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Sign this petition – Homoeopathic Graduates in Public Health System in India

PeoplePetitioning Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) Government of India

“Induction of Homoeopathic Graduates in Public Health System/Departments in India”

Please sign this online petition; and share with friends

In Public Health System the RMA – Rural Medical Assistants is not a solution, to make over the shortage of allopathic physicians. Adopting of RMA in public health system is a mean to fixing different standard of medical care provider for rural public; which in fact is not quite good; but may be a better bets, to keep away other system of medicines, what for the sake?

The alternate should be equal and not less than graduate physician, hence the adequate alternate may be in the next worldwide followed Health System of Medicine i.e. Homoeopathy Health System of Medicine; as this has been adopted by the Kerala State, in India.

a) RMA – Rural Medical Assistant
The person with qualification plus-two with Biology along with Diploma of “Practitioners in Modern and Holistic Medicine”, delegate all power as doctor at respective Health Center and may be posted in district Hospitals.

b)BRMS – Bachelor of Rural Medicine and Surgery new name B Sc. in Community Health (Modern and Holistic Medicine) a 3 years coarse, is not a doctor but he/she delegate all power as doctor at respective Health Centre  and may be posted in district Hospitals. 

Masters in Public Health (MPH) and MD (Social and Preventive Medicine) courses
There are number of Government Homeopathic Medical Colleges in India, despite of that the Homeopathic practitioners are not treated at par as Administrative functionary and even not admitted in the health courses like Masters in Public Health (MPH) and MD (Social and Preventive Medicine) thus Homeopathic practitioners are also not deployed on the Administrative Functionary of the Public Health System in India, while in adoption by public there is a massive jump in the demand for the 250-year-old system of medicine.

Hence please sign this online petition “Induction of Homoeopathic Graduates in Public Health System/Departments in India” as well to make them eligible for Masters in Public Health (MPH) of various institutes including institute like Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), and MD (Social and Preventive Medicine) courses prescribed by the Medical Council of India (MCI)

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The enlightenment era-importance & impact in history of medicine

The enlightenment era – Its importance & impact in history of medicine

Dr. Abhijit Chakma* 

What is enlightenment? Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use ones understands without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Sapere Aude! [Dare to know] “Have courage to use your own understanding!”–that is the motto of enlightenment. -IMMANUEL KANT (1784).

  • Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a proportion of men, long after nature has released them from alien guidance (natura-liter maiorennes), nonetheless gladly remain in lifelong immaturity, and why it is so easy for others to establish themselves as their guardians. It is so easy to be immature.
  • Nothing is required for this enlightenment, however, except freedom; and the freedom in question is the least harmful of all, namely, the freedom to use reason publicly in all matters. 
  • The “Enlightenment” was not a single movement or school of thought or of those philosophers, but its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals, and a strong belief in rationality and science. 

Era of Enlightenment: The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment) is the era of Westernphilosophy, intellectual, scientific and cultural life. Basically the era was centred upon the 18th Century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority. Some renowned historians also include the late 17th century, which is typically known as the ‘Age of Reason’ or ‘Age of Rationalism’, as part of the Enlightenment; however, most historians consider the Age of Reason to be a prelude to the ideas of the Enlightenment. This time period is also known for several rememberable incidents which had important influences in the society as a whole starting from development of general awareness (that is the base of reasoning) to important inventions in different fields. If Renaissance can be called as a child in cradle, then enlightenment can be the learning to walk of that child. 


  • Establishment  of Commonwealth in England after War of Naesby (1642-1649)
  • Glorious Revolution in England with establishment of Democracy (1685)
  • Anglo-French War III (1756-1763)
  • Industrialization in Europe (18th century)
  • French Revolution (1789)
  • Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte (1799)

Effect of revolutions in the society: Effect of revolution developed general awareness about rights & choices in the mind of the people at that time. Reasoning & new thoughts give rise to many inventions in different fields. Establishment of various new teaching institutions, universities, libraries made the society much advanced in all fields. Introduction of social science – the earliest concept of social medicine, introduction of concept of anthropology, introduction of social contracts by several authors are also important from sociological point of view. Some of them were Thomas Hobbes [1588-1679 (nascent idea of liberalism)], John Locke [1632-1704 (Easy concerning human understanding- i.e. knowledge begins in introspection)], Jean Jacques Rousseau [1712-1778 (natural independence and political liberty-1762)]

Whenever a lamp is giving light, the dark shadow is also expected just under it. Enlightenment era is not an exception. Different revolutionary or political wars, industrialization of Europe, changes in life style – all give rise to many social and health problems in the population. Some of them are mentioned as follows-

  • Effect of Different Wars: Effect of war gives rise to several Epidemics ($73); several losses, grief, tortures in war caused serious impact on mental health and development of different kind of mental diseases. Increased occurrence of venereal diseases in the society as Hahnemann himself mentioned in his “Chronic Disease” that increased occurrence of gonorrhea during French war (1809-1814).
  • Impact of Industrialization: Industrialization leads to urbanization of the society; creation of slums; congested living environment and poor housing of the workers leads to occurrence of infectious diseases, particularly tuberculosis and other respiratory infections. Development of different occupational diseases was also increasing notably. Not only that, child labor involvement causes serious impact on child health, both physical as well as mental. 

These important discoveries of enlightenment era can be described in following points- 

1. Field of Medicine (Basic anatomy & physiology)


  • Discovery of capillaries by Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694).
    • Intravenous injection of medicaments by Sir Christopher Wren assisted by Boyle and Wilkins (1656), Major (1662), Elsholtz (1665).
    • Transfusion of blood: From animal to animal first done by Richard Lower (1665) and thereafter from animal to a 16 year old lad by Jean Denis (1667).
    • Description of Red Blood Cell was given by Jan Swammerdam (1637- 1680).
    • Experimental work on coagulation of blood was done by William Hewson (1749-1774).


  • Discovery of the component of air which is particularly responsible for life by Robert Boyle (1627-1691).
  • Blowing of air into trachea and lung rather than mechanical movement of chest wall is more important for maintaining life was first described by Robert Hooke (1635-1703).
  • The color of venous and arterial blood is different and it is related to respiration was first mentioned by Richard Lower (1631-1691).


  • Jean Baptiste von Helmonni (1577-1644) was the first person to consider digestion as a series of fermentation and he also identified hydrochloric acid in stomach.
  • Experimentation on pancreas & gall bladder of dogs was done by Regner de Graaf (1641-1673).

Perspiration & body temperature: Sanctorius (1561-1636) introduced the concept of insensible perspiration & metabolism; he also invented clinical thermometer & pulse clock and thereby developing both physiology as well as clinical medicine.

Development of muscle physiology was extensively done by Steno, Borelli, Willis and Glisson.

Discovery of lymphatic system was another excellent step in development of physiology which was done by Aselli (1622), Pecquet (1651), Bartholinus (1652) and Rudbeck (1653). 

2. Field of Clinical Medicine (Integration of pathological anatomy with clinical observations)

  • Baglivi contributed in description of pathology of typhoid.
  • Marvelous description of rickets was given by Glisson.
  • Sylvius gave description of tuberculosis.
  • Description of beriberi was given by Dr Tulp.
  • Richard Morton (1635-1698) differentiated malaria from other fevers by the therapeutic use of quinine.
  • Jacob Wepfer (1620-1695) showed evidences through autopsy that cerebral strokes and apoplexies occur due to brain hemorrhages.
  • Clinico-pathological description of valvular diseases of heart (aortic regurgitation & mitral stenosis) and anatomical configuration of nervous system was given by      Raymond Vieussens (1641-1717).
  • Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) introduced the concept of occupational diseases.
  • Giovani Maria Lancisi (1654-1720) gave descriptions of heart disease; he also had contribution in describing sanitary measures. Discovery of connection between malaria & mosquito was another important contribution of Lancisi.
    • Willem Piso (1563-1636) observed the therapeutic use of Ipecacuanha for amoebic dysentery by Brazilian Indians.
    • Development of measuring technique of blood pressure, velocity of blood current & capacity of heart were done by Stephen Hales (1677-1761).
    • Study of “putrid malignant” (typhus) & “slow nervous” (typhoid) fevers was done by John Huxham (1692-1768).
    • Robert Whytt gave clinical description of tubercular meningitis.
    • J. Fothergill described diphtheria & neuralgia.
    • Sir John Floyer (1707) recommended about timing the pulse rate.
    • Spaniard Casal first described pellagra in the year 1735.
    • Hypothesis about fluid in nervous system as well as clinical description of rubella, chlorosis and diseases of pancreas and liver were given by Friedrich Hoffmann (1660-1742).
    • Johann Platner (1744) stated the tubercular nature of Pott’s disease.
    • Introduction of Digitalis was effectively done in the field of clinical medicine by William Withering in the year 1775.
    • Description of varicella (1767), angina pectoris (1768) and arthritis was given by         William Heberden (1710-1801).

3.Field of Obstetrics

  • This field was under domain of midwives for many years which now become more and more part of domain of male doctors.
  • Description of tubal pregnancy was given by F. Mauriceau (1637-1709).

4.Field of Surgery

  • Well illustrated works on surgical pathology and tumors by Marco Aurelio Severnino (1580-1656).
  • Anal fistula of King Louis IV surgically cured by Royal surgeon Felix (1686) and this incidence cause rehabilitation of Surgery in France by King Louis IV.
  • Foundation of Surgical anatomy laid by Pierre Dionis.
  • Foundation of Royal Academy of Surgery (1731) by Mareschal.
  • Mastoid operation performed & removal of metastatic lymph glands in cancer was first recommended by Jean Louis Petit (1674-1750).

5. Field of Scientific & Legal Medicine

  • Birth of Forensic medicine/ medical jurisprudence occurred in the hands of Paolo Zacchias (1584-1659) and Johan Bohn (1640-1719).
  • Introduction of code of ethics was done by Thomas Percival (1803).

6.Appearance of Medical Statistics

  • Publication of John Grant’s “Natural and political observations upon the bills of mortality” (1662)
  • Some contributions of Sir William Petty (1623-1687) are also important.
  • Works done by Edmund Halley (1656-1742).

7.Field of Psychiatry

  • Consideration of mental disease as a separate disease entity rather than influence of possession, devils, crime, sin etc.
  • Social pressure was to be considered for development of mental diseases.
  • Introduction of new scientific and humane approach for treating the psychiatric patients and removal of chains and physical tortures on insane patients was first came into action under influence of Philippe Pinel (1755- 1826). 

8. Field of Philosophy

  • Philosophy made great contribution in the advancement of 18th century medical sciences.
  • Great clinical work & scientific progress and medical advances in 18th century are mostly directly associated with the philosophy.
  • This philosophy underlay the American Revolution as well as the French.
  • Rapid spread of this new philosophy led to the disappearance of belief in the devil & possessions.
  • This turned the mental diseases again as disease rather than a kind of possession, crime, sin.
  • It also made possible a more humane treatment of insane, which was previously in atrocious condition, often in chains.
  • Social pressures were now considered as causative factors in mental disease.

9. Field of Preventive Medicine & Hygiene

  • Development of Preventive idea in mind of clinicians.
  • Sanitary practices & use of clean cloths & coverings were gradually increasing.
  • Preventive power of citrus fruits against scurvy was established by James Lind (1716-1794).
  • Efforts made to improve the health status of children under influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
  • Swaddling discarded and mothers returned to nursing their own babies.
  • Improved child health statistically was manifested by reduction of child death rate.
  • Introduction of effective preventive measures against the most fatal thethen disease – small pox. Vaccination against small pox was introduced in 1796 by Edward Jenner (1749-1823).

10.  Field of Iatrophysics  (Qualitative, Mathematical, Experimental form of Physics)

  • Improvement of microscope done by Anton Von Leeuwenhoek.
  • Development of ophthalmology with the help of physics by Descartes, Mariotte, Scheiner.
  • Law of gravity and idea of gravitational force was introduced by Sir Isaac Newton (1689).

11.  Field of Iatrochemistry

  • Attempt to classify disease according to acidosis & alkalosis by Francosis de la Boe (1614-1672).
  • Interpretation of fever as fermentations by Thomas Willis (1621-1675).

The time period is well advanced and augmented by the contributions of some great personalities. The following few are worthy of mentionable- 

  1. Thomas Willis (1621–1673 AD): Founder of scientific medicine.

The true founder of scientific medicine, whose aim it is to find out the causes of disease and which considers it to be the highest skill, not only to find out causes, but to remove them altogether. For the better understanding of clinical problems he used anatomical and pathological methods. He was known for close, careful clinical observation. Beside these he ceaselessly sought for the natural laws which they exemplified; this is the true philosophic method.

The Circle of Willis (also called Willis’ Circle, cerebral arterial circle, arterial Circle of Willis, and Willis Polygon) is a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain. It is named after Thomas Willis.

2.  Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689 AD):  The father of clinical observation.

