Indian is one of the rich natural sources of medicine so it’s called botanical garden of the world. Over 6000 plants are used in herbal medicine preparation, In that calendula officinalis Linn is one of the most used herbal medicines in Europe, china, US and India. As in homoeopathic system it’s used for wound healing, ulcer, clean or surgical cut or lacerated wound, to prevent suppuration. Chemical studies of African marigold detected the presence of various classes of compounds like flavonoids, carotenoids, triterpenoids. The extracts of this plant has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal, anti HIV activity.
Key words: Calendula officinalis Linn, Pot marigold, as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-microbial
The name calendula is derived from Latin word “caled’s”, which mean the first day of the month. This flowers on the first of the month or at least once a month. In sixteenth century it was most common used herbal medicine. In homoeopathy it was introduced in 1836. (1) Calendula officinalis Linn Commonly known as pot marigold (English), African marigold, common marigold, Garden Marigold, Zergul (Hindi), Butterblume (German), Ringblomma (Swedish), Galbinele (Romania), and Chin Chan Ts’ao (Chinese). It belongs to family (Asteraceae) composite; this plant is native of Southern and Central Europe, Western Asia and the US. (2, 3)
Calendula is an annual herb plant which growing about 80cm tall. A long top roots with bunch of secondary roots, hispid and sessile leaves. Calendula flowers open as the sun rises and can be found blooming in some parts of the world every month. Appearance of the plant is yellow to orange. (3,4) As chemical study of Pot Marigold extract reveals the various pharmacological effects, so in homoeopathy medicine is prepared by using the roots, leaves and flower of calendula officinalis L. (3,4,5)
Calendula officinalis is one of the traditional medicine were it is used to treat fever, jaundice, and promote the menstruation by taking internally. (5) The parts of marigold were made into extracts, tinctures, balm and salves so we can use in various conditions like clean cut or incised injury, open wound, lacerated wound, parts that will not heal easily, ulcers, burns, erysipelas, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, aphthous stomatitis, gingivostomatitis, abrasions, hemorrhoids and cancer condition Etc. (2,4,5,6)
The various phytochemical studies of extract of pot marigold reveal the presence of different chemical compounds or active components including carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, carotenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oil, quinines, coumarins and other constituents. These compounds have important biological activities like wound healing, immuno-stimulant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, hepatoprotective, genotoxic and anti-genotoxic, anti-amylase, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, antioxidant, ant diabetic, anti-HIV and anti-cancerous, nephron-protective, prevention of oropharyngeal mucositis, hypoglycemic and gastroprotective activities with no toxic effect. (3, 4, 5)
Table shows active compounds present in different part of calendula: (3)
|Plant part used||Presence of Active components|
Action: calendula officinalis has one special center of action
Vaso-Motor system – Arterial capillary vessels
Through the vaso-motor nerves, capillary vessels become partially paralyzed, and it receives the more blood than usual. From this increased the irritation on affected part which attracts large amount of colorless corpuscles. These corpuscles join together with the viscosity, or adhesive qualities, so we get adhesive inflammation that is most beautifully shown us in lacerated wounds, in which when calendula is used internally or external application we get union by first intention, without suppuration. (1)
- Anti-inflammation property of pot marigold
Calendula petals extracts have property of anti-inflammation and control bleeding, today dry petals are used in preparation of tinctures, ointment and washes to speed the healing of burns, injuries like clean cut or incised wounds, bruises, certain infection. (5)
Properties are like flavionds, Terpenoids, Coumarin have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect. Cytokines are the key that can inhibit or propagate the inflammation by activating or deactivating the genes of cellular process. Cytokines are like (interleukin) IL 1,6, and TNF α can stimulate and produce the CRP which is increased the several folds during the inflammation. In acute inflammation condition there is release of interferon γ (INF- γ) into the circulation which mediate host inflammatory process. In the treatment exactas of pot marigold action is lowering the INF- γ activity, moreover inhibit the activity of cytokines in inflammation process and act in reducing the inflammation. (7)
- Anti-oxidant property
Calendula officinalis L. flower is rich in pharmacological properties. Flower extract have anti-inflammatory activity through modulating the process of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as by repressing the activity of cox-2. (7)
Reactive o2 species are produced in the body by endogenous or exogenous source. Endogenous sources are inflammatory cells which activated the macrophage process in cell by this transient increase of oxygen uptake which gives rise to variety of oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide anion which can damage the tissue and help in cellular transformation in chronic condition of inflammation. Few studies it’s indicated that flower extract like flavonoids, triterpenoids, carotenoids and Coumarins has effectively scavenged on hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide anion.as in homeopathically Calendula officinalis L. Tincture having the ability to trigger cellular antioxidants, can be used against a number of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, inflammation condition. (7, 8)
- Anti-bacterial activity property
In vitro studies it’s proved that pot marigold leaves and petals extract have antibacterial property against Gram negative (E coli and pseudomonas) and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus and staphylococcus aureus). As in homoeopathic calendula offcinalis extracts are used in pain in ear which caused by infection and treat to certain bacterial fever. (9, 10)
- Anti-HIV property
Few laboratory studies showed that calendula officinalis dried petals extract have inhibited the activity of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in test tubes. But there is no evidence of this herb medicine on HIV patient. (5) In Germany in tinctures are used on cancer areas and stop the further spread of cancer and helped to reabsorb it. (6)
As homeopathically we use calendula in various forms like dilution, tinctures, local application as ointments, dusting powder form to treat various disease conditions. (5)
Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties Calendula officinalis L largely diluted in water for dressing of lacerated wounds, first degree burns and ulcers. In burns condition dressed by applying muslin cloth saturated with dilute calendula morning and night. It also used before and after the surgery, and septic wounds, bed sores and torn or wounded muscles. (5, 6)
It also used in hemorrhage after the childbirth, stinging cutting pain, toothache, bleeding hemorrhoids and ulcers. Calendula is excellent medicine in hemostatic tooth extraction and gum surgery. (6)
- Wound healing property
Calendula officinalis L flower extracts are very favourble in wound healing by increasing hexosamine and collagen hydroxyproline content with significant effect in decreasing tissue damaging marker enzymes. (3, 4) There is decline of lipid peroxidation by antioxidant property of calendula. (8) Local application of calendula extract will facilitate in wound healing by increasing wound angiogenesis, epithelialization, and nucleoprotein, glycoprotein and collagen metabolism leading to improvement in local circulation and granulation tissue formation. The Calendula treatment was more effective medicines and also reduces discomfort during dressing changes. (4)
Example of calendula officinalis L. in wound healing
A female 25year old case of Road Traffic accident (25/9/2021)
Complaints of Deep tissue injury of left foot
- Daily twice dressing with calendula mother tinctures (cleaning the wound with normal saline plus calendula tincture)
- Local application of calendula ointment on injured part
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- Hamad MN, Mohammed HJ, Merdaw MA. Antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis flowers in vitro. Ibn AL-Haitham Journal For Pure and Applied Science. 2017 May 14;24(3).
PG scholar (MD Part-1)
Department Practice of Medicine
Father Muller Homoeopathic medical collage Deralakatte, Mangaluru, 575018