Taken from the Greek word phillen, which means love’ and ‘wisdom’.
- Philosophy is the science of general beings and human thinking
- Cognition: – socio historic process of man’s creative activity designed to shape their knowledge, which in turn underlines the man’s aim and motives of their action.
- Social consciousness
- Reflective thought: – moral values are assessed at this level. When a becomes continuous, sustained, logical and directed towards life values leads to development of philosophy.
Aim of a philosopher is
1. To construct a woridview on any subject matter
2. To study any went on background of fife values and morality
Based on a completely unified knowledge.
Aims of philosophy:
1. Interpretation of the meaning and values of life
2. Interpretation of the source and destiny
Purpose of philosophy:
1. To try to solve the problems
2. Reflective thinking of any particular or fundamental question.
3. Critically analyse the concepts and make necessary relationships between them.
SCIO = SCIRE ( LATIN). SCIENCE IS KNOWLEDGE.
Science is defined as complete and consistent description of the facts of experience in the simplest possible terms, ft involves the experiencing the conditions in which a particular event or phenomenon has taken place. Science aims at the discovery of cause
of particular event.
1. Acquisition of facts
2. Description of facts
b. Analysts of derived facts
c. Classification into groups
a. To ascertain the causes
b. Formulation of tow
1. Philosophy seeks comprehensive 1. Science classifies, formulates,
knowledge. i.e. the integration of analyses and gives description
concepts or synthesis of science.
2. Science is quantitative.
2. The aim of philosophy is explained
– first cause, meaning, values 3. Science explains the relation
between the two phenomena on
3. The object of philosophy is material plane.
reflective thinking various sciences by which general conclusion can be
involved about the nature of universe as well as our position and prospects in ft.
4. Philosophy is qualitative
5. Philosophy explains two phenomena on qualitative plane.
Subject matter of philosophy:
1. Conscious reflection upon the world
2. Critical examination of concepts made by science and common sense.
Branches of philosophy:
It is the study of the fundamental nature of reality, existence and of the essence of the things. it is divided into
1. Ontology. which means study of being and
2. Cosmology that means the study of physical universe. Deals with study of organization, history and future of universe.
1. Materialism: everything explained in terms of matter. Monistic concept in materialism
2. Idealism; everything exist because of some ideas, we cannot formulate an idea without previous experience. God as a supreme power (plato)
3. Mechanism: state of being Is explained. AU phenomena results from purely mechanical forces.
Explain things as physico-chemicat back ground, mass particle, particle and atom theory.
4. Teleologv:- every thing in the universe is created for some purpose. Aphorism 1 foot note teleological concept of Hahnemann (?).
Study of the nature, basis and extend of the knowledge, it explores various phase of knowledge the nature of truth and the relationship between knowledge and belief.
Apriory knowledge – knowledge obtained by thinking process without taking the account of experience.
Empirical knowledge – gained from practical observation and experience.
Apriori and empirical knowledge has to go hand in hand for best results.
Theories for acquisition of knowledge:
- Correspondence theory: an idea is true If it corresponds to feet or reality.
- Pragmatic theory: an idea Is true If ft works or settles the problem dealt In front of us.
- Coherence theory:an Idea Is true to the extent to which ft fits together with other ideas that one holds.
- Scpticism -knowledge is impossible to attain and the truth is unknowable.
- Authoritananism: knowledge is guaranteed or validated by authority or forwarded by some authority. Example diagnosis of disease. Galen.
- Mysticism :knowledge acquired through mystical experience. Knowledge is not acquired through nature, experience, world of space and lime or concepts, it is obtained through Insight into the self, mind or God.
- Empiricism: knowledge gained through experience and observation. Based on sensations.
Study of principles and methods of reasoning. The science of arguments and conclusions got from these arguments. These are classified into two types
1. Good logic – if a conclusion follows the arguments
2. Bad logic – if a conclusion cannot be made from an argument
Inductive method of logic utilized for the formulation of taws and the deductive method of logic is used to explore necessary consequences from an assumption.
It is concerned with human conduct, character and values. Ethics helps to differentiate between good and bad or right and wrong, it divides into
2. subjectivism – considered on the subjective feeling of taste etc.
It is concerned with creation and principles of beauty. It deals with thoughts, feelings and attitudes formulated or formed while seeing, reading or hearing something beautiful.