Clinical practice was revolutionized by Thomas Sydenham who developed a treatment procedure that recognized the importance of environmental considerations and included careful, detailed observation and record keeping. Thomas Sydenham matriculated at Oxford University in 1642, but left shortly thereafter to join the Parliamentary troops fighting the civil war. Four years later, he returned, earned a Bachelor of Medicine degree in 1648.

His philosophy and methodology had its origin in Bacon’s Novum Organum and in the Hippocratic maxim, “You must go to the bedside. It is there alone you can learn disease.”

Sydenham incorporated is knowledge of the influence of environment, emotion, stress, diet, season of the year, rest, exercise, inherited constitution, and atmospheric corruption with bedside observation and experience to “work out” the history of diseases and remedies.

Sydenham’s therapy consisted of a carefully regulated diet; fresh air in the sick room, abundant liquids, cooling drinks for fever, iron for anaemia, mercurial inunctions for syphilis until the patient salivates freely, cooling air for smallpox etc.

3.Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738 AD): The founder of clinical teaching

He was a Dutch botanist, humanist and physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital.

Boerhaave first described Boerhaave’s Syndrome, which involves tearing of the esophagus, usually a consequence of vigorous vomiting & haematemesis. This condition was uniformly fatal prior to modern surgical techniques allowing repair of the esophagus.

4.Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771 AD): Italian Anatomist

One of the great achievements in the field of medicine is due to this man, who described anatomy nicely. He described the appearances met with at the post-mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases. He described these things in series of letters De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis and published in his 80th year.

Morgagni’s work at once made an epoch in the science. Morbid anatomy now became a recognized branch of medical research, and the movement was started to put more lights on the subject. He putted the most solid basis for studying the natural history of disease.

5.Albrecht von Haller (1708 – 1777 AD):The anatomist, physiologist, naturalist and poet.

As a physician, his best energies, however, were devoted to the botanical and anatomical researches. He also warmly interested himself in most of the religious questions, both ephemeral and permanent, of his day.

Albrecht von Haller is quoted in the footnote to paragraph 108 in the Organon of Medicine, by the founder of Homoeopathy, Samuel Hahnemann. In this paragraph, Hahnemann describes how the curative powers of individual medicines can only be ascertained through accurate observation of their specific effects on healthy persons. “Not one single physician, as far as I know, during the previous two thousand five hundred years……except the great and immortal Albrecht von Haller. He alone, besides myself, saw the necessity of this (vide the Preface to the Pharmacopoeia Helvet., Basil, 1771, fol., p. 12)”.

6.Emmanuel Kant (1724- 1804 AD): The great philosopher

Immanuel Kant was one of the greatest philosophers of all time, and had more influence on other renounced thinkers than any other philosopher of the 18th century. He was inspired by his study of Hume’s writings especially Hume’s psychological analysis of causality. One of his greatest contributions is to philosophy which was the merging of rationalism and empiricism.

Kant argued that the mind brings to experience certain qualities of its own that order it. While the mind has no substance, it is an active process that serves to convert raw sensory data into meaningful, ordered experiences. Things in themselves cannot be known, we perceive the world only the way our mind makes us do it, i.e., through the instrumentality of the innate mental categories.

Kant thus accepted the notion of mental facilities like cognition, feeling, desire, understanding, judgement, and reason.

With the development in different fields of medical science some adverse situations also developed either from over-experimentation, deficient knowledge of the then physicians or from medical malpractice such as mismatched blood transfusions (causing thromboembolism and haemolysis), blood-letting, venesections,  prolonged use of violent drugs ($74) which often leads the patients to  life threatening situations even death. This requires a new and rational therapeutic system to develop, which was ultimately developed in the year 1796 – the axiom of which was similia similibus curanter – the homoeopathic mode of treatment.

Samuel Hahnemann (1755 – 1843 AD): The father of homoeopathy.
Homoeopathy is a form therapeutic system, first proposed by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796, in which practitioners use highlydiluted preparations. Based on an ipse dixit axiom formulated by Hahnemann, which he called the law of similia (similia similibus curanter); preparations which cause certain symptoms in healthy individuals are given in diluted form to patients exhibiting similar symptoms.

Homoeopathic remedies are prepared by serial dilution with shaking by forceful striking, or by grinding in mortar which are termed succession and trituration, after each dilution under the assumption that this increases the effect. This process is called potentization. Dilution often continues until none of the original substance remains.Apart from the symptoms, physicians use aspects of the patient’s physical and psychological state in recommending remedies and therefore treating in a rational, harmless and holistic way for the suffering humanity. 

Enlightenment broke through “the sacred circle,” whose dogma had circumscribed thinking. The sacred circle is a term used to describe the interdependent relationship between the hereditary aristocracy, the leaders of the church and the text of the Bible. This interrelationship manifests itself as kings invoking the doctrine “Divine Right of Kings” to rule. Thus church sanctioned the rule of the king and the king defended the church in return.

The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society. This new thoughts and rational ideas gave rise of a new beginning in all fields in the society. Though there were some negative sides, the glory and the importance of this period cannot be ignored in the development of field of medicine. Doctors in the 18th century, enjoyed much high social standing and much high respect, that later generations have looked upon this period as the ‘‘GOLDEN AGE OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION


  1. Ackerknecht EH. A Short History of Medicine. Revised Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press. London; 1982.
  2. Ameke W. History of Homoeopathy, it’s origin and it’s conflicts. RE Dudgeon (translator). B. Jain Publishers. New Delhi; 2007.
  3. Boerhaave H. from <
  4. Enlightenment era; Wikipedia; from <>
  5. Garrison FH. History of Medicine. 4th edition. Philadelphia. WB Saunders Company. 1929.
  6. Hahnemann S. Organon of Medicine. Sixth Edition. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  1.  Hahnemann S. The Chronic Diseases; Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure. Reprint Edition. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi; 2005.
  1. Haller AV. from <>
  2. Kant E. from <>
  3. Khan LM. Utility of History of Medicine for the physicians. Asian Homoeopathic Times. April, 1993.
  4. Margotta R. History of Medicine. 1st edition. Octopus Publishing Group. London; 1996.
  5. Morgagni; from <>
  6. Willis T. from <>

Dr. Abhijit Chakma, MD (Hom.)
Senior Research Fellow (H), Clinical Research Unit for Homoeopathy,
¼ Main Road, Colonel Chowmuhani, Krishnanagar, Agartala-799001

1This paper is also presented by the author in a seminar on 16-11-2010 at National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata-700106.


PSG-FAIMER fellowship programme for medical teachers

teachersThe PSG-FAIMER Regional Institute (PSG-FRI), based at the PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research in Coimbatore, India, is a two-year fellowship program for health professions faculty who have the potential to improve medical education at their schools. Approximately 16 fellowships are offered each year.

The fellowship is designed to teach education methods, scholarship, and leadership skills, and to develop an active, supportive professional network among educators.

PSG-FRI is sponsored by the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER®). By working to advance health professions education in India, PSG-FRI supports FAIMER’s mission of improving global health by improving education

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homeo medicines

Relationship of Homoeopathic Remedies

Relationship of Homoeopathic Remedies

Dr.Jithesh.T.K, B.H.M.S, M.D (Hom) Medical Officer, Directorate of I.S.M & H, Govt. of N.C.T of Delhi Email: Mobile: 09868246213

Different authors explain relationships of remedies in different ways. Important points mentioned by them can be studied as follows.

1. Dr.Hahnemann: 1. Antidote – In the aphorism 249 he suggests “If the aggravation be considerable (after a medicine) be first partially neutralized as soon as possible by an antidote before giving the next remedy chosen more accurately according to similarity of action” 2. Dr.E.A.Farrington

  1. Family relation – From the similarity in their origin
  2. Concordant – Similar drugs with dissimilar origin
  3. Complement – The drug that completes the cure which the other begins, but unable to effect
  4. Antidote – The medicine which modify the effects of a wrongly selected potency or an apt potency
  5. Inimical – They also will be similar, but the resemblance will be so great, in fact the drugs are so nearly “idem” that it is not well to follow one with the other.

3. Dr.Clarke

  1. Complementary remedies
  2. Remedies that follows well (after)
  3. Remedies followed well by
  4. Compatible remedies
  5. Incompatible remedies
  6. Remedy antidotes
  7. Remedy is antidoted by

4. Dr.Boenninghausen

  1. Remedies related to mind and localities
  2. Other remedies (Represents a general relationship of the remedies in the unclassified symptom groups, to the remedy under consideration)
  3. Antidotes
  4. Injurious

5. Dr.Boger

  1. Remedies related to mind and localities
  2. Related remedies
  3. Antidote
  4. Inimical – Two very similar remedies do not follow each other well

6. Dr.J.T.Kent

  1. Chronic remedy – In managing a chronic sickness the remedy that conforms with an acute experience of the illness is worth knowing, as very often its chronic may be just the one that conforms to its symptoms. (e.g.: 1. Calcarea is the natural chronic of Belladonna and Rhus tox, 2. Natrum mur is the chronic of Apis & Ignatia)
  2. Complementary – Medicine that completes the action of the first one when it is no longer acting.
  3. Inimical – They do not like to work after each other (e.g.: Causticum & Phos, Apis & Rhus tox)
  4. Antidote – when there appears new symptoms, the new symptoms combining with the old ones must be again studied and the second remedy must correspond more particularly to the new than to the old.

7. Dr.C.Hering

  1. Complementary to
  2. Follows well after
  3. Followed well by
  4. Antidotes (Lyco antidotes Cinchona)
  5. Antidotes to (Antidotes to Lyco: Acorn,Camphor)
  6. Inimical
  7. Collateral relation (Belonging to the same family)
  8. Concordances
  9. Conjunctive relation (Bryonia & Colocynth)

8. Dr.Elizabeth Wright

  1. Complementary – (a) Acute complements of chronic remedies (b) Chronic complements of acute remedies (c) Remedies in series
  2. Incompatible
  3. Vegetable analogues & Chemical analogues

9. Dr.Gibson Miller

  1. Complements
  2. Remedies that follow well
  3. Inimicals
  4. Antidotes




1. Allium cepa

1. Phosphorus (Allen’s Keynotes, E.B.Nash)

2. Chamomilla

2. Mag phos (Allen’s Keynotes)

Mag carb (E.B.Nash)

3. Cinchona

3. Ferrum met (Allen’s Keynotes, E.B.Nash)

4. Dulcamara

4. Kali sulph (Allen’s Keynotes)

5. Ipecac

5. Cupr met (Allen’s Keynotes, E.B.Nash)

6. Podophyllum

6. Plumbum met (Allen’s Keynotes)

7. Phytolacca

7. Kali iodide (Allen’s Keynotes, E.B.Nash)

8. Pulsatilla

8. Kali mur (Allen’s Keynotes)

Kali sulph (E.B.Nash)

9. Valeriana

9. Platina (Allen’s Keynotes)

10. Bryonia alb

10. Alumina (E.B.Nash)

11. Aloes

11. Sulphur (E.B.Nash)

12. Belladonna

12. Calc carb (E.B.Nash)

13. Mezereum

13. Mercurius (E.B.Nash)



1.  Sulphur => Calc carb => Lycopodium
2.  Sulphur => Sarsaparilla => Sepia
3.  Pulsatilla => Silicea => Fluoric acid
4.  Ignatia => Natrum mur => Sepia
5.  Allium cepa => Phosphorus => Sulphur
6.  Ars alb => Thuja => Tarentula

 Causticum => Colocynth => Staphysagria


 Aconite => Hepar sulph => Spongia (J.T.Kent)


Merc sol => Hepar sulph => Silicea (J.T.Kent)


1. Vegetable Sulphur

1. Lycopodium (Clarke)

2. Vegetable mercury

2. Phytolacca (Kent), Podophyllum

3. Vegetable Pyrogen

3. Malaria officianalis

4. Liver of Sulphur 4. Hepar sulph
5. Gregory’s powder

5. Mag carb

6. Epsom salt

6. Mag sulph

7. Turpethum

7. Merc sulph

8. Schussler’s bone salt

8. Calc fluor




1. Trio of Restlessness

1.      Aconite

  1. Ars alb
  2. Rhus tox
2. Trio of Delirium
  1. Belladonna
  2. Hyoscyamus
  3. Stramonium
3. Trio of Flatulence

1.      Cinchona

  1. Carbo veg
  2. Lycopodium
4. Trio of climacteric remedies

1.      Lachesis

  1. Sepia
  2. Sulphur
5. Trio of Pleurisy

1.      Aconite

  1. Bryonia
  2. Sulphur
6. Trio of Ptosis

1.      Sepia

  1. Causticum
  2. Gelsemium
7. Trio of Offensiveness

1.      Merc sol

  1. Kreosotum
  2. Baptisia
8. Trio of Spasmodic cough
  1. Drosera
  2. Ipecac
  3. Cuprum met
9. Trio of Condylomata

1.      Thuja

  1. Staphysagria
  2. Nitric acid
10. Trio of Pain Remedies
  1. Aconite
  2. Chamomilla
  3. Coffea
11. Trio of offensive urine

