Dr Niharika Jain, Dr Neeta Jain,
Definition -A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection in any part of your urinary system, which includes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. If you’re a woman, your chance of getting a urinary tract infection is high.
Types of urinary tract infection –Each type of UTI may result in more-specific signs and symptoms, depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.
|Part of urinary tract affected||Signs and symptoms|
|Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis)||
Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.
The most common UTIs occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.
- Infection of the bladder (cystitis).This type of UTI is usually caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), a type of bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, sometimes other bacteria are responsible.
Sexual intercourse may lead to cystitis, but you don’t have to be sexually active to develop it. All women are at risk of cystitis because of their anatomy — specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
- Infection of the urethra (urethritis).This type of UTI can occur when GI bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. Also, because the female urethra is close to the vagina, sexually transmitted infections, such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma, can cause urethritis.
Symptoms -Urinary tract infections don’t always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do they may include:
- A strong, persistent urge to urinate
- A burning sensation when urinating
- Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
- Urine that appears cloudy
- Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine
- Strong-smelling urine
- Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone.
Urinary tract infections are common in women, and many women experience more than one infection during their lifetimes. Risk factors specific to women for UTIs include:
- Female anatomy.A woman has a shorter urethra than a man does, which shortens the distance that bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
- Sexual activity.Sexually active women tend to have more UTIs than do women who aren’t sexually active. Having a new sexual partner also increases your risk.
- Certain types of birth control.Women who use diaphragms for birth control may be at higher risk, as well as women who use spermicidal agents.
- After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more vulnerable to infection.
Other risk factors for UTIs include:
- Urinary tract abnormalities.Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTIs.
- Blockages in the urinary tract.Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
- A suppressed immune system.Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system — the body’s defense against germs — can increase the risk of UTIs.
- Catheter use.People who can’t urinate on their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of UTIs. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.
- A recent urinary procedure.Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.
When treated promptly and properly, lower urinary tract infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences.
Complications of a UTI may include:
- Recurrent infections, especially in women who experience two or more UTIs in a six-month period or four or more within a year.
- Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
- Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
- Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis, previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
- Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up your urinary tract to your kidneys.
You can take these steps to reduce your risk of urinary tract infections:
- Drink plenty of liquids, especially water.Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you’ll urinate more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract before an infection can begin.
- Drink cranberry juice.Although studies are not conclusive that cranberry juice prevents UTIs, it is likely not harmful.
- Wipe from front to back.Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.
- Empty your bladder soon after intercourse.Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.
- Avoid potentially irritating feminine products.Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.
- Change your birth control method.Diaphragms, or unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms, can all contribute to bacterial growth.
Homeopathic medicines work wonderfully well on urinary tract infections, whether acute or chronic. Natural and safe, these medicines strengthen the disease-fighting mechanism of the body.
Strong urging to urinate—with cutting pains that are felt before the urine passes, as well as during and after—may indicate a need for this remedy. Only several drops pass at a time, with a scalding sensation. may feel as if the bladder has not been emptied, still feeling a constant urge to urinate.
Irritable bladder with a constant need to urinate, passing only small amounts, suggests a need for this remedy. Burning or cramping pain may be felt in the bladder area, with an itching sensation in the urethra while the urine passes. The person may feel very irritable, impatient, and chilly. Symptoms may be relieved by hot baths or other forms of warmth.
This remedy is often useful in cystitis and often helps when symptoms are unclear, or if other remedies have not been effective. Frequent urging is felt, with burning pain at the end of urination. Urine passes when the person is standing up, but only dribbling occurs while sitting. Flakes or sediment are sometimes seen in the urine.
This remedy is often useful when a person feels anxious both before and during urination, with hot, scanty urine, and a burning or spasmodic feeling in the outlet of the bladder. It can also be helpful if retention of urine occurs after a person has been very cold and chilled, or after a shaking experience.
This remedy is indicated when the person frequently needs to urinate, but only small quantities are passed. Stinging and burning sensations are felt (especially with the last few drops) and the person may also experience soreness in the abdomen. Heat and touch make the symptoms worse, and cold applications, cool bathing, and open air bring relief. A lack of thirst is another indication that Apis.
This remedy may be beneficial if urging to urinate is frequent and intense, and the bladder feels very sensitive. A cramping or writhing sensation may be felt in the bladder area. Small amounts of highly-colored urine pass. (This remedy is sometimes helpful if a person passes small amounts of blood and no serious cause can be found on medical examination.)
