributes affect the focal length of the mirror. The Virtual Laboratory can be developed using ICT. It may be made available at the door step of each and every students by uploading it on the Website. Further each country can think of developing science Website which should give access to Virtual Laboratory and it must be free of cost. Such a Website will not only help Indian students but can go a long way in helping students of Underdeveloped and developing countries.
— USE OF ICT IN ONLINE TUTORING
The digital technology has broken the foundries between countries. Human beings do not feel any type of restriction in communicating with people all over the globe. The access has become easy. It is a well known fact that all students do not understand all subjects to the same extent. Some students find subjects, like, Mathematics, Physics, English, Chemistry, Accountancy, etc. difficult. All educational institutions do have well equipped laboratories and qualified & competent Faculty. Consequently students do feel the need of academic support out of the school. Therefore, students go for tuition. These days students from USA & other countries are enrolled in private tuition classes in India. That is they are being taught Online. This has become possible only due to ICT. In Online tutoring the student stays at his home. He logs in to his tutor through the use of Internet and software. He can see the teacher who is in India and the teacher can see the student who is in USA. The student asks the question and teacher replies it by writing on soft board or using power point presentation. This interaction is normally one to one. It has made the academic life of many students easy. This is how the manpower available in India can be made use of other countries. Not only Online Tutoring but some of the students do outsource their assignments. These assignments are completed by the teachers of other country. Of course, academically it is not correct because the purpose of giving assignment is not achieved. The student does not develop academically and he may become weak in the subject. All this is happening just because of ICT.
— USE OF ICT IN DEVELOPING REASONING & THINKING
Web Based Instruction (WBI) can be developed with the help of ICT. According to WBT Information Centre (1997), Web Based Instruction (WBI) is an innovative approach to distance learning in which computer based training (CBT) is transformed by the technologies and methodologies of the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet and Intranets. WBI presents content in a structure format that allowing self-directed, self-paced instruction on any topic. WBI is media rich learning fully capable of evaluation, adaptation and remediation, all independent of computer platform.
Ron Kurtus (1998) states that, in its strictest sense, Web Based Training (WBT) is the communication of information over the WWW or Web with the objective of instructing or training the user. WBT is actually is in the form of Computer Based Training (CBT) that uses the Web or company intranet as the delivery medium instead of using disks or CD-ROMs. Both CBT and WBT are part of a larger classification called Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) that includes such communication forms as Online manuals and Windows Help.
Sansanwal and Nawayot (2001) defined Web Based Instruction as a hypermedia-based instructional programme that utilizes the attributes and resources of the WWW to create a meaningful learning environment where learning is fostered and supported.
Sansanwal and Nawayot (2001) developed WBI for facilitating the Reasoning ability of people. It was a website hosted for three weeks and 72 people belonging to countries, like, Australia, Africa, America, France, Germany, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand and UK visited the developed website. Out of 72 visitors, 55 took the pretest and 45 took both pretest and posttest. The reason of not taking the test was that the WBI was in English and visiting people did not know English. So language can be the barrier in WBI. The WBI was found to be effective in facilitating Reasoning Ability amongst people belonging to different countries and age group. The WBI can be developed in other subjects too. It will provide variety of Instructional Material to students and they can choose that suits them best. This will improve the academic standard. The WBI for developing Reasoning and Thinking will be very helpful for human beings belonging to different countries and age. This is important in the present context as most of the Educational Institutions do not pay attention to development of Reasoning & Thinking. They do not have any period in the time table for Reasoning and Thinking. These abilities once develop can help individual for solving the day-to-day problems. On the whole it will improve the quality of life. Thus, ICT can be used for developing WBI for facilitating Reasoning and Thinking.
— USE OF ICT IN DEVELOPING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
At present there is a shortage of qualified and competent teachers in all most all subjects at all levels. Not only this, even the instructional material available in the print form is not of quality. This is because many authors have written on those topics that they have never read and / or done research. Sometime the information given in the books is also wrong. The book reading is not very enjoyable and does not help students in understanding the concepts and retaining the information. There are many teachers who are well known for the specific subject. Their lectures should be digitalized and made available to all the users. It will enhance the quality of instruction in the classrooms. The teacher can use them in the classrooms and can organize discussion after it wherein the new points can be added both by the teacher as well as students. It will make the teaching effective, participatory and enjoyable. Sansanwal (2006) has done this. Sansanwal has developed digitalized lectures on Research Methodology and Statistics and has used it for teaching this subject at master’s level. Other researchers are also using it. Of course, digitalized lectures will have their limitations of revision and inbuilt interaction. These lectures can be uploaded on any website and students & teachers can access any lecture they like.
Another form of digitalized lectures is e – content. The CEC is making efforts to develop e – content material in different subjects for the benefit of diverse users. The competent teachers can develop e – content in their own areas of specialization. This has lots of potentiality to bring quality in teacher education. The ICT can be used in developing Instructional Material and e-Content.
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- Legenhausen, E. I.: effectiveness of Instruction using a Microcomputer equipped with LOGO Microworlds on the acquisition of school readiness skills by preschool children. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 52, No. 6, 1991.
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- Mavi, N.S.: Development of a Programmed Text in Physical Geography for High School Students, Ph.D. (Edu.), Kurukshetra University, 1981.
- McNeely, E.A.: Computer Assisted Instruction: A Health Education Strategy for the older Adults. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 10, 1988.
- McPherson, S.J.: The effects of Metacognitive strategy training with Computer Assisted Instruction for Vocabulary Acquisition by students with Learning Disabilities. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 52, No. 6, 1991.
- Mullick, S.P.: An Inquiry into the Relative Effectiveness of Linear Style Book Format and Multi-Media Programs. Ph.D. (Edu.), South Gujarat University, 1979.
- Oates, A.P.: A Comparison of the effects of Computer versus paper and Pencil Presentation Modes on the attributions and behaviours of learning Disabled and Normally Achieving students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 8, 1988.
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- Pandey, I.D.: Use of Programmed Instruction on Teaching Mathematics in Primary Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), Patna University, 1980.
- Pandit, K.A.: Development of Learning Method and Instructional Material to Nourish the Language Ability of Multilevel Class. Ph.D. (Edu.), SNDT Women’s University, 2003.
- Park, J.S.: The effects of Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching Reading to Adult Basic Education students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No.11, 1990.
- Parlikar K.R.: A Study of Suitability of Programmed Learning in Home Science Education for Adolescent Girls. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1979.
- Patel, A.D.: Development and Tryout of Auto-Instructional Programs in Units of Geometry for Class VIII and to Study its Effectiveness in the Context of Different Variables. Ph.D. (Edu.), Sardar Patel University, 1977.
- Perkins, et al.: An effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on MEAP Mathematics Achievement and Attitudes towards mathematics and Computers in Grade four and seven. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1987.
- Powell-Hart, B.L.: The Improvement of writing skills of College Freshmen through Computer Based Instruction. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1992.
- Prabhakar, S.: Development of Software for Computer Aided Instruction & its’ comparison with Traditional method for Teaching Physics at Plus II level. Ph.D. (Edu.), Devi Ahilya University, 1995.
- Ravindranath, M.J.: Development of Multi-Media Strategy for Teaching Science (Biology) at Secondary School Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1982.
- Sansanwal, D.N.: An Experimental Study in Programmed Learning for Teaching Research Methodology Course at M.Ed. Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1978.
- Sansanwal, D.N.: Information Technology and Higher Education. UNIVERSITY NEWS, Vol. 38, No. 46, 2000.
- Seshadri, M.: AN Experiment in the Use of Programmed Instruction in Secondary Schools. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1980.
- Shah, I.K.: Developing a Teaching Strategy for the Course of Educational Evaluation at the B.Ed. Level and Studying its Effectiveness. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1980.
- Shah, J.D.: Preparation and Try-out of Programmed Learning Material Based on the two Units of Food and Nutrition of X Standard Science Textbook in Gujarat State. Ph.D. (Home Sc.), Gujarat Vidyapeeth, 2002.
- Shah, S.G.: Development and Tryout of Multi-Media Package on Effective Questioning in the Context of Microteaching. Ph.D. (Edu.), South Gujarat University, 1979.
- Shitole, C.B.: To Develop Programmed Learning Material for Agricultural Subject in Marathi Medium Secondary Schools and to Study its Utility for Different Categories of Students. Ph.D. (Edu.), Poona University, 1976.
- Sodhi, G.S.: Evaluation of Programmed Learning in Chemistry in Relation to Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Intelligence and Personality Traits at the Higher Secondary Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), Pantna University, 1977.
- Suthar, K.S.: A Study of Performance on Programmed Learning Material in Relation to Some Psychological Characteristics. Ph.D. (Edu.), Sardar Patel University, 1981.
- Thaker, M.N.: Investigation into the Effectiveness of Linear Programmed Material and Branching Programmed Material in the Subject of Economics for Standard XI in Relation to Certain Variables. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda. 1993.
- Trahan, M.F.: The effects of Computer Assisted Instruction on the Metacognitive Awareness and Reading Comprehension of average and Learning Disabled Readers. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1989.
- Trivedi, I.U.: Use of Branching Variety of Programmed Learning Materials as Diagnostic and Remedial Tools. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1980.
- Vensel, G.J.: The effectives of computer delivered science simulations on the acquisition of process skills for gifted and general population forth and fifth grades. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 10, 1988.
- Verma, M.: The Effect of Schedules of Reinforcement and Extroversion on Programmed Instruction Achievement. Ph.D. (Edu.), Meerut University, 1977.
- Ward, R.D.: Natural language, Computer Assisted Learning and Language Impaired children. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 10, 1987.
- Whitaker, D.F.: Comparison of Tutor Retrieval text, Computer Assisted Instruction, and Programmed Lecture in teaching Statistics to Physical Education Majors. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No. 11, 1990.
- Yates, et al.: An examination of the effectiveness of Computer Assisted versus Traditional Strategies for Tutoring students with reading difficulties in a University clinic. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 8, 1988.
Prof. D N Sansanwal
Ex Director, School of Education
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore
Email :[email protected]