1.      Benzoic acid

  1. Nitric acid
  2. Sepia
12. Trio of Burning

1.      Ars alb

  1. Phosphorus
  2. Sulphur
13. Trio of Elongated Uvula

1.      Apis

  1. Kali bich
  2. Hyoscyamus
14. Trio of Serous effusion

1.      Apis

  1. Bryonia
  2. Kali carb
15. Trio of Prostration

1.      Carbo veg

  1. Ars alb
  2. Mur acid
16. Trio of Twitching & Jerking

1.      Zincum met

  1. Ignatia
  2. Agaricus
17. Trio of Nymphomania

1.      Murex

  1. Lil tig
  2. Platina
18. Trio of Sleepiness

1.      Opium

  1. Antim tart
  2. Nux vom
19.Trio of Cholera

1.      Camphor

  1. Cup met
  2. Verat alb
20. Trio of Rheumatism remedies

1.      Ledum (Ascending)

  1. Kalmia (Descending)
  2. Silicea
21. Trio of Eye strain

1.      Ruta

  1. Senega
  2. Nat mur
22. Trio of Sciatica

1.      Colocynth

  1. Gnaphalium
  2. Phytolacca
23. Trio of Septic fever

1.      Ars alb

  1. Anthrac
  2. Pyrogen
24. Trio of Fidgety Remedies

1.      Kali brom (Hands)

  1. Zinc met (Feet)
  2. Phosphorus (General)
25. Trio of Half sight Remedies

1.      Aurum

  1. Lith carb
  2. Lycopodium




1. Aconite

1. Sulphur

2. Ars alb 2. Thuja
3. Colocynth

3. Staphysagria

4. Bryonia

4. Alumina & Nat mur

5. Pulsatilla

5. Silicea

6. Bacillinum

6. Calc phos

7. Hepar sulph

7. Silicea

8. Belladonna 8. Calc carb
9. Nux vom

9. Sepia




1. Acid aceticum
  • Borax
  • Causticum
  • Nux vom
  • Ran bulb
  • Sarsaparilla
2. Acid nitricum

·         Lachesis

  • After Calc carb
3. Allium cepa

·         Allium sativa

  • Aloes
  • Squilla
4. Allium sativa

·         Aloes

  • Allium cepa
  • Squilla
5. Aloes

·         Allium sativa

6. Ammonium carb

·         Lachesis

7. Apis mel

·         Rhus tox

8. Arum triphyllum

·         Caladium

9. Baryta carb

·         After Calc carb

10. Belladonna

·         Acetic acid

  • Dulcamara
11. Bovista
  • Coffea
12. Bryonia alb
  • Calc carb (W.Boericke)
13. Caladium
  • Arum triphyllum
14. Calc carb
  • Bryonia alb (W.Boericke)
  • Nitric acid, Baryta cab & Sulphur do not follow
  • After Kali bich & Nitric acid
15. Calendula

·         Camphor

16. Camphor

·         After Kali nit

17. Cantharis

·         Coffea

18. Carbo animalis

·         Carbo veg

19. Carbo veg

·         Carbo animalis

  • Kreosotum
20. Caulophyllum

·         Coffea

21. Causticum

·         Acetic acid

  • Coffea
  • Phosphorus
22. Chamomilla

·         Zinc met

23. China

·         After Digitalis & Selenium

24. Cistus

·         Coffea

25. Cocculus

·         Coffea

26. Coffea

·         Cantharis

  • Causticum
  • Cocculus
  • Ignatia
27. Digitalis

·         China

28. Dulcamara

·         Acetic acid

  • Belladonna
  • Lachesis
29. Ferrum met

·         Acetic acid

30. Ignatia

·         Coffea

  • Nux vom
  • Tabacum
31. Kali bich

·         Does not follow Calc carb

32. Kali nit

·         Camphor does not follow

33. Kreosotum

·         After Carbo veg

34. Lachesis

·         Acetic acid

  • Carbolic acid
  • Nitric acid
  • Dulcamara
  • Ammonium carb
  • Psorinum
35. Lycopodium

·         After Sulphur

  • Coffea
36. Merc sol

·         Acetic acid

·         Silicea disagrees before or after potentised Mercury, but antidotes crude mercury

37. Millefolium

·         Coffea

38. Nux vom

·         Acetic acid

  • Ignatia
  • Zinc met
39. Paris quadrifolia

·         Ferr phos

40. Phosphorus

·         Causticum

41. Psorinum

·         Sepia

42. Ran bulb

·         Acetic acid

  • Staphysagria
  • Sulphur
43. Rhus tox

·         Apis disagrees but Phos follows well (J.T.Kent)

44. Sarsaparilla

·         Acetic acid

45. Selenium

·         China

46. Sepia

·         Bry alb (W.Boericke)

  • Lachesis should not be used before or after (Allen’s Keynotes)
  • Pulsatilla with which it should never be alternated (Allen’s Keynotes)
47. Silicea

·         Merc sol

48. Squilla

·         Allium sativa

49. Staphysagria

·         Ran bulb

50. Strammonium

·         Coffea

51. Sulphur
  • Sulphur follows Lyco but Lyco does not follow Sulphur (Kent)
  • Ran bulb
52. Vespa

·         Arg nit

53. Zincum met

·         Chamomilla

  • Nux vom




1. Acid aceticum

·         China (after haemorrhages)

2. Acid fluoricum

·         Silicea

  • Coca
3. Acid ntricum

·         Ars alb

  • Caladium
4. Acid sulph

·         Puls

5. Aconite

·         Arnica (in bruises, injury to eye)

  • Coffea (in fever, sleeplessness & intolerance of pain)
  • Sulphur (often completes a cure which begin with Aconite)
6. Aethusa

·         Calc carb

  • Silicea
7. Allium cepa

·         Phosphorus

  • Sarsaparilla
  • Thuja
  • Pulsatilla
8. Allium sativa

·         Ars alb

9. Aloes

·         Sulphur

10. Alumina

·         Bryonia

  • Ferrum met
11. Antim crud

·         Squilla

12. Antim tart

·         Ipecac

13. Apis mel

·         Natrum mur

14. Arnica

·         Aconite

  • Ipecac
  • Veratrum album
  • Hypericum
  • Rhus tox
15. Ars alb

·         Allium sativa

  • Carbo veg
  • Natrum sulph
  • Phosphorus
  • Pyrogen
  • Rhus tox
  • Secale cor
  • Thuja
16. Badiaga

·         Iodum

  • Merc sol
  • Sulphur
17. Baryta carb

·         Dulcamara

18. Belladonna

·         Calc carb

19. Bryonia alba

·         Alumina

  • Rhus tox
  • Upas (when Bryonia fails)
20. Caladium

·         Acid nitricum

21. Calc carb

·         Belladonna

  • Rhus tox
  • Lycopodium
22. Calc phos

·         Ruta

  • Sulphur
  • Zinc met
23. Calendula

·         Hepar sulph

24. Camphor

·         Cantharis

25. Cantharis

·         Camphor

26. Carbo animalis

·         Calc phos

27. Carbo veg

·         Drosera

  • Kali carb (- stiches in heart)
  • Phosphorus
28. Causticum

·         Petroselinum

  • Colocynth
  • Carbo veg
  • Merc sol (assists the action of Causticum and vice versa in small-pox [Teste])
29. Chamomilla

·         Belladonna (in diseases of children, Cham acts more on nerves of abdomen, Bell more on cranial nerves)

  • Mag carb
30. China

·         Ferrum met

31. Coffea
  • Aconite
32. Colocynth

·         Merc sol [in dysentery] (Allen’s Keynotes)

33. Conium mac

·         Baryta mur

34. Cuprum met

·         Calc carb

35. Drosera

·         Nux vom

36. Dulcamara

·         Baryta carb

  • Calc carb
  • Kali sulph
  • Sulphur
37. Ferrum met

·         Alumina

  • China
  • Hamamelis
38. Graphites

·         Ars alb

  • Causticum
  • Ferrum met
  • Hepar sulph
  • Lycopodium
  • Arg nit (Follows well in gastric derangements)
39. Hamamelis

·         Ferrum met (in hemorrhages)

40. Hepar sulph

·         Calendula (in injuries)

41. Ignatia

·         Natrum mur

42. Iodum

·         Badiaga

  • Lycopodium
43. Ipecac

·         Antim tart

  • Arnica
  • Cuprum met
44. Kali bich

·         Ars alb

45. Kali carb

·         Carbo veg (lowness of vitality suggests a preliminary course of Carbo veg)

  • Nux vom (in stomach and bladder troubles)
46. Kalmia

·         Benzoic acid

47. Lachesis

·         Nitric acid

  • Hepar sulph
  • Lycopodium
  • Crotallus cascavella (often completes the curative work of Lachesis-Mure)
  • Salamandra

48. Lycopodium

·         Iodum

  • Lachesis
  • Pulsatilla
  • Graphites
  • Chelidonium
  • Hydrastis (follows Lyco in indigestion)
49. Mag carb

·         Chamomilla

50. Merc sol

·         Badiaga

51. Natrum mur

·         Apis

  • Ignatia
  • Sepia
52. Natrum sulph

·         Ars alb

  • Thuja
53. Nux vom

·         Sulphur

  • Kali carb
  • Sepia
54. Palladium

·         Platina

55. Petroleum

·         Sepia

56. Phosphorus

·         Ars alb

  • Allium cepa
  • Carbo veg
  • Lyco
  • Silicea
57. Psorinum

·         Sulphur

  • Tuberculinum
58. Podophyllum

·         (Sulphur)

59. Pulsatilla

·         Acid sulph

  • Lyco
  • Allium cepa
  • Silicea
  • Kali sulph
  • Stramonium
  • Kali mur
  • (Tuberculinum)
60. Pyrogen

·         Bryonia

  • Baptisia
61. Rheum

·         Mag carb

62. Rhus tox

·         Bryonia

  • Calc carb
  • Calc flour
  • Phytolacca (in rheumatism)
  • Bovista (in urticaria)
63. Ruta

·         Calc phos (in joint disorders)

64. Sabadilla

·         Sepia

65. Sabina

·         Thuja

66. Sarsaparilla

·         Allium cepa

  • Merc sol
  • Sepia
67. Sepia

·         Nux vom (intensifies action)

  • Natrum mur
  • Sabadilla
  • Guaiacum (is often beneficial after Sepia)
68. Silicea

·         Acid fluoricum

  • Calc carb
  • Pulsatilla
  • Thuja
  • Sanicula
69. Stannum met

·         Pulsatilla

70. Staphysagria

·         Causticum

  • Colocynth
71. Sulphur

·         Aconite

  • Ars alb
  • Aloe
  • Badiaga
  • Nux vom
  • Psorinum
72. Thuja

·         Ars alb

  • Sabina
  • Silicea
  • Medorrhinum
73. Tuberculinum

·         Psorinum

  • Hydrastis
  • Sulphur
  • Belladonna
  • Calc carb
74. Veratrum alb

·         Arnica

75. Zincum met

·         Calc phos (in hydrocephalus)

76. Ars iodide (Clarke)

·         Phosphorus




1. For excessive nausea and vomiting after taking tobacco

1. Ipecac

2. For bad effects of tobacco chewing 2. Ars alb
3. For the gastric symptoms next morning after smoking 3. Nux vom
4. Palpitation, tobacco heart, sexual weakness

4. Phosphorus

5. For annoying hiccough from tobacco chewing 5. Ignatia, Puls (Clarke, Hering)
6. For tobacco toothache 6. Clematis or Plantago
7. Neuralgic affections of right side of face; dyspepsia; chronic nervousness, especially in sedentary occupations 7. Sepia
8. For impotence, spasms, cold sweat from excessive smoking

8. Lycopodium

9. Occipital headache and vertigo from excessive use of tobacco, especially smoking

9. Gelsemium

10. To relieve terrible craving when discontinuing use 10. Tabacum
11. Destroys craving for tobacco

11. Caladium

12. Heart affections after continuous use of tobacco

12. Spigelia (Clarke)

13. Causes aversion to tobacco

13. Plantago (Clarke, Hering)

14. Bad taste in mouth in morning due to tobacco 14. Nux vom (Clarke, Boericke)
15. It antidotes mental effects of overuse of tobacco, in patients of sedentary habits who suffer from over mental exertion 15. Sepia
16. Fluoric acid follows well after which medicines in the following conditions

  • In ascites of drunkards (Ascites from gin-drinker’s liver – Clarke, Hering)
  • In hip diseases
  • In sensitive teeth
  • In diabetes
  • In bone diseases
  • In goitre

  • Ars alb
  • Kali carb
  • Coff, Staph
  • Phos acid
  • Sil, Symph
  • Spongia
17. Isomorphic medicine of Phosphorus 17. Ars alb
18. Removes bad effects of (Camphor – Hering), Iodine and excessive use of table salt

