Richard Hughes (1836-1902)
He actively cooperated with Dr. Timothy Field Allen to compile his ‘Encyclopedia of pure materia medica’. Rendered immeasurable aid to Dr. Robert Ellis Dudgeon in translating Samuel Hahnemann’s ‘The Materia Medica Pura into English. In 1889 he was appointed an Editor of the ‘British Journal of Homeopathy and continued in that capacity until his demise.
He contributed to the American Institute of Homeopathy Proceeding and Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York, the Hahnemannian Monthly, and many other pamphlets and journals.
In 1876, Dr. Hughes was appointed as the Permanent Secretary of the Organization of the International Congress of the Homoeopathic Physicians in Philadelphia.
About the book
The book available is the 6th edition.(total 6 editions).Preface to 6th edition is written by Richard Hughes himself.No information about 5th edition. Arranged in lecture form.
These lectures are delivered as part of the course of instruction of the London School of Homoeopathy.
Based on sources of our materia medica,ie original provings.
Total 6 editions
First edition 1867 as the first part of “manual of homoeopathic practice for students and beginners”
Second edition 1870
Third edition 1875-76 (re-written) appeared in two parts 1875 and 76 respectively
Fourth edition 1880 (revised and augmented) more than one fourth larger than the predecessor
Sixth edition 1893
NOTE FROM PUBLISHERS.
PREFACE. __first preface to the sixth edition Then prefaces to the fourth edition.
PREFACE TO SIXTH EDITION
It contains a review of an eminent practitioner which says that the book is in lecture form,in a pleasantly personal fashion,which contains history of the plant or mineral , its use or abuse,preparation,and action on proving,and the narration gives an image about the drug to the reader even to layman.”First 105 pages are about sources of materia medica, general principle of drug action, posology etc .(September 1893)
PREFACE TO 4TH EDITION
Gives details about different editions.first edition was communicated in the form of letters to an inquiring friend.The book is based on original provings and french german literature.Dr hughes delivered a course on lectures n homoeopathic materia medica at British homoeopathic society in London, in 1875 and 76 .fourth edition contains the same lectures. Each lecture contains the source , preparation and drug pathogenesis.
In 1877 London school of homoeopathy was founded and Dr Hughes was appointed to fill the chair of materia medica and therapeutics there and his manual became a textbook of the course, and so he had the opportunity to add improvements.In the fourth edition supplimentary lecture on some minor and recently introduced medicines are appended. And a few which were added to the minor category in the former edition were added to the main series. New section appeared for picric acid, salycilic acid , chlorine and its derivatives.
Following upon the introductory lecture Will be found six new ones. The two on the sources of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica Those on the general principles of drug-action. which bear the same relation to the lectures that Dr HUGHES delivered at the London Homoeopathic Hospital in 1877 which appeared in Monthly Homoeopathic Review of that year.
That entitled ” HOMOEOPATHY WHAT IT IS “( a similar reproduction of the paper on ” The Two Homoeopathies which Dr Hughes presented at the British Homoeopathic Congress held at Liverpool in 1877.) that on ” HOMOEOPATHIC POSOLOGY “(already appeared in the British Journal of Homoeopathy for January, 1879).
- Sources of homeopathic materia medica(two chapters)
- The general principle of drug action(two chapters)
- Homoeopathy what it is
- homeopathic posology
Then starts medicines acidum benzoicum onwards in alphabetic order upto zincum; in a single lecture few medicines are described but rarely single medicine in a chapter.(medicines of main series)
Supplementary series of medicines.
Finally, an appendix, index of medicine,and clinical index are given.
Which begins as follows
We are met to-day to inaugurate a course of instruction upon Materia Medica and Therapeutics, i.e. , upon the materials used in the practice of medicine, ………(as beginning a lecture to a group of people,as already mentioned)
He speaks about action of drugs ie both physiolgical and therapeutical,second one is more important.