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY:
Ancient Greece (Bc 700 – 600)
INDIA (BC 600)
CHINA (BC 600)
Homoeopathy is based on western philosophy
Role of philosophy:
- Philosophy critically examines the principles employed In the science and daily fife.
- Philosophy searches the inconstancies, in any principles and accepts the principles only after critical enquiry. Finds no reason to reject ft.
- Philosophical criticism is aimed to consider each piece of apparent knowledge on its merits.
Value of philosophy:
- Philosophy alms to acquire knowledge, which gives a unity and system, or a complete unified knowledge. Aimsto formulate the wisdom about the world
- Philosophy Is more apparent than real one
- Philosophy has to give an answer for every uncertainties
- Philosophy gives freedom from narrow and personal aims
- Philosophy enriches intellectual imagination and mind is rendered great and become capable of union with universe which constitutes the higher goal.
Aristotle; 62 years 384 bc-322 bc
He was born in 384BC at Stagka. His father was a physician to the king of Macedonia. At the age of 17 he joined Plato’s academy. After the death of Plato, Aristotle left to Athens. In 343 BC, Philip II, the king of Macedonia invited Aristotle to teach his son Alexander, the great. In 335 BC he returned to Athens. In 323BC again left Athens and returned to Eubea. 12 months after reaching Eubea he expired in 322 BC.
Plato was the greatest pillar of philosophy. He established idealistic philosophy. Idealistic philosophy had certain problems and inconsistencies. Early Platonists tried to spread idealistic philosophy without taking into consideration the problems as well as inconsistencies of idealistic philosophy. Aristotle was the greatest student of Plato. He wanted to develop idealistic philosophy on a scientific background. Philosophy revolved around form and matter.
According to Plato – form and matter are separate. Form is transcendent to matter
According to Aristotle – form is imminent (inside) cannot be separated. From + matter combined to form the individual. Individual units are subject to changes. It can evolve itself under the control and direction of its form,
Writings of Aristotle:
1. Logic – Organon (organ for acquiring knowledge) which includes
b. Oe interpretations
C Prior and posterior analytics
e. Sophistic fallacies
2. Natural science-
a. 8 books on physics’
b. 4 books in astronomy
c. 2 books on origin and decay
d. 4 books on meteorology”
e. 1 each on cosmology and botany
f. 10 books on history of animals
g. 5 books on origin of animals
3. Psychology – 8 books published on soul – a group of treatises; parva naturalis, including treatises on dreams
4. Metaphysics – he had a series of 14 books under the heading is mete and tephysica.
5. Ethics -10 books on Ethice – Nicomeechaen. Edemia Ethics, Magna moratia,
6. Politics – 8 books on politics, on constitution of Athens
7. Rhetoric – Rhetoric to Theodeclus, Rhetoric to Alexander.
In every subject matter Aristotle continued his predecessors by giving his own theories for further developments, but In logic he was the first to conceive of a systematic treatment of correct inference and because of this he is considered to be the founder of logic.The logic he has explained in prior analyticus
Logic is the Important instrument for acquisition of genuine knowledge
Logic is an elaboration of methods employed in search of at! knowledge and It is called as science of sciences. Logic Is concerned with thought forms and thinking process to achieve truth.
Theory of argument:
Argument is a discourse that tries to prove a point. The proposition of an argument fries to support its conclusions. And those propositions, which are addressed or which are put forward are called premises. Aristotle recognised two types or arguments.
1. Deductive Logic
2. Inductive Logic
A deduction is an argument in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises. Aristotle’s deductive method is other wise called as SYLLOGISM – which means computation. Aristotle means syllogism as a valid argument or at least any argument with a conclusion different from any of his premises. Every syllogism consists of 3 parts
1. Major premises – usually a universal law which will be always firm and affixing
2. Minor premise – subject
All men are mortal
Ram is a man
Ram is mortal
It can be continued – the conclusion of one syllogism can be used as 8 premise for other syllogism. Series of syllogism applied until we reach up to a law. Basic principles never requires premises.
1. Complete: a method in which conclusion follows obviously from premises
2. Incomplete deduction: conclusion is not obvious. It requires adequate steps of reasoning between the premises and conclusions.
Argues from particular to universe (general) .i.e it Infers e general claim from a number of instances.