18. Phosphorus

19. Abrotanum follows well after which medicines in the following conditions

  • In furuncle
  • In pleurisy, when a pressing sensation remains in affected side impending respiration


  • Hepar sulph
  • Acon & Bry
20. Never be alternated with Sepia 20. Pulsatilla
21. One of the best remedies with which to begin the treatment of a chronic case

21.    Puls, Calc carb, Sulphur

22. Ailments from tea drinking 22. Pulsatilla
23. Medicine follows Puls in Ophthalmia (Clarke) 23. Arg nit
24. Acetic acid follows well after which medicines in the following conditions

  • In hemorrhage
  • In dropsy


  • Cinchona
  • Digitalis
25. It aggravates the symptoms of Arn, Bell, Lach, Merc; especially the headache from Belladonna

25. Acetic acid

26. Cannot often be repeated in chronic cases without an intercurrent, called for by the symptoms

26. Nat mur

27. Should never be given during fever paroxysm

27. Nat mur

28. Medicine which will relieve after Nat mur if vertigo and headache be very persistent, or prostration be prolonged 28. Nux vom
29. Bad effects of sea bathing (Clarke) 29. Ars alb

  • Should never be given simply to control the fever,
  • Never alternated with other drugs for that purpose
  • Unless indicated by the exciting cause, is nearly          always injurious in first stage of typhoid fever
  • Rarely indicated in fevers which bring out eruptions

  • Aconite
31. “Tension” is the key note of this medicine – Hughes 31. Aconite
32. Medicine follows Lachesis in intermittent fever when type changes 32. Nat mur
33. Medicine completes the curative work of Lachesis 33. Crotallus cascavella

  • Medicine which often cures after Coll has improved piles
  • Useful after Nux & Sulph have improved, but failed to cure piles

  • Aesculus
35. Ailments from the abuse of metals generally 35. Sulphur
36. Sulphur is the remedy when this substance has been abused as a purgative 36. Aloe

  • For a sleepless patient this medicine may be given at night
  • If the patient sleeps well it is best given in the morning, as it may disturb sleep if given at night
  • Nux may be given at night and this medicine in the morning when their complementary action is desired (Clarke)

  • Sulphur
38. Complementary medicine of Zinc met in Hydrocephalus (Clarke) 38. Calc phos

  • After Camphor in cholera & cholera morbus
  • After Amm c, Carbo v & Bov in dysmenorrhoea with vomiting and purging

  • Verat alb
40. Psorinum is given after this medicine in vomiting of pregnancy 40. Lactic acid
41. Sulphur follows this medicine well in mammary cancer 41. Psorinum
42. Psorinum is given after this medicine in traumatic affections of ovaries 42. Arnica
43. Caladium & Selenium follow well after this medicine in weakness of sexual organs or impotence 43. Agnus castus
44. Compatible: before Calc & Sil in polyps 44. Allium cepa
45. The burning feet of Sulphur and restless fidgety legs and feet of Zinc are both found at the same time in 45. Medorrhinum
46. This medicine is compatible after Sulphur especially when stool drives out of bed (Hering) 46. Medorrhinum
47. This medicine follows Psorinum as constitutional remedy in hay fever, asthma 47. Tuberculinum
48. Medicine for acute attacks, congestive or inflammatory, occurring in tubercular diseases 48. Belladonna
49. Medicine to fatten patients cured with Tuberculinum 49. Hydrastis
50. Symptoms are prone to go from right to left 50. Anacardium, Lycopodium
51. Similar to Arsenicum, which it often follows 51. Anthracinum
52. Complementary medicine of Apis if lymphatics are involved 52. Baryta carb
53. To be given on retiring or what is better, several hours before going to bed; it acts best during repose of mind and body 53. Nux vom
54. Seeds of this plant medicine contain copper, which is responsible for the cramps it causes 54. Nux vom
55. Must not be given in physiological doses in feeble heart, high blood pressure and in tubercular patients 55. Thyroidinum
56. Trillium pendulum is complementary to this medicine in menstrual and hemorrhagic affections 56. Calc phos
57. Medicine preferable for warts on the prepuce 57. Cinnabaris
58. Medicine recommended as a prophylactic in malarial and African fevers 58. Terebinth
59. Termini of nerves became so irritated and sensitive that some kind of friction was necessary to obtain relief in 59. Tarentula hisp
60. For pricking pain, and soreness of periosteum remaining after an injury 60. Symphytum
61. In metrorrhagia from retained placenta with characteristic delirium, this medicine often acts promptly when Stram has failed 61. Secale cor
62. Bad effects of onions, bread; wine, spirituous liquors; tobacco smoking and chewing 62. Ars alb
63. Unless undoubtedly indicated the treatment of chronic diseases should not be commenced with this medicine, it is better to give first another antipsoric medicine (Hering) 63. Lycopodium
64. Ailments from brandy drinking 64. Sulphuric acid
65. Sulphuric acid follows well after this medicine in echymosis 65. Ledum pal
66. Sulphuric acid follows well after this medicine in bruised pain, livid skin and profuse sweat 66. Arnica
67. This medicine follows well after Cal carb in obesity of young women with large amount of unhealthy adipose tissue 67. Graphites
68. Graphites follows this medicine well in skin affections 68. Sulphur
69. Graphites follows well after this medicine in gushing leucorrhoea 69. Sepia
70. This medicine follows Thuja in condylomata and sycotic affections 70. Sabina
71. After Bryonia in pleurisy (Hering) 71. Sabadilla
72. This medicine follows well after Opium in bad effects of fright 72. Sambucus nigra
73. Complementary to Ferrum in hemorrhages and the hemorrhagic diathesis 73. Hamamelis
74. This medicine is better than either Arnica or Calendula in hastening absorption of intra-ocular hemorrhage (Hering) 74. Hamamelis
75. After Bell fails in scarlatina 75. Sanguinaria can
76. Complementary to Calendula in injuries of soft parts 76. Hepar sulph
77. As a dynamic remedy for the narcosis of Opium 77. Sanguinaria can
78. Rheumatism of right deltoid  (Clarke) 78. Sang, Mag carb
79. Hyoscyamus follows this medicine well in deafness after apoplexy (Hering) 79. Belladonna
80. This medicine follows Nux vom or Opium in haemoptysis of drunkards (Hering) 80. Hyocyamus
81. This medicine often cures lasciviousness when Hyocyamus fails (Hering) 81. Phosphorus
82. Medicine which follows Bell & Opium in congestive chills (Hering) 82. Hyocyamus
83. Hiccough after abdominal operations (Clarke) 83. Hyocyamus
84. Hiccough after emotional disturbances (Clarke) 84. Ignatia
85. In wounds where formerly Aconite & Arnica were given alternately, this medicine cures 85. Hypericum
86. The bad effects of Ignatia are antidoted by 86. Pulsatilla
87. This medicine is followed well by Kali bich in croup 87. Iodum
88. Frequently called for after abuse of mercury 88. Sarsaparilla
89. Itch checked by mercurials or Sulphur often requires this medicine 89. Selenium
90. After Spongia this medicine is indicated, when mucus commences to rattle 90. Hepar sulph
91. Follows Digitalis, if this fails to relieve water-logged cases 91. Squilla
92. This medicine is followed well by Ant tart in foreign bodies in larynx 92. Ipecac
93. Ipecac is followed well by this medicine in influenza, chills, croup, debility and cholera infantum 93. Ars alb
94. The lower preparation of this salt should not be kept too long 94. Kali bich
95. Kali bich is given after this medicine in acute or chronic nasal catarrh 95. Calc carb
96. Ant tart follows well this medicine in catarrhal affections and skin diseases 96. Kali bich
97. After Cantharis & Carbo acid has removed the scrapings in dysentery 97. Kali bich
98. Kali bich follows after this medicine in croup, horse cough, with tough membrane, general weakness and coldness are present 98. Iodum
99.Kali mur is followed by this medicine in mastitis and syphilis 99. Silicea
100. Follows Kali phos in ear diseases and suppressed menses 100. Kali mur
101. It generally acts best in single dose, if repeated should be given at exact intervals (Hering) 101. Lac can
102. After Arnica it hastens the curative process in the joints 102. Ruta
103. Ruta follows after this medicine in injuries of bones 103. Symphytum
104. Medicine antidotes spider poisons 104. Ledum pal
105. Long lasting effects of injuries 105. Conium
106. Sometimes acts best when given in hot water 106. Mag phos
107. In children handling genitals (Clarke) 107. Mezerium, Medorrhinum
108. It antidotes: bad effects of sugar, insect stings, ailments from arsenic or copper vapors (Hering) 108. Mercurius
109. Hering who proved this medicine, calls it “Turpethum” and “Turpeth mineral” 109. Merc sulph
110. Medicine which often quickly > itching and burning of Rhus, the vesicles drying up in a few days. 110. Sepia
111. Given after Mag carb when milk disagrees and child has sour odor 111. Rheum
112. In urticria this medicine follow with Bovista 112. Rhus tox
113. Incompatible with Sulphur & Staphysagria 113. Ran bulb
114. Acts well before or after Cinchona in colliquative sweats, diarrhea & debility 114. Phos acid
115. After Nux vom in fainting after a meal 115. Phos acid
116. Skin symptoms if suppressed causes diarrhoea 116. Petroleum
117. Epidemic occurring in January and February often call for this remedy 117. Mezerium
118. Cures the muscular weakness following excessive use of opium and tobacco 118. Muriatic acid
119. Must change position frequently, but it is painful and gives little relief 119. Nat sulph, Causticum
120. It antidotes, poisoning with Rhus and stings of insects 120. Ammonium carb
121. This medicine is incompatible to Thea & Beer                                                                                                                                               (Hering, Clarke) 121. Ferr met
122. Medicine similar to Puls in affections of the eyes 122. Euphrasia
123. The nearest analogue of Eup per 123. Bryonia
124. The closest analogue of Echinacea (Clarke) 124. Baptisia
125. This medicine is similar to Mercurius in ptyalism, glandular swellings, bronchitis, diarrhoea, susceptibility to weather changes, night pains 125. Dulcamara
126. Should not be used before or after Acet ac, Bell & Lach 126. Dulcamara
127. Often relieves the constant distressing night-cough in tuberculosis 127. Drosera
128. Nearest analogue of Cyclamen 128. Pulsatilla
129. Cinchona antidotes direct action of this medicine and increases the anxiety 129. Digitalis
130. This medicine follows Cuprum met well in whooping cough and cholera 130. Veratrum album
131. Patients requiring this medicine often improve from wine or stimulants, though persons susceptible to it can not take alcoholic stimulants when in health 130. Con mac
132. Con mac is followed well by this medicine in tumors of mammae with threatening malignancy 131. Psorinum
133. Children not easily impressed when Ant tart seems indicated in coughs, require this medicine 132. Hepar sulph

  • For bad effects of vaccination when Thuja fails and Silicea is not indicated
  • Before Silicea from foreign bodies in the larynx & trachea
  • Before Puls in suppressed gonorrhea
  • When lungs seem to fail, patient becomes sleepy, cough declines or ceases, it supplants Ipecac
133. Antim tart
134. This medicine cures pustules on genitals caused by Antim tart (Hering) 134. Con mac
135. Has cured scarlatina & albuminuria after Canth, Dig, Hell failed 135. Apis mel
136. “It has cured where Bell failed in cough of horses” (Hering) 136. Apis mel
137. Dropsy after abuse of quinine 137. Apocynum can
138. This medicine is complementary to Apis if lymphatics are involved 138. Baryta carb
139. An occasional dose of this medicine favors action of Arg nit in Ophthalmia 139. Pulsatilla
140. Coffea increases nervous headache of 140. Arg nit
141. Boys complaints after using tobacco 141. Arg nit, Ars alb, Ver alb
142. Cures gonorrhea, after Cannab, Copaiva and Mercurius failed 142. Arg met
143. Uterine and ovarian symptoms, similar to this medicine, latter on right side; Arg met on left 143. Palladium
144. After Arg nit had failed in flatulent indigestion, this medicine cures (Hering) 144. Lycopodium

  • After Bry & Spig in dyspepsia
  • After Spongia was given for goitre, and myopia followed
  • After Verat for wind passing upward in great quantities, inducing faintness
145. Arg nit
146. Complementary drug of Colocynth in dysentery with great tenesmus 146. Merc sol
147. Colocynth in alternation with this medicine cures ovarian pains (Hering) 147. Staphysagria
148. After Cham in abdominal pain and first stage of cholera (Hering) 148. Colocynth
149. Nearest analogue of Colocynth (Clarke) 149. Bryonia
150. Has cured colic after Col & Nux had failed 150. Collinsonia
151. Was used with benefit in case of cardiac disease, in which Digit, Cactus and other remedies failed (Hering) 151. Collinsonia
152. Arnica is followed by 152. Acid sulph

  • Wine increases unpleasant effect of this medicine
  • Follows well after Apis in hydrocephalus
  • Ars alb aids Arnica in dysentery with varicose veins
  • Alternate successfully in cases where the change of symptoms indicate it, with Acon & Rhus tox
  • Injurious after the bite of a dog or any rabid or angry animals                                 (Hering)
153. Arnica