Homoeopathy is a therapeutic method,materia medica consist of pathogenetic power of drug, obtained by human proving,poisoning and overdosing and animal proving .
3 kind of action : mechanical ,chemical and dynamic The classifications of manuals of therapeutics-which study drugs as cathartics, diuretics, expectorants, and so forth-help to localise the sphere of the influence of each.Gives importance to toxicology, by knowing the poison as narcotic, narcotico-irritant, or irritant is a clue to class of diseases to which the drug corresponds.Also give importance to clinical experience to to understand primary seats of its influence. Give importance for sphere of action, kind of action of each drug.
Under each drug – the authorities for our knowledge of each (original provings, and any special sources of information which may exist.) therapeutic uses of the drug . A list of allied medicines will next be given, Lastly, about dose, whether the lower or higher dilutions seem to have been most efficacious
Few words about nomenclature of our medicines. A few words about pharmacy , how mother tincture is prepared, its drug strength,further potency preparation in decimal and centismal scale. through out these lectures, whenever attenuation is mentioned, understand that the centesimal scale is intended. Hughes give preferance for tincture and trituration.
SOURCES OF HOMOEOPATHIC MATERIA MEDICA
Contains details about original sources of our materia medica.
1- FRAGMENTA DE VIRIBUS- year of publication,
Total no: of drugs , their names, and number of observation made by Hahnemann and others for each drug.
2-MATERIA MEDICA PURA- both editions
Including different volumes with year of publication.no: of drugs in each volume. Along with observations by hahnemann and others.
Name of provers in MMP
Explains how Hahnemann built up his MM
Doses used-insoluble substances in first trituration and vegetable drugs in tincture
3- ABOUT CHRONIC DISEASE—
Not on healthy-observation on sick from 2nd to 12th potency.
History and growth of each medicine.
English translations of MMP and CD (Hempel) and its demerits
Later contributions which has been made t the MM of homeopathy a professor of the University of Leipsic, Dr. Johann Christian Gottfried Jorg. drug provings conducted by Drs. Hartlaub and Trinks.
Details about Nenning symptoms.
Dr. Ernst Stapf. “ARCHIV”
Vienna society of physicians
France- dr Alphonse , dr Jahr ,d Roth
England –Drysdale , Russel and Casanova(cedron)
Italy- Rubini – Cactus
American provings-Dr Hering
Contribution of Dr Hale of chicago
THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DRUG-ACTION
Acton of drugs – mechanical , chemical , dynamical (of this we are concerned with)
Drugs have an elective affinity-one or more organs or tissues
Two important things–
a) seat of action
b)kind of action
there must be a qualitative difference in the affections produced by various causes, and a corresponding one in the drugs which thus become their best remedies.
All drugs are stimulants ,it may be primary stimulant/depressant
eg : strychnia and Amyl nitrosum
Or may be irritant
eg : cantharides ,arsenic etc,
So drugs are classified into two classes
a)those which affect its performance of function,
b) those which disorder its nutritive processes.
some come in both groups(acro-narcotics)
some properties are common to a number of drugs-as emesis, purgation, and the like-and others peculiar to individuals pointing out that the common dynamic effects-of medicines are producible at will, while the peculiar ones depend for their production on the presence of a special susceptibility in the subject. Generic actions of drugs, belong to functional excitation or depression; while the peculiar effects, which require special susceptibility, are nearly, always disorders of nutrition.
Hughes says peculiar symptoms are disease symptoms –specific remedies .
Drug action is modified by dose larger dose : secondary action smaller dose : primary action
“in any case of disease, we must select a remedy. Whose primary and secondary symptoms correspond with those of the malady to be treated,”
HOMOEOPATHY WHAT IT IS
Two types of homoeopaths
–the one diverging under the attraction of modern science,
– the other prolonging his own line of advance into regions unknown and undreamt-of by hahnemann.
How homeopathy was invented-cinchona-experiment,is it possible in all disease?
Can acquire knowledge by observation and experiment.
Hahnemann proposed a simple method of treatment
1. The apprehension of disease by its symptoms, i.e. , as we say at the present day, by its clinical characters and history.
– 2. The ascertainment of the powers of drugs by experimentation on the healthy human body.
– 3. The application of drugs to disease by a principle which at least insured directness of aim.
– 4. The administration of remedies singly, instead of in complex admixture.
– 5. Their, prescription in doses too small to aggravate existing troubles or cause
Auxillaries and mongrel sects
Considering homoeopathy in two parts
Upto 1806 (hahnemann 52)-ripest fruits of a man’s thoughts and observation.
1806-1828 —Hahnemann’s greatest activity as a practitioner and a writer.
There are four points about advance f homoeopathy at this time.
After 1828 —-The new points which a man makes after seventy-four have no a priori recommendation in their favour;
1) the principle on which selection by similarity should be carried out.hahnemann gave importance t indvidualisation but hughes gave importance to pathological similarity)
2) Up to 1806 Hahnemann had affirmed only about minute doses then comes attenuation(earlier Hahnemann was using pathlogical similarity so used low potency)
3) warned against the needless repetition of doses.hughes—genuine repetation possible
4) doctrine of chronic diseases. The psora theory (hughes says he accepts the discovery of psora,but cant accept every disease is due to psora or need antipsorics fr all)
Homeopathic dosage is a special one ,main object is the reduction of drug to fractional proportions.
Law of minimum dose – comparative smallness of dose; dose varies, according to age and sex, the strength or weakness of the patient, and the amount of medicinal susceptibility he possesses.
Rubbed with vehicle-active
Hahnemann developed this mode of preparing drug by trituration with SL
In order to produce the pathogenetic power of a drug larger dose is needed,and to cure smaller dose is needed.
1808 —1829 potency was raised from 3rd to 12th and later fixed at 30,later to 200.but Hughes says he had experience only upto 30
Drugs (lecture 8 ) onwards
- Arranged in alphabetical order .
- Main series and supplementary series
- Total number of drugs 304
- Begins with acids
- First medicine is acidum benzoicum
- Last medicine zincum
- Supplementary-starts with abies nigra
Under drug starts with source and preparation ,Prover ,Source book(result of proving or poisoning or clinical experience)Animal experments –result
- Common names are mentioned.
- The characteristic feature of the drug
- Seat of action
- Old school use
- Different author’s remarks
- Several clinical experiences are mentioned (of others and him self)
- Physiological actions
- Clinical conditions
- Case mentioned
- Contains a few more remedies.
- Spiders under aranea diadema
- Organ remedies (cardus , ceanothus)
- Clinical index to lecture angina,asthmlic ,colic,cough etc
APPENDIX: Hahnemann’s dosage dosage from 1796 to 1843
ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF MEDICINES
CLINICAL INDEX : different clinical condition in alphabetical order
- Details of the source of homoeopathic MM mentioned.
- Origin and development of homeopathy mentioned
- How homeopathic materia medica is constructed
- Details about drug including common name prover preparation effect of poisoning pathology etc
- The best reference book – to study about source of MM ;origin and development of homoopathy
- Medicines arranged in alphabetical order,
- Minor drugs are also included
- List of medicines and clinical index useful
- Clinical index can be used for pathlogical prescription
- Dose preference in each drug mentioned
- Hahnemann’s dosage mentioned.
- Posology mentioned.
- Book is based on original sources
- Footnotes(references are given throughout)
- Seat of action mentioned
- Similar drugs mentioned
- Hughes gives more importance for pathology
- Most drugs have small description.
- Generals like mental and physical –less mentioned
- Modalities rarely are given
- Only lower potency is advised
- Clinical experiences of different authorities are given which are crowded up, hughes own ideas less mentioned or difficult to find out in the book.
- Major and minor drugs are mixed up
- It is not easy to read.
- The introductory section is more elaborative.