Ram has 2 eyes
Sri has 2 eyes
Sita has 2 eyes
Humans has 2 eyes
It is invalid by adding a right premise that single counter example is sufficient to block the inductive inference. Therefore, a good inductive argument must also suppose that, there Is a counter example. Counter example with be any argument that form a false conclusion from the premises.
Usage Of Arguments:
Aristotle used the word ‘epistem’ for knowledge which means body of knowledge about some subject, organized into a system of proofs or demonstration. To know scientifically Js to know the causes-Scientific study to identify the causes reason. why it must be as It is and cannot be other wise. Aristotle supposes that deductions had epistemic power. If the premises are true, then that knowledge together with knowledge of deduction bring the conclusion. For this purpose Aristotle puts 2 conditions.
1. Premises must be true
2. Premises must stand in appropriate relationship to the conclusion
Knowledge is acquired as the
1. innate power to perceive
2. Then memory of what have been perceived and
3. Finally reaching awareness or recognition of a universal present in series of perceptions.
Many perceptions toad to memories, many memories leads to experience and many experiences eventuality leads to universal truth or the first principle. Every soul has innate ability to perceive by seeing many of the instances.
2.Defirnition and Division:
Aristotle defines definition as ” an account which signifies what is to be something”, As accounts of things of nature, definitions are product of scientific and philosophical enquiry. Every definition consists of two aspects.
1. Determination of under what kind it follows
2. What characteristic differentiates it from within that kind ,differentiate should be per genus.
According to Aristotle definitions should explain the nature and unique property Requirements of definition:
1. A definition should not contain the name or matter to be defined
2. It should be exactly equivalent to the class of object defined, It must be neither too narrow nor too broad.
1. Definitions must not be expressed In obscure or figurative or ambiguous language
1. It should be In affirmative case and not negative,
3.Cateoories of predicates:
They are used as strategies for argument. All predicates shall be one of the following
1. What His?
8. Posture or position
10. Passivity (what it is subject to)
The word dialectic means argue. Which are directed at another person, which proceeds by asking questions.
1. Sophistic philosophy: a kind of verbal contrast that aims at winning by any means
2. Rhetorical argument: combined procedures of dialectical argument with a study of type of audience. To be encountered and the premise of each type will be found persuasive-
Induction: J S Mill 1806-1873
Systematic nature of reality is the basis of all inference, ie a is the interconnectedness or unity. This inference is called as induction. On that we form the universal law or construct the so called system, applying this universal law to particulars – deduction
Stages of induction
Observation of facts
Formulation of hypothesis
Deduction of consequences from the derived hypothesis – verification
Impartial collection of alt factors are needed without any prejudice. Once this factors are collected, on examination we can deduce an hypothesis related to that phenomena.
In the third state i-e deduce the consequences from the observed facts with the idea of the formulated hypothesis. During this deductive process, either the hypothesis is confirmed or nonconformity – this has to be verified. This verification is a must. if there is confusion regarding he interrelation of factors. Then it is subjected to further test or experiment. In this further experiment some of the factors are excluded and the reliable things are accepted – verification.
This deduction and verification alone never gives the basis of formulation of law. This has to be verified in other Instances also and ft is 1o be confirmed from other experiments, that no other factors are responsible for the phenomena. This provides the proof of our hypothesis and is considered as the taw.
Induction and deduction are parallel methods of studying (not similar or opposite)
The cause off phenomena is invariable unconditional antecedent of an event, in its presence the phenomena should occur and in its absence it should not occur. If any circumstance is not so affected to the phenomena whose cause we seek. Then we should eliminate it as not being its cause. The grounds on which we eliminate are
1 – That Is not the cause of phenomena in the absence of which the phenomena occurs.
2- It is not the cause of the phenomena in the presence of which the phenomena to occur.
3. That is not the cause, which varies when it is constant or it is constant it varies or varies in no proportionate manner with ft.
4. that Is not the cause of the phenomena which is known to be the cause of another phenomena.
The rules of elimination are the negative method of stating the conditions of casual relation. A cause and its effect must be co present or co absent and any change that occurs in the one must be reflected in the other. Method explained by Mill involve the principle of elimination.
Method of agreement;
This method consists in comparing several positive instances of the phenomena under investigation and discovering Its cause and effect, as the case may be, by seeing in what instances they agree. If 2 or more instances of the phenomena under investigation have only one circumstance In common, the circumstance in which alone an the instances agree is the cause of the given phenomena. What ever circumstances can be excluded, without prejudistic phenomena or can be absent not withstanding it presence is not connected with It in the way of causation and the casual circumstances being thus eliminated, if only one remains that one is the cause which we are in search of. Usually we may not reach one cause, more than one factors may be the cause of one particular phenomena.
P = phenomena. A to G = causes
A is the cause of event P
2. Method of difference:
If an instance In which the phenomena under investigation occur and an instance in which it does not occur having every circumstances in common save one, that one occurring only in the former, the circumstances in which alone the 2 instances differ in that effect or the cause or indispensable part of the cause of the phenomena. Here we are examining a positive and a negative instances.
P , Q, R = Phenomena; c»d,e are factors
Then c is the cause of P
PI D A,B,C,D
P3 0 A.D.E.F
PO D D,E,F
4. Concomitant variation:
Any circumstances which is unaffected by the variation of e phenomena cannot be connected by way of causation. Mill stated *what ever phenomena varies in any manner, whenever another phenomena varies in same particular manner is either a cause or an effect of that phenomena is connected with it through some fact of causation. If a variation in a case is followed by a corresponding variation in phenomena or effect, then (he two are casualty connected.
PI D A, B. C, D
P’2 D A’, B, C, D
P-3 D A”. B. C. D
5. Method of residue:
therefore, P D c
This method can be employed only at a late stage of casual investigation, ff several parts of complex phenomena have been explained in terms of their antecedent circumstances, then the remaining part or parts of the phenomena can be determined to be the effect of he antecedent factors which are yet left over.
Subduct from any phenomena such part as is known by previous induction to be the effect of certain antecedent and then the residue of the phenomena is the effect of the remaining antecedents
DOCTRINE OF FORCE
Concept of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz:
(Born in Leipzic in 1646 and died on 14″ November, 1716.]
Born In Germany, a mathematician and a philosopher. The third important person in rationalistic philosophy.
1. Rene Descartes: Dualism – matter and mind. Matter In the form of extension and mind is the thought. Interconnection between two. Brain as the centre of interconnection.
2. Spinosa: Never agreed with dualism concept. Only single existence – monistic -nature of God.
3. Leibniz – Existence is not m the form of thought and extension; but by force. Idea exist due to force which is inherent in it is catted MONADS – ft is the centre of force – ft is inherent in every matter, every organism. Each atom has its own monads. The universe has a number of monads – macrocosom.
Qualities of Monads:
1. Every monad is able to perceive
2. It has no windows – nothing can be added or removed. It is predetermined
3. There is a unity and harmony in functioning of different monads as different monads work together
4. Every individual monads is unique – it has its own quality. This is able to transform. The transformation of quality within the monad is called ‘APPETITE’.
Low quality monad – Bare monad. Mass of bare monads ad aggregates of bare monads. In living organism QUeen monad .i.e higher quality monad. The quality of monad of tower animal is different from that of higher animal. Lower monad – perception will be limited called petite perception. In higher animals a perception – reflexive knowledge of inner stage .i.e self-consciousness.
Henri Bergson (1857 – 1941)
He was a French philosopher. Anti rationalistic philosopher. Promoted the idea of intuitionalism
Materialistic phenomena – include space (distribution of simultaneously existing object) and time (expression of the sequence of existence of phenomena which replace one another
According to Bergson:- Philosophy is intellect and intellectual analysis – etudes the concept of conventional method of study of reality because every phenomena is time oriented and analysis is space oriented. Because of this Bergson was against rationalism or materialism.Berflson questions the concept of scientific and logical explanation giving relevance to space. Bergson gives first importance to time secondary to space. Time is (he very basic
principle which governs or the reality or the being (existence) Bergson applied the term *- – DURATION – instead of time. “duration” is continuing, dynamic and non static which grows in every minute and during this progress something is given out added and is called ‘ELAM VITAL’. The dynamic property of DURATION cannot be possessed by special configuration, so analytical study of metaphysical explanation cannot rise (he essence of things, .ie the vita* aspect is tost here. This essence or ‘vital1is not m the past of thing, but is the totality. Space is governed by DURATION. Bus.process of’d uration* every phenomena progress or evoke to certain end with certain aim and is called creative evaluator Example: formation of snow or salt crystal.
Positivism emerging due to failure of speculative philosophy to explain the philosophic problem. August Comte (1798 -1857) FATHER positivistic philosophy introduced the Word sociology means science of humanity in the background of science of biology.
There are two groups
1. Early group
2. Late neo positivism – 19th century
Comte considered human being tries to understand through 3 stages
1. Theological: knowledge is acquired from the belief of religion
2. Metaphysical: Here we study by seeking certain causes and principles
3. Positive/scientific method: we try to study things by reasoning, by reference to observation
According to Comte this positive method should be applied in all the study (scientific)
Neo Positivism (logistic positivism)
Developed by vienna group philosophers.Main principle is verifiability, criterion of statements provable in mathematics and logic, are meaningless. These group of philosophers tried to eliminate the unverifiable facts. In this group, 2 important persons
1. Rudoff Camftp: he reduced the philosophy to logical analysis of language of science or he approved (he Idea of linguistic philosophy which Involve
a. Scrutiny of words: logic of science were regarded as syntax of language of science
b. Analytic meaning of the word: (semantic study) sense aspect of the language of sciences becomes the subject matter of study
2.Ludwig Wittgenstein _ problems of philosophy originated because philosopher ran to name the words Instead of naming words (they thought that every word is a name), if we use it as a sentence, then most of the problem in philosophy can be solved.
It considered that analysis must replace the vauge, expression of problem in the language by a formula that would demonstrate the real essence. His branch is placed on the*analysis of the terms in which (hey are used. The great philosophers include- Bertrand Russel. There are three areas of importance in language Words should be used precisely in talks and writings a.- language is far away from sense .
Systematic analysis of ordinary language.
It Is the tendency to Treat the world as it Is. 11 Is due to the result of the over emphasis given by idealism. They considered that world itself appear as real.
The object of phenomenology Is to describe the phenomena as an object of experience accurately and independently of an assumptions to derive science. Developed by Edmund Hurseri. According to him, psychology cannot be accepted. Since it is studied under different traits
We can study things only through experience- Knowledge is subordinate to action) meaning and truth of ideas are determined in relation to practice. Anything that can be put in practice alone can be true.
Part to Whole Relationship
George WilheIrn Friedrich Hegel (1770 -1831) – German Philosopher
If one wants to study anything that should be from the historical perspective. This historical study has three perspectives.
1. Follows a course of necessity
2. History implies not only a change but also a progress
3. in any time in history, there tends to be a confrontation and replacement – which is usually an opposite one,
In other philosophy, it corresponds to
Major works of Hegel
1. Phenomenology of spirit
2. Science of logic
Hegel belongs to the absolute Idealistic group- Reality of universe according to Hegel is that of absolute mind (spirit). Method of philosophy of Hegel is Dialectic – nonlinear but implicative- Everything can be studied in relation to others.
This relationship of part and whole in the organism is extended to all truth and reality. Every truth or fact Is dependant upon and helps in turn to determine every other truth or fact. This is called the ‘ORGANIC THEORY OF TRUTH AND REALITY* since everything is internally determined by Its relation to everything else.
Any organic whole Is more than the mere sum of Hs parts. The successful work of art Is an organic whole. The meaning of a painting cannot be understood simply by analysing the nature of the canvas and different colours used, though they are essential. Each figure in the painting has an artistic relationship to the rest. it is a part of the whole and the true significance of the whole is more than mere addition of parts. However the whole Is not separate from the part and do not exist independently. The whole logically determines the character of each of its parts.
‘Reality is an infinite (absolute) whole, consisting of the finite parts, each of which contributes to the whole and is determined by it.”
Each moment in our conscious experience is an organic part of our life as a whole. Our as a whole is conditioned by the human socrely. Society is inter related with the earth and earth is the organic pan of the universe which is made up of its constituent parts.Since we are an organic part of the universe, the laws of our reason are the laws of the universe.
Part to whole relationship is not the same as the sum total, this concept should have influence Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in creating (he concept of totality.Concept of organic whole: some thing more than addition and deletion take place to evolution of living beings. The concept of organic whole implies the relation of pan to whole In living and non living organisms, fn non living organism this is decided by laws of physics, but not in living substances. This living organism is more than mere sum of its parts; hence this cannot be considered as a mere union of individual pans.
ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE VIEW OF THINGS: If we look at everything by itself apart from Its relationships, we are looking at it abstractly. IF we consider it to Its organic relationship, then we view it concretely. Study of a leaf under (he microscope is abstract,study of the leaf in relationship to the tree is concrete.
Abstract study: study of a particular phenomena, event or object in relation ship with the units of the universe. Mind controls the body.
Principles of negation: for anything there Is an opposite existence. This concept was further developed by clerke.
Explained fn 14 books. If deals with ‘being* in general (being and existence). It is the science of’ being general means something like. In so far as they are. Hence metaphysics studies things which exist, is the study of those attributes which hold of entities, to virtue of the fact that (hey are entities.
Further Aristotle attributes ‘oneness’ or ‘unity’ as such features. Any object remains as one. Every thing exists in one thing. The nature of oneness leads to pleurality an and to otherness like differences and contrariety.
Aristotle considers substances as concrete individual. The concept of idealism is being intended to explain the nature of the things. Idealism cannot explain the relation between things and ideas.
Relation between life principle, existence and material body completely unavailable. Regarding the essence of being, Aristotle rejected the atomic theory o f Democritus and the transcedental concept of Plato and considered the essence of concrete individual as constituted by its form. By the essential quality of class to which it belongs.
Aristotle approved pleurality of substances. Every individual substance is a mixture of matter an d form.
1. Form is the universal aspect of the thing (object). The essential characteristics are shared by alt things of the same type. Matter confers, particularity and uniqueness. Matter and form are inseparable aspects of individual thing. The universal and particulars are fused into unity of the individual. Individual subject to changes and moves. Subject to changes.
2.Aristotte also considered the potentiality and actually of (he stage of development of substances. The potential being an earlier and the actual being the later stage. The potential is that lies latent in a substances. Matter is the principles of potentiality of form and form is the principle of reality.
3. Cause: That Which effect the change
He classified causes Into two types
a) Material cause: it Is the stuff from which the substance in Question is made of
b) Format cause: the pattern or structure in which the substance is realized. Particular shape or pattern in which the substance is made
c) Efficient cause: The active agent which produces (he substance
d) Final cause: is the purpose for which the substance is made of
Material and formal causes are called as intrinsic causes since they enter Into the constitution of the affected. Efficient cause and final cause are extrinsic causes _since they remain outside the effect.
Each individual substances was not just one cause but have all four causes. So also. the discovery of one type of cause does not preclude the discovery of other types of causes.
Bacons philosophy of humanity considers nature and slate of man as constituted by body and soul of man respectively. Nature and state gives two inferences
Indications, physiognomy. Inference of identification of character of mind by physical constitution of (he body by physiognomy. Through the dreams state and disposition of the body can be known
Impression: investigate the effects of humours and temperament in the body and that of passion and apprehension of mind and body. This concept has been in cooperated into Homoeopathy.
Doctrine of body : Doctrine of body of man contributes to (he ‘good* of man Le. ethics, medicine, cosmetics (aesthetic sense). Bacon identified three functions to medicine
1. Cure of disease
2. Preservation of health
3. Prolongation of life
Cosmetics deals with
Doctrine of soul
Divided info two a) rational – divine soul b) Irrational
Rational soul Is inspired by God and has six functions
To this he added two other functions
a) Divination : making a predication by argument (divine)
b) Fascination: power of imagination resulting on another body
Bacon’s method of science:
Bacon’s epistemology rests upon a single method in induction. Very simple in principles but intricate in application. According to Bacon knowledge starts from sensible experience, rests upon natural existory which presents sense data in an ordlnate distribution, rises up from lower proposition to a more general one. tries to reach the more fundamental laws of nature and from there by a practical deduction derives new experiments or works.
Induction aims at the purpose of answer to the question of invention, induction shouldn’t be a) blind (prejudiced) b) imperative
It should help to find out the truth. Induction postulates that the world is an organic unity, that a is a cosmos and not chaos, a universe and not a multi verse. The things that constitute the true world are not an aggregate.
Core of induction:
Formation of axioms – general proposition of experiencing the cause of phenomena i.e. correction of data.
Arrangement of tables which presents the understanding of all known instances to some nature in the object of investigation collected without premature speculation and followed by
Going to affirmatives through negatives
Reason for prejudices
1. Idola tribus: idol of tribes. Every tribe has its own inherent characters, this resulting in certain prejudices
2.Idole species: idol of dens, related to the peculiarities of individual due to education, mental attitudes social circumstances
3. Idola Fori: Idol of market, due to association of words and names, often these need not represent reality
4. Idole theatre: Idol of theatre, due to result of false theories and philosophies.