  • Useful after Hep and Nit acid in dry, hoarse, croupy cough
  • Should not be given low or repeated often, as bad effects often follow
  • After Caust and Hep in morning hoarseness and deafness, and in scarlatina
  • After Senega in soreness and redness of throat (Hering)
155. Arum triphyllum

  • Useful after Sulphur in phthisis pulmonalis
  • Useful after Conium in sensitive lump in mamma                                               (Hering)
156. Ars iodide
156. This medicine is similar to Causticum in modalities 156. Asarum europaeum
157. When Ars alb has been improperly given or too often repeated in typhoid or typhus 157. Baptisia tinctoria
158. Baryta carb is incompatible after this medicine in scrofulous affections 158. Calc carb
159. After Baryta carb this medicine will often eradicate the constitutional tendency to quinsy 159. Psorinum

  • Especially in enuresis after Natrum mur failed
  • Useful after Colchicum fails in gout
  • After abuse of Copaiva in suppression of gonorrhea
160. Benzoic acid
161. If the patient lies perfectly still, the disposition to vomit is less urgent. Every motion renews it 161. Colchicum, Bryonia
162. Often cures dropsy after Apis & Ars fails 162. Colchicum
163. After Coffea in ineffectual labour pains (Hering) 163. Aconite
164. Tenderness after Coffea relieved toothache (Hering) 164. Ignatia
165. After Chamomilla in belly-pains and diarrhoea in teething children (Hering) 165. Coffea
166. Nervous erethism caused by Coffee (Hering) 166. Sulphur
167. After Thea in sleeplessness (Hering) 167. Coffea
168. Has cured umbilical hernia with obstinate constipation after Nux failed 168. Cocculus
169. This medicine follows well Calc phos in hydrocephaloid 169. Cinchona

  • In pertussis after Drosera has relived the severe symptoms
  • Has cured aphonia from exposure when Acorn, Phos and Spongia had failed
  • Is frequently thought of in children as an epidemic remedy when adults require other drugs
170. Cina
171.This medicine in occasional dose, aided Berberis vulg in curing rheumstism of knee (Hering) 171. Lycopodium
172. When Rhus tox seems indicated, but fails to cure, in chronic urticaria 172. Bovista
173. Hard goitre cured after Iodum failed 173. Bromium
174. This medicine has cured in croup after failure of Iod, Phos, Hep, Spong; especially in relapses after Iod 174. Bromium
175. After Conium in lymphatic, psoric or tuberculous persons 175. Calc ars
176. Calc carb is followed by this medicine in nasal catarrh 176. Kali bich

  • In children it may be often repeated
  • In aged people it should not be repeated; especially if the first dose benefited, it will usually do harm
  • When the remedy does not otherwise act, put it in child’s milk, if bottle fed
  • Incompatible before Acid nit & Sulphur
177. Calc carb
178. Debility remaining after acute diseases 178. Psorinum, Calc phos
179. Pain extends from orifice of urethra backwards 179. Sal acid, Calendula

  • Similar to Hypericum in injuries to parts rich in sentient nerves where pain is excessive and out of proportion to injury
  • Similar to Arnica in traumatism without laceration of tissue
  • Symph, Calc phos, for non-union of bones
180. Calendula
181. This medicine antidotes

  • Nearly all vegetable medicines
  • Tobacco
  • Fruits containing prussic acid
181. Camphor
182. Should not be allowed in the sick room in its crude form 182. Camphor
183. Burns before the blisters form and when they have formed 183. Cantharis
184. Cina follows this medicine well in intermittent fever 184. Capsicum
185. This medicine is often useful after bad effects from spoiled fish and decayed vegetables 185. Carbo animalis, Carbo veg, Allium cepa

  • This medicine is similar to labour pains of Pulsatilla, but mental condition opposite
  • Similar to, Sepia in moth patches and reflex symptoms from uterine irregularities
186. Caulophyllum

  • Incompatible: always disagrees, the Acids & Coffea
  • It antidotes paralysis from lead poisoning
  • It antidotes paralysis of tongue due to holding type in mouth of compositors (Hering)
187. Causticum
188. In cases spoiled by the use of Opium & Morphine 188. Chamomilla
189. Mental calmness contra indicate this medicine 189. Chamomilla
190. Chelidonium antidotes the abuse of this substance, especially in hepatic complaints 189. Bryonia
191. Ars, Sulph, and Lyco follow well, and will often be required to complete the cure 191. Chelidonium




1. “Acts most beneficially when patient suffers from chronic loose stool or diarrhea” (Hahnemann) 1. Phosphorus
2. “This medicine requires something like 9 days before it manifests its action, and even a single dose may elicit other symptoms lasting for weeks” (Aegedi)

2. Psorinum

3. “Whether derived from purest gold or purest filth, our gratitude for its excellent service forbids us to inquire or care” (P.B.Bell)

3. Psorinum

4. “Medicines which have their special applicability to meat eaters rather than to exclusive vegetarians” (Teste)

4. Bry, All sat, Lyco, Nux vom, Colo, Digit.

5. “It actually seems to fatten up tuberculous patients” (Burnett)

5. Hydrastis

6. “This medicine needs more frequent repetition in children’s complaints than nearly every other chronic remedy” (H. Fergie Woods) 6. Tuberculinum
7. “To call a carbuncle a surgical disease is the greatest absurdity. An incision is always injurious and often fatal. A case has never been lost under the right kind of treatment, and it should always be treated by internal medicine only”  (Hering) 7. Anthracinum
8. “Tincture, given in 5 – 7 drop doses at bedtime, control nocturnal seminal emissions better than any other remedy” (C.W.Roberts) 8. Thuja
9. “One part, with three parts of alcohol, 10 – 15 drops, three times daily for 3 or 4 weeks, has been successfully used to subdue the craving for liquor” (Hering) 9. Sulphuric acid
10. “Should not be given in lying in period except in high potencies” (Hering) 10. Iodum
11. “Acts best in goitre when given after full moon, or when the moon is waning” (Lippe) 11. Iodum
12. “Wine drinkers should take coffee and beer drinkers should take tea, coffee antidotes wine and tea antidotes beer, so this medicine corresponds to beer, tea will be likely to agree with it better than coffee” (Hering) 12. Kali bich
13. “For the bad effects of drunkenness in people with light hair, blue or gray eyes, florid complexion, fat or corpulent, what Nux vom is to people of opposite temperament” (Hering) 13. Lobelia inflata
14. “If Ipecac fails when indicated in uterine hemorrhage give this medicine” (Yingling) 14. Pyrogen
15. “One single dose of the 30th potency is sufficient to cure entirely epidemic whooping cough. The cure takes place surely between 7 & 8 days. Never give a second dose immediately after the first; it would not only prevent the good effect of the former, but would be injurious” (Hahnemann) 15. Drosera
16. “This medicine has cured bad cases of general dropsy, after Apis, Apoc and Dig failed” (Haynes) 16. Blatta orientalis
17. “This medicine like Baptisia has ability to swallow only liquids (like milk), but unlike the latter, it has aversion to milk” (Hering) 17. Silicea
18. “The chief distinction between this medicine and Iod is, the former cures the blue-eyed and the latter the black-eyed patients” (Hering) 18. Bromium
19. “All our progress as a school depends on the right view of the symptoms obtained by proving with these medicines” (Hering) 19. Camphor & Opium



National workshop on creating effective Medical MCQs

exam34Design – National workshop on creating effective MCQs

Organised by Manipal Centre for Professional and Personal Development (MCOD) in collaboration with

DR TMA Pain Endowment Chair in Medical Education and

Department of Medical Education – Kasturba Medical College. Mangalore

On 17th and 18th Feb 2014

At MCPD, Manipal University, Karnataka


  • David B Swanson, National Board of Medical Examiners.USA
  • Dr Vinay Kumar Chicago

There will be two identical  one day workshops on Feb 17 and 18

There will be 30 participants on each day and these will include both basic and clinical faculty who will work together on creating integrated questions.

The focus will be on single best answer MCQs along the lines currently used by the USMLE.

The workshop will be intense with the goal of training the trainers

The workshop will be jointly conducted by Dr David Swanson from the US National Board of Examiners.

For details Dr Ciraj AM

Mob: 09845170953


Homeopathy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Effect of homeopathic treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 

Dr Rangadhar Satapathy. BHMS

Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder of large intestine or colon that manifest with various signs symptoms like abdominal pain, bloating gas, constipation or diarrhea, sudden urging for bowel clearance which has the deep-seated etiological factors lies at both central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). Homeopathy has a good scope in treating such health ailments by acting at its etiopathological aspects in giving a long term relief.

Key words : Irritable Bowel syndrome, scope of homeopathy in Irritable Bowel syndrome 

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is manifested with various signs and symptoms like abdominal pain, bloating of gas, sudden urging for bowel clearance, frequent urging for bowel clearance, in some cases constipation problems, sometimes loose motion and constipation alternates each other. It is occurred as a result of irregular rhythmical peristaltic movements. The etiopathological causes lies both at central nervous system and enteric nervous system. The person suffering from IBS experience either sudden urging for stool or constipation problem or loose motion alternate with constipation. In some cases it is found of developing IBS after an intestinal infection. It is called post infectious IBS. There are many triggers factor of IBS which affect the nerves that control sensation or muscle contraction of the intestine. In the generalize treatment aspect there is not any permanent long term treatment except relieves of symptoms so that the person can live as normally as possible. In homeopathy it has a good scope to give a long term relief with alleviation of associated symptoms. Well selected constitutional homeopathic remedies can maintain the equilibrium between CNS and enteric nervous system and thus can be helpful to maintain a normal rhythmical peristalsis movement in GI tract.

Literature review of homeopathy in irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the word itself signifies irritable bowel. So the groups of symptoms arises due to irritable bowel is called irritable bowel syndrome. Here the question arises why the bowel becomes irritable and why? The walls of the bowel i.e the intestinal tract are lined by layers of muscles that contracts and expands in a coordinated rhythmical manner to move the foods from the stomach to the rectum. If you have Irritable bowel syndrome it contracts more stronger and lasts longer than normal so the person will have a sudden urging for stool. Due to stronger and longer contraction the foods is forced through the intestinal tract quickly that causes gas formation, bloating and loose motion. Sometimes the exact opposite condition occurs like longer period of relaxation no contraction in intestines so the digested food stuffs are not moved forward that result constipation problem. So the person suffering from IBS experience either sudden urging for stool or constipation problem or loose motion alternate with constipation. In some cases it is found of developing IBS after an intestinal infection. It is called post infectious IBS. There are many triggers factor of IBS which affect the nerves that control sensation or muscle contraction of the intestine.

Triggers for IBS
Foods – The foods that triggers the IBS are refined breads, refined foods such as chips, cookies, all sort of junk foods, caffeine, carbonated drinks, alcohol, high protein diets, sometimes milk and dairy products.

Stress – Stress, anxiety, problems at work, problems at home, and financial problems can have a direct effect on IBS. The sign and symptoms of IBS can be aggravated by constant staying in a stressful situation.

Drugs – Some drugs may trigger the symptoms of IBS. Prolonged use of antibiotic, anti depressant drugs, cough syrups containing sorbitols.

Symptoms of IBS

  1. Abdominal pain and cramping – the abdominal pain and discomfort occur few days in a month and the pain is relieved after the bowel clearance.
  2. A bloated feeling – feeling of heaviness in abdomen
  3. Gas ( flatulence) – there is more gas formation and flatulency
  4. Diarrhea and constipation – sometimes loose motion and sometimes constipation tendency. There is also bout of diarrhea and constipation alternate
  5. Sudden urging for stool – there is sudden urging for stool no control over it. Sometimes stools are mucoid like
  6. Fatigue and weakness

Effect of Homeopathy
The common etiopathogenesis features of IBS contributes in 3 major factors- i) psychosocial disturbances, ii) altered motility ,iii)Hypersensitivity of organ

In the present society of high stress level, pressure packed life style, suppression of desires, emotions, angers all creates an imbalance in the psychological healthy environment. It reflects in the equilibrium between Central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). The enteric nervous system control the peristalsis of GI tract and is controlled by the mesenteric nerve plexus, neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine)   and many more neuropeptides .  Psychological aspects are important determinants of the emotional response to visceral stimulation.  Thus they are responsible for abnormal rhythm of peristaltic movement of GI tract, the altered motility that reflects in either prolonged colonic contraction or sluggish colonic contraction. Sometimes both alternate each other also.

Any pre existing gastro intestinal infection may causes hypersensitivity of the colon results from the injuries to the colonic mucous.  Any injury to colonic mucous releases many chemical mediators like k+, ATP, bradykinin,  prostaglandin. Those substances can directly stimulate afferent neuron terminals and also induce the release of algogenic substances like histamine, serotonin (5HT), nerve growth factor (NGF) and prostaglandins. These cascades of reaction stimulate the colonic pain.