Cystitis with twinges of cutting pain, or a burning feeling that extends to the urethra and its opening, may indicate a need for this remedy. The passage may also burn at times when no attempt at urination is being made. After emptying the bladder, the person feels as if some urine still remains inside. Urging and discomfort are often worse from walking.
This remedy can be helpful for cystitis with smarting pain in the urinary opening and aching in the bladder, with a feeling that the urine is retained. Children may cry or shriek, afraid to urinate because they know the pain is coming. Borax is often indicated for people who are sensitive to noise and inclined toward motion sickness.
If a person has a troublesome urge to urinate but has to strain (or even stand up and lean forward) to make it pass, this remedy may be useful. A scalding sensation may be felt while the urine flows, with a feeling of straining afterward.
This remedy may be indicated if a person has to urinate frequently with only a small amount being passed. A feeling of constriction is felt in the urinary passage, and the flow may be interrupted, or there may be dribbling afterward. A tingling sensation may occur, lasting long after urination is finished.
If cystitis is accompanied by dull but distressing pain and a feeling of fullness in the bladder, even after urinating, this remedy may be helpful. Urging and discomfort are more intense when the bladder has recently been emptied, improving over time as the bladder become more full.
This remedy may be helpful if a person has to urinate frequently during the night and passes large amounts of urine. Or the person may feel a painful urge, but has to strain to make the urine flow. Pain may be felt in the back before the urine passes.
This remedy may be helpful if a person has to urinate frequently, with sudden urging, a sense that urine will leak if urination is delayed, and small amounts of involuntary urine loss. The person may experience a bearing-down feeling in the bladder region, or pressure above the pubic bone. A person who needs this remedy often feels worn-out and irritable, with cold extremities, and a lax or sagging feeling in the pelvic area.
This remedy is often indicated for cystitis that develops in a woman after sexual intercourse, especially if sexual activity is new to her, or if cystitis occurs after every occasion of having sex. Pressure may be felt in the bladder after urinating, as if it is still not empty. A sensation that a drop of urine is rolling through the urethra, or a constant burning feeling, are other indications. Staphysagria is also useful for cystitis that develops after illnesses with extended bed rest, or after the use of catheters.
RUBRICS FROM DIFFERENT REPERTORY
1-PHATAK REPERTORY –
- URINATION, DESIRE, MORBID URGING
- URINE, RETAINED, URGING WITHOUT
- URINE, HOT BURNING
- URINE, AMMONIACAL, STRONG ODOUR (9)
- FISHY ODOUR, (3)
- URINE, SWEETISH, ODOUR (2)
- PAIN GENERAL URINATE, DURING URGING TO
- URGING TO URINATE, MORBID DESIRE ABSENT
- URGING TO URINATE, MORBID DESIRE ABSENT DISTENDED BLADDER, WITH
- PAIN BURNING URINATION BEFORE
- PAIN BURNING URINATION DURING
- PAIN BURNING NECK URINATION DURING
- PAIN BURNING MORNING URINATION DURING
- PAIN BURNING URINATION AGG. BEFORE
- PAIN BURNING URINATION AGG. BEGINNING OF, AT
- PAIN BURNING URINATION AGG. DURING
- PAIN BURNING URINATION AGG. AFTER
- PAIN BURNING MEATUS URINATION DURING
- PAIN BURNING URINATION WHILE
- PAIN BURNING URGING TO URINATE
3- BOERICKE REPERTORY
- URINATION, AFTER, PAINS, BURNING, SMARTING
- URINATION, DURING ACT, BURNING, SMARTING
- URINE, ODOR, PUNGENT, AMMONIACAL (9)
- URINE, ODOR, SWEET, VIOLACEOUS (10)
- PAIN lancinating extending to pelvis (10)
- UTERUS, PAIN, PRESSING, HEAVINESS, DRAGGING IN PELVIS (38)
- URINE, ODOR, FETID, FOUL
- URINE, ODOR, SHARP, INTENSELY STRONG (15)
4- BONNINGHUSEN REPERTORY
- MICTURITION: URINATION BURNING
- DURING URINATION: URETHRA, BURNING IN
1-Dr. Niharika Jain ,MD(Scholar)
Department of Practice Of Medicine ,GHMC ,Bhopal , MP
2-Dr. Neeta Jain, MD (Medicine)
Prabha Multispeciality Homoeopathic clinic, Indore, MP