Homeopathic remedies are selected from the totality of symptoms that consist of common sign and symptoms of the disease, physical constitutional symptoms plus mental and emotional symptoms of the person. These altogethers constitute a totality of symptoms. Basing on the totality of symptoms taken from the patient the homeopathic remedies are selected in a systematic procedure that helps to act in molecular and sub molecular level at the limbic system of CNS which controls the function of emotion, behavior, memory etc.

Thus well selected constitutional homeopathic remedies can maintain the equilibrium between CNS and enteric nervous system and thus can be helpful to maintain a normal rhythmical peristalsis movement in GI tract.  There are many homeopathic remedies that also helps in reducing the pain at colonic area associated with various pre existing infection to the GI tract in connection to IBS by down regulating the pain mediators and cytokines at the mucosal level. The remedies are selected as per the homeopathic way of case history taken.  The various symptoms associated with IBS can be improved gradually and consistently by the well selected homeopathic remedies.



  1. “Current insights in to the pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome”, theodoros Karantanos, Theofano Markoutsaki, Maria Gazouli, Nicholas P Anagnou and Dimitrios G Karamanolis  –
  2. Etiology and pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation by Michael Camilleri,MD,PhD –
  3. Organon by Hahnemann, aphorisms 83 – 92 –

Legal requirements for sale and possession of Homoeopathic medicines

homeo20Please be noted the stay given by Hon’ble Lucknow Bench of Allahabad High Court for SBL Pvt. Limited  has been vacated.  Therefore, Pharmacies are not in a position to manufacture and supply Mother Tincture and Dilutions in 500 ml. pack size


‘Law’ is the word that strike fear in the minds of many people living in today’s society. The truth is that the law is not implicated to create fear or scare individuals; it is in place to serve society. This article is an initiative to enquire the benefits, opportunities and deficiencies of laws related to the use of Homoeopathic medicines, which contains alcohol. This may help Homoeopaths to have legal information on use of alcoholic medicinal preparations in easy-to-understand form to meet their needs.

When considering alcohol, or more precisely ethyl alcohol, most of the people recognize its place in society as a recreational drug. Alcohol is invariably used as a solvent in medicine, especially in Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy, particularly to extract active constituents from inert parts of crude drugs. This concentrates the medicinally active compounds and makes the remedy easier to dispense and consume while also improving its absorption. The compounds that normally dissolve in alcohol include alkaloids, glycosides, resins, and volatile oils but not polysaccharides, gums, sugars, or proteins. Combined with water to make a hydro-alcoholic solvent, it acts as a preservative by preventing hydrolysis and inhibiting fermentation that would occur if water was used alone.

Probably, all early civilizations produced fermented beverages from easily available substances. In ancient China, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, these beverages were sometimes used to administer herbal medicines. In Greece the practice of mixing herbs in wine began before the time of Hippocrates. By the end of the 18th century mother tinctures were an important class of medical preparations. After that, the popularity of alcoholic extracts of herbal medicine began to steadily decline as the production of purified active constituents and synthetic drugs took precedence.

Homoeopathic mother tinctures are extracted with a mixture of purified water and strong alcohol (contains not less than 94.7% v/v or 92.9% w/w and not more than 95.2%v/v or 92.7% w/w of C2H5OH) in a definite proportion, and potencies are prepared with Rectified spirit 60 OP (91.29% v/v of C2H5OH), according to Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India. That means, the final alcohol percentage of mother tinctures varies from 40%v/v – 70%v/v, depending on each drug and alcohol percentage of potentised medicines varies from 88%v/v – 91%v/v. Since Homoeopathic medicines contains considerable amount (more than 12%v/v) of alcohol, it has to strictly supervised by Law. The relevant acts and rules which governs sales, transport and possession of alcoholic medicinal preparations are

  1. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules, 1945
  2. The Medicinal and Toilet Preparations ( Excise Duties ) Rules – 1956
  3. The Kerala Spirituous Preparations ( Control) Rules – 1969
  4. The Kerala Rectified Spirit Rules – 1972 

Keeping in view legal requirements and current awareness of the general public about the use of alcoholic medicinal preparations, a Homoeopathic physician should know the rules and regulations which deal with Homoeopathic medicines.

Legal definition of Homoeopathic Medicine:

The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and the rules framed thereunder namely Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 are made applicable to Homoeopathic medicines. Homoeopathic Medicines are defined under Rule 2(dd) of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945 as ‘Any drug which is recorded in Homeopathic proving or therapeutic efficacy of which has been established through long clinical experience as recorded in authoritative Homeopathic literature of India and abroad which is prepared according to techniques of Homeopathic   Pharmacy and covers combination of the ingredients of such Homeopathic Medicines but does not include a medicine which is administered by parental route’.

Sale of Homoeopathic Medicines:

Provisions related to sale of Homoeopathic Medicines are described in Rule 67- A to 67-H, Part VI-A of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945.These rules says that, the sale of Homoeopathic medicines should be under the supervision of competent person and Homoeopathic physician should not practice within the premises where Homoeopathic medicines are sold. Application for grant or renewal of the licence to sell, stock, exhibit or offer for sale or distribute shall be made in form 19-B along with a fee of Rs.250 (if the applicant has applied for renewal of licence after its expiry, but within six months, he has to pay the additional fee of Rs.50). Separate licence is issued for retail (in form 20C) and whole sale (in form 20 D) purpose. Duration of the licence is valid for five years from the date of issuing licence.Certificate of renewal of licence for retail as well as wholesale  shall be issued in form 20 E.

Prohibition to pack and sell homoeopathic medicines not more 30 ml:

It was in 22nd of February, 1994, the rule 106 –B came into existence as an amendment to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945.The rule says, “no homoeopathic medicine containing more than 12% alcohol v/v (Ethyl Alcohol) shall be packed and sold in packing or bottles of more than 30 ml. except that it may be sold to hospitals/dispensaries in packing or bottles of not more than 100 ml.” A tragedy resulting in loss of human lives and involving the use of spurious alcohol based medicinal preparations, led to the constitution of a one-man Inquiry Committee under the Chairmanship of Justice Jagdish Chandra. Among other recommendations, the Committee suggested that medicinal preparations containing more than 12%v/v alcohol should be packed in smaller packages. These recommendations in turn led to the initiation of a process by which Rule 106B was introduced by way of an amendment to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules. The Government of India by its notification dated 3rd July, 1992 in GSR No. 662(ii) invited objections from all the persons likely to be affected for introducing this rule. After considering the objections, rule 106-B has been inserted in the Drugs and cosmetics Rules of 1945 by the impugned notification. Many of the Homoeopathic  manufactures opposed Rule 106 B at different platforms and also moved to various courts in different parts of the country.As a result one or the other court had given stay order to  rule 106 B and then, market was flooded with pound packing in no time. However, on 8th February 2008, a bench of Delhi court dismissed writ petitions filed by various manufactures holding Rule 106 B, saying that, it is reasonable and in the interest of the public at large.

The fact is that, Homoeopathic medicine is extensively used for the economically weaker sections of the society and a good number of Homoeopathic Dispensaries are run by various charitable trusts and other NGOs, whose revenue is from small contributions. It is therefore important that authorities should not throttle this significant health delivery system. The bulk packings are always economical and should not be discouraged as such, in large user interest. No where in the world, there is such a restriction and there is no established instance of misuse of Homoeopathic medicines for drinking purpose. Homoeopathic dilutions contain 91% v/v of alcohol and their cost is higher than same quantity of liquor freely available at liquor shops. Hence, it cannot be consumed or preferred by the alcoholics. More over there is no restriction on the quantity of sale of liquor. No Homoeopathic medicine can harm the health of nation. But with the introduction of rule 106 B, Homoeopathic medicines are more expensive to consumers. Homoeopathic medicines are used in bulk by poultry farmers throughout India and there is a need of larger packings for poultry farmers just like in Allopathy..

Excise Acts and Rules relevant for Homoeopathic medicines:

How much quantity of Homoeopathic medicines (contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol) can be possessed by Homoeopathic practitioner in his/her clinic? Is there any licence required for that? What quantity of Homoeopathic medicines (contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol) can be dispensed to a patient at a time? These queries have to be answered.

According to Rule 3 (i) of  The Kerala Spirituous Preparations (Control) Rules 1969, ‘Medicinal preparations’ are defined as all drugs containing alcohol or any intoxicating drug which are a remedy or prescription prepared for internal or external use of human being or animals and all substances intended to be used for, or in the treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease in human beings or animals under any of the different systems of medicines, namely Allopathic, Homoeopathic, Ayurvedic or any other Indian system of medicine. Again Rule 3 (k) defines ‘spirituous preparation’ as any medicinal or toilet preparation containing alcohol, whether self-generated or otherwise, or any intoxicating drug, or any mixture or compound of wine with medicinal substances, whether the wine is fortified with spirit or not, or any other substance containing alcohol or intoxicating drug whether self-generated or otherwise notified under Rule 5 to be a spirituous preparation.

So it is clear that Homoeopathic medicines (contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol) will come within the preview of The Kerala Spirituous Preparations (Control) Rules 1969. Regarding the possession of Homoeopathic Medicines in the clinic, Rule 10 (a) of The Kerala Spirituous Preparations (Control) Rules 1969 says that ‘No person shall possess any spirituous preparation expect under and in accordance with the conditions of a licence or permit issued under these rules and in excess of the quantity entered in such licence or permit provided that – (a) medical practitioners specified in the table below may possess at any one time for their professional use and for issue to their patients for bonafide treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease, preparation upto the limits specified against them in the table, but not for sale on other physician’s prescriptions…’

The table below gives the limit of spirituous preparations one can possess with L 3licence

Class of Medical Practitioners Quantity of preparations allowed to be possessed  at any one time
Registered Medical Practitioners( in case of allopathic preparations) 1500 ml of each preparation
Registered HomoeopathicMedical Practitioners 375 ml of each  Homoeopathic preparation
Registered Medical Practitionersin the indigenous system of medicines (a) Five litres of each of any Asava or Arishta.(b) Preparations containing intoxicating drugnot exceeding 40 grams of drug content.(c) 1500 ml of any ayurvedic preparation

containing added alcohol.


If any medical practitioner mentioned in the above table is in charge of an institution such as a hospital, dispensary or maternity home and if the quantity prescribed above is not sufficient, the Excise Commissioner may relax the limit and allow such quantity as may be appropriate in each case.  According to Rule 12 (i) of  The Kerala Spirituous Preparations (Control) Rules 1969, any hospitals or dispensaries of State Government or Central Government, or Hospitals or dispensaries of local authorities or private hospitals or dispensaries specifically approved by the Excise Commissioner are exempted from taking out licence  for possession, use or dispensing of spirituous medicinal preparations.

Then, how much quantity of Homoeopathic medicine (contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol) can be possessed by a Homoeopathic practitioner without Licence? According to The Medicinal and Toilet Preparations ( Excise Duties ) Rules of 1956 ,the limit of spirituous medicinal preparations, which can be possessed by a Homoeopathic practitioner without the licence, is 57 ml of each medicine. In this regard, each dilution and mother tincture can be possessed with a maximum of 57ml.

Now, is there any licence required to keep rectified spirit in clinic? Yes, Rule 15, of Kerala Rectified Spirit Rules, 1972 says, any person or institution desirous of possessing and using for a bonafide medicinal, scientific, industrial or such other purpose, or desirous of possessing and selling duty paid rectified spirit shall take out a licence in form R.S I on payment of an prescribed annual fee, if the annual quantity does not exceed 10 litres, if quantity is more, additional fees has to be paid.

We can conclude with following points,

  • Homoeopathic medicines(contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol)  can be keep in 30 ml packing, except for Hospitals or Dispensaries , where it can keep in 100 ml packings. 450 ml packings are not allowed as per law.
  • Maximum of 57 ml of  each Homoeopathic medicines including dilutions and mother tinctures(contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol)  can be stocked by a Homoeopathic practitioner with out any licence.
  • Maximum of 375ml of  each Homoeopathic medicines including dilutions and mother tinctures(contains more than 12%v/v of alcohol)  can be stocked by a Homoeopathic practitioner with L 3 licence.
  • Rectified spirit can be possessed with R.S I licence.


  1. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules, 1945
  2. The Medicinal and Toilet Preparations ( Excise Duties ) Rules – 1956
  3. The Kerala Spirituous Preparations ( Control) Rules – 1969
  4. The Kerala Rectified Spirit Rules – 1972
  5. Judgement on R.S. Bhargava Pharmacy vs Union Of India (Uoi) on 8/2/2008
  6. Jacob.K.S, Alcohol and public health policies in India,The National   Medical Journal of India, 224-225, Vol. 23, NO. 4,2010.

Dr.A.B.Ram Jyothis.MD (Hom) Pharm.
ANSS Homoeopathy Medical College. Kottayam


Vithoulkas collaborating with the American College of Homeopathy

students4The International Academy of Classical Homeopathy is collaborating with the American Medical College of Homeopathy to bring the Science of Classical Homeopathy to America through the teaching of the world-renowned homeopath Professor George Vithoulkas.

This comprehensive program spans two years and classes meet one evening per week. Students can elect to attend synchronous-online or on-campus.  On-line students are required to vist on-campus at least once per year.

The program is based on the core teachings and lectures of George Vithoulkas.  The program is 602 hours in length and covers the A-Z of Classical Homeopathy-his unique understanding of the Theory of Chronic Diseases, the 12 Levels of Health, documented live cases,  and Materia Medica of over 120 remedies.

American Medical College of Homeopathy
1951 W. Camelback, Suite 300
Phoenix, AZ

Transfer to AMCH Homeopathic Practitioner Program
Those students who are eligible and wish to transfer to the American Medical College of Homeopathy Practitioner Program can apply at the end of the program.  Advanced placement of up to 18 months of the three year program is available.  Students who successfully graduate from the AMCH Practitioner Program are eligible for national homeopathic certification.

More details


RADAR Opus or RADAR 10 – which is better?


I have been teaching more than 7 Homeopathy softwares to Under Graduate and  Post Graduate Homoeopathy students of Kerala regularly since 2001, and using in day to day clinical practice since 1997.

Sorry to say that RADAR Opus is the worst technically imperfect Homoeopathic software available in the market.

They are testing everything on customers for a long time. …not in their lab

They began their journey in September 2010. Even after few up gradation in 2013 – Opus is so slow in loading and search even in 8GB RAM and i5 processor.

Their technical team is also not ‘experts’…they are wasting hours of our online time…without any solution to the problems.

Moreover many users are experiencing frequent crash/closure on dealing with patient section – this is the worst area in Opus.

Back up and Restore is also not working properly and completely – you may loss major part of patient data if restoring – with an ill built case record format – be careful while using Patient Data.

Lost 1000 of cases – mutilated by their Backup & Restore option – their team tried two to three time online  (Each time 2-3 hours) …but not recovered.

Many of  Opus features were available years before in ISIS including the user interface – Archibel  just copied it.

Technically the worst/imperfect software we ever used.

Many of our friends also fed up with Opus.

Many of the user-friendly features of RADAR 10 still not available in Opus

RADAR 10 was far better than Opus.

So think twice before upgrading your RADAR 10 to Opus


National Health Portal of India beta version launched

healthSeparate section for Homoeopathy also…make your contributions and suggestions. 

National Health Portal of India. The test site is now live at:

Please register as a user at: and post your comments.

Please feel free to use the Discussion Forums:

(i) For General matters related to Health Information:

(ii) Professional Forum:

Also, kindly make use of the Feedback forms:

You can also post at:

Looking forward to develop a user-driven, user-friendly and useful interactive health portal with your active contributions.


Basic Course Workshop on Medical Education Technology

teachers10Teaching and learning is a much cherished activity; understanding the science behind teaching and learning should be an even more joyous and attractive pursuit.

This workshop provides us with an easy yet essential learning in medical education. At the same time, it reminds us of the long journey that we eventually will be taking in keeping up our good job of producing efficient healers for society by gradually embracing what the rich and dynamic field of medical education has to offer.

There is always a scope for improvement and even the most experienced teacher can improve his/her teaching skills. Educational psychologists strongly recommend training the teacher in art and science of educational technology. Considering the dynamic status of medical education, a medical teacher has to be a lifelong learner and inculcate these principles to the students.

Attempts have been made by NTTC to train the teachers in this regard. Recently the task has been by Medical Council of India to sensitize, equip and empower teachers for discharging their professional responsibilities through functional Medical Education Units.

Thus, we take this opportunity to organize this workshop for medical teachers of this institute. It will focus on the basic aspect of teaching learning process, conventional and newer teaching and evaluation methods by imparting knowledge, sharing view points and training through group exercises.

The exercises will serve to stimulate, enlighten and help you to reach the depth of the subject.

Download details


Teaching Public Health at UG Medical education guidelines by WHO

whoImproving the teaching of Pubic Health at Undergraduate level in Medical School – suggested guideline by World Health Organisation(WHO)

The “Expert Group Meeting to Review and Finalize the Regional Guidelines to Improve Teaching of Public Health at Undergraduate Level in Medical Schools” was held in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Experts from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand participated in the meeting.

A regional meeting on “Teaching of public health in medical schools” was organized by the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia (WHO-SEARO) in Bangkok, Thailand for stakeholders in different institutions and organizations to share their views and strategic directions on how to strengthen teaching of public health in undergraduate medical schools in the South-East Asia Region.

The specific objectives of the meeting were:

  1. To review the situation of public health teaching in undergraduate medical schools in countries of South-East Asia Region and globally.
  2. To share experiences and identify effective/innovative teaching contents and methods to improve teaching of public health in undergraduate medical schools.
  3. To discuss and develop the regional strategic framework for strengthening teaching of public health in undergraduate medical schools.

Download full report and suggestions

Complete Dynamics

Win a prize! Complete Dynamics announced Master Edition

Complete DynamicsComplete Dynamics reached the impressive milestone of 500.000 users!

To share their  excitement with you, this weekend we will give you 40% discount on a 3 year license.

Now only 159 Euro! Only this weekend! No exceptions! Only Saturday and Sunday! Don’t email us after this weekend, please…

Pre announcing the new Master Edition

For some time they have silently been working on a new program edition, the Master Edition.

This new Edition will contain some very interesting extensions to the successful Practitioner Edition, for the more demanding and experienced users.

They  plan to release the Master Edition early next year. We will send you more details about 1 month before we release the new software.

Most existing users with a Practitioner Edition license will be upgraded automatically, free of charge.

Win a prize!

They need your help for this.

What new features and extension would you like to see in Complete Dynamics?

The 10 best ideas will be rewarded with a free 2-year license period!

You can send us your ideas to The better you explain your good ideas, the more chance you have to win a prize.

Visit us at

Complete Repertory website


List of Books written by Indian Authors in Medical Education

book7List of Books written by Indian Authors in Medical Education

  1. Verma K, D’Monte B, Adkoli BV, Nayar U, (eds). Inquiry Driven Strategies for innovation in Medical Education. New Delhi: AIIMS, 1991.
  2. Verma K, Nayar U, Adkoli BV (eds). Inquiry Driven Strategies for innovation in Medical Education: Curricular Reforms. New Delhi: AIIMS, 1995.
  3. Khosla PK, Angra SK, Talwar D. (eds.) Community Ophthalmology – An Indian Perspective, New Delhi: Current Scientific Literature, 1992
  4. Khosla PK, Garg SP, Talwar D. (eds.) Assessment  Strategies in Ophthalmology. New Delhi : Ideal Impression, 1993
  5. Sethuraman K.R, Objective Structured Clinical Examination, Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, 1993
  6. Sharma SD, Kacker SK, Adkoli BV  India.  In: Sajid AW, Mc Guire CH et al (eds).  International Handbook of Medical Education. Westport, Connecticut. London: Greenwood Press, 1994, pp207-230. [Though this is a book chapter, this is a position paper, useful for in tracing  early development of  medical education in India. ]
  7. Rita Sood et al (eds). Assessment in Medical Education –Trends and Tools, K.L.Wig Centre for Medical Education and Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 1995. [This is very good primer to understand basic concepts in assessment.  pdf version available: Contact person Dr Rita Sood ]
  8. Srinivasa D.K., Ananthakrishnan N, Sethuraman K.R, Santosh Kumar. (eds.) Medical Education: Principles & Practice, (Revised Edition),  National Teacher Training Centre, Jawaharlal Institute of Medical Education and Research, (JIPMER), Pondicherry, First edition 1995. Revised edition is available.
  9. Ananthakrishnan N, Sethuraman K.R, Santosh Kumar. (eds.) Medical Education: Principles & Practice , Volume II –Trainers’ Manual, National Teacher Training Centre, Jawaharlal Institute of Medical Education and Research, (JIPMER), Pondicherry, 1997 [Sr No. 8 and 9 are excellent compendium of content of the NTTC Courses conducted by  NTTC, JIPMER Pondicherry]
  10. Sethuraman K.R. (ed) Developing Clinical Skills – Proceedings of a Workshop. JIPMER, Pondicherry, 1995 [ A useful collection of clinical skills categorized systematically]
  11. Bali R.K. (ed) Faculty Resource Development for Dental Education in Health Sciences, Asian Pacific Dental Federation: Commission on Dental Education, 1997 [This is useful book for dental profession educators]
  12. Sethuraman K.R. Trick or Treat. The Society of EQUIP, Pondicherry, 2000 [Interesting reading on medical ethics]
  13. Sood R. (ed) Postgraduate Training – Key Issues,  Indian College of Physicians, Academic Wing of Association of Physicians of India, New Delhi, 2002 [Recommended for PG Teachers]
  14. Shekar K.S., Srinivas D.K. (eds.) What is not taught in Medical Colleges! Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore.2011 Contact person: [A must read book for all those interested in a holistic approach to medical education]
  15. Singh T., Anshu (eds.) Principles of Assessment in Medical Education 2012 New Delhi Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. [Excellent resource for assessment in medical education]
  16. Singh T., Gupta P., Singh D.(eds.)  Principles of Medical Education, Fourth edition IAP National Publication House, Gwalior, JAYPEE Brothers, 2013 [Excellent primer in medical education, reads well]
  17. Bhuiyan P.S.,Rege N.N., Supe A.N. (eds) The Art of teaching medical students. 2nd Edn. 2002. Medical Education Technology Cell, Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E. M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai. [Latest edition of this book is expected soon. Contact person: Dr Pritha Bhuiyan, ]
  18.  Basic Workshop On Medical Education Technology by Medical Education Unit – a complilation for basic course workshop
Google Glass

Google Glass promise for improved Health Care

Google GlassApplication developers are racing to have their software ready to go when Google Glass, the wearable computer with an optical head-mounted display, finally becomes available to the general public by year-end.

But while most apps will focus on the infotainment space, analysts predict there will be a huge secondary opportunity for app development in healthcare and physical-activity monitoring.

Indeed, Shane Walker, associate director for Consumer and Digital Health Research at IHS, believes blood glucose meters, cholesterol meters and pill dispensers are just a few of the dedicated medical devices that could potentially tie into Glass via Bluetooth connections.

CPRGlass. An app that will guide users step by step on how best to perform CPR.

CATHGlass. – this app for cardiologists will provide important patient information during procedures.

Cerora’s MindReader. BrickSimple, a developer of mobile apps, has demonstrated wireless Google Glass integration with Cerora’s MindReader over Bluetooth.

For diagnosing patients. The app will allow a doctor to use Glass to diagnose symptoms more accurately. Speaking into Glass, the doctor might say: “Patient has the following symptoms – itchy skin, fatigue, dry patches, and insomnia.” Glass might respond with two possible diagnoses – food allergy or mercury toxicity.

For the operating room. The app could help a doctor compare a patient’s anatomy to a normal or healthy standard. The doctor might say: “Glass, show me what a normal liver looks like.” Glass would respond with an appropriate image.

  • Help With Procedures.
  • Electronic Medical Records [EMRs]
  • Telemedicine.

Read more


Foundation training for Virtual teachers by UCIrvine

teachers10This course provides teachers with the foundation for understanding the movement towards virtual instruction.

It introduces fundamental knowledge needed by teachers to succeed in a technology-dependent, instructional environment. You will explore the history of online learning and understand how a variety of delivery models are evolving in the K-12 environment, ranging from completely online to hybrid or blended classrooms.

Upon completion of the course, you will understand what it takes to transition from teaching in the classroom to providing virtual instruction.

Course Syllabus

Over five weeks, we will cover the following topics:

  • Week 1: History of Virtual Education
  • Week 2: Synchronous and Asynchronous Technologies
  • Week 3: Transitioning from the Classroom to a Virtual Environment
  • Week 4: Equity and Access, Funding, and the Law
  • Week 5: The Future of Virtual Education and Review

Recommended Background

  • Faculty working with further education, community college or vocational students
  • Continuing education or in-service facilitators supporting teachers and faculty
  • Educators interested in educational technology and/or online instruction
  • Please note that although this program is offered to participants from around the world, many of the examples and experiences shared will be based on the education structure and processes of the United States. Participants will be encouraged to discuss their own country-based experiences in the forums.

More details :

Asymptomatic AF raises stroke risk in diabetics

Elvira Manzano

Clinicians should consider screening for asymptomatic (subclinical or silent) AF in type 2 diabetes patients in light of new research showing that this underlying condition is relatively more common and significantly increases the risk of stroke in such patients.

In a cohort of 464 patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of cerebral infarcts (as detected by MRI) was significantly higher in patients with asymptomatic compared with those without asymptomatic AF (61 percent vs 29 percent, respectively). Similarly, stroke events were significantly higher in patients with asymptomatic AF (17.3 percent vs 5.9 percent, respectively; p<0.01).

The researchers matched the diabetic patients to 240 healthy controls. Patients were screened for episodes of asymptomatic AF at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and then yearly for another 3 years using a 48-hour Holter monitor. The mean age of the patients was 52. Those with symptomatic AF at baseline were excluded from the study.

After a mean follow-up of 3 years, they found that patients with diabetes were more likely to develop asymptomatic AF than healthy controls (11 percent vs 1.6 percent, respectively; p<0.001). Overall, 27 diabetics with asymptomatic AF developed ischemic stroke compared with 16 without asymptomatic AF. By contrast, rates of cerebral infarct and stroke were lower (1.5 percent and 0.5 percent, respectively) in the control group.

The authors said the data indicate that brief episodes of asymptomatic AF are frequent in diabetics. The 11 percent incidence of AF in the study may even be an underestimation given that monitoring was done intermittently. “On the basis of these data, we cannot establish a temporal link between silent AF and cerebrovascular disease. The silent cerebral infarcts are probably due to similar AF that occurred in patients with silent AF before this study.” [Source]


mHealth Basics: Mobile Technology for health solutions

healthmHealth is the use of mobile and wireless technologies to support the achievement of health objectives.

The widespread use of mobile phones is one reason why this practice is rapidly progressing.  This course provides an introduction to this emerging field and an overview of best practices for mHealth solution development.

The focus of the course is on mHealth applications commonly used in developing country contexts.

Objective : When you have finished this course, you will be able to:

  • Define mHealth and its relationship to eHealth and ICT
  • Explain the importance of mHealth
  • Explain potential benefits and limitations of mHealth
  • Describe the mobile devices and features commonly used in mHealth in low-resource settings
  • Describe the six types of mHealth applications
  • Describe preliminary conclusions from the evidence on mHealth
  • Describe recommended best practices for each phase of mHealth solution development
  • Identify examples of best practices in mHealth solution development scenarios
  • Identify and obtain resources for additional information about mHealth

Time : 3 hours

Details :

V Compass

Free webinar series on solving cases by Vithoulkas Compass

V CompassEven if you already own a homeopathic software program, you’ll want to participate! 

Join Kim Elia for a Very Special 3-Part FREE Webinar Series!

Kim Elia, from WholeHealthNow,  will be giving 3 free webinars showing how to solve cases with Online Homeopathy Software .

The first webinar will take place on Tuesday, October 1st  followed by 2 more sessions on:  Tuesday, November 12th and Tuesday, November 26th.

Don’t miss your opportunity to learn about homeopathic case analysis using the new Vithoulkas Compass Online Homeopathy Software. Whether you’ve been in practice for one year, twenty years or you’re still planning your future homeopathic practice – you won’t want to miss these live sessions!

Kim will walk through the steps of “working up” actual cases using Vithoulkas Compass Software. Analysis of the case, selection of rubrics, researching materia medica and remedy selection – Kim will cover it all. During the first session, Kim will also discuss the unique contribution that George Vithoulkas* has made to the art and science of homeopathy.

These sessions will provide invaluable insights into case analysis and computer repertorization. Explore the difference between a simple “sum of symptoms” and the “expert” analysis available with Vithoulkas Compass. Discover how the patterns of information contained within a case can reveal its essential elements. Expand your repertorization skills, and improve your prescribing success!


(one click registers you for all 3 sessions!)

3 Tuesdays: 5:00 – 630 pm Pacific

October 1st, November 12th, November 26th

 Web :

Ramjee Sing

Measures to strengthen Homoeopathy education in India by CCH

The Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH) and the Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry have taken the right step forward for regulating the functioning of homoeopathic colleges in the country and standardising homoeopathic education with a syllabus prescribed by the CCH.

Major Highlihts

  • Accreditation for homoeopathic colleges has been made compulsory
  • The qualification of the teaching staff had been upgraded to postgraduation for teaching the undergraduate courses.
  • The CCH has finalised the syllabus for all the seven new postgraduate courses which have not been introduced so far and added for the first time Geriatrics as a specialisation at the PG level.
  • All the homoeopathic colleges to have at least 2,000 outpatients for every 100 seats.
  • No attempt would be allowed to introduce the subjects related to allopathic system of medicine in the study of homoeopathy in the country & Homeopaths are not permitted to do Allopathy
  • Homeopath registered in one State can practice in any part of the country


For the first time the accreditation for homoeopathic colleges has been made compulsory and CCH will appoint a committee to visit the individual colleges and give accreditation.

Ramjee SingFollowing is the excerpts of an interview with the President of the Central Council of Homoeopathy, Dr. Ramjee Singh. – Published in Hindu Daily 

Q: What are the measures taken to improve the quality and content of education in homoeopathic colleges in the country?

A: The CCH and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have initiated several measures to regulate the functioning of the homoeopathic colleges with a view to improve the quality and content of education imparted. In fact the Health Ministry wanted to implement the Minimum Standard Education Requirement (MSER) jointly prepared by the CCH and the Ministry in all the colleges, but due to practical difficulties the implementation has been postponed to the next academic year.

What are the salient points of the MSER and how will it improve the quality and content of education?

Besides insisting on colleges to have all the equipment and laboratory facilities as prescribed in the MSER, the qualification of the teaching staff had been upgraded to postgraduation for teaching the undergraduate courses. However, one problem was that in seven out of the 12 subjects in undergraduate homoeopathic courses we do not have postgraduate courses.

How do you propose to overcome this?

The CCH has finalised the syllabus for all the seven postgraduate courses which have not been introduced so far and added for the first time Geriatrics as a specialisation at the PG level. These courses will be started at the earliest. The Health Ministry has also made it compulsory for all the homoeopathic colleges to have at least 2,000 outpatients for every 100 seats and at least 30 per cent occupancy of the sanctioned beds in the hospitals attached to the college.

There has been a growing demand for allowing homeopaths to practice allopathic system of medicine and the Medical Council of India had banned using those who had been trained in other system of medicine from practising allopathy.

The issue had come up for discussion in the general body meeting of the CCH more than once and on three occasions the demand made by States such as Gujarat, Karnataka and Maharashtra for allowing the homeopaths to practice allopathic medicine was rejected. After a lengthy discussion at the last general body meeting, once again the CCH had rejected the demand.

There had been a demand for introduction of Pharmacology, a branch of allopathic system of medicine, in the undergraduate courses of Homoeopathy.

This was also discussed at length in the general body meeting of the CCH and was rejected forthright. No attempt would be allowed to introduce the subjects related to allopathic system of medicine in the study of homoeopathy in the country.

What measures have been proposed to solve the difficulties faced by doctors to pursue their profession in States other than their parent State?

The process of registration has been made simpler now and instructions have been issued that a homeopath registered in one State can practice in any part of the country with a No Objection Certificate from the State where he is practising. [Source]


Cloud-Based Assessment of Student Performance

appsA web-based educational resource integrating core curricular content with logging capabilities and evaluation tools for dissemination to mobile devices and desk-top computers for use in dynamic clinical environments.

Cloud-Based Assessment Tools for the Facilitation of Direct Observation and Assessment of Student Performance.

Direct observation of a medical trainees’ performance in clinical settings remains challenging. Direct observation serves to ascertain and document the acquisition of core clinical skills.

Barriers to direct observation include the lack of effective implementation strategies and difficulties in delivering transparent standards for judging competence at the bedside. Studies have demonstrated that in the absence of transparent standards, the discriminating ability of evaluators judging the exact same clinical performance is poor. The development of criterion-based assessment tools for use by observers during student-patient encounters offers a potential solution to this problem.

One of the few feasible ways to efficiently deliver such assessment tools in authentic clinical settings is with technology; including internet enabled devices such as smartphones and other mobile devices. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a novel cloud-based clinical assessment tool called the CEX app, and to measure its inter-rater reliability and validity.

The tool described in this posting is featured in a peer reviewed article found here:

Ferenchick GS, Solomon D. (2013) Using cloud-based mobile technology for assessment of competencies among medical students. PeerJ 1:e164

Note: For access to the web-based resource, go to, please use the Username: and the Password: testuser

For access to real-time cloud-based reports, go to , please log in with the Username:  and the Password: test (then click on the Assessment Report links)

Certainty in Homoeopathy – 200 years after the Organon

Dr Rohrer

200 years after the Organon – what remains from Hahnemann´s heritage?
For us it is very difficult to value properly the enormous work Hahnemann did as a pioneer. From about 1790 onwards Hahnemann detached himself from the medical establishment, detached himself from the guidelines of the consensus conferences of his medical world. He went his own way, 1796 onward. He was alone, without any partner or disciple. No colleague with whom he could exchange his new ideas.

It is astonishing although Hahnemann established new in medicine:

1. Treatment according the law of similarity

2. Remedy proving in healthy people

3. Step by step dilution and shaking of the remedies

He found and recognized all these new principles within a short time and described it in the Organon 1st edition in 1810. Even the famous § 153, with its demand to keep in view the more striking, exceptional and characteristic symptoms we find it already in the first edition in § 129. Equally Hahnemann speaks in the first edition in § 3 about the recovery that must result if the conditions of healing are fulfilled.

These conditions are:

1. the correct knowledge of the disease

2. the exact knowledge of the power of the remedies

3. to adapt both according the law of similarity

According to Hahnemann the law of similarity refers only to symptoms of the remedy proving and not to symptoms obtained clinically. A proving symptom always consist of two parts, one is the influence of the remedy, the other part is from the weak point of the prover. Therefore the similarity also refers only to parts of the symptoms and not to whole symptoms. Therefore the searching of the remedy and repertorisation should also refer to parts and not whole symptoms. For this kind of repertorisation the Pocket Book of Boenninghausen works the best and as Boenninghausen wrote for this way of looking upon homoeopathy he had the consent of the master, of Hahnemann.

Download full paper :


Homeopathic Drug Provings and Scientific Research Methods

homeoDavid Riley MD

Can scientific research methods such as randomization, blinding, placebo controls, cross-over designs, play a role in helping establish an improved system for identifying the symptom picture in a homeopathic drug proving?

In 1996 the HMRG working group in the UK said: “Remedy provings are the most important source of drug pictures of the homoeopathic materia medica. They may be supplemented by toxicological data, and that from successful clinical experience, but they are essential for a full drug picture to be developed.

A continuing supply of high quality provings is essential for the continuance of homoeopathy…. Provings are needed to develop new remedies and to clarify and improve knowledge of existing ones”. Clinical research plays a role in the contemporary practice of homeopathy as well; and some today, particularly in the regulatory community (Kommission D and HPCUS) call for verification of the symptoms experienced in a homeopathic proving with additional clinical trials. Samuel Hahnemann conducted more than 100 homeopathic drug provings in the process of investigating “… the peculiar actions of medicines on the health of man

…” [§ 108 Organon, section 4, Hahnemann 1958]. He stressed the need for homeopathic drug provings on healthy subjects for achieving a clear homeopathic symptom picture. Is that still true?

The homeopathic drug provings that I have conducted are considered clinical trials.

They adhere to a protocol (visible on, are approved by an institutional review board, and utilize many conventional research methods. The protocol follows the Good Clinical practice (GCP) guidelines and is a – prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over clinical trial; cross-over group design were considered appropriate by Koenig et al, (1987) and Walach (1993). In the provings I have conducted, each symptom – new or changed – is recorded and becomes a potential component of the homeopathic symptom picture. The process by which the symptoms that occur in a homeopathic drug proving are included in the symptom picture of this proving substance use the standards published in Homeopathy (1996).

Download full paper :


Homeopathic approach in chronic renal failure

patientsHomoeopathic Concept and Diagnosis in the management of Chronic Renal Failure

Dr. Pawan Paareek

People with Kidney failure developed hope of survival American Doctors performed the first successful Kidney Transplantation between the two identical twins, No ARD was used. The receptor died 22yrs later of a heart problem.

30yrs before Patient had to spend 36 hours a week on Haemodialysis

20 yrs before Haemodialysis was reduced to 12 hours a week


  • Diabetes accounts for more than 40% of all new cases Of End stage renal disease
  • High BP accounts for 26% of all new cases of ESRD

Is dialysis a cure?

Patients are referred to the dialysis table quickly as soon as he comes in contact with the nephrologists

Haemodialysis & Peritoneal dialysis can eliminate waste & excess chemicals from your blood.

Dialysis can’t produce the vital hormones.

Homoeopathic approach
Emotional and Gentle kidney influences the complete vital economy of our body Hence our thoughts, our feelings, our life style, contribute to the kidney problem.

Golden rule of treatment is based on totality of symptoms Application of the law of similar depends entirely on the concept of  individualization and susceptible constitution.

Mental stress and chronic renal failure
Stress stimulates the adrenal gland which then secretes catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) which circulate in the blood stream, activating various organs including the liver, the kidneys, the heart, and the lungs; resulting in increased blood pressure, enhanced muscle tension, increased blood sugar.

Download paper: