Monthly Archives: June 2012

Capsicum annum: Systemic & local Homeopathic antioxidant

Dr K M Nishanth Nambison

Capsicum has ascorbic acid (0.1-0.5 %) (12) and carotinoids as its Active constituent. By the virtue of these capsicum acts as a potent Local as well as a systemic antioxidant.

Action as Local Antioxidant & Anti-inflammatory: -Locally capsicum Q should strictly be used in closed lesions since it produces deleterious effect in open lesion.

Used in following indication: (12 cases)
(a) Induration where suppuration was imminent.-7 cases
(b) Lesions of herpes zoster: -2 cases
(c) Lymphangitis: -3 cases

In all above cases capsicum Q considerably reduced pain and inflammation, had a soothing effect and brought about speedy recovery; possibly lessening Free radical mediated tissue injury.

Action as systematic Antioxidant: Capsicum Q & 6 CH was used in total – 23 cases of gastritis & Reflux oesophagitis.
(a) Cases in which endoscopies were done: 2 cases
(b) Cases of allied symptoms like precordial pain, heaviness & in right arm heart burn: 7 cases.
(c) Cases with raised serum cholesterol: 17 cases.
(d) Cases where patient were obese (BMI > 30) with weight above 70kgs -17 cases.
(e) Most of the patients were sedentary people (Businessmen, Officers and Retd. Personals.)

Fact, which was revealed during the course of treatment, was that (9) out of (17) patients with high serum cholesterol came within normal limit during the course of treatment, although initial fluctuation was noted.

Along with capsicum other intercurrent remedies were used, wherever it called for. Capsicum has ascorbic acid and carotinoids as its chief constituent and ascorbic acid has been shown to substantially reduce risk for all causes of death. All cancers and cardio-vascular disorders. (4- 21)

Another study shows that combination of Vitamin C & Carotinoids (which are shown to be present in Capsicum.) Plus Vitamin E is first step towards IHD (Ischeamic heart disease) prevention and cure. Logically aiming at multirisk factor in the multifactorial multistage IHD so in this study it is evident that capsicum reduces the risk of CVD, IHD & Cerebro-Vascular Disorders by effectively bringing down the level of serum cholesterol thus reducing the risk of free radical mediated injury to gastric mucosa & other vital organs.    

02. Ascorbic acid (constituent of Capsicum) Ascorbic acid (constituent of capsicum) An ideal electron donor reducing superoxide,
Hydroxyl radicals, Hypochlorus acid & other reactive oxidants from activated Micro /
Macrophages.
Anti atherosclerosis.
Pulmonary antioxidant defence against smoking etc.

 Dosage: Capsicum Q 10-15 Drops / TDS for 15 Days to start with.

Dr.K.M.Nishanth  nambison
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College, Bhopal (M.P)
Chief Research Consultant, Society Of Advanced Homeopathic Medical Sciences, Bhopal
149, T-2; Mohini Apts, Indrapuri, Bhopal (M.P) – 462021
+91 755 2758520 (R); +91 9826280555 (M)

sleep

Measurable effects of homeopathic medicines in insomnia

sleepA research team at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson (USA) recently examined the effects of one dose of placebo versus either Coffea Cruda 30c or Nux Vomica 30c in relatively healthy young adult human subjects with a past history of coffee-induced insomnia.

They used polysomnography (PSG), which can distinguish divergent findings, if present, between subjective sleep complaints and objective all-night sleep recording assessments in certain types of insomnia.

The authors refer to multiple studies on healthy animals that have shown measurable effects on sleep of three different homeopathic medicines at potencies prepared to a dilution past Avogadro’s number (Histamine, Coffea Cruda, and Nux Vomica) compared with placebo. In these studies each medicine at a 30c potency altered sleep patterns notably with differential effects on electroencephalographic delta frequency (0.5– 2.5 Hz) power during sleep, while other investigators have demonstrated effects of Nux Vomica 30c on alcohol-induced sleep time in mice.

The authors argue that the relative lack of objective measures to evaluate homeopathy in human subjects has thus far hindered advances in both clinical care and research. Polysomnography, in their opinion, can offer a potentially valuable tool for homeopathic investigations.

In this trial young adults of both sexes (ages 18–31) were included with above-average scores on standardized personality scales for either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity (but not both) and a history of coffee-induced insomnia. At-home polysomnographic recordings were obtained on successive pairs of nights once per week for a total of eight recordings (nights 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23).

Subjects (N = 54) received placebo pellets on night 8 (single-blind) and verum pellets on night 22 (double-blind) in 30c doses of one of two homeopathic medicines, Nux Vomica or Coffea Cruda. Subjects completed daily morning sleep diaries and weekly Pittsburgh sleep quality index scales, as well as profile of mood states scales at bedtime on polysomnography nights.

This study demonstrated that the homeopathic medicines significantly increased PSG total sleep time and NREM, as well as awakenings and stage changes. Findings are similar though not identical to those reported in animals with the same medicines. Possible mechanisms include initial disruption of the nonlinear dynamics of sleep patterns by the homeopathic medicines.

Reference:
Bell IR et al (2010). Effects of homeopathic medicines on polysomnographic sleep of young adults with histories of coffee-related insomnia. Sleep Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.03.013

Alternative medicine use in military community at Riyadh

Pattern of alternative medicine use among patients attending health centres in a military community in Riyadh  

Eiad A. Al-Faris,MRCGP, Department  of Family  and  Community  Medicine,  College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Background: Alternative Medicine (AM) is gaining popularity worldwide.

Objectives : This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of AM use in a military sector of the Saudi community.

Correspondence to:   Dr. Eiad A. Al-Faris, Associate Professor and Consultant, Family Medicine, Department of  Family & Community Medicine (34), College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box2925, Riyadh 11461

Methods:  Three hundred and ten adult patients, visiting their family physicians over 6 weeks from the 1  of June 1998, were selected by systematic random sampling. They were asked to report worrying health problems and their use of modern medicine (MM) and AM.

Results: Forty-six percent of the patients had used AM before and about 19% had used it  in the past 12 months. Alternative medicine practitioners were visited by 16.5% of the study population. Herbal medicine users represented 8.7% of the study population, honey (4.5%), the black grain Nigella sative (3%) and cautery was used by one person only.

Women, housewives and the illiterate were more likely to use AM. About 86% of all the study population preferred MM. The main source of information about AM was relatives  (77%). A large proportion of patients who reported depression used AM (53%) or visited  AM practitioners (33%). The average cost per visit to an AM pratitioner (166 Saudi Riyals)  was higher than that in the USA ($27.60=100 Saudi Riyals).

Conclusion:  There   is   a   need   to   educate   the   public   through   the   media   and   health professionals   on   the   appropriate   use   of   AM;   housewives   and   the   illiterate   should   be targeted. A community-based household survey using interviewers not associated with the  health system such as teachers (to avoid bias) is needed.

Key Words: Alternative medicine, Saudi Arabia, Media education.

Download full paper : www.similima.com/pdf/riyad-am.pdf

monsoon

Monsoon Disease – How to conduct awareness effectively

monsoonDr G Sivaramakrishnan
Former Asst Professor
Dept: of Medicine
WM Homoeo Medical College Attoor, Tamil Nadu

Leadership trainer
Indian Jaycees
Lions clubs international

Monsoon Disease  – How to conduct an awareness  Lively and Effectively

Good communicator

  • Communicator (Who)
  • Aim or Intention (Why)
  • Communicant (Whom)
  • Content (What)
  • Method (How)
  • Situation (When)

Preliminary Enquiries

  • Size of the Audience
  • Indoor/Outdoor
  • Size and Shape of Room
  • Arrangement of Seating
  • Equipment Available
  • Lighting

Preparation Proper

  • Sources of Supporting Material
  • Libraries
  • Books
  • Periodicals
  • Newspapers
  • Reference Materials
  • CD-ROM Data Bases
  • Government Documents

Primary Health care Through Homoeopathy – The Slogan to be propagated

Download the full presentation :  www.similima.com/ppt/monsoon-awarness-classes.pdf

Analgesic Activity of Morphinum 4X and Arnica 3X in animals

Dr A B Ram Jyothis

Study on Analgesic Activity of Morphinum 4X and Arnica 3X in Experimental Animal Model

(This Scientific paper was presented in Homoeopathic Conference – 2006 held at Fr.Muller Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, Derelakatte, Mangalore on 10 th December 2006.)

Introduction:
The purpose of fundamental research is to describe and possibly to understand the phenomena purported by homoeopathy, using the experimental method. Experimental method is based on the assumption that any hypothesis should be testable, i. e. measurements can be done to prove or disprove it. To do this, we need specific and carefully selected experimental models.
Similar to clinical study, laboratory research is able to show biological activity of homeopathic medicines that cannot be explained as a placebo response. Laboratory research is also capable of shedding some new light on how the homeopathic medicines may work. This study seeks to test the analgesic effects of Morphinum 4X and Arnica 3X on animals so that researchers can apply the information for human health and to understand biological phenomena of higher potencies.

Objectives:
1) To evaluate the effects of Homoeopathic potencies in Experimental Animal.
2) To evaluate the Analgesic Property of Morphinum4X and Arnica 3X. by Eddy’s hot plate Method.

Materials and Methods:
Testing Potencies:
Morphinum 4X and Arnica 3X were prepared with Sac Lac and Aqua distillata respectively.

Experimental Animals:
Male albino mice (Swiss strain) were used. Four groups (I-IV), each comprising of six animals weighing between (20-25g) were selected.

GROUP-I -Control group treated with Aqua distillata (10ml/kg, p.o)

GROUP-II – Group treated with Pentazocine (5mg/kg, i.p)

GROUP III – Group treated with Morphinum 4X (10ml/kg, p.o)

GROUP IV – Group treated with Arnica 3X (10ml/kg, p.o)

For Group I, III, and IV, three treatments were given at an interval of one hour and experiment was conducted one hour after the last treatment. For Group II, one dose was given 30 minutes prior to the experiment.

Eddy’s hot plate:
In this method heat is used as a source of pain. Animals are individually placed on a hot plate maintained at constant temperature (55◦C) and the reaction of animals, such as paw licking or jump response is taken as the end point. Analgesics increase the reaction time.

Statistical Analysis
The results were statistically processed by Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) to compare the effects on treatment groups before and after treatment with control group and Dunnet’s t test were used to determine the effect of each treatment against control group.

The null hypothesis (H0) was assumed that there was no difference in effects of treatments between the treatment groups compared with control group and alternate hypothesis (H1) was assumed there was significant difference in effect of treatment between the treatment groups compared with control group.

Observation and Result
Control group exhibit no increase in reaction time.
Group treated with Pentazocine exhibit increase in reaction time up to 10 sec.
Group treated with Arnica 3X exhibit increase in reaction time up to 6.3 sec.
Group treated with Morphinum 4X exhibit increase in reaction time up to 8.83 sec

The standard drug, Pentazocine (5mg/Kg, i.p) increase the reaction time by 65% (P<0.001), Morphinum 4X (10 ml/Kg, o.p) increase the reaction time by 49.03% (P<0.001) and Arnica 3X (10 ml/Kg, o.p) increase the reaction time by 46.51% (P<0.001).

Table – 1
ANALGESIC EFFECT – EDDY’S HOT PLATE

 Group  Treatment  Dose Basal reaction time.(sec) Reaction time after treatment.        (sec) % increasein reaction time
 1  Control  10ml/kg    p.o  4.66±0.33  4.66±0.33    0%
 2  Pentazocine  5mg/kg    i.p  3.5±0.22  10±0.73  65%
 3   Arnica 3X  10ml/kg    p.o  4.3±0.21  6.3±0.44  46.51%
 4  Morphinum 4X  10ml/kg    p.o  4.5±0.34  8.83±0.47  49.03%

Number of animals used in each group: 6
The results are in Mean±SEM
Before Treatment:
Table -2
Analysis of variance table for Analgesic activity before treatment.

Source of variation  df Sum of squares Mean sum of   squares F-ratio F-table      value
 TreatmentError   4-1=323- 3=20   4.839.67   1.610.483 3.33*** 4.94
Total 24- 1=23 14.5

                                    ***P > 0.01, df 3, 20.

From the table 2, calculated F- value (3.33) is compared with table F- value (4.94) with 3, 20 df at 1% level of significance. Therefore the calculated F value is less than table F value. So the null hypothesis is accepted and there is no significant difference in the Analgesic activity among the groups before treatment.

After Treatment:
Table – 3
Analysis of variance table for Analgesic activity after treatment.

Source of variation  df Sum of squares Mean sum of   squares F-ratio F-table      value
 TreatmentError   4-1=323- 3=20   104.4635.5   34.821.77 19.67*** 4.94
Total 24- 1=23  139.96

                              ***P < 0.01, df 3, 20.

From the table 3, calculated F- value (19.67) is compared with table F- value (4.94) with 3, 20 df at 1% level of significance. Therefore the calculated F value is greater than table F value. So the null hypothesis is rejected and there is significant difference in the Analgesic activity among the groups after treatment.

Dunnet’s t test table against control for Analgesic activity

 Statistic  Pentazocine  Arnica 3X  Morphinum 3X
        t        10.45****        3.28****            8.18****

                                    ****P < 0.001, df 20.

Discussion and Conclusion

In homoeopathy, Potentized Morphinum and Arnica are used for unbearable pain. Morphinum is indicated in neuralgia where the pains are so violent as to threaten convulsions, pain causing twitching for jerking of limbs. Arnica is indicated when there is sore, lame bruised feeling and neuralgias originating in disturbances of pneumo-gastric. The result of the present study verifies that dynamised Morphinum and Arnica are potent analgesics.

In conclusion, research in homoeopathy will never end up with a final explanation, because homoeopathy is such a large field that there is not an experiment nor an experimental line which can clarify every thing and convince everybody. It is only through accumulation of knowledge and elimination of error that we are getting nearer to the truth. The homoeopathic drug, characterized by infinitesimal doses and by dynamization according to Hahnemann’s preparation technique has a marked informational character. The possibility of storing information from molecules can be used for therapeutical as well as experimental purpose.

The result of the study justify the opportunity of future researches concerning the intimate mechanism of action of homoeopathic potencies in accordance with principle of similia.

Dr A B Ram Jyothis.B.H.M.S, M.D (Hom) Homoeopathic Pharmacy.
Lecturer. Fr.Muller’s Homeopathic Medical College. Mangalorev

Concomitant Symptom,Opinion of Stalwarts & Clinical Practice

Dr Mohan Giri

Concomitant Symptom of Boenninghausen, Opinion Of Other Stalwarts and Its Importance in Clinical Practise

INTRODUCTION: –The father of medicine Hippocrates taught some 2000 years back that “not the disease but the diseased individual” and recognition of the individual symptoms in every case of illness. It was Master Hahnemann who put forward the wisdom of Hippo crates and his individualities concept in the treatment of the sick. 

Individualization is the keynote of homoeopathic prescribing and healing the sickness of whole man to health is our mission. Section 153 of Organon of Medicine is the clue of artistic prescribing. There Master Hahnemann writes “In this search for a homeopathic specific remedy … the more striking, singular uncommon and peculiar (characteristics) signs and symptoms ….c hiefly and most solely to be kept in view.”

Boenninghausen was a close follower of Hahnemann and was gifted with a keen analytical mind. He accepted the following fundamental as pronounced by Hahnemann: —

  • Nothing can be known of a disease except through symptoms.
  • It is the patient who is sick not his parts.
  • Symptoms are the only unfailing guide to the selection of the remedy.
  • Homoeopathic selection of medicine should be based on totality of the case.

To Boenninghausen, therefore, totality is the true diagnosis of the disease, and at the same time diagnosis of the remedy. He proceeded on the hypothesis that this totality was not only the sum total of symptoms, but was itself one grand symptoms — the symptoms of the patient. Such totality of the case, according to Boenninghausen practically consists of the totality of complete symptoms. He asserted that a symptom would be considered as complete when it is studies in relation to the following factors: —

  • Location
  • Sensation
  • Modality
  • Concomitant

DEFINITION OF CONCOMITANT SYMPTOMS
The word “Concomitant” is derived from a Latin word “Concomitory”. “Con” means cum with “Com” means together with, in combination, or union, also altogether, completely and “Comitant” means present.

Gould medical dictionary defines Concomitant symptoms as accessory phenomena occurring in connection with the essential phenomena of a disease.

We may define Concomitant symptoms as:

A symptom which co-exists with the main symptoms without having any pathological and Physiological relation and only relation is time association.

A symptom, which rarely appear in connection with the leading disease, hence peculiar.

A peculiar symptom, which occur in the same patient with the leading symptoms either at the same tine or having some definite relation to the time.

A symptom, which neither has separate existence nor has any cause for their existence.

Such a peculiar and striking phenomena we term “Concomitant symptoms”.

It is often asked that if two symptoms are occurring together then which one is the Concomitant?

Suppose headache and backache occurring simultaneously, in such conditions the problem may be salved from the following observation: —

Duration: – Time of occurrence of the both should be inquired. One may either proceeds or follows the other.

Relation: – Is there any relation between headache and backache, which one affects the other? Whether headache is felt more when backaches get aggravated or vise-versa. There must be some time relation if one is the Concomitant. Both can not be Concomitant to each other.

Troublesome: – We may ask the patient which complaint is most troublesome, to you? As it has been frequently observed that Concomitant symptoms are rarely troublesome because they are non-pathological, and represent the individualistic feature of a case.

Disappearance: – Concomitant symptoms are bound to disappear with the disappearance of the main symptoms. If one group of symptom is removed and other remained after administration of remedy it indicate that they are not Concomitant symptoms rather two different complaints which has no relationship to each other.

VALUE of CONCOMITANT SYMPTOMS

According to Hahnemann:-   Common / General   Uncommon / peculiar

According to Boenninghausen: –   Primary / Typical,   Secondary / concomitant

Location  Sensation   Modalities, Symptoms belong to   the individual, Concomitant   of the disease symptoms

Hence they are always characteristics and deals with individualistic feature of patient as well as the totality of the disease.

In the lesser writing Dr. Boenninghausen had said- “First of all, those symptoms which are found in almost all disease may be left out at our count unless they manifest themselves in a striking manner.

On the other hand, those entire attendant symptoms should be carefully noted which:

(i):- Rarely appear in connection with the leading disease, and are therefore, also found rarely among the proving.

(ii):- Those, which belong to another sphere of disease than the chief ailment.

(iii):-Lastly, those, which have more or less of the characteristic signs of one of the medicines.

Such a symptoms would be included among those which Hahnemann calls “More striking, singular, uncommon and peculiar (Characteristic), signs”, because they predominantly give to the whole disease in its individual Character.

CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF CONCOMITANT SYMPTOMS
There are certain criteria which can be considered as the selection of the Concomitant symptoms, this means, it may occur in same patients either, with, before, during or after the main complaints / conditions i.e. —

Coexistence of a symptom with the main symptoms / disease / Condition.

  • Lachrymator with pain in other parts of body.
  • Cough with pain in distant part.
  • Eructation when pressing painful parts.
  • Emptiness in Stomach menses before.
  • Ineffectual urging for urination during perspiration.
  • Headache after pressing the stool.
  • Vertigo coition after. (Condition)
  • Appetite, ravenous, epilepsy, before. (Disease)

A common place or well known accompaniment, can be taken as Concomitant if they occur in an extraordinary degree or in a singular manner i.e.-

Fever with thirst is a common accompaniment, but fever with thirst for small quantity of water at frequent interval is extraordinary, hence become Concomitant

Common symptoms when occur in unusual combination i.e.

  • Inflammation without pain.
  • Fever with coldness of body.

Two common symptoms become uncommon when they have definite relationship i.e.

  • Coryza with polyurea.
  • Coryza ending in diarrhoea.
  • Sudden stopping catarrh of respiratory tract followed by diarrhoea.
  • Cough ends in sneezing.

CONCOMITANT AND ASSOCIATED SYMPTOMS DO THEY BEAR SAME MEANING
There is some difference of opinion regarding Concomitant and associated symptoms. In broader sense both represent accompanying symptoms, but Concomitant symptoms is non pathological hence peculiar where as associated symptoms have got pathological relationship with the main symptoms – hence common and less important

EVOLUTION Of CONCEPT Of CONCOMITANT IN HOMEOPATHY
It has been found that the word Concomitant was used in the various writing of Master Hahnemann but the purpose was different which is unrelated to the literally meaning of Concomitant. This may be different translator’s wording according to their language consciousness.

The concept of Concomitant is owned by Dr. Boenninghausen who has given a new dimension to Concomitant symptoms. He used these words to explain uncommon phenomena accompanying the main trouble. He was the first to notice that the certain symptoms are opting to appear in-group. He further observed that these symptoms have no other relationship to the group of chief symptoms than their time association, thus giving individuality to the picture and help to differentiate it from similar picture. In other words these represent the characteristic differentiating features.

He further observed in the materia medica that certain medicine has greater propensity to produce Concomitant symptoms. He thus started collecting the concomitant symptoms and placed them in his Therapeutic Pocket Book in a generalized form in relation to the particular affection.

In homeopathic concept of concomitant symptoms we do not found any logical cause but it has a deep meaning in every case of disease as well as the medicines and related to the constitutional differences and tends to remain constant with patient, irrespective of the nature of the disease.

HOW HE APPLIED “ANALOGY” ON CONCOMITANT SYMPTOMS?
AND WHAT MADE HIM TO DECLARE THAT HIS REPERTORY IS BASED ON CONCOMITANT:-
Being convinced of the importance of Concomitant symptoms he started collecting them whatever present in the Materia Medica Pura and experienced of him and other could provide. Eventually the numbers increases so incredibly that it was impossible to write individually all the Concomitant symptoms in relation to that particular area.

Boenninghausen thought if he would go on writing the concomitant symptoms individually in relation to the particular affection then the repertory would become very voluminous.

Hence instead of writing them individually, he deduces a general rule with the help of Doctrine of Analogy and presented a separate general rubric on Concomitant.

In this way Boenninghausen has kept several general rubrics on concomitant whenever relevant i.e:-

MIND:-Drugs which have Concomitant of mental symptoms.

NOSE:-accompanying symptoms of nasal discharge.

STOOL: – Trouble before during and after stool.

MICTURITION:-

  • Before
  • At the beginning of
  • During
  • At the close of and
  • After micturition.

MENSTRUATION:-

  • Before menstruation
  • At the beginning of menstruation.
  • During menstruation.
  • After menstruation.

LEUCORRHOEA;-Accompanying trouble of, leucorrhoea,

RESPIRATION:- Accompanying trouble.

COUGH:-Trouble associated with cough.

YAWNING: – Associated trouble.

SLEEP:-Associated symptoms.

FEVER:-Heat stage and associated symptoms

SWEAT: – with associated symptoms.

COMPOUND FEVER: – during, before and after.

These all representation made Boenninghausen to declare that his repertory is based on doctrine of Concomitant.

OPINION OF OTHER STALWARTS REGARDING CONCOMITANT
The concept of Concomitant varies from person to person, according to his own opinion, moreover there are many stalwarts who totally oppose and criticized it.

Dr. Hering and Dr. Kent criticized Boenninghausen for to broad an application of the concept of Concomitant.

Dr. Jugal kishore emphasized that Boenninghausen has generalized entire Concomitant and associated symptoms, and their exists no distinction between the peculiarities of the remedy.

Moreover Dr.Kenthas badly criticized the concept of Concomitant of Boenninghausen but if we go through Dr. B.K.Sarkar book “Essential of Homoeopathic Philosophy” – He writes thatKenthas substituted Concomitant with peculiar symptoms in his repertory.

Dr. H.A.Robert has used the word auxiliary symptoms in place of Concomitant symptoms. There may be bit different in word meaning but no different in the concept of Concomitant what Boenninghausen has established.

He himself, while giving value to the Concomitant symptoms in Introduction to Boenninghausen Therapeutic Pocket Book writes, – “Concomitant symptom is to the totality what the condition of aggravation and amelioration is to the single symptom’.

All the other stalwarts in the field of homeopathy have described concomitant by own way and wording but concept of Concomitant remained unchanged till today.

IMPORTANCE OF CONCOMITANT SYMPTOMS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
As it has been well established that Concomitant symptom is the Characteristic as well as the totality of the case, so without Concomitant symptoms any prescription can not be made homoeopathically.

Here I would like to cite some cases which are showing the importance of Concomitant symptoms in clinical practice.

CASE No –1
Mr. DS/M/H , aged about 50 years, came to me  on 11.12.2001 with a various neurological manifestation. The case has been diagnosed  as “Cerebellar disorder syndrome”. There was all the classical presentation of Cerebellar diseases. After careful study of the case the following characteristics have obtained,-

  • Trembling of whole body, specially outstretching hand < when asked the patient to act > by rest.
  • Trembling speech.
  • Encysted swelling on forehead and back which is soft and pliable.
  • H/O Convulsive disease in the childhood.
  • Tendency to delayed healing of wound.
  • T/R – Heat intolerance but patient is ambithermal.
  • Hunger intolerable in the morning.
  • Craving – Sour, Salt++, fish, meat.
  • Aversion – sweet.
  • Intolerance – egg, produce nausea after eating.
  • Salivation during sleep, which is stringy.
  • Urge for urination when seeing running water and while bathing.
  • Mild and yielding disposition.
  • Desires Company.
  • Consolation > symptoms.
  • Fear of water.

ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF SYMPTOMS

  • Mild and yielding disposition.
  • Desires company.
  • Consolation > symptoms.
  • Fear of water.
  • Craving salt++, fish.
  • Aversion sweet.
  • Intolerance egg-produce nausea
  • Salivation during sleep, which is stringy.
  • Urge for urination when seeing running water and while bathing.
  • Hunger intolerable.
  • Trembling of whole body, specially outstretching hand < when asked the patient to act > by rest.
  • Trembling speech.

MIASMATIC ANALYSIS
Psora:  (points in favour of):-

  • History of convulsive disease in childhood without any known cause
  • Fear of crowed when passing through
  • Desire company
  • Hunger intolerable
  • Trembling of whole body specially outstretched hand
  • Trembling of speech

Sycosis: (points in favour of):-

  • Dreams of daily business
  • Encysted swelling on fore head and back which is of soft and pliable
  • Tendency of delayed healing of wound

Syphilis: (points in favour of):-

  • Thermal reaction — Ambithermal
  • Perspiration offensive
  • Salivation during sleep which is stringy in character
  • Interrupted speech

MIASMATIC DIAGNOSIS: –Mixed miasmatic state with predominant of psora

TOTALITY OF SYMPTOMS:

Causation: – Mixed miasmatic state with predominant of psora

Characteristic Mental Generals:

  • Mild and yielding disposition
  • Desire Company
  • Fear of water.

Characteristic Physical Generals:

  • Hunger intolerable
  • Perspiration offensive
  • Salivation during sleep
  • Urge for urination when seeing running water and while   bathing
  • Craving salt ++
  • Aversion sweet
  • Intolerance  — egg, produce nausea

Characteristic Particulars:

  • Trembling speech
  • Trembling of outstretched hand

Important Physical Findings:

  • Dysdiadokokinesia – Left side more than right
  • Intention tremor
  • Brisk knee jerk
  • Titubation

REPERTORISATION:-Repertorisation done with the help of Hompath Classic (Kent Repertory)  on the basis of totality of symptoms.

REPERTORIAL SELECTION WITH REASONS:;-After proper Repertorisation, it has been found that Phos. Covered 9 symptoms out of 12 symptoms and scored maximum 20 marks

So, Repertorial selection for this case is Phosphorus.

FINAL SELECTION OF MEDICINE:- Points in favour)

  • Nausea after egg eating.
  • Urging for urination when seeing running water and while bathing.

Finally after proper study of a case and consulting the materia medica the drug Lysine has been prescribed from M1 to M16 potency with marked improvement of case in all respect. The other physical generals and mental symptom even they are not under the sphere of the disease process has improved remarkably.

The case has been presented in front of modern science physicians and they are highly satisfied with our treatment and recommended that homoeopathy is better mode of treatment for neurological disorder.

Within this period of treatment patient was totally symptoms free.

Case No II
Mr. SM/M/M, aged 25 years came to me with the complaints of haematemesis, excessive flatulence and convulsive manifestation. This is known case of grand-mal epilepsy and had been taken anticonvulsive drugs for long time. The C.T. Scan was normal and E.E.G.  was showing +ve neuronal events. After careful study of the case following symptoms has been obtain:-

  • Excessive flatulence < at evening, < eating after > by eructation.
  • Recurrent attach of bleeding from mouth for last 3 years.
  • Heaviness on nape of neck < exertion after,> by rest.
  • Ravenous hunger, can not tolerate hunger.
  • Craving-Meat+, Fish++, Cold food.
  • Epileptic convulsion occurs during chilliness.
  • Stool-alternate hard and soft, regular, occasional. Mucoid.
  • T/R-chilly patient.
  • Thirst- profuse, small quantity at a time.
  • Perspiration- profuse mainly on spine.
  • Violent irritability, use to beat his wife.
  • Fear of death.
  • Desire Company.
  • Memory weak.
  • F/H-of epilepsy and haemorrhagic tendency.

ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION.

  • Violent irritability, use to beat his wife.
  • Desire Company.
  • Fear of death.
  • Memory weak.
  • T/R-Chilly patient.
  • Hunger intolerable.
  • Thirst profuse but small quantity at a time.
  • Craving fish++.
  • Recurrent attach of bleeding from mouth.
  • Heaviness at the nape of neck < on exertion.
  • Flatulence-excessive.
  • Epileptic convulsion occurs during chilliness.

MIASMATIC ANALYSIS:
Psora: — (Points in Flavour)

  • Family history of epilepsy.
  • T/R-chilly patient.
  • Desire fish, meat.
  • Hunger intolerable.
  • Thirst profuse but small quantity at a time.

Sycosis: — (Points in favour)

  •  T/R-chilly patient.
  • . Heaviness at the nape of neck.

Syphilis:  — (points in favour)

  • Desire cold food.
  • Recurrent attach of haemorrhage from mouth.

MIASMATIC DIAGNOSIS: -Mixed miasmatic case with predominance of psora.

TOTALITY OF THE SYMPTOMS
Causation:
– Mixed miasmatic case with predominance of psora.

Characteristic Mental General.

  • Violent irritability, use to beat his wife.
  • Desires Company.
  • Fear of death.

Characteristic Physical General.

  • T/R-chilly patient
  • Hunger intolerable
  • Epileptic convulsion occurs during chilliness.
  • Thirst profuse, but small quantity at a time.
  • Craving fish++.

Characteristic Particulars.

  • Recurrent attach of bleeding from mouth.
  • Heaviness at the nape of neck.
  • Flatulence-excessive.  .

Important Laboratory Finding.

  • E. E. G. showing epileptic foci.
  • C. T. scan of brain was normal.

REPERTORISATION. – Repertorisation done with the help of Hompath Classic (Kent Repertory)  on the basis of totality of symptoms.

REPERTORIAL SELECTION WITH REASIONS.-After proper Repertorisation it has been found that PHOS. Covered 11 symptoms and scored highest 25 points.

So, Repertorial selection for the case is PHOS.

FINAL SELECTION OF MEDICINE:-
(Points in favour):-

  • Epileptic convulsion occurs with chilliness.
  • Solitude intolerable.
  • Mixed miasmatic case with predominance of Psora.

Finally after proper study of a case and consulting the materia medica the drug Arsenic-Album has been prescribed from M1 to M20 potency with marked improvement of case in all respect. The other physical generals and mental symptom even they are not under the sphere of the disease process was also improved.

After starting the treatment the patients stop the anticonvulsive drug and during the course of treatment there was not a single convulsive attack. Within this period of treatment patient was totally symptoms free.

Bibliography 

  1. Robert H A &Wilson A C “.Boennighausen’s Therapeutic Pocket Book”. “Jain Publishers (P) Ltd”.  New Delhi. 1988.
  2. Boennighausen C M F. Lesser Writings, Translated by Prof .L H Tafel “Jain Publishers (P) Ltd”.  New Delhi. 1998. Repr, 2000.P.P.-112-113.
  3. Hahnemann S. Organon of Medicine,” B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd”.New Delhi. 1970.
  4. Das A.K.,” Fundamentals of Homoeopathic Repertory” Books $ Allied (P) Ltd.Calcutta, January 2003, P.P. – 126-28.
  5. Harinidhan K.” Principles and Practice of Repertory”.P.P-40.
  6. Dey S P “Essentials of Principles and Practice of Homoeopathy”. “EurekaPublishers (P) Ltd”.Calcutta. Nov.2000.
  7. Kishore J “Evolution of Homoeopathic Repertories and Repertorisation” Kishore Card Publishers (P) Ltd”.New Delhi. 1998.
  8. Allen H.C.,” Keynotes and characteristics with comparisons” B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd”,New Delhi. 1990,
  9. Boger C.M.”Bonninghausen’s Characteristics $ Repertory”. “B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd”.New Delhi. reprint edit 2001.
  10. Kent J.T. “Repertory of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica”, B.Jain Publishers (P) Ltd,New Delhireprint edit 1993.
  11. Kent J.T. “Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy”; B.Jain Publishers (P) Ltd,New Delhireprint edit 1993.
  12. Sarkar B K.”Essentials of Homoeopathic Philosophy and the Place of Repertory in Homoeopathic Practice”. Roy Publishing House.Calcutta, 1968.

Dr.Mohan giri. B.Sc (hons) bhms (hons) m.d (hom).nih.
Lecturer deppt of practice of medicine.mbhmch..howrah..
Ex-research fellow.NIH, Ex-lecturer nshmch.bhopal

Nobel Laureate Explains the Principles of Homeopathy

By: Drs. Nisanth & Smita Nambison

This paper aims at putting to rest the voices of skeptics, wasting time, on attempting to prove either Similia principle is absurd, Homeopathy doesn’t work or the High dilution has nothing in it.

Nobel Laureate Luc Montagnier is a French virologist and joint recipient of the 2008 Nobel      Prize     in   Physiology      or    Medicine,     for    his   discovery      of   the    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in his recent publication  Electromagnetic Signals   AreProduced   by   Aqueous   Nanostructures   Derived   from   Bacterial   DNA   Sequences ;

Author:   Luc   MONTAGNIER   et al.;  Interdiscip   Sci   Comput   Life   Sci  (2009) 1: 81–90;  6 January 2009 has brought out fantastic results explaining principles of Homoeopathy.

We have   used   some   excerpts   from   the   above   research  to   show  the facts   in favoring Homeopathy.

Some terms used in the paper:

  • EMS (Electro Magnetic Signals)
  • Loud or Positive (Emitting EMS)
  • Silent or Negative (not emitting EMS)

In Support of serially agitated dilutions:

Luc   MONTAGNIER   et   al.   discovered   a   novel   property   of   DNA   that   is   the   capacity   of some sequences to emit electromagnetic waves in resonance after excitation by the ambient electromagnetic background.

Moreover, a number of physical studies have reported that water molecules can form long polymers of dipoles associated by hydrogen bonds (Ruan et al., 2004; Wernet et al., 2004).

www.nambisons.com ; www.diagnozit.com

Download article : www.similima.com/pdf/Luc-Montagnier.pdf

doctors1

Self introspection – Keeping an open mind in research

doctors1Dr M  Prakashrao Rao
Email : drmprakashrao@gmail.com

Self introspection

  • In the U.S. there are between 500- 1000 homeopathic M.D.s.,
  • In the Ukraine there are about 1,000 homeopathic M.D.s.,
  • 37% of all British M.D.s use homeopathy.,
  • 20% of all German M.D.s use homeopathy.,
  • 40% of all French M.D.s use homeopathy.,
  • 40 % of all Dutch M.D.s use homeopathy

“We must keep an open mind!” is a cry frequently heard from veterinary surgeons who have little familiarity with homoeopathy, and whose main concern seems to be to avoid offending anyone.  This is usually followed by the assertion, “We need more research!”

An open mind is an admirable approach to a new idea.  However, it is possible to have such an open mind that our brain falls out.  Homoeopathy has been around for a good two hundred years – the first publication was in 1796.  Are we really still short of the information we need to start coming to some conclusions?

Before calling for even more research spending, why not take a look at what’s already out there?  There are also review articles and ‘meta-analyses’ which attempt to draw all the information together and provide an overview.  Yet more articles have summarised the review articles (for example Prescribe International, 1996; Wagner, 1997; Ramey, 2000; Barrett, 2002; Ernst, 2002).  See also the relevant Bandoleer section.  Many of these present the situation as very disappointing for homoeopathy, with only a few marginally positive findings which on examination don’t really amount to a hill of beans.  Indeed there is at least one homoeopathy proponent paper which admits exactly the same thing (Walach, 2000).  On the other hand, pro-homoeopathic glosses can be found which, simply by quoting different excerpts from the very same papers, present the discipline as being strongly backed up by an extensive body of reputable research (for example Hoare, 2003).

The most truthful assessment of 200 years of research is perhaps that it has signally failed to persuade the doubters to believe, but it has equally failed to persuade the believers to doubt.  A few points are indisputable, however.

  • No single homoeopathic remedy has ever been convincingly demonstrated to be effective against any specific clinical condition.
  • The larger and better controlled the study, the less likely it is that it will demonstrate a significant effect.
  • Where statistical significance has been achieved, the effect is often clinically marginal, and where attempts have been made to replicate such a study in a controlled manner, these have invariably been unsuccessful.

One area where reproducibility has been claimed is in the work of David Reilly’s group at the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital (Reilly et al., 1994; Taylor et al., 2000), though this approach to the treatment of hay fever is in fact isopathy rather than homoeopathy, and lacks classical homoeopathic individualisation.  However, the claimed reproducibility is only within the original research group, and the statistical analyses employed have been subjected to much criticism.  More recently another group at Exeter University met the common objection that much of the controlled trial work in homoeopathy is not individualised, by allowing normal individualisation in the treatment of childhood asthma (White et al., 2003).  The conclusion of this much more rigorous trial was that there was no difference between the homoeopathic treatment and a placebo.  (Noted without comment: about three weeks after the White et al. paper was published, the government announced the allocation of £1.3 million for research into complementary medicine, principally homoeopathy.  Prince Charles was reportedly delighted.)

It’s quite difficult to keep up with the growing literature in this area.  Even the review articles and meta-analyses, summarised on a separate page for reference, present a moving target.  Fifteen years of review and meta-analysis.  After a first starkly negative conclusion in 1990, the 1990s were characterised by reviews that seemed to delight in the frisson of mystery invoked by the suggestion that maybe, just maybe, there could be something there.  However, since the turn of the millennium, more rigorous scrutiny has generally prevailed, and the possibility that maybe, just maybe, some homoeopathy proponents might have been over-playing their hand has been recognised.  The most recent article again comes firmly down on the “no effect beyond placebo” side of the fence, prompting a very testy editorial in the Lancet criticising the “politically-correct” tolerance of homoeopathy in the medical profession, and the wasting of yet more research funds in investigating “selective analyses and biased reports”.  The editor calls on doctors to be “bold and honest with their patients about homoeopathy’s lack of benefit”.  Watch this space.

When considering specifically veterinary trials, results are even more disappointing than in man, with no controlled studies of any degree of credibility having demonstrated a significant effect.  In one memorable paper Taylor et al. (1989) described seven calves treated with a commercially purchased homoeopathic nosode for Dictyocaulus viviparus and seven with a sham solution, both groups then being challenged with virulent larvae.  No antibody could be demonstrated in either group, mortality in both groups was high, and there was no difference in the number or morphology of the worms recovered from the groups post mortem.  The conclusion was that “There were no discernible differences between the treated and the control groups in their manifestations of resistance to D. viviparus or their clinical responses to the diseases produced.”  Proponent reaction was to reassert that homoeopathy works in clinical situations, and to deplore the condemnation of its use on the basis of a single unsuccessful experiment (MacLeod, 1989; Webb, 1989; Couzens, 1989).

More recently, other authors have reported similar findings.  Scott et al. (2002) studied a commercial homoeopathic remedy for dermatitis in 18 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis.  One dog in each group (treated and control) showed a reduction in pruritus (to less than 50% of pre-treatment severity) after treatment.  This study also generated much criticism from homoeopathy proponents, mainly on the grounds that as the treatment had not been administered by homoeopaths, the results were therefore invalid.  The fact that the remedy used, like the nosode employed by Taylor et al. (1989), had been purchased from a commercial source advertising it as suitable for exactly that purpose, was not commented on by the critics.  The following year de Verdier et al. (2003) treated 24 calves suffering from neonatal diarrhoea with a D30 preparation of Podophyllum, and compared them to a group of 20 similar calves given a sham solution, in a double-blind study.  There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to depression, inappetance and fever, and the treated group actually had a slightly longer duration of diarrhoea than the control group.  In the light of these findings, the authors expressed concern about the welfare implications of the fact that homoeopathic treatment is encouraged among “organic” farmers in the EU.  Once again, the study was dismissed by homoeopaths on the grounds of lack of individualisation, ignoring the fact that this is exactly how homoeopathy is actually practised in farm animal medicine.

Since this page was written, a fourth controlled trial of veterinary homoeopathy has been published (Holmes et al., 2005).  Once again the trial involved a commercially-marketed product, in this case a “mastitis nosode”, marketed by a homoeopathic pharmacy with impressive therapeutic claims.  No information was available regarding what was (or wasn’t!) contained in this “broad-spectrum treatment régime”, although the authors imply that it was not necessarily diluted beyond Avogadro’s limit.  Nevertheless, “Within the limits of the power of this trial there was no evidence to show that the homoeopathic nosode tested had any effect on the cows’ somatic cell counts.”

Oops, just noticed another recent one, Hektoen et al., (2004).  Mastitis again, but this time the clinical disease.  “Evidence of efficacy of homeopathic treatment beyond placebo was not found in this study,” what a surprise.

To the best of our knowledge, these four five studies are the only controlled trials of homoeopathic treatment in veterinary medicine which have achieved publication in reputable journals.

As long ago as 1842, after describing a number of trials in which homoeopathic remedies had been found to be completely worthless, Oliver Wendell Holmes observed –

It is impossible not to realize the entire futility of attempting to silence this asserted science by the flattest and most peremptory results of experiment.  Were all the hospital physicians of Europe and America to devote themselves, for the requisite period, to this sole pursuit, and were their results to be unanimous as to the total worthlessness of the whole system in practice, this slippery delusion would slide through their fingers without the slightest discomposure, when, as they supposed, they had crushed every joint in its tortuous and trailing body.Not much change there, then.

Proponents of homoeopathy frequently cite extremely dramatic individual anecdotes in support of their claims (for example Nunn, 1984; Hunter, 1991; Mueller, 2003).  If such striking effects are typical of homoeopathic preparations, or in any way reproducible, it should be easy to demonstrate this even to the most sceptical of critics.  However, we seem to have little to show for a considerable amount of effort but marginal and inconsistent significances in small or poorly-controlled trials.

Continuing to pursue a line of investigation in the face of disappointing or inconclusive results usually depends on a conviction that the underlying theory is sound, and that it is rational to expect a positive result if the studies are better designed or the procedure is refined.  Does the underlying theory of homoeopathy lend itself to such a rational scientific belief?

References:

BARRETT, S. (2002)  Overview of homeopathic research.  HomeoWatch, www.homeowatch.org/research/overview.html.,=COUZENS, T. W. (1989)  Homoeopathy.  Vet. Rec. 124, 355.

ERNST, E. (2002)  A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy.  Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 54, 577-582.

HEKTOEN, L., LARSEN, S., ØDEGAARD, S. A. & LØKEN, T. (2004)  Comparison of Homeopathy, Placebo and Antibiotic Treatment of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows – Methodological Issues and Results from a Randomized-clinical Trial.  J. Vet. Med. 51, 439-446. =HOARE, J. (2003)  In defence of homoeopathy.  Veterinary Times 33:15, 7.

HOLMES, M. A., COCKCROFT, P. D., BOOTH, C. E. & HEATH, M. F. (2005)  Controlled clinical trial of the effect of a homoeopathic nosode on the somatic cell counts in the milk of clinically normal dairy cows.  Vet. Rec. 156, 565-567.=HOLMES, O. W. (1842)  Homeopathy and its kindred delusions.  In Examining Holistic Medicine, ed. D. Stalker & C. Glymour, 1985.  New York: Prometheous Books.

HUNTER, F. E. (1991)  Homoeopathic treatment of a dog.  Vet. Rec. 129, 343.-MACLEOD, G. (1989)  Homoeopathy.  Vet. Rec. 124, 355.=MUELLER, P. (2003)  Homoeopathy – what’s in it?  Veterinary Review 77, 16-17.-NUNN, R. J. (1984)  Homoeopathic treatment of partial epilepsy.  Vet. Rec. 114, 24.

PRESCRIRE INTERNATIONAL (unattributed articles) (1996)  Homeopathy update.  Prescrire International,  5:21.,RAMEY, D. W. (2000)  The scientific evidence on homoeopathy.  Priorities for Health 12,19-21,40.

REILLY, D., TAYLOR, M. A., BEATTIE, N. G., CAMPBELL, J. H., McSHARRY, C., AITCHISON, T. C., CARTER, R. & STEVENSON, R. D. (1994)  Is evidence for homeopathy reproducible?  Lancet, 344, 1601-1606.

SCOTT, D. W., MILLER, W. H. Jr., SENTER, D. A. et al. (2002)  Treatment of canine atopic dermatitis with a commercial homeopathic remedy: A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study.  Can. Vet. J. 43, 601-603.

TAYLOR, M. A., REILLY, D., LLEWELLYN-JONES, R. H., McSHARRY, C. & AITCHISON, T. C. (2000)  Randomised controlled trial of homoeopathy versus placebo in perennial allergic rhinitis with overview of four trial series.  British Medical Journal 321, 471-476.

TAYLOR, R. J., MALLON, T. R. & GREEN, W. P. (1989)  Efficacy of a homoeopathic prophylaxis against experimental infection of calves by the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparusVet. Rec. 124, 15-17.

de VERDIER, K., ÖHAGEN, P. & ALENIUS, S. (2003)  No effect of a homeopathic preparation on neonatal calf diarrhoea in a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  Acta Vet. Scand. 44, 97-101.

Homeopathic remedies in KUF- Series in Takayasu Arteritis

Djumaeva NE 1,2,Djumaeva LE2, Akhundjanova GA 2

Abstract
A case of a 31-year-old Asiatic woman with active Takayasu arteritis that resolved following two courses of  homeopathic remedies  in KUF-series is reported. Treatment for active Takayasu  arteritis typically requires  high  doses of corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents. There is no reported benefit from  homeopathic remedies  in KUF-series , which include nosod, organ preparations and homeopathic medicine.  The administered therapy resulted in stabilization of the pathological processes, improvement of patient’s condition and quality of life. No side effects of using the homeopathic remedies  in KUF- series were observed.

Takayasu arteritis can be successfully treated with nozods, organ preparations and homeopathic medicine in KUF-series.

Key words: homeopathic medicine in KUF- series, electro-acupuncture diagnosis by Voll, medicament testing.

Introduction
Takayasu arteritis is classically defined as a chronic, progressive, inflammatory, occlusive disease of the aorta and its branches, resulting in ischemia of the corresponding organs. Although Takayasu arteritis has a worldwide distribution, it is observed more frequently in Asia and India than in Western Europe and North America (1). Corticosteroids are the mainstay of the therapy  for active Takayasu arteritis. However, additional cytotoxic agents may be  required to achieve remission.

Case report. 
In January 2001 a 31-year-old  Asiatic woman, 54 kg, was admitted to the Medical Center of Alternative Medicine. She complained of weakness, fatigability, recurrent dizziness when she turned her head, blackouts, attacks of headache, episodes of paroxysmal tachycardia >150 bpm and pain in both upper limbs on physical exertion, as well as progressive  loss of weight.

In 1979, when the patient was 9-years-old, she was bitten by a dog, and immunised with anti-rabies vaccine. The one and a half months later she started feeling sever pain, firstly, in the left, later in the right hip joint and the lumbar part of the spine. Her temperature rose to 38.5oC, ESR 50 mm/hr.  Three years later (1981) she was admitted to the Research Institute of Pediatrics’ of the Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow), where,  based on an X-ray image, she was diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis For the next four years (1981-1985) the patient had been treated by NSAIDs, which had a positive effect: pain, fever and joint constraint disappeared. In 1985 the patient’s condition worsened with recurrence of  headaches and the rise in  BP  to 170/120  mm Hg. Investigation  revealed  that the left kidney did not function; the  ultrasound scan showed that the kidney size diminished (the left kidney was   8.8 cm x 3 cm; the right one was 11.5 cm x 6 cm). Since August 1985, the arterial hypertension had become malignant with an episodes of acute left ventricle failure, haemoptysis and oliguria. The patient was thoroughly examined and the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis was dismissed based on  the normal functions of the spine, absence of HLA B27, age and gender.

In December 1985 the patient was admitted to the Research Institute for Surgery named after Vishnevsky (Moscow) where rheovasography of her upper and lower extremities, echo-Doppler scanning, angiography of some vessels were performed.  The angiography showed stenosis of the upper renal part of the aorta, stenosis of the right renal artery, marked stenosis of the left renal artery, occlusion of the upper mesentery artery. She was diagnosed  as having Takayasu arteritis (Type III) with predominant lesion of the left renal artery, renovascular hypertension and  a surgical operation  was performed in two stages: renal vessels angioplasty and prosthesis of the abdominal part of the aorta. Morphologic examination of the vessels also confirmed the Takayasu  arteritis  diagnosis(2).

In February 1992, the patient’s condition worsened. She was at the time going through her first successful pregnancy. She complained of progressive weakness, HT, pedal oedema  and an episodes of paroxysmal tachycardia relapsed with a rate of 200 bpm.  BP on legs rose to 200/120 mm Hg . The patient was treated with high doses of  oral prednisolone  and immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide. In 2000  the Doppler   examination of vessels  and angiography  had  shown :   noncomplete occlusion and stenosis of both  common carotid arteries (80% of the right common carotid artery),occlusion of  the left subclavian arteries(80%), stenosis of the right sublavian artery(75%),occlusion of  the  superior mesenteric artery, stenosis of the abdominal artery. She refused from surgical removal of the affected arteries.

In January 2001, the patient came to us with the complaints described above. She looked markedly malnourished. On physical examination   the  upper-extremity  pulses  were absent bilaterally. Carotid bruits were audible in the   both subclavian areas. BP  in the left hand could not obtained, in the right one it was 80/60 mm Hg. BP in the right leg it was 200/120 mm Hg and in the left leg it was 190/110 mm Hg. Pulses in the lower extremities were normal. Cardiac examination was normal with no murmurs audible. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was normal. No other abnormalities were noted.

The patient was examined by the electro-acupuncture diagnostics   according to R.Voll  (EAV) with the use of “medicament testing” technique which allows to diagnose  the patients for   determining   an ethological, nosological  diagnosis of different diseases and  selects a single and daily doses of allopathic as well a homeopathic medicine. (3,4).

When examining our patients, the nosod of rabies virus was tested on the meridians of nervous degeneration  and the artery-venous-lymphatic vessels  meridian (Voll). At the same time, we tested organ preparations: Hypothalamus, Adenohypophysis, Adrenal glands, Thyroid and Parathyroid glands and homeopathic medicines:  Fucus vesiculosus, Calcium iodatum, Pulsatilla, Mercurius solibius Hahnemanni, Silicea, Belladona. Then, the  tested homeopathic medicines in KUF- series were   transferred on the homeopathic  pilulaes   by   the  “imprinting” method   and were prescribed to our patient(5).

The patient had taken the  homeopathic medicine for one month; after that she was examined again. The patient stopped complaining of headaches, dizziness, pain in both hands on exertion, weakness, fatigability, pain in both upper limbs on physical exertion. Paroxysms of tachycardia became less frequent. At the time of the examination by Voll , the nosod of rabies virus existing earlier was not found.

In May 2001 the patient was again examined  using  the EAV, and according to the examination results, the following  medicines were tested and then transferred on the homeopathic pilulaes : the organ preparations of the : Brachial  artery,   Femoral artery, Spleen artery,  Abdominal part of the aorta,  Superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk,  Middle cervical ganglion.  Homeopathic remedies – Phytolaca, Arnica  montana, Barium carbonicum,  Aesculus, Carduus marianus, Lachesis –  were also used. For the next seven months the patient had had a stable remission, however, in January 2002, she began again complaining of fatigability, weakness and a decrease in work capacity.

For the first time, the nosod of herpes simplex virus was registered on the meridian of nervous degeneration. The patient explained  that from time to time she had herpetic lesions on her lips. The daily dose of antiviral drug, acyclovir, was selected. The patient was administered by acyclovir, which the  patient  used during a long time under the EAV diagnosis control. As a consequence, the PCR  test did not reveal herpes simplex  virus in the patient’s blood. (2005, 2006).

Since that time, we have not observed Takayasu arteritis  deterioration in our patient.. She gained 10 kg in body weight (in March 2008  her weight was 64 kg).The Doppler-examination of vessels at different levels made in May 2008 have shown that the pathologic process tended to stabilize and  hemo-dynamically significant changes in the vessels have  not been registered since that time. The Doppler-examination have shown:  stenosis of  the right subclavian arteries(80%), occlusion of the left sublavian artery(85%),stenosis of both  common carotid arteries (75%).Rheovasography of cerebral vessels showed the blood flow within normal limits.

Later on, until the present time, the patient has had a stable remission of her pathologic process.  However, she is under a physician’s control.  

Discussion
Cell-mediated autoimmunity appears to play an important role in the mechanism of vascular injury. In our patient, the onset of  Takayasu arteritis  combined with affection of several systems (the nervous, cardiovascular systems) was caused by the immunization with the anti-rabies vaccine, when she was a 9-year-old girl. Systemic vasculitis (The American College of Rheumatology includes  Takayasu arteritis), is  known to develop under the influence of different etiological factors, e.g. after vaccination (6). We think that the immunization of our patient with the anti-rabies vaccine triggered the autoagression with disorder  of the  immunoregulation processes. Our case may be considered to be   the   secondary autoimmune diseases with known etiological factor(7).

We believe, that the rabies virus, being a trigger of the autoimmune process in our patient, started up an autoimmune pathologic response with development of the  chronic  processes. The organs of endocrine system and immune system are  closely  interrelated. Therefore,   to rehabilitate  our patient with disorders in the immune system the initial course of treatment included  the organ preparations of different parts of endocrine system: hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, adrenal glands, thyroid and parathyroid glands. Application of   the nosod of rabies virus   and  organ preparations  of endocrine glands   had contributed to the normalization of the  endocrine glands’ functioning and, at the same time, had assisted  to reduction of the immune response in the body.

Nosodes and organ preparations are homeopathic remedies which have been extracted from sterilized pathogenic substances, secretions, destroyed germs and organ extracts from human and animal bodies. The preparations are produced following the normal homeopathic procedure Many nosodes come from pathogenic products, vaccines, bacteria and viruses  and they work according to the isopatic principle, i.e. a very diluted substance, which has been agitated, will medicine cure the same diseases.  Homeopathic remedies  in KUF series are the medicine which consist of 10 ampoules of its in different  dilutions from D3 to D100 or D1000. (products of companies “Wala-Heilmittel”, “Staufen- Pharma”, Germany).

The  cases of  using the KUF- series homeopathy drugs in the therapy of different diseases are described, but they  propose to be  used  in single uses, both  the nozods  and the organ preparations.(8). As a rule, the single dilutions of a homeopathy medicine  are  prescribed  in  classic homeopathy  and it requires the   much time to achieve  the results of  the therapy(9).  

After  the prescribed treatment , the patient’s condition improved significantly. To reinstate the functions of the nervous and  cardiovascular systems, the organ preparations  of different arterial vessels and  ganglions of the  vegetative nervous system  were used on the next course of  the therapy. As a consequence, after the therapy, we observed a long remission of the pathological processes.

Our previous research in therapy for patients with chronic  hepatitis B virus infection,  patients, who  were treated with nozods, organ preparations and homeopathic medicine in KUF-series,  revealed  their anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating activity(10). Earlier we suggested a hypothesis that integration of virus into cellular structures of patient can be followed by changes in the structure of substantially bound intracellular water (11). The changes in intracellular water in pathologic conditions have been studied.  Time of spin-lattice relaxation in oncological cell was found to change; the amount of water bound to DNA is also increased, thermodynamic characteristics of the system DNA + bound water are changed. The time of protons’ relaxation is also changed in water solution of healthy tissues  of patient with  tumor processes (12).

The importance  of water to living processes is explained  not only  by its ability to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules, but especially,  by its  capacity to interact with various types of biological molecules. Because of its polar nature, water readily interacts with other polar- and charged molecules such as acids, salts, sugars and various regions of proteins and DNA. There are many publications devoted to  the problem of “water memory”. The ‘memory of water’ is a popular phrase that is mostly associated with homeopathy and Jacques Benveniste  following his and others  research works. Nowadays, many scientists associate the “water memory” and homeopathy effects with the structure of liquid water.  Rustum Roy describes liquid water like its remarkably similar analogue SiO2, which is not a homogeneous structure at the molecular level. It is a dynamic  equilibrium among changing percentages of assemblages of different oligomers and polymer species. (13). At normal temperature, liquid water consists of  dynamic clusters of 50 – 100 water molecules, in which the H—bonds are constantly being made and broken . Recent research on hydrogen bonds in water provides some support for this ‘memory’ theory. The Swiss chemist, Louis Rey, found that the structure of hydrogen bonds in homeopathic dilutions of salt solutions is very different from that in pure water. He reached the conclusion that the phenomenon results from the vigorous shaking of solutions that takes place during homeopathic “successions”. Studies on molecular clustering in water solutions showed that while a solution is becoming more and more diluted, very stable and larger aggregates (clusters) develop in dilute solutions than in more concentrated solutions. These clusters  are of several micrometers in diameter. This means that residual molecular clusters of original substance might just be present in homeopathic dilutions (14).

We believe, that prescribing the KUF- series homeopathic remedies to patient , we, as a matter of fact, introduce clusters of water with different kinds of structure and sizes. Thus, in the specific time of their function, the body’s cells can independently chose the clusters of water with the structure, size and form which they need. The hypothesis was suggested that application of   homeopathic medicine in KUF- series, promotes the restore of structure of   substantially bound intracellular water, which changes  in the presence of  different diseases, including viral diseases. Restoration of the structure of  substantially bound intracellular water, to our opinion, may promotes  to normalization of biophysical and biochemical processes inside cells.

Conclusion
Takayasu disease    can be successfully treated with   homeopathic medicine in KUF-series which  include nosods, organ preparations and homeopathic remedies. It is possible to speak about the significance of two virus in the genesis of Takayasu disease in our patient, namely, those of rabies and herpes simplex. The administered therapy resulted in the stabilization of the pathologic process,  improvement of our patient’s condition and her quality of life.

Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report. A copy of the written consent  and  any accompanying images   are available for review by the Editor–of Chief of this journal.

Acnowledgments
We  would like to thank Professor Gafurov B.G.  for his help with the clinical care of  our patient.

 References
1.Pokrowski A.W. “ Aorta and its branches disease”,Medicine,1979.p.228.

2 GordowskayaN.B.,MitinaL.A., Semenova U.A..” A case of aorto-arteritis, simulating Bechterev’s disease.“ Therapeutic Archives, Russia, 1988, 60, (6), pp.129-130.

3.Voll R.“The Phenomenon of “medicament testing” in the electro-acupuncture according to Voll.” Amer. Journal of Acupucture, 1980, 11,pp. 106-116.

4.Djumaeva N.E. “ Application of the technique of “medicament testing “in selection of daily doses of medicine in different diseases.” Herald of innovative medical technologies, Russia, Tula, 2007, 1,pp. 22-23.

5.Patent of Germany, 2810344,A61 H 39/ 02, 1978.

6.Arend WP, Bloch DA, Calabrese LH, Edworthy SM, Fauci AS, Hunder GG,Michel BA,  Leavitt RY, Lie JT, Lightfoot RW Jr, et al. “The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Takayasu arteritis”, Arthritis Rheum., 1990 Aug;33(8):1129-34.

7.Kurmanalieva A.K, Raimjanov A.R.,”  The systemic vasculitis” ,Central-Asia Journal of Medicine, 1995,4,Voll.1, pp.69-78.

8.WeberB.A.,WeberC., “Chronisch krank was tun? “Vertrieb: NHK AG Deutschhausstr.2003.p. 288.

9. Kohler G. “Lehrbuch der Homoopathie”Hippokrates Verlag , GmbH,Stuttgart,1988.p.591.

10.Djumaeva N.E.,Musabaev E.I.: Electro-acupuncture diagnosis by Voll and clinical –immunology efficiency of structural solutions in the therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Herald of innovative medical technologies, Russia, Tula, 2001, 1,pp. 47-49.

11. Djumaeva N.E., Metskan T.I, Musabaev E.I.” Application of bioinformative methods of therapy in the correction of the  cell’s intercellular liquid structure” Proceedings of Scientific-Practical Conference“ Biohydroelectric cluster Serebryansk”, Kazakhstan.2006. pp. 56-58.

12 Andronikoshiwili E.I.“Malignization and change in some physical-chemical characteristics of bio-macromolecules and supra-molecular structures”Journal of Biophysics,Russia, 1987, 32, pp.782-799.

13. I.Bell, HooverM.P ,Roy R.,Tiller W.A.”. The structure of liquid water; Novel insights from materials research; Potential relevance to homeopathy”. Materials Research Innovations, V.9, Issue 4, December 2005, pp.577-608.

14.Rey L.” Thermo luminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride”.  Physica A 2003, 323, pp.67-74.

I  graduated from Tashkent State Medical Institute (Uzbekistan) and obtained a diploma with honours. After that I  had internship specialising in  neurology. My general work experience is 32 years.In 1981 I participated in the training of the primary specialisation of acupuncture  (Uzbekistan).In 1991  I  learned the method of electroacupuncture diagnosis  by Voll(Ukraine). In 1994 I finished the courses on electroacupuncture diagnosis by R. Voll (EAV) with basics of homeopathy in Moscow (Russia). Since that time I started using the EAV method and homeopathy in KUF- series  with the scientific purpose.
My  first scientific research  was about the usage of the EAV with homeopathy in KUF-series in the diagnosis and treatment of the very widespread disease in Uzbekistan – infectious hepatitis. As the result of this research in 2000 I presented  the thesis of dissertation  on the Scientific Discussion of the Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Infectious Disease in my country and got a further approval on the Discussion of experts of the Higher Examination Board under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

All this years I have worked both as a practicing physician and as a scientific researcher. I have 30 publications in local journals as well as in journals abroad and 2 patents.

The presented article is the result of observation of patient with Takayasu arteritis by the medical practitioners of Medical Center of Alternative Medicine, which this patient have attended for many years.

Address: 1Scientific Research Institute of Virology, Muradow Street, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2Medical Center of Alternative Medicine,  Kary Nyasow street,Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Email: Djumaeva Naylya: dr_djumaeva@hotmail.com; Djumaeva Leyla: leylaxd@yahoo.com;Akhundjanova Gulnara: klassklass@mail.ru

patient3

Efficacy of Homoeopathic Remedies in Essential Hypertension

patient3Dr. Afshan A Balekundri

Hypertension, referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the blood pressure is chronically elevated. Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90mmHg or greater or taking antihypertensive medication. As a matter of fact hypertension itself is not a disease in itself but it is one of the indicators alarming a person to take care of probable emergency.13

Essential hypertension remains a major modifiable risk factorfor cardiovascular disease despite important advancesin our understanding of its pathophysiology and the availabilityof effective treatment strategies. High blood pressure (BP)increases the risk of CVD for millions of people worldwide, andthere is evidence that the problem is only getting worse. Inthe past decade, age-adjusted rates of stroke incidence haverisen, and the slope of the age-adjusted rate of decline incoronary disease has leveled off. The incidence of end-stagerenal disease and the prevalence of heart failure have alsoincreased. A major contributor to these trends is inadequatecontrol of BP in the hypertensive population.3

Homoeopathy has a lot of potential to help in reducing the proportion of the hypertensive population in the community, and thereby make a contribution in reducing overall cardiovascular mortality levels. The holistic nature of homoeopathy is ideally suited for this, as even the practitioners of allopathic medicine are realizing the fallacy in treating the blood pressure or other risk factors in isolation. The cheaper cost of treatment also makes it a more attractive option at the community level.6

Interpretation and conclusion:

The above study has shown that:

  • Homoeopathic medicines have a positive effect on the hypertensive status of the patients.
  • The prevalence of Hypertension in the age group below 50 years is not uncommon.
  • Hypertension can be treated best before becoming chronic and it should be patient oriented rather than disease oriented.
  • Hypertension can best be treated at “prehypertensive stage”
  • Patients respond well to the constitutional remedy than to a specific remedy like Rawulfia, viscum alb or strophanthus.

The following study was undertaken to see the effects of Homoeopathic remedies in Essential Hypertension at clinical research unit, at A.M.Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College and research centre Belgaum. The patients of Secondary Hypertension and the age group above 60years are excluded from the study.

Discussion:
The present study was primarily aimed at determining the effectiveness of the homoeopathic approach in the management of essential hypertension below the age group 50 years. An attempt was also made to find out if possible, remedies which are more useful in treating the condition. To achieve these aims, 60 cases of essential hypertension below the age 50years were subjected to three months of homoeopathic treatment, and the change in blood pressure levels before and after treatment were evaluated.

The study has shown that homoeopathic medicines have a positive effect on the hypertensive status of the patients in the study sample. The efficacy is demonstrated by the results of the statistical analyses (both diastolic and systolic levels), which show that the pretreatment and post treatment levels of blood pressure are indeed, different. Finally, an analysis of the cardiovascular risk profile before and after treatment has also demonstrated a reduction in the percentage of cases in the higher risk groups.

The remedies used in this study were essentially prescribed based on the chronic totality. Due to the relatively small size of the sample, no single remedy could be identified as clearly more efficacious than the others. However, remedies like Nux vomica were found to be more effective in atleast 11 patients (18.33%). Almost 9 patients (15 percent) of the patients fell into the category of Calcarea carb and 08 (13% belong to sepia constitution). About 07 (8.33%) personalities responded to Natrum Mur.The potencies used also has varied, and no single potency was found to have a superior effect. In few cases initially the case was started with Nux vomica to treat acute complaints of sever biliousness and giddiness then and followed with the constitutional drug in the next visit after repertorisation. In two of the cases the case was interfered with Aconite to reduce the tension. In one case i.e. case no.31, OPD No.22476, KAM blood pressure 200/100 mm of Hg the case was referred to other system to manage the acute and then followed with homoeopathic remedies, along with the other systems medicines, hence cannot conclude the case. At the beginning of the study 3 cases were dropped out after one or two follow ups, due various reasons. 06 cases did not respond well to well selected remedies, nor to the specific or sectoral remedies like Strophanthus or  despite putting maximum efforts to give the best selected medicine. But the results of this study are certainly encouraging, and warrant further studies with more stringent criteria. Such a study, with a good sample size, will also help in evaluating the relative efficacy of various medicines in the treatment of essential hypertension. 

Summary and Conclusion:
The prevalence of Hypertension in the age group below 50 years is not uncommon. If Hypertension is treated before becoming chronic, complicated and without pathological cause can be treated better and it should be patient oriented rather than disease oriented. With Homoeopathic remedies Hypertension can best be treated at “prehypertensive stage”. Patients respond well to the constitutional remedy than to a specific remedy like Rawulfia, viscum alb or strophanthus. The following study was undertaken to see the effects of Homoeopathic remedies in Essential Hypertension at clinical research unit, at A.M.Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College and research centre Belgaum. The patients of Secondary Hypertension and the age group above 60years are excluded from the study.

It was observed by the above studies that:

  • Patients of Essential hypertension do suffer from sense of general un-well being, against the common belief that hypertension is asymptomatic and we can detect it if we are Keen observer. Hence High blood pressure can no more be called as Silent Killer if the physician is able to analyze the case properly.
  • Patients who have high blood pressure manifest with different manifestations, but some of the common symptoms with which patient presents are:
  • Headache, hemicranias, vertigo, trembling, pain in the shoulders, scapular region, palpitation and breathlessness.
  • It was observed that besides symptomatic relief, with homoeopathic remedies patient’s response was very much satisfactory as regard to their High blood pressure in each follow-up.
  • Patients who are not on antihypertensive drugs respond very well to the Homoeopathic remedies comparing to patients on anti Hypertensive drugs. However patients who were on anti hypertensive drugs, the dosage was slowly tapered, and then stopped the drugs.
  • A maintaining dose of their respective medicine is required to maintain the normal levels of blood pressure at the interval of every week, fortnight or a month.
  • It was observed that patients responded well to constitutional remedies than to specific remedies like Strophanthus, rawulfia, vis alb etc.
  • Nux vomica  was found an ideal remedy for hypertensive personalities, to temporarily sooth and calm the patients  who are irritable, angry and hypochondriac.   

Dr. Afshan A Balekundri MD.HOM
Professor Homoeopathic Materia Medica
A.M.Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum
Balekundri.afsan@pestbgm.org

Download full work : www.similima.com/pdf/homeopathy-essential-hypertension.pdf

Homeopathic Management of Uterine fibroid and Ovarian cyst

Dr G K Shangloo,Dr Sharad Shangloo,Dr Sunit Shangloo

This paper had been presented in following conferences:-
7th National Conference of Homeopathy organized by I.H.O –7TH April 2003
Calcutta Homeopathic Conference in HAYAT regency – May 2003
Female Infertility and Homeopathic Cure in Kanpur by IHO – January 2004
12th National Homeopathic conference organized by Research Society of Homeopathy- 14th Feb 2004

It is one of the many common diseases found in middle aged females. The disease in which surgery is thought to be a common solution. But indiscriminate and hasty decision of removal of uterus and ovaries in cases of fibroid or cyst in them had done more harms than good .It had got both short term and along term implications. Hence removal of uterus in cases of benign uterine fibroid is a decision, which should be taken after thorough assessment of the case.
Uterine fibroid is a benign i.e. non -cancerous growth from the muscle layer of uterus and is medically referred as uterine fibromyomas. It is commonly called uterine fibroid. It is generally formed of a mixture of muscle tissues containing fibrous tissues. The cause of its formation is not definitely known. Infertility and endometrial hyperplasia is considered to be associated factors. The development of fibroid during reproductive age appears to be due to a hormone called oesterogen and increased supply of blood in uterus. Hereditary factor also plays an important role.

It is generally found in women between the ages of 35-45 years of age. It can be found in any age between the first start of menses to the menopausal state but its incidences are rare.
They are generally of three types based on the location.

Interstitial type:
In this type the fibroid grows in the substance of uterine wall and remains as such when small or subserous. It is the commonest type of uterine fibroids and is found in 60%of cases. Posterior wall of the uterus is the commonest site for tumor formation.

The second type is subserous type:
In this type the tumor is formed underneath the peritoneum and may be sessile or pedunculated.

The third type is submucous type:
In this case tumor grows inside the mucous membrane of uterus and projects inside the uterus cavity. They are usually single It may be sessile or pedunculated. The expulsive power of the uterus makes sessile fibroids pedunculated.

Generally they are symptom less. But, profuse bleeding is one of the most common features attached to it. This is present in about three fourth of the cases and the passage of clots make the situation worse. The excessive bleeding is caused due to many factors. They include the increase in Endometrial surface, increase in vascularity of uterus etc. times there are other menstrual disorders may also be the cause of increase bleeding.There is a feeling of lump in the lower abdomen in some cases in which women seeks treatment. For this uterus size reaches 14 weeks pregnancy and above.

It is an astonishing fact that about 80%of women with fibroids are also suffering from infertility so; it is one of the major causes of infertility. At times there is frequent and urgency to urinate due to pressure of bladder. The pain in case of fibroid is a rare symptom. The symptoms of anemia are present where there is excess of bleeding.

On examination per abdomen it is found that a firm irregular lump can be palpated arising out of pelvis .The surface of the lump may be smooth and the lump shows dullness on percussion. Investigations by means of pelvic examination can diagnose uterine fibroid in most of the situations. Examination under anesthesia confirms the diagnosis. But, these days pelvic ultrasound is of much help. Laproscopy can identify a few small subserous fibroids while hysteroscope can visualize submucous fibroids.

For large tumors of pelvic IVP is done to identify pelvic positions of uterus. Cervical scrape PAP stain cytology is mandatory.

Now comes the most essential part i.e. the treatment of uterine fibroid. In allopathic the conservative treatment by means of hormones but it is hardly of any use. And the advice, which is given after a few weeks of antibiotic treatment to the patient are of, is generally myomectomy or the removal of tumor from the uterus. Generally hysterectomy is advised. It is the removal of the uterus and tumor along with the bilateral salphingooophorectomy

But this is not the right choice to make as it had got the problems of its own.

In most of the cases in the allopathic hands they either advice hysterectomy in the first stage or they will ask the patient to undergo hormone treatment followed by the advice of operation.

The major draw back which is involved is that it takes away the natures pride of a women of child bearing .The reason are very obvious that myomectomy is not successful and abdominal hysterectomy is the only option left.

In most of the cases total removal of uterus is done if the women is not in the childbearing age. Operation itself is a complicated procedure and it had got its own risk factors. It is just said by the physicians that surgical procedure is just a matter of two to three hours and you can walk down to the house after your stitches gets cut of after a week. But In reality the things are not as simple as they are said. The operation is done under general anesthesia. The operation it self is a painful process and after operation also the patient is not free from the pain. There is intense pain after the operation, which is suppressed by heavy antibiotics. These antibiotics fell heavy both on the patient s digestive system as well as on his pocket. They disturb the gastro- intestinal system of the patient. After operation also the patient is advised complete bed rest for one week or fifteen days. During this period the patient had to take large amount of allopathic drugs and there are fair amount of chances of infection in the operated area. Slightest exertion can cause the rupture of the effected area along with pain, which may require re stitching. The problem does not end here also. The patient is also advised diet restrictions. He suffers from intense weakness.

Once the patient is discharged from the hospital he is advised to take complete rest for three months. Patient himself is not in the position to move around much for a period of one month. The lady is advised not to climb stairs for three months or to lift any heavy load. If she is a teacher or office goers it is advised for her not to take extra strain. The patient is also advised to have a protein rich diet. The complete recovery of the patient takes around five to six months.

On the other hand homoeopathic treatment is hassle free and cost effective. But it is the drawback of this society that when a patient comes to us after her mind being polluted to get the hysterectomy i.e. removal of uterus and to get rid of the problem forever. Without knowing its implications. Then she wants that she should get rid of the slightest pain in minutes. The patient will be very eager to get her menstrual bleeding normal in days. Then it is the duty of the homoeopathic physician to make her understand the problems which she is facing and the problems which she will face .He should put all the facts in front of her. He should be very clear about what homoeopathy can offer to her and what are the pros and cones of surgery.

We personally ask the patient to give us time for three months to show her what we can to in the particular case of her. We tell the patient about the full procedure of operation. Then we ask her to take the decision. Many times in our daily practice we encounter that the patient is misguided that if the operation is not done it many turn cancerous. Which is not the case in most of the patients. There are many effective medicines in homoeopathy, which help control the excessive bleeding and pain in the due course of time. They also subsequently reduce the size of the fibroid and finally dissolve it. After the first Ultrasound and the repeated ultrasound after three months the reduction in size clearly indicates the response of homoeopathic medicines. Then we can also tell the patient that if in three months tumor had reduced to a certain size then in the next three to four months it will totally get irradiated.

So, if your mother, sister, wife or friend comes across with case of fibroid in the uterus ask her to consult a proper homoeopath and to get into a regular treatment of three to four months followed closely by the ultrasounds before going for the surgical removal .As surgical removal is not safe and cost effective also. If homoeopathy is not able to live up to your expectations you can get it remove any time even after 6 to 8 months of homoeopathic treatment. We can very well assure you that you will not be at a loss. The women will be saved from the hardships and the loss of vital organ from the body.

Here I will put forth to you two points:
1] NARRATE CASES OF UTERINE Fibroid and ovarian cysts CURED BY US IN OUR RESEARCH CENTRE.
2] WHAT ONE SHOULD KEEP IN MIND WHILE CURING THESE TYPES OF CASES?

Statistical Data of patients cured by us:1996-2001
No. Of Patients entered- 123
No. Of patients who followed the protocol-100
No. Of patients which improved-85
No. Of patients with complete removal of fibroid 48
NO. Of patients whose size reduced but no complete removal-20

Success rate Cure-48%
Rate of Response to Homoeopathy- 85%

The cases we had selected for presentation covers the various modes of prescribing according to the laws of homoeopathy.
Miasmatic Approach– Generally fibroids and cysts are sycotic in nature.

Case 1
NAME OF THE PATIENT: -Mrs. Wasifa Bano
AGE-40 years
Status –Married
Sex- female
The patient came to our research center on 5.1.1997 with the U.S.G report-showing Uterus mildly enlarged. There is a mass of 3.7*4.2 cm hyper echoic in the uterus.

Symptoms: –
No issue. There was one abortion and one daughter died 10 days after birth .She was severely grieved due to that.
There was pain in the middle and lower abdomen, which extended to lower limbs. It began two days before the start of menses CONTINUES THE WHOLE OF MENSES >menses after.
Pain> pressure, cold application. Red blood with small and dark clots.
She does not feel week even after profuse bleeding also.
She had tetanus in childhood.
Her mind was very irritable since childhood with weeping tendency.

The medicine was given Erigeron 200single dose for one week followed by Pulsatilla 200 the next week. After that Pulsatilla 200 was given weekly for three months and the second USG was done which showed normal result.
Now I will narrate to you two cases of ovarian cyst cured by us.

Case:1
Name of the patient:-Mrs. Mamta
Age-34 years
Status Married

USG on 7.9.1999 show Left ovary -A hyper echoic mass extending in the P.O.D Size 7.1*3.3*3.2 cm.
This was a very strange case, which came to our research center. In this case the patient came to us after many allopathic hands. The patient came to us with the problem that she had become insane. She use to hit every one uses abusive language. Once she had struck her husband with a sharp Knife. Her family members had kept her in lock and Key. She had consulted a large no. Of gynecologists which advised her to consult a psychiatrist.
After taking the full case history of hers we found that she had not menstruated for the past one year.

The symptoms were that there was only the heaviness in the lower abdomen at the time of menses .No flow, leucorrhoea profuse, heat of head. Intense thirst for> Cold bathing large quantity of cold water even in winters.
The medicine was selected to be Phosphorus 200 one dose weekly for fifteen days. When the time of next menses came she showed small amount of bleeding for two days. It led to substantial change in her mental state.
When the next menses came there was profuse bleeding with dark red clots and the patient became totally normal.
Finally the USG.was done on 24.2.2001 shows a normal scan. And the complete cure for the patient.

Case:3
Name of the patient: – Mrs. Gazala Parveen
Age-36 years
Status – Married

U.S.G on 31.1.1997 shows Bulky Uterus with Right Ovary two follicles of 10mm and 12mm. Left ovary is larger in size and cystic in consistency with few internal echoes. Size 5.2*4.8*3.2 cm. Large cystic left ovary.

Symptoms:
The patient came to us with profuse menses. Blood dark in colour, clotted.
Pain in the uterine region.
Frequent urge to urinate.
Leucorrhea thins acrid foul smelling.
Intense pain, which is worse thinking of it.
Pain> pressure and cold application.
The husband of the patient had the history of suppressed syphilis.
The medicine, which came out to be, was Medorrhinum 200 two doses at fifteen minutes interval once a week followed by Sulphur 200 the next week. The process was continued for 4 to 5 months and the next USG was done which showed normal results.

Homoeopathic approach to the treatment of Uterine Fibroid and Ovarian cyst:
1] Individualistic.
2] Symptomatic
3] Rare uncommon Peculiar Symptoms
4] Reportorial
5] Causative

How to take case of the Patient:
Case taking is the most important part in the prescription for the case. The case should be taken by the unprudigist mind. No medicine or a group of medicine should be presumed to be given on just the name of disease.

Points on which the emphasis should be given while case taking:
1] Character of pain is most important of they are there. Like weather it comes suddenly, or gradually. How does it subsides or decreases.
2] other thing which has to paid heeds to is that how one gets relief in pain. Here along with the physical modalities thermal modalities are most important. According to whein and Tyler.
3] Character of bleeding and color and texture of blood and clots.
4] Mental state of the patient. Especially if there is prolonged mental stress they act as obstacles of cure.
5] Past history of the patient. It helps us to clear the case in many ways.
6] Family history of the patient Generally of –Tuberculosis, Cancer, Arthritis, Asthma, Diabetes. Etc.

How to select a Remedy:
1] by assessing which symptom to be given importance when
In homeopathy, much emphasis is given on mind. So, some doctors who try to collect tiniest o f the tiny mental symptoms. For them Dr.Kent had given a warning – Just because the homeopathic physician knows that mental symptoms are most important he should not hunt for it in the hay sack for a tiny mental to open up his case. All the symptoms should have same importance as assigned to them as symptoms.

2] Elimination of useless symptoms
Many a times it happens that the remedy that we select after complete repertorisation or after assessing the rare uncommon peculiar symptoms does not match all the symptoms recorded in a particular case.
Here also one should keep in mind Dr.Kent’s saying –
Do not expect the remedy that has the generals should have all the little symptoms. If the remedy has the generals it is sufficient to prescribe for a case.
Kent says nothing disturbs me much as the long letters I get from the doctors showing me how they had wasted time on useless particulars. Common particulars are generally worthless.

3] Elimination of Medicines after Repertorisation-
On the basis of thermal modalities

The British school of Homeopathy headed by Tyler and Sir John Weir advocated to first taking most characteristic symptoms carefully followed by separating medicines in hot and chilly type.
In chilly patients medicines<warmth are eliminated
In hot patients medicines < cold are eliminated.
Hence resulting in the similimum.

4] Selecting Remedy without repertorisation on the basis rare uncommon peculiar symptom
This is one of the many modes of prescribing for a particular case. In this Allen’s Keynotes are of great help. Here two or three rare uncommon peculiar symptoms are sufficient are enough to prescribe for a case. Here patient should verify the rare uncommon and peculiar symptom again and again before prescribing on it.

5] Selecting intercurrent remedy on the basis of past history of patient
At times it happens that a well-selected remedy after complete repertorisation fails to provide complete cure to the patient. When the patient is also adhering to the diet and regime advised by us. This is because there are few obstacles in cure. Many learned physicians had described these obstacles. In case of fibroid and ovarian cyst it is found that past history, family history and causative factors acts as obstacles of cure.

Few tips in dealing with these kinds of cases.
In dealing with these kinds of cases there are two things, which had to be brought into control first. They are the pain and profuse bleeding.
The pain is generally controlled by medicines like Belladonna, Magnesia Phos etc. as required according to the case.
The second thing, which has to be controlled, is profuse bleeding. If the bleeding is of bright red blood medicines like, Millifolium, Erigeron when accompanied by violent irritation of bladder and rectum can be thought of. If the blood is dark red medicines like Thalaspi B.P when accompanied by violent uterine pain, Hammamilis when pain in abdomen <warmth application, Trillium P when there is a sensation that hips and back will fall into pieces> tight bandage can be thought of according to the symptoms.
It is also found in our clinical experience that if every medicine fails to control the bleeding medicines like Medorrhinum, Thuja plays a vital role.
In dissolving the cyst or the fibroid Aurum Mur Natronatum in lower potency help dissolve them

Dr.G.K.Shangloo,Dr.Sharad Shangloo,Dr.Sunit Shangloo
Meera Shangloo Homeopathic Research,70/59, Rani Mandi,Allahabad.
Web-http://www.meerashangloohomeopathic.com.E-mail merashah@rediffmail.com

Antioxidants in Homeopathy a revolutionary concept

A Revolutionary Concept, Evidence & its  Therapeutic potential.
Dr K M Nishanth

Abstract:
A clinical study was undertaken to ascertain antioxidant nature of homoeopathic medicine, which yielded promising results. Modern medical research has been quoted as evidence in their support. Free radicals are notorious substance produced in the cell, which damages normal healthy cells, causing cellular dysfunction and cellular death. Thus free radicals lay the foundation of sickness (miasm) and antioxidants erases the miasm. Anti0xidants are now widely accepted as antichronic disease as well as antiageing factor. This study aims to open the treasure of homoeopathic antioxidants for more detailed research.

Introduction:
The recognition of organic free radicals by Gomberg in 1900 and subsequent development in the realm of free radicals has substantial y contributed to medical science, for the whole new concept which indicates a possible contributing cause for chronic disease and its chronicity. T.F.slater one of the pioneer in this field suggested significant tissue injury in disease is brought about by free radicals. (i)
Free radicals are chemical species possessing unpaired electron that can be considered as fragments of molecules and which are generally very reactive. They are continuously produced in the cell as by products of cellular metabolism, either accidentally or deliberately. (2)

When free radicals are present in large numbers, they go on a rampage and damage normal healthy cells, laying the foundation of sickness. (Psora, syphilis, sycosis.) The presence of excessive amount of free a radical is called ” oxidative stress “. Oxygen is the most important source of Free radicals although most of the oxygen is excreted as Co2 other sources of Free Radicals include environment al pollutants, cigarette smoke, UV rays, drugs, pesticides etc.

Free radicals can disturb biological systems by damaging their major constituent molecules -lipids (polysaturated fatty acids). Proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. Free radicals attack the Polyunsaturated Fatty acids (PUFAS) present within the cell membrane and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. This is known as lipid oxidation (lipid peroxidation) as a result the structural integrity of the cell membrane is lost. Which, ultimately leads to cell injury and cell death. (fig.no.1) Similarly free radicals also damage the DNA present in the nucleus of the cell. Daily the DNA of each cell is attacked by free radicals about 10,000 times! This can leap to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. . But to defend these injuries, cells are in possession of enzymes and compounds to scavenge these free radicals known as antioxidants. Antioxidants prevent damage induced by free radicals and play a very crucial role in preventing or delaying the onset of disease. Possibly in chronic disease homoeopathic medicine enhances the scavengers (antioxidants) to minlmise the cellular injury brought about by free radicals in pathogenesis of vast number of pathological conditions like atherosclerosis (4), cataract, ageing (3), cerebro & cardiovascular disorders (4), Diabetes Mellitus (5), hepatocellular injury (6), skin disease, carcinoma (26). Etc.

A more detailed discussion of free radical biochemistry can be found in several excellent book on the subject.(7-10). There are a number of homoeopathic medicines where the active constituents of the medicine are scavengers (Antioxidant substances shown elsewhere in this paper). Many a homoeopathic medicine has flavones(11) as their constituent (crategeus, chelidonium, avena sativa) flavones are coined as antioxidants but the true nature and specific flavones are yet to be established.

Antioxidants (Only a few important antioxidants are mentioned here)

No.

Antioxidant

Antioxidant Nature

01. Carotene (constituent of Calendula & Capsicum) Protection against
Carcinoma lung, cervix
Cardiovascular diseases
02. Ascorbic acid (constituent of Capsicum) Ascorbic acid (constituent of capsicum) An ideal electron donor reducing superoxide,
Hydroxyl radicals, Hypochlorus acid & other reactive oxidants from activated Micro /
Macrophages.
Anti atherosclerosis.
Plmonary antioxidant defence against smoking etc.
03. Copper (Cuprum metallicum) Essential constituent of superoxide dismutase. (a potent antioxidant enzyme)
Major component of caeroloplasmin (Antioxidant)
04.  Zinc(Zincum metallicum) Essential component of superoxide dismutase
05. Selenium (Also constituent of Agaricus muscarius) Essential constituent of glutathione peroxide. First line antiperoxidatonn defense.
06.  Silymarin & Silybin (constituent of Carduus) Inhibits lipid peroxidation
07.  Lycopin(constituent of calendula off.) Systemic antioxidant.

Method & Material:
In Nambison’ s Homoeo chamber 35 Patients (12 acute & 23 Chronic in nature) were selected to be treated with Homoeopathic Antioxidants Some knowingly & some unknowingly.

Local antioxidant: Local antioxidant was directed to be applied on the affected part after thorough washing of the part with water, and then medicine was to be painted 2-3 Times a day.

Systemic antioxidant:
Systemic antioxidant was directed to be taken 15-20 drops in half cup of Luke Warm water 3 times a day. (Dose was titrated according to the prevailing Condition.)

Thorough surfing of homoeopathic literature was done to find out their active constituents and antioxidant nature, and then they were applied on sick due to their antioxidant nature and on some red line Indication.

Pre and post therapeutic evaluation was done on the clinical improvement and in some cases pathological investigations were done to ascertain improvement

Homoeopathic medicine their Antioxidant constituents & Nature. (11)

No.

Medicine

Antioxidant constituent

Antioxidant nature

01. Agaricus muscarius Selenium Cerebro-vascular Antioxidant
02. Calendula off Carotene, Lycopin (2) Local & systemic Antioxidant
03. Carduus mar Silymarin (23) Silybin (24) Hepatic Antioxidant
04. Capsicum Ascorbic acid, Carotinoids Systemic & local Antioxidant
05. Fucus ves. Carotene Systemic Antioxidant
06. Cuprum met. Cu (Element) Cerebro-vascular Antioxidant
07. Selenium Se (Element) Cerebro-vascular Antioxidant
08. Zincum met. Zn (Element) Cerebro-vascular Antioxidant

Results:
Out of many known Homoeopathic Antioxidants only a few are being mentioned here, Calendula and Carduus marianus needs no say for their therapeutic potential as they have been used successfully over the years. Others being cerebro-vascular antioxidants had very limited scope in my study due to limited number of patients. But their antioxidant nature has been explained and supported with evidence.

Capsicum annum: (Systemic & Local antioxidant.)
Capsicum has ascorbic acid (0.1-0.5 %) (12) and carotinoids as its Active constituent. By the virtue of these capsicum acts as a potent Local as well as a systemic antioxidant.
Action as Local Antioxidant & Anti-inflammatory: -Locally capsicum Q should strictly be used in closed lesions since it produces deleterious effect in open lesion.

Used in following indication: (12 cases)
(a) Induration where suppuration was imminent.-7 cases
(b) Lesions of herpes zoster: -2 cases
(c) Lymphangitis: -3 cases
In all above cases capsicum Q considerably reduced pain and inflammation, had a soothing effect and brought about speedy recovery; possibly lessening Free radical mediated tissue injury.

Action as systematic Antioxidant: Capsicum Q & 6 CH was used in total – 23 cases of gastritis & Reflux oesophagitis.
(a) Cases in which endoscopies were done: 2 cases
(b) Cases of allied symptoms like precordial pain, heaviness & in right arm heart burn: 7 cases.
(c) Cases with raised serum cholesterol: 17 cases.
(d) Cases where patient were obese (BMI > 30) with weight above 70kgs -17 cases.
(e) Most of the patients were sedentary people (Businessmen, Officers and Retd. Personals.)

Fact, which was revealed during the course of treatment, was that (9) out of (17) patients with high serum cholesterol came within normal limit during the course of treatment, although initial fluctuation was noted. (Fig no: 2)
Along with capsicum other intercurrent remedies were used, wherever it called for. Capsicum has ascorbic acid and carotinoids as its chief constituent and ascorbic acid has been shown to substantially reduce risk for all causes of death. All cancers and cardio-vascular disorders. (4- 21)
Another study shows that combination of Vitamin C & Carotinoids (which are shown to be present in Capsicum.) Plus Vitamin E is first step towards IHD (Ischeamic heart disease) prevention and cure. Logically aiming at multirisk factor in the multifactorial multistage IHD so in this study it is evident that capsicum reduces the risk of CVD, IHD & Cerebro-Vascular Disorders by effectively bringing down the level of serum cholesterol thus reducing the risk of free radical mediated injury to gastric mucosa & other vital organs.

Fucus vesiculosus: (systemic antioxidant)Fucus ves Q was used in cases of Hypothyroidism although indication given in Materia Medica favours its use for Hyperthyroidism. Since Fucus Ves Q has high levels of iodine (11), which acts as replacement therapy in Hypothyroidism.

Diagnostic test :- T3, T4, TSH
Total number of hypothyroid cases: – 9
Breakthrough achieved in 1 case in which lady Mrs. A. D. 46 year’s patient of Hypothyroidism who had to take Thyroxine 100 mcg twice daily was prescribed fucus ves q along with thyroxine, the dosage of Thyroxine was brought down to Thyroxine 50 mcg daily with considerable weight reduction of 15 kgs and marked improvement in allied symptoms. In other cases although symptomatic relief was obtained. Dosage of Thyroxine could not be brought down.

Fucus ves Q contains – carotene and research shows carotene is first line Antioxidant defence. (14-21). There fore, Fucus Ves Q significantly reduces the free radical mediated tissue injury in patients of Hypothyroidism & its complication.

Calendula: (Systemic & Local Antioxitant) (13)
Calendula contains carotene & Lycopin both are essential radical scavengers, (2) which reduces free radical mediated tissue injury. Calendula is a remarkable healing agent; in wounds delayed healing occurs due to repeated free radical mediated tissue injury at the site of wound. Thus application of calendula hastens the process of healing and works wonders.

Carduus marianus:
(Hepatic Antioxidant)
Over the years Carduus Mar Q has been used as Homoeopathic hepatic tonic but only recently it became evident that its two major components protects liver from oxidative damage. In recent research it was found that Silymarin & Silybin (constituent of carduus) protects against hepatic Lipid per oxidation & irreversible damage induced by acute ethanol intoxication in rats (23.24).

Agaricus muscarius & selenium: –

Agaricus contains Selenium and Selenium deficiency is known for Nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD) (2), which is oxidant stress mediated. Hence both the above Homoeopathic medicine could be used in NMD to curb the oxidant stress.

Discussion :-
Antioxidants were discovered long ago in 1900 but its medical Application has only recently drawn attention. Although Homoeopathic literature harbours and confirms Antioxidant nature of Homoeopathic medicines. This paper attempts to confirm it and shows a possible mode of action. Antimiasmatic nature of Antioxidant is obvious by its potential to prevent and / or cure  Chronic diseases like Metabolic disorders, Cardio-Vascular disorders , Essential Hypertension, Cerebro-Vascular disorders (Parkinson’s disease,  Alzheimer’s disease etc. ) , Cataract, Carcinomatosis etc. For authenticity more research is needed to use Homoeopathic medicine as specifically preventive against IHD, CVD, Carcinoma and other chronic diseases.

Acknowledgement:
The author likes to take this opportunity to heartily thank Dr.S.K.Mishra (Principal & Superintendent; Govt. Auto Homeopathic Medical College & Hospital, Bhopal (M.P) INDIA  for his continuous encouragement and moral support. Author also likes to thank all those involved in the study either directly or indirectly. Last but not the least author is highly indebted to his mentor and father Dr.K.M.V.Nambisan for his able guidance.

References:
(1) slater t f , free radical mechanisms in tissue injury. London:pion Press, 1972.
(2) cheeseman k h ; slater t f ,(eds) , free radicals in medicine; vol 49 no. 3, churchill livingstone, singapore; 1993.pp 481-482.
(3) lippman r d. Free radical-induced lipidperoxidation and aging. In :miquel j,quint anillia at, weber h, eds. ,handbook of free radicals and Antioxidants in biomedicine, vol i.crc press 1980 ; pp187-197 .
(4) demopoulos h b , flamm e s , pietronigro d d, seligman m l .the free Radical pathology and the microcirculation in the major central nervous System disorders. Acta physiol scand ,1,980;492 :91-119.
(5) wolff s~. The potential role of oxidative stress in diabetes and its Complications: novel implications for theory and therapy. In crabbe, mjc , Ed, diabetic complications: scientific and clinical aspects. London: Churchill livingstone, 1987:ppi67-200 .
(6) dianzani mu, poll g. Lipid peroxidation andhaloalkylation in ccl4- Induced liver injury. In: poll g, cheeseman kh, dianzani mu, slatertf, eds. Free radicals in liver injury. Oxford; irl perss, 1985; pp149-158
(7) halliwell b gutterridge jmc .free radicals in biology and Medicine. Oxford: clarendon, 1989.
(8)sies h. Oxidative stress. London: academic press, 1985.
(9) sies h. Oxidative s1ress: oxidants & antioxidants .london:academic.1991.
(10)willett wc , macmohan b. Diet & cancer-an overview. N engl j med 1984.
(11)homoeopathic repetitorium;1987 ed; dr.willmar schwabe gmbh & co; Karlsruhe/west germany; 1987.
(12)handa ss , kapoor vk ; pharmacognosy lied. V allabh prakation su 221,pitampura delm-34;1995. ..
(13)dowlinq ej , claxson a w , mapp pi et al.a study of recombinant Manganesesuperoxide dismut ase in experimental inflama tion. Br j rheum 1991;30 (abstr suppl 2);142.
(14)di mascio p. Murphy me, sies h. Antioxidant defense systems: me Role of carotenoids, tocopherols, and thiols. Am j clin nutr 191:53: 1945-200s.
(15) gey kf. St ahelin hb, eicffilllzer m.poor plasma status if vitamin c And carotene is associated with mortality from ischemic heart disease and Stroke: prospective basel study. Clin invesngatori992.
(16) gaziano 1m, manson je, ridker pm, buring je, hennekens ch. Beta- Carotene merepy for chronic stable angina. Circulanon 82(suppl. Iii : 201)  Abstract 0796,1990.
(17) menken ms, comstock gw, vullleumler jp, et al. Serum bet a- Carotene, vitamins a and e, selenium, and me risk of lung cencer, n engl j Med 1986; 315: 1250-1254.
(18) wald nj, thompson sg, densemjw, borehamj, baileya. Serum beta- Carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from me bupa study. Br j Cancer 1988; 56:69-72. .
(19) orentreich n, manas jr, vogelman jh, salkeld rm, bhaga van h, Friedman gd. Me predicnve value of serum /3-carotene for subsequent Development of lung cencer nutrcancer 1991; 16: 167-176.
(20) comstock gw, bush tl, holklsouer k. Serum retinol, beta-carotene , vitamin e and selenium as related to subsequent cancer of specific sites. Am j epidemiol 1992; 135: 115-121.
(21) greenberg er, baron ja. Stukel ta. Et al. A clinical trial of beta-Carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous cell cancers of me skin. N Engljmed 1990; 323: 789-795.
(22) steinberg d. Summary of me proceedings of a nhlbi workshop :’antioxidants in me prevention of human amero sclerosis’. September 5-6, 1991-bemesda md. Circulanon 1992; 85: 2338-2344.
(23)v alenzuela a. Lagos c, sclllmdt k, videla la. Sil ymarin protection Against hepanc lipid peroxidanon induced by acute ethanol intoxication in Rat. Biochempharmacol 1985; 34; 2209-2212.
(24)carini r, comoglio a. Albano e, poll g. Lipid peroxidanon and Irreriversffile damage in me rat hepatocyte model. Protecllon by sil ybin- Phospholipid complex idb 1016. Biochem pi’iarmacol 1992;43;2111-2115.
(25)bradley r, fell bf. Myopathies in animals. In: walton in,ed. Disorders Of vol.ountary muscle, 4th edn. London: churchill livingstone, 1980:pp824-872.
(26) weitzman sa. Dordon li. Inflammation and cancer: role of Phagocyte -generated oxidants in carcinogenesis. Blood 1990.

Dr.K.M.Nishanth  nambison
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College, Bhopal (M.P)
Chief Research Consultant, Society Of Advanced Homeopathic Medical Sciences, Bhopal
149, T-2; MOHINI APTS, INDRAPURI, BHOPAL (M.P) – 462021
+91 755 2758520 (R); +91 9826280555 (M)

National conference on Evidence into Public Health Policy

2nd National conference on bringing Evidence into Public Health Policy (EPHP 2012).

Theme : “Strengthening Health Systems to achieve Universal Health Coverage in India”

Location: Bangalore, India.

Conference dates: 5th and 6th of October 2012.

Abstract submission dates: June 15, 2012.

Organisers: Institute of Public Health, Bangalore, India; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

Conference Collaborators: National Health Systems Resource Center (NHSRC), National Rural Health Mission, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; State Health Systems Resource Center (SHSRC) National Rural Health Mission, Government of Karnataka.

The main objectives of the conference

  • Disseminate the concepts of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and Health Systems (HS) in the Indian context.
  • Disseminate and review the evidence of research and implementation experiences of health systems strengthening at the National and State Level.
  • Provide a platform to bring together policy makers, practitioners and researchers to reflect on issues related to Health Systems and Universal Health Coverage. 

Thematic Areas
The main themes for the conference will focus on the role of Service Provision & Delivery, Governance, Financing, Human Resources, Technology and Information systems for strengthening / restructuring health systems at various levels by different sectors for achieving Universal Health Coverage.  Emphasis would be on role and involvement of communities in each of these thematic areas.  Keeping this focus, the conference attempts to answer some of the key questions listed below.

  • What does strengthening of health systems actually mean? What are the contributing and limiting factors that affect this process of strengthening health systems?
  • How should Health Services be organised and delivered for ensuring affordable, accessible and acceptable care for all? What role that public and private sector need to play towards this?
  • What should the mix of services be? Who should provide it? How do we measure it?
  • How to improve access to vulnerable populations like SC/ST, religious minorities, poor, those living in remote areas? How do we measure it?
  • What are the important Governance issues (e.g. administrative, accountability, regulatory, monitoring, corruption, etc) and how they affect delivery of health services and health care?
  • How can health services be financed? What are the problems with the existing financing mechanisms of health care in India? What are some of the proven effective and equitable arrangements to finance health care? How does one protect households from catastrophic health expenditure leading to impoverishment?
  • What are the possible pre-payment mechanisms to ensure minimum out-of-pocket expenditure and what are the organisational changes required for effective demand side financing in India? How do we measure it?
  • What are the requirements in terms of human resources (quantity and quality); medicines and consumables; infrastructure; etc? What do experience and evidence tell us? What are the systems and resources required for achieving UHC? Is more of the same enough?
  • What is the role of the community in organising health services? How participatory our health systems are? How effective, the various community involvement approaches/platforms (Community Monitoring /Social Audits/Village Health and Sanitation Committee (VHSC), Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) etc) have been?
  •  How to get available evidence into policy/practice? How to effectively communicate/present scientific knowledge/evidence so that it permeates policy processes? How our policy makers access knowledge/evidence? What constitute effective public health advocacy (media, legal etc.)?

What are we looking for?

  • Research papers that address some of the above questions. We are particularly interested in papers that go beyond describing what is happening, and that attempt to explain why, how and for whom the change is occurring. Preference will be given to abstracts that address the above and provide with solutions to these issues.
  • Presentations by policy makers looking at the evidence and proposing pragmatic solutions

Conference Secretariat
For any further clarifications; please write to ephpsupport@iphindia.org
Institute of Public Health, 250, 2nd C Main,Girinagar 1st Phase, Bangalore, India. 560085.
Tel: +91 80 26421929
www.iphindia.org

Lab

Courses by Delhi Institute of Homoeopathic Pharmacy

LabRunning under simpathy & Regd.under NCT.Govt.of Delhi, Affiliated by Vishwkarma open university

Reviewed by Ministry of Labour and Employment Govt. of India. (Affiliation No: VO– USE/IA/2K10-2K11/03-2937)

C-79/6, Om Nagar, Meethapur, Badarpur New Delhi, Tel No: +919910153148, +919968009198

Last Date Of Admission 30th June 20012

Regarding Admission Contact : Mr.Rajeev At 9968929440

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Reply to Aamir Khan’s Satyamev Jayate – on Doctors

This is a discussion on Aamir Khan’s Satyamev Jayate – Does Healthcare Need Healing aired on 27th May 2012. (You can watch it on Youtube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Lg0kUtS8ic)

Dear Mr. Aamir Khan,

“NOT ALL DOCTORS ARE GREEDY”
“THERE IS NO PROFESSION THAT IS ABSOLUTELY CLEAN”
“DOCTORS ARE OBLIGED TO SERVE BY CHOICE, NOT BY COMPULSION”

Sir,
I have been a big fan or your work, life and principles. I am also a fan of ‘Satyamev Jayate’. But I was shocked to see the episode on 27th May, 2012. You are an Icon. You should have thought well and done the homework before doing such a biased show. There are only two people in the film industry that are being taken seriously by the thinking class of society, You and Amitabh Bacchhan. So, when you give such a biased and one sided version of a story, it hurts. Speaking about such a thing on a “commercial” TV show is bad. (I am sure you have taken a big amount, only doctor are supposed to do charity and social work, not actors!!! Right!)

I want to highlight few important points here. And yes I am qualified to make observations as I am a medical student.

1.Your guests and audience (the words were almost put in their mouth) said that private colleges charge a capitation fee of 40 – 50 Lacs for MBBS, you should have also produced some evidence of such practice. Like you call a victim in all your episodes, why not here? And do the same story Engineering, Architecture, Law and MBA colleges, do you think they are clean? Why target doctors alone?

2. You said Since 2001, government opened 31 medical colleges and 106 private institutes were opened. – Please note that today in India, there are a total of 181 Private and 152 Govt Medical colleges. So the number is not as bad s you projected. Don’t project only the time period which suits your story. Either give a complete picture or do not give a picture at all!

And also, please find out how many of these private colleges are owned by politicians? 95% of Private colleges in India are owned and run by politicians. It is a bloody nexus between politicians and MCI. The corruption by politicians is to blamed for the mess, not doctors!!!

3.One of your guest (Dr. Gulhati) said that doctors ask for 30% commission from Pharma companies to write their drugs. That is baseless, over-the-roof and sensationalizing the matter. That is as true as “Most Leading actors ask newcomers to sleep with them” or “Lawyers take money from both the sides in a legal battle” or “Most chartered accountants teach their clients how to save tax and also pass info to taxman on where his client saved tax”. I know all of you will shout “Where is the proof?”. So are doctors!!!

I am not trying to sensationalize things as you did on your show by shading those fake tears, but just trying to project that allegations are easy to make. I know you will say that this was the opinion of our guest, and not yours. But you provided a platform for these fake allegations.

4. You compared the numbers of Licenses cancelled in England and in India. I must say your team is quite resourceful and please collect and compare following details also –
a.Number of doctors beaten on duty by goons from various political outfits in government hospitals in UK and India in last 10 years, and also the number of people convicted for such crime.
b.The Stipend (Salary a post-graduate trainee doctor/intern gets) or Salary and accommodation facilities provided to the doctors of the two countries.
c.The duty hours and working conditions of the doctors of the two countries.
d.The academic and research infrastructure being provided to the medical students.

5. You said that the most brilliant students who take up medicine, should take it only for service to mankind, they should go to other fields if they want to earn. Why? Are we living in imperialism? Are doctors not allowed to earn and spend a good life? You were asking Dr. Devi Shetty whether he can do humanitarian work and Earn at same time? This is like asking Amirkhan or Shahrukh-khan their income and generalizing it for every actor in the industry (Even junior artists). Sir, just as there are only few Khans and Kapoors, There are even fewer Devi Shetty and Naresh Trehan who run their chain of Multi-specialty hospitals spread all over the country. See what it takes to become a doctor and then give such “Geeta-Gyan”.

  • 5 and half year of MBBS training and 1 more year of Compulsory Rural Internship at Rs. 15000 – 20000 per month. (Any other field eg. Engineering, Management, a person would become Postgraduate in this much time and start earning double the amount.) If one doesn’t study further, the pay at this step is 22,000 per month.
  •  After above 6 and half years of Graduation, 3 more years of Postgraduation, followed again by compulsory rural / Government job for 1 year or pay Rs. 25Lac bond.
  • If one doesn’t study further, the pay at this step is 40,000 per month.
  •  After this above 10 and half years, 3 more years of Superspeciality, followed by 1 year of Govt job or a Bond of Rs. 2 Crore.

And the seats are so few with tough competition, there tends to be a gap of a year or two in preparing for various entrance exams.

6.Why only Doctors are being forced to work in rural and government hospitals after their study? Why only we should pay government if we don’t want to do it?

The rural/Govt sector needs help of Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants and MBAs also.

Why aren’t the Engineers sent to rural areas to design and monitor roads and industrials development?
Why aren’t the Lawyers forced to work as Public prosecutors before they can join some big foreign corporate firm?

Why aren’t the CAs asked to work in CAG office and various other government financial sectors before joining Multinational Giants?

Now government wants that doctors should not immigrate to other countries without asking them. Why? Are the IIT/IIM students stopped before they flee to foreign countries for big fat salaries? So, why us? What is it that government of society has done for doctors that they should repay? They bloody can’t even protect them from goons while on duty.

7.You say that doctors are writing unnecessary and costly medications. Do we decide the price of a drug? Do we manufacture or give license to drug manufacturers? Controlling the price of essential drugs is a government job. We are helpless.

Sir, its easy to point fingers. We don’t say that all is well. But all is not well anywhere. Its a different thing creating awareness about dowry or female feticide. But its entirely different to comment on such a technical and complicated issue without getting into the details of it.

You have maligned the entire medical fraternity. For every 10 doctors who are doing wrong, there are more than 1000 healers. You owe us an apology!!! This issue is not as simple as you think it is! Please show stories which are unbiased and straight-forward. You cannot do justice to such an issue, especially after charging a whooping amount for creating awareness!!!

(We hear that Amir has charged 3 crores for episode of Satyamev Jayate in which he spreads the message to doctors that they should not make money and do social service!!! How sacred!!! I don’t know if its true, but well, it’s the season of allegations!)

“We Doctors may be doing little social service, But at least we are not charging for it!” – Doctor

Source:  http://www.doctorshangout.com/forum/topics/reply-to-aamir-khan-s-satyamev-jayate-does-healthcare-need-healin

doct (4)

Respect Your Doctor – He deserves It

doct (4)I don’t sleep at night
I study to have knowledge about your pain

My college is just books and tests
I have to save your life in future

My job is not built and break things
I save lives and the stakes are much high

Im always exposed to infections coz im always around the sick

My job is not from 9 to 5
My job is 24 X 7…till i die

My family life is mess
Because i don’t give them time instead i treat you

I study all my life
Diseases evolve and so should i.

Respect Your Doctor
He Deserves It !!! 

Source : http://www.doctorshangout.com

Kerala MD Homeopathy interview on 12th June 2012

Interview for the postgraduate Homeopathy courses – Materia Medica, Repertory & Organon of Medicine will be on 12.06.2012 at 10 am at Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College. Trivandrum. Kerala.

Ranks up to 60 in All India Merit and State Merit are requested to attend with Original testimonials. Interview for the reservation quota, teachers quota will be conducted on the same day. SC up to : 132, ST up to : 372, BX : 137, LC : 119,Ezhava : 36, OEC : 68,

More details : 0471-2459459

research10

Application of highly-diluted bacteria for Leptospirosis

research10Large-scale application of highly-diluted bacteria for Leptospirosis epidemic control.

Bracho G, Varela E, Fernández R, Ordaz B, Marzoa N, Menéndez J, García L, Gilling E, Leyva R, Rufín R, de la Torre R, Solis RL, Batista N, Borrero R, Campa C.

Finlay Institute, Ave. 27, La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba. gbracho@finlay.edu.cu

1 Finlay Institute, Ave. 27, La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba
2 Agromin Enterprise Group, Havana City, Cuba
3 Homeopathy Department, Finlay Institute, Ave. 7ma, Playa, Havana City, Cuba
4 Clinical Trials and Medical Managing Department, Finlay Institute, Ave. 27, La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba
5 Bacterial Vaccine Department, Finlay Institute, Ave. 17, Playa, Havana City, Cuba
6 Provincial Centre for Homeopathy, Holguín, Cuba
7 Provincial Centre for Homeopathy, Granma, Cuba
8 Provincial Centre for Epidemiology and Hygiene, Holguín, Cuba
9 National Medical Services, Havana City, Cuba
10 Research Vice-presidency Finlay Institute, Ave. 17, Playa, Havana City, Cuba

Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of major importance in the tropics where the incidence peaks in rainy seasons. Natural disasters represent a big challenge to Leptospirosis prevention strategies especially in endemic regions. Vaccination is an effective option but of reduced effectiveness in emergency situations. Homeoprophylactic interventions might help to control epidemics by using highly-diluted pathogens to induce protection in a short time scale. We report the results of a very large-scale homeoprophylaxis (HP) intervention against Leptospirosis in a dangerous epidemic situation in three provinces of Cuba in 2007.

Methods: Forecast models were used to estimate possible trends of disease incidence. A homeoprophylactic formulation was prepared from dilutions of four circulating strains of Leptospirosis. This formulation was administered orally to 2.3 million persons at high risk in an epidemic in a region affected by natural disasters. The data from surveillance were used to measure the impact of the intervention by comparing with historical trends and non-intervention regions.

Results: After the homeoprophylactic intervention a significant decrease of the disease incidence was observed in the intervention regions. No such modifications were observed in non-intervention regions. In the intervention region the incidence of Leptospirosis fell below the historic median. This observation was independent of rainfall.

Conclusions: The homeoprophylactic approach was associated with a large reduction of disease incidence and control of the epidemic. The results suggest the use of HP as a feasible tool for epidemic control, further research is warranted.

Download pdf : http://www.homeobook.com/pdf/leptospirosis-cuba.pdf

Source  : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20674839

Homeopathic Perspective of Sulphur Biochemistry

K C Chandran Nambiar
Sulphur
has a dominant position in homoeopathic materia medica, and  is probably one of the the most prescribed drugs in homeopathic practice. Sulphur has been symbolically entitled as the ‘king of antisorics’ by our great masters. It is well proven, and it represents the richest symptomatology in our whole materia medica. Some homeopaths  as a routine manner  administer a dose of sulphur in high potency at the termination of treatment for acute diseases, and  also at the beginning of treatment for chronic diseases. There is also a wide-spread practice of administering a dose of sulphur in high potency when other ‘seemingly well indicated’ remedies fail, so as to arouse reaction. There is also a saying that the frequency of prescibing sulphur and practitioner’s knowledge of materia medica have an inversely proportional relationship, which means, the less the doctor knows his  materia medica, the more he is compelled to use sulphur frequently in his practice. Even though one may basically differ regarding the acceptability of such concepts and practices, they ultimately indicate the paramount importance accorded to sulphur in homoeopathy.

As part of a logical continuation of the scientific interpretation of ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ and ‘Potentization’ discussed in my article “Dialectical Homoeopathy’, I think it would be appropriate to delve into a deeper analysis of the diverse roles sulphur plays in various biological processes in the organism. It may necessarily lead to the study of the various molecular blocks and biochemical deviations underlying the vast symptomatology of suphur. Such an analysis may also show the way for similar scientific studies about other important drugs of homoeopathic materia medica, which will especially be relevant when we try to present homoeopathy as a higher branch of modern molecular medicine.

In my opinion, we have to  undertake a huge reasearch project to study   the symptomatology of all important drugs of our materia medica, in such a way that we can identify their individual symptom complexes in relation with the structure and configuration of the active groups of various constituent molecules of the drug substances.  As in the case of every state of pathology, no drug symptom can be  produced in an organism without a corresponding chain of molecular processes underlying it, initiated by the interaction of some or other  drug molecules with some or other biological molecules. From a scientific point of view, drug symptoms should be interpreted and utilized as minute biological indicators of corresponding molecular blocks and biochemic deviations brought about in the organism by the action of drug molecules. We should begin learning materia medica from this scientific perspective, at least in future.

To begin with, let us take up the study of sulphur. For this, we have to collect  and analyze all the available information regarding the diverse biochemical processes in the organism in which sulphur has a role to play. Obviously, such a study includes not only the study of various natural biological molecules in the organism, but also various exogenic and endogenic pathogenic molecules containing sulphur,  and the nature and type of molecular inhibitions caused by them.

According to Samuel Hahnemann, the ‘miasm’ of ‘psora’ is the main cause of chronic diseases. As per his interpretation, ‘psora’ is ‘suppressed itch’, which means, the chronic constitutional susceptibility to diseases, resulting from the suppression of ‘itch’ appearing on the surface of the skin. Homeopathic theory of ‘chronic diseases’ is built up on this fundamental concept of ‘psora’. He describes ‘psora’ as a hiding ‘multi-headed hydra’, which expresses its presence in the organism in the form of multitudes of chronic ailments with periodical acute exacerbations, persisting until death. Potentized sulphur is supposed to be a an  antidote of this chronic miasm of ‘psora’, and hence the saying “ sulphur is the king of anti-psorics”.

It is interesting to observe at this point that toxins released by bacteria found in lesions of ‘itch’, are complex chemical molecules of protein nature, containing ‘sulphide’ radicals in their active groups. The presence of  sulphur-containing amino acid ‘cysteine’ in the bacterial proteins is responsible for this factor.  During infection, bacterial toxins bind to various biological molecules in the organism using this ‘sulphide’ group as the ligand. Antibodies are formed in the organism by a process of ‘molecular imprinting’ of certain class of protein molecules called globulins, with these bacterial toxins. Obviously, the antibodies are molecular imprints of these bacterial toxins, and contain three-dimensional complementary configurations of this ‘sulphide’ group on them. These molecular imprints can immunize the organism against further infections, by acting  as neutralizing agents towards the bacterial molecules, and hence the name ‘antibodies’.  At the same time, these anti-bodies or molecular imprints can create unwanted molecular blocks in diverse biochemic channels in the organism, by binding themselves to  various sulphide-containing bio-molecules, due to their configurational affinity towards sulphide groups.

These molecular blocks and biochemical inhibitions arising therefrom  are the real cause of chronic diseases that Hahnemann attributes to ‘miasm of ‘psora’. We already know that the antibodies produced against bacterial skin infections or ‘itch’ may attack heart,  kidney, brain, and other vital organs causing different types of diseases. Streptococcal and staphylococcal antibodies formed against acute throat and teeth infections may attack synovial membranes of joints,  endocardial linings, and valvular structures of heart. During drug proving, sulphur also binds to the same molecular targets as the bacterial toxins, and produces similar molecular deviations and similar symptoms. The similarity between certain symptom groups produced by these bacterial infections and the homeopathic provings of sulphur correlates with this observation. Potentized sulphur, being molecular imprints of sulphur molecules in alcohol-water medium, can act in the same way as ‘itch’ antibodies. Here we get the scientific explanation for the observation of Hahnemann that potentised sulphur is the most important antipsoric medicine, ‘The King of Antipsorics’. During drug proving, ionized sulphur may also compete with sulphide radicals of various biological protein molecules, thereby preventing their normal biochemical interactions.

 It is already known that the amino acid called ‘cysteine’,  containing ‘sulphide’ groups, play an important role in almost all molecular interactions in the organism, especially involving protein molecules of enzymatic functions. This may be the reason for the appearance of so many symptom groups, involving almost every biochemical channels of the body, in the homoeopathic proving of sulphur. Potentized sulphur, being molecular imprints with three-dimensional complementary configuration of sulphur, can neutralize the sulphide groups of bacterial toxins, by binding to them. More over, molecular imprints of sulphur can compete with the bacterial antibodies, in their interactions with biological molecules, and act as a most powerful ‘anti psoric’ drug. As crude drugs also, sulphur exhibits an anti bacterial and antifungal action, by the competitive relationship of sulphur ions with sulphide groups of such proeins.

A few words about the homeopathic nosodes such as ‘psorinum’,

tuberculinum’, ‘streptococcin’, etc. will be relevant here. These nosodes in the potentized form contain molecular imprints of antibodies themselves, formed in the organism against bacterial toxins. Hence, these potentized  nosodes will be more useful in treating the chronic miasmatic effects of itch and other bacterial infections, whereas potentized suphur will be appropriate to deal with the direct bacterial infections and bacterial toxins themselves. Hahnnemann also has observed that potentized ‘psorinum’ is more appropriate antipsoric in the treatment of chronic diseases, where as potentized ‘sulphur’ will be ideal for acute complaints of ‘psora’.

Sulphur in Biological System
Sulphur is an essential element for the existence of life. It is an indispensable part of various aminoacids, proteins, enzymes and co–enzymes. Sulphur is a constituent of  many important bio-molecules such as cysteine, methionine, coenzyme-A, iron-sulphur clusters, biotin, lipoic acid, molybdopterin, ERNA, thio-nucleiosides, and thiamine. These molecules are participants in various  vital  biochemic processes including the synthesis of proteins.

Sulphur is also very important in the metabolism of pathogenic organisms such as virus, fungi and bacteria, and  as such, play in major role in causing various ailments in human organism. We know, bacteria belonging to mycobacterium group are responsible for disease such as  tuberculosis and leprosy. Studies regarding metabolism of these mycobacteria have greately enhanced our understanding about the role of sulphur in the molecular mechanism of such diseases. Many studies have already taken place regarding sulphur-containing molecules discharged by bacteria belonging to ‘treponema denticola’ group. This bacteria are widely seen associated with teeth and gum diseases of human beings. Several  toxic molecules let out by fungi contain sulphur. All these facts make it very clear to us why sulphur adorns such a prominent place in homeopathy. We should understand how such chemical molecules produce diseases in men and how medicines act against them.

Sulphur is an indispensable constituent in the biochemical processes of plant kingdom also. The sulphur-containing phyto-chemical molecules synthesized by plants, such as glutathione, sulpholipids, alliins, glucosinolates and phytochelates enable them to defend themselves against insects and over come environmental stress.  We use these phytochemicals  as powerful therapeutic agents also.

Sulphur acts as the bridging ligand of the important enzyme which controls the use of  oxygen in the living cells, known as cytochrome C-oxidase. This indicates the crucial role of sulphur in the very existence of life itself. Certain bacteria maintain their life itself by depending on sulphur compounds. It is the hydrogen sulphide excreted by such bacteria inhabiting our body which imparts the offensive odour to our sweat and excretions. The peculiar smell produced when organic materials get degenerated is also due to the presence of sulphur in them.

Sulphur is contained in various defence molecules synthesized by bacteria. All the antibiotics synthesized by bacteria such as pencillins, cephlosporins, monobactams and their synthetic derivatives contain sulphur.

There is a lot of sulphur contained in the horns, nails, hair, skin and other appendages of animals. Their charecteristic hardness is due to the strong ‘disulphide’ bonds formed between their protein molecules. 

‘Sulfhydryl(thiol)’ groups containing sulphur play a very important role in the biochemical processes of all living organisms. Thioredoxins containing ‘thiol’ groups are indispensable in the synthesis of various biological molecules.

‘Thiol’ contained in coenzyme-A participate in the oxidiation activities of pyruvate-fatty acid which is the integral part of the energy metabolism  in the cells. Thiol groups of glutathione and mycothiol protect the cells by deactivating dangerous oxidants. Sulphur is also a factor in the structure of many messenger molecules also.

Sulphur ions are comparatively much larger than similar ions. More over, their peculiar electron distribution and ability for easy polarization make them powerful nuceleophiles. It is because of tese peculiarities that Sulphur has attained so much importance in the biochemical processes.

Proteins and Sulphur
Among the twenty amino acids essential for the synthesis of proteins,  only cysteine and methionone contain sulphur. Only if we get a correct understanding about these two amino acids including their structure and the role they play in organic processes, will we be able to explain the biological importance of the suplhur.

   Methionine                                             Cysteine

H3C-S-(CH2) 2-CH-COOH                      HS-CH2-CH-COOH
NH2                                                   NH2 

The amino acid ‘cysteine’ has to be particularly subjected to our study. Its ‘R’ group is an ‘HS’, containing sulphur. A peculiarity of ‘HS’ is that they can form mutual disulphide bonds. Such groups are called ‘thiol’ groups or ‘sulphydryl’ groups. 

‘HS’ or ‘thiol’ is the functional group of the amino acid called ‘cysteine’. This thiol group has great importance in various bio-chemical processes. If ‘cysteine’ residues contained in different protein molecules or in different parts of the same molecule happens to come into contact with each other, the HS groups in them interact with each other by oxidization process and  become ‘cystine’ through disulphide bonding(S-S). This process plays a very important role in the formation of the highly complex three-dimensional tertiary structure of protein molecules. Multi-unit proteins are also formed by this way.

These ‘disulphide bonds’ are crucial in the structure of several antibodies. Antibodies bind to the antigens by ‘thiol’ groups contained in the cysteine residues at their active sites. Thiol groups of cysteine residues contained in the active sites of enzymes help substrates to remain bound with enzymes and enable the smooth conduct of biochemical transformations. Cysteine residues at the active sites of enzymes belonging to the group of  ‘cysteine proteases’  may be cited as examples.  The importance of ‘HS’ groups of the amino acid ‘cysteine’ in various enzymatic  interactions has to be clearly understood.

The phenomenon of curling found in hair is due to disulphide bonds formed between cystenie residues. The chemicals used for curling and straightening of hair work by the oxidization-antioxidation processes of cysteine residues contained in the hair.

The HS groups contained in the cysteine residues are capable of reacting with the ions of heavy metals ( Pb, Hg,  Ag).  Such reactions will make proteins inactive by effecting deformities in their three dimensional structure. This is the molecular mechanism behind heavy metal poisoning. Sulphur ions are capable of weakening the reactive power of metal ions by binding themselves on them. This happens in the case of metaloenzymes where metal ions function as co–factors. Thiol groups in cysteine are easily subjected to oxidization. Their reactive  efficiency is tremendously enhanced when ionized. Because of this peculiarity, ‘thiol’ groups become participants in many biochemical processes.

Insulin is rendered inactive in certain circumtances due to the presence of cysteine. It is possible for cysteine to inactivate the three disulphide bonds contained in insulin molecules by deoxidizing and changing their structure, In the conditions of hypoglycema where in the sugar content of blood is alarmingly reduced, cysteine is employed as a drug to make insulin inactive. Apart from cysteine , thiamine and vitamin C are also used for this purpose. Here it is evident why health supplements containing cysteine should not be given to diabetic patients. It is to be specially mentioned that foreign molecules containing sulphur are capable of intervening in the biochemical processes connected with insulin.

The disulphide bonds formed between cysteine residues are responsible for the phenomenon of cross linking between protein molecules. This type of cross linking has great importance in placing molecules like insulin un impaired at their appointed positions.

Glutathione which is formed through the combination of amino acids like cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid is an important antioxidant in the body. Thiol groups and sulphur which is a part of it play an important role in the synthesis and functioning of glutathione.

Dissulphide bonds play an import role in the post-translational modifications of proteins. It is through disulphide bonds between cysteine residues that the peculiarl three dimensional shapes and foldings of proteins molecules working in extracellular medium are shaped. In case such bonds are not formed protein molecules become deformed and incapable of performing their biochemical functions.

The metal ions such as zinc, iron, copper, nickel etc which function as co-factors of several  enzyme systems actually connect with appropriate  enzymes through thiol groups contained in their cysteine residues. Example are: zinc in alcohol dehydrogenase, iorn in cytochrome P450, nickel in [NiFe]-hydrogenases and copper in blue-copper proteins.

It is with the help of enzymes known as protein disulphide isomerases that the S-S disulphide bonds in proteins are formed. It is possible for various chemical molecules containing sulphur to bind themselves competitively on these enzymes and inhibit their functions. It can be legitimately considered that many symptoms observed in homoeopathic proving of sulphur and sulphur-containing drugs indicate these molecular inhibitions.

Cysteine residue is contained in the active sites of many enzymes.  Sulphur(thiol) groups contained in the enzymes play a crucial role in enzymatic interactions. Antibodies also interacts with other molecules through their thiol groups. Molecular mechanism of immune disorders also should be understood in this perspective.

Cystathionine gamma-lyase and cystathionine beta-synthase, are two important enzymes involved in the synthesis of cysteine. Sulphur ions and sulphur-containing drugs may be capable of inhibiting these enzymes through competitive molecular blocks.

Thiol groups are contained in the molecules of various phytochemicals.  Various viral, bacterial and fungal toxins also contain thiols. Such chemicals can interfere in the molecular interactions of proteins in the organism resulting in multitudes of pathological conditions. Symptomatology of homeopathic provings of those drugs should be subjected to a re-reading with this scientific perspective.

Different types of active groups containing sulphur, like Sulfonyl, Sulfo Sulfinyl, Sulfhydry(Thiol) Thiocynate and Disulphide are capable of interveining in biochemical processes.   

Antibodies:
Immunoglobulins or antibodies represent a very important class of proteins, playing crucial roles in the biological system. They are found in blood, lymph and other body fluids. These antibodies are part of immune  system of the organism. These antibodies are synthesized in plasma cells known as lymphocytes. Antibodies are molecules belonging to globulin proteins. Mainly there are five type of immunoglobulins. Antigens are bound to antibodies using their active groups known as epitopes. The site of binding on antibodies are known as peritopes.

The molecular components of an immunoglobin are four polypeptide chains bound  by disulphide bonds. These disulphide bonds are formed by thiol groups of the cysteine residues contained in them. It is in the presence of an enzymes known as protein disulphide isomerase PDI that the formation and breaking of these bonds take place.  Moreover, this enzyme participate in many ways in the antigen-antibody process. Involvement of this enzyme is necessary in binding antigens with the molecules of major histocompatability complex(MHC1) which is very important in the defence system of the organism.

Sulphur ions and foreign molecules containing sulphur are capable of competitively binding on disulphide isomerase(PDI) and make them inactive. This is the molecular mechanism of medicinal materials containing sulphur adversely affecting the immunity.

Peritomes of antibodies are subjected to molecular imprinting with epitome groups of antigens. The antibodies thus imprinted have special affinity to the concerned antigens, due to the complementary configurations created by imprinting. It is because of this special complemetary affinity that antibodies are able to recognize exact antigens. It has been proved that these antibodies maintain affinity not only with imprinted antigen epitoms but also with other  molecules having similarity in shape with them. Because of this, the antibodies misunderstand the molecules essential for the body as antigens and create different types of molecular blocks by binding on them. This phenomenon gives the chance for different type immune related diseases. A detailed discussion of this matter has already been made else where in the same article where miasm is discussed. The potentised homoeo preparations have proved to be capable of cradicating such conditions of illness.

Many bacterial viral toxins act as antigens. The groups of symptoms appearing in many diseases due to such bacterial infections exhibit similarity with homoeopathic provings of sulphur. The reason for this is evident. We used to treat effectively such conditions of illness using high potency sulphur on the basis of Similia Similibus Curentur.

Biotin:
Biotin is a vitamin containing sulphur. Biotin is the co–factor which makes active several important enzymes like, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase,  Pyruvate carboxylase, Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase,  Propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Many foreign molecules containing sulphur groups compete with biotin in interacting with the above mentioned enzymes and this subject them to competetive inhibitions. Certain bacterial and viral toxins also function in the same manner. As a result a condition equivilant to the absence of biotin is created and condition of illness similar to that is produced. This will adversely affect the natural growth of cells, and the metabolism of lipids and amino acids. Falling of hair, falling of eyebrow, greying, disinterest in food,  eczema, dermatils, drying of skin, increase in blood sugar, numbness of hands and legs, many types of bacterial infections, fungus infections, mental problems and deterioration of immunity etc. result.

Ubiqiutination :
Ubiquitins are regulatory protein molecules containing lysine residues playing a very important role in various biochemical processes. By binding themselves on different types of protein molecules ubiqiutins ensure the configurational stability of proteins, and empower them to do their stipulated chemical functions. Ubiqiutin polypeptides  also act as markers  of protein molecules, preparing them for their calabolism. Ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, ubiquitin-protein ligases E3  etc are the enzymes associated with ubiquitin interactions.

The first stage of this process known as ubiqiutination is performed with the help of cysteine residues positioned at the active sites of the ubiqiutine-activating enzyme E1.  Molecules containing active groups of sulphur are capable of competitively binding on these enzymes and making them inactive.  This phenomenon underlies  many types of disease we face today.

Ubiqiutination is crucial in many organic processes like antigen processing, apoptosis, biogenesis of organelles, cell cycle and division, DNA transcription and repair, differentiation and development, immune response and inflammation, neural and muscular degeneration, morphogenesis of neural networks,  modulation of cell surface receptors, ion channels and the secretory pathway, response to stress and extracellular modulators, ribosome biogenesis, viral infections etc. The plentifulness of diseases conditions likely to be caused by obstructions to the above mentioned organic processes is very evident. All these factors are to be taken in to account when we make a study of the homeopathic symptomatology of Sulphur.

Tyrosine Sulfation:
Tyrosine sulfation is the process in which sulfate groups are added to tyrosine residues of proteins synthesized in the cells. This chemical process take place in golgi apparatus. In this process,  sulphate ions are extracted  from Adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and added to tyrosine residues of proteins, with the help of an enzyme known as Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). Exogenous sulfate ions are capable of creating molecular blocks  in these enzymes, through competitive relationship.  Tyrosine sulfation is essential for the molecular interaction of proteins. Many proteins such as adhesion molecules, G-protein-coupled receptors, coagulation factors, serine protease inhibitors, extracellular matrix proteins,  and hormones are subjected to tyrosine sulfation.

The studies dealing with the chemical process known as tyrosine sulfation and its partipant enzyme systems are even now incomplete. The influence they exert in the processes like the growth of hair, regulating body weight and reproduction is almost fully uncovered. By this time it has been made very clear that the sulfation of protein is an important area of biochemical activities. We have to constantly follow the scientific researchs taking place in this area positioning ourselves in the perspective of Homoeopathy. It will be very interesting to learn the crucial role the sulphate ions play in the organic system.

Glucosinolates :
Glucosinolates are a class of chemical molecules containing sulphur and nitrogen, found naturally in plants,. They are used as medicinal drugs and natural pesticides. Glucosinolates are abundant in mustard, radish, horse radish, maca, cress, cabbage, brussels sprouts,  kohlrabi, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, turnip, swede(rutabaga) and rapeseed.

Sinigrin (allylglucosinolate or 2-propenylglucosinlate) is a glucosinolate found in plants like broccoli belonging to the brassica family. It has been proved that sinigrin is capable of preventing the multiplication of cancer cells. Sinalbin,  another glucosinolate found in mustard also belong to the same group. These are converted to allyl isothiocyanate by the action of certain enzymes.

It has been observed that  the organo-sulphur compound sulforaphane , contained  in certain plants can be used as curative agent against helicobacter pylori bacteria, the causative agent of gastric ulcers.  Sulforaphane is also found to be useful as external application to protect skin from ultra violet rays.

Thiocyanate ions containing sulphur inhibit the production of thyroide hormones like thyroxine and triiodothyronine. This is because they are capable of producing molecular blocks by competing with iodine. The thioglycoside  such as alliin contained in garlic are chemically sulfoxides. This function both as antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenger, because of the presence sulphur ions in them. It has been proved in the laboratory tests that the functional ability of phagocytes in blood is increased in the presence of alliin.

Lenthionine is the organo-sulphur compound contained in certain types of fungi.  These sulphur –containing molecules prevent the clotting of blood. Certain organo-sulphur compounds contained in grlic also function in the same manner. These molecules inhibits the enzymes called C-S lyase. 

Thiamine :
Thiamine is included in the group of B-complex vitamins. It is a chemical compound containing sulphur. Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), which is the active form of thiamine works as a co–enzyme in various enzymes systems which regulate catabolic processes of amino acids and sugars. Thiamine is synthesized in bacteria,  fungi and plants. Thiamine required by animals has to be obtained through food. In its absence may cause the disease called beriberi, affecting the nervous system and circulatory system. General debility, emaciation and mental disorders are also observed.

Thiamine (C12H17N4OS) is a vitamin soluble in water. Sulfites are capable of inhbiting thiamine. Thiaminase enzymes contained shell fishes and certain other fishes, Hydroxyphenols  such as Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Tannic acid  foud in plants also make thiamine inactive. Glycocides like quercetin and rutin also deactivate thiamine in the same manner.

Enzymes like phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, thiamine pyrophosphokinase, Na+-dependent ATPase also adversely affect the availability of Thiamine.

Following are the biochemically active forms of thiamine: thiamine monophosphate(ThMP), thiamine diphosphate(ThDP),  thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AthTP), adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AthDP). Thiamine in the form of Thiamine diphosphate (ThDp) act as co–factors for enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase,  2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase , branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase and transketolase, which play major roles in carbohydrate metabolism.

The enzyme named transketolase, which requires thiamine as co-factor, participates in the synthesis of sugars such as deoxyribose, ribose and NADPH. Pyruvate dehydrogenase(PDH), and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase(OGDH), both having thiamine as co-factors,  are participants in synthesis of ATP. These enzymes are also important in citric acid cycle, and synthesis of myelin and acetylcholine.

The deficiency of thiamine cause a disease called peripheral neuropathy. This adversely affects sensory, motor and reflex activities in the limbs. Mental problems, emaciation and cardiac  dysfuntions also are very serious problems in children. Excessive consumption of alcohol may result in  deficiency of thiamine. The symptoms of serious thiamine deficiency are found in HIV-AIDS patients. Understanding the molecular mechanism of symptoms of thiamine deficiency exhibiting in HIV infection may help in developing an effective homoeopathic treatment protocol for such diseases.

Werenicke’s encephlopathy is a rare disease caused by the severe deficiency  of thiamine. Its symptoms are decrease in the motility of eyes,  unsteadiness,  and  mental disorders. Koresakott psychosis is a more aggravated form of the same disease.

Genetic disorders such as thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia, Leigh disease (subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, opsoclonic cerebellopathy (a paraneoplastic syndrome), Nigerian seasonal ataxia etc. are associated with thiamine deficiencies. Sulphur ions are capable of creating molecular blocks in the enzymes involved in thiamine metabolism. Compounds containing sulphur or sulphites are directly capable of rendering thiamine molecules inactive.

Iron – Sulphur Proteins:
These are the proteins containing iron–sulphur clusters. Enzymes such as NADH dehydrogenase, hydrogenases, coenzyme Q- Cytochrome C reductase, succinate-coenzyme Q reductase, nitrogenase and metalloproteins such as ferredoxins are exmples. The sulphur necessary for making of lipoic acid and biotin is made available from iron–sulphur clusters. They play their vital roles in the oxidization and antioxidization processes in mitochondria. Their presence is essential in oxidative phosphorylation processes as well. Nitric oxide is capable of rendering iron–sulphur proteins inactive.

The active group of iron-sulphur proteins are cysteine residues containing ‘thiol’ group. It is specially noteworthy that sulphur ions and exogenous molecules containing sulphur groups are capable of competitive intervention in biochemical processes related to iron-sulphur proteins.

Sulphite Oxidase:
Sulphite oxidase is an important metalo-enzyme found in the mitocondria of animals. This enzyme is very crucial in the process of ATP synthesis. Molybdopterin molecules containing molybdinum acts as co–factors for  this  enzyme. This co–factor is bound to the sulphur of cysteine residues in the enzyme molecule.

Exogenic sulphur ions, suphur-containing drugs and bacterial-viral molecules are capable of competitively binding on the molybdopterin molecules, thereby preventing them from connecting with the enzyme molecules. In the absence of the appropriate co-factor, the enzyme is unable to execute its biochemic functions, leading to a condition of pathology amounting to absence of sulphite oxydase. Neurological disorders, mental retardation, physical deformities and brain disorders are the result. It might even result in death. In some cases, absence of this enzyme may happen due to defects in genetic expression also. Any how, we have to bear in mind the role of sulphur in sulphite oxidase metabolism, while engaging in a scientific study of sulphur symptomatology.

Lipoic Acid:
Co-factors are  indispensible components of several important enzyme systems. Lipoic acid function as such a co–factor. It is an organo-sulphur compound containing sulphur in its active group, which is a disulpide. These exist in the cells in the form of dihydrolipoic acid. Often it is not found in the organism in independent form, but as part of various enzyme comlplexes like pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, glycine cleavage gomplexes etc .

Lipoic acid is a food antioxidant as well. It is capable of reviving glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E. It functions as a good molecular scavenger due to the presence of disulphide groups in it.

It has been already proved that sulphur ions and various drug molecules containing sulphur are capable of inhibiting certain enzyme systems associated with lipoic acid synthesis, thereby negatively affecting the availabilty of lipoic acid in the organism. This point has to be especially considered in our scientific study of symptomatology of sulphur. More over, sulphur ions and sulphur-containing drugs may compete with lipoic acid in binding with their molecular targets, including the enzyme systems. Obiously, some of the symptoms of sulphur proving may be representing the pathologic conditions arising from such lipoic acid deficiency.

Dapsone:
Leprosy is a disease caused by the bacteria known as mycobacterium leprae. Dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone) is widely used for the treatment of leprosy. Dapsone interferes in the biochemical processes through its active groups containing sulphur(sulfone). Antibiotics belonging to sulfonamide group also work through the same mechanism. Dapsone effects its therapeutic properties against leprosy by interfering in the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid which is essential for the metabolism of these bacteria.

Apart from leprosy, dapsone is found effective in many disease like pemphigoids, dermatitis herpetiformis, linear immunoglobulinA dermatosis, lichen planus, acne etc. Sulphone group of dapsone  compete with sulphur-containing  proteins of infectious agents in binding with native biological molecules, thereby exhibiting their terapeutic effects. It is interesting to note  that we can see many groups of symptoms of above said diseases  in the homeopathic symptomatology of sulphur. It has been also found that dapsone can be used in the treatment of diseases like pneumocystic pneumonia (PCP), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and toxoplasmosis. Daspone has been indicated as an antidote for some kinds spider poisons also. Dapsone has been effectively used as external application in some non- bacterial skin diseases also.

It has also been observed that the use of dapsone results in many types of side effects such as hemolysis,  hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, agranulocytosis,  aplastic anaemia, cholestatic jaundice,  toxic hepatitis,  nausea, headache, skin rashes, eosinophilia, insomnia, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy etc. It has been proved that dapsone is capable of interfering in the enzyme system known as cytochrome P450. Since dapsone is a drug containing sulphur in its active group, these observations are relevant in the study of biological roles of sulphur.

Further studies required
Sulphur plays many more important roles in biological processes than those already discussed above. Here we have considered some prominent examples only. Homoeopathic provings and symptomatology of sulphur  have to be subjected to a thorough re-reading in the light of latest available knowledge regarding the diverse  biochemical processes sulphur participates in the living organism. Such a scientific re-reading might help us identify  the exact molecular errors underlying  each group of complex subjective and objective symptoms attributed to the homeopathic provings of sulphur.

Various sulphur-containing drugs of plant, mineral or animal origin, bacterial and viral products, and new generation sulphur-containing synthetic drug molecules also have to be subjected to in-depth study of their chemical structure, biochemical involvement and symptomatology. Such a scientific study may enable us to understand how constitutions of sulphur get evolved in idividuals, as a cumulative result of genetic factors, environment and life style, including food, drinks, bacterial or viral diseases and usage of medicinal substances. A comparative study  of symptomatology of sulphur with  other drugs containing sulphur like natrum sulph, hepar sulph, kali sulph, ars sulph, aethiops, cadmium sulph, calc sulph, carboneam sulph, chininum sulph, ferrum sulph, hydrast sulph, mag sulph, manganum sulph,  merc suph, sulph Iod,  scid sulph and zinc sulph, petroleum etc., will be much interesting and useful. All the similar symptom groups found in the symptomatologies of all these substances can be attributed to the suphur content in these drugs.

We have already seen that various viral and bacterial toxins contain sulphur. Suplhur is present  in most of the food articles we consume. The same is the case with the drugs used by different medical systems in the treatment of diseases. Sulphur ions, sulphur-containing drugs and sulphur- containing bacterial and viral toxins can compete with the thiol groups of various protein molecules in our body such as enzymes and antibodies, in binding with their legitimate molecular targets, resulting in unwanted molecular blocks and pathologic conditions.  All these factors may contribute in building up constitutional states of sulphur in a large percentage of population, by creating diverse types of biochemic deviations in their organism.  This indicates the real depth and gravity of the ‘miasm’ which Hannemaan  called ‘psora’ in the whole human race. This study clearly shows how much important is the use of potentized sulphur as a constitutional medication for the protection of our health and vitality.

Homeopathy, based on the principle of ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ uses potentized drugs, containing molecular imprints or  ‘hydrosomes’ of drug molecules. Obviously, sulphur, which plays versatile roles in normal physiology and various states of pathology, will be the most important drug in potentized form in homeopathic therapeutics. As such, the title ‘the king of antipsorics’ is not at all an exaggerated statement as far as sulphur is concerned.

K C Chandran Nambiar
Author of: DIALECTICAL HOMEOPAHY
Developer of: SIMILIMUM ULTRA Homeopathic Software
Email: similimum@gmail.com . Mobile: 91 9446520252

Protocol Outline Research

Protocol Title:
Protocol Version:
Protocol Date:
Principal Investigator:
Research Team:

I.  Abstract
Provide a summary of the study background, aims, and design.

II. Background and Significance/Preliminary Studies
Describe the current environment that is the basis for the proposed research, including a presentation of the problem (with references) and a review of current literature.  Include a critical evaluation of current knowledge and preliminary studies related to the proposed research and describe how this proposal will enhance this knowledge.

III. Study Aims
Describe the purpose of the study, including identification of specific primary objectives/hypotheses. Secondary objectives/hypotheses should be described as necessary.

IV.  Administrative Organization
Describe the participating units, including other participating study sites, laboratories, data management center, and coordinating center as applicable.

V.  Study Design

  • Experimental design of the study (e.g., single-blind, double-blind)
  • Study population general description
  • Sample size determination and power analyses
  • Study outcomes/endpoints 

VI. Study Procedures

a.  Subject selection procedures

 i.  Sampling plan including Inclusion/Exclusion criteria (subject and disease characteristics)

ii.  Recruitment procedures

1)     Where will recruitment occur?

2)     Where and when will consent be obtained?

3)     Who will obtain consent?

4)     What is the advertising plan, if applicable?

5)     What recruitment materials will be provided to the potential participant (brochures/information sheets/video presentation)?

iii.      Screening procedures

1)     What procedures are required for screening?

2)     What is the screening schedule (number of visits, length of visits)?

3)     Which screening tests/procedures are part of standard care and which are for research purposes only?

4)     What happens with screen failures (including any data gathered during screening)?

b. Randomization procedures (if applicable)

c. Study Intervention

i. For Drug/device studies:

1)     Active study agents

2)     Placebo study agents

3)     Blinding/labeling/preparation of agents

4)     Storage

5)     Administration

6)     Toxicities and guidelines for adjustments

ii.  For Other types of intervention studies:

1)     Active intervention description

2)     Control group, if applicable

d.      Study Assessments and Activities

1) Describe all study procedures, assessments, and subject activities

2) Provide a schedule of all study assessments and subject activities, including a tabular representation or timeline as applicable

VII. Safety Monitoring Plan

a. Definition of adverse events, serious adverse events

b. What procedures will be used to monitor subject safety?

c. Who (list names) will identify, document, and report adverse events?

d. What is the frequency for review of summarized safety information and who will perform the review (e.g., safety monitoring board)?

e. What are the stopping rules with regard to efficacy and safety?

VIII. Analysis Plan
Describe statistical analysis methods as appropriate.  For example, will intention-to-treat methodology be used in the analysis?  Will there be any sample stratification?

IX. Literature Cited

VARIABILITY AND ITS MEASURES
Variability is very much found in Medicine or biology rather than in physics or chemistry. Biological data, quantitative or qualitative collected by measurement or counting are very variable. Variability is essentially a normal character or occurrence of variability is a biological phenomenon. For e.g.:- The cure rate in any disease such as typhoid with the same drug varies in different patients, birth rates of two towns are seldom equal.

I  Biological variability
Biological variability is the variability that occurs within certain accepted biological limits. Variability exhibited by the individuals in similar environments when compared as regards to sex, class and other attributes but the difference noted may be small and is said to occur by chance is  called biological variability. It may be the normal or natural difference in all individuals or groups within certain acceptable limits. The limits of variability of a variable character from the mean and proportion of a population can be studied by the application of certain principles of variation such as normal distribution, range etc and the extend of variability of a variable character from the mean and proportion of a population can be studied by certain measures of dispersion such as range, quartile deviation, standard deviation and standard error.

1. Individual variability
e.g.; – The heights and weights of two individuals vary. To find whether the heights of two students differing in units  are normal or not we find the mean and standard deviation of heights of the population by taking a large sample(n>30).

2. Periodical variability
e.g.;- The same individuals show variation in temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure WBC count etc. at different times of   the day, in illness, during rest, after exercise or after meals. The variations can be studied or analysed by applying suitable statistical techniques.

3. Class, group or category variability
e.g.;- Height, weight , blood pressure etc. vary from class to class depending  on age, sex, social status or nature of work. Mean height of males vary from mean height of females.

4. Sampling variability
The values of any sample will differ from those of the population and further there will be variability from one sample to another sample. This is a biological variability of samples and is called sampling variability or sampling error or statistical error. Sampling error is a chance variability which can be reduced by increasing the sample size but cannot be totally eliminated.

II Real variability
Real variability is the variability occurring when the difference between two readings, observations or values of classes or samples is more than the defined limits in universe for which the variability occurring  may not be natural or inherent in the samples but lies in external factors. E.g.;- Statistically cure rate for a disease may be due to a drug and not by chance. Higher rate of coronary disease in bus drivers than that in conductors may not be a biological chance but may be due to strain or tension involved in the nature of the job. If the variability is found to be real, the offending external factor has to be found and duly dealt with.

III Experimental variability
Error  or difference or variation due  to materials, methods , procedures employed in the study or defects in the techniques involved in the experiment.

1. Observer error observer error may be subjective or objective.

(i) Subjective
An interviewer may alter some information thereby adding a number of errors while noting human particulars unless trained properly. He may even ask embarrassing questions which the person may not like to answer, some subjects are very keen while others do not wish to give any information or on certain occasions, the situation may not be favourable to seek information.

(ii) Objective
Objective errors may be added by an untrained observer while recording the measurements such as blood pressure, pulse rate etc. The parallax error due to different positions of the observer while reading the fluid level in a thermometer or a glass tube or in recording height, weight etc. Biochemical tests may give different results in different hands and so on.

2. Instrumental error
The error produced due to the defects in the instruments which cause undesirable variability or the error in observations leading to wrong conclusions and colossal waste of money , time and labour  is termed as instrumental error. This may be negligible or gross. Observer and Instrumental errors are sometimes called non- sampling errors.

3. Sampling Errors
The errors occurring in the process of the selection of the sample is termed as sampling errors. A sample drawn should not be biased or too small to draw conclusions. It should be representative and of sufficiently large size to stand statistical tests. In the medical field and in the field of epidemiological studies on e has to be careful about sampling bias or defects. Hospital based studies are mostly biased because the sample of the patients because the sample of study is drawn from nearby strata of society. Moreover many come to hospital at a late stage.

Experimental variability is not unusual but a common occurrence about which one must be careful in any scientific study so that the bias may be minimised.

Measures of Variability
Measures of variability (or measure of dispersion ) of observations help to find how individual observations are dispersed or scattered around the mean of the large series. The various measures of dispersion in common use are

  1. Range
  2. Quartile deviation
  3. Mean deviation
  4. Standard deviation.
  5. Coefficient of variation

Measures of variability of samples

  1. Standard error of mean
  2. Standard error of difference between means
  3. Standard error of proportion
  4. Standard error of difference between means
  5. Standard error of correlation coefficient
  6. Standard deviation of regression coefficient.

Qualitative Research Methods in Homeopathy

Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine

Background: Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic “provings” compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the “Formal Case Study” (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication with which homeopathic cases are studied. Before going into design issues this paper places the FCS in an historical and academic context and describes the relative merits of the method.

Discussion: Like any research, the FCS should have a clear focus. This focus can be both “internal”, grounded in the discourse of homeopathy and also encompass issues of wider appeal. A selection of possible “internal” and “external” research questions is introduced. Data generation should be from multiple sources to ensure adequate triangulation. This could include the recording and transcription of actual consultations. Analysis is built around existing theory, involves cross-case comparison and the search for deviant cases. The trustworthiness of conclusions is ensured by the application of concepts from qualitative research including triangulation, groundedness, respondent validation and reflexivity. Though homeopathic case studies have been reported in mainstream literature, none has used formal qualitative methods – though some such studies are in progress.

Summary: This paper introduces the reader to a new strategy for homeopathic research. This strategy, termed the “formal case study”, allows for a naturalistic enquiry into the players, processes and outcomes of homeopathic practice. Using ideas from qualitative research, it allows a rigorous approach to types of research question that cannot typically be addressed through clinical trials and numeric outcome studies. The FCS provides an opportunity for the practitionerresearcher to contribute to the evidence-base in homeopathy in a systematic fashion. The FCS can also be used to inform the design of clinical trials through holistic study of the “active ingredients” of the therapeutic process and its clinical outcomes.

Read Full Paper : http://www.homeobook.com/pdf/thesis136.pdf

BARC Medical Analyser and homoeopathic potencies

BARC Medical Analyser reveals the selective action of homoeopathic medicines in different potencies

Use of Medical Analyser developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has shown that it would enable a better understanding of the selective action of homoeopathic medicines in different strengths on human beings.

Researches done by BARC, Regional Research Institute of Central Council for Research in homoeopathy, Mumbai, National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata and Fr Muller Homoeopathic Medical College (FMHMC), Mangalore have indicated potential use of physiological variability in fundamental research in homoeopathy.

“The data reveals the selective action of homoeopathic medicines in different potencies especially in Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Blood Flow Variability (BFV) and Morphology Index Variability (MIV),” Dr Srinath Rao of FMHMC said during the Meeting on Advanced applications of Physiological variability held at BARC here last week.

Homoeopathy medicines beyond 12th potency do not contain even a single atom or molecule of the medicinal substance. Yet these medicines are effective in the treatment of large number of diseases and particularly the ones that are considered incurable in modern medicine.

Electronic division of BARC has been actively working on this aspect of homoeopathic medicines for the past three decades and their initial experiments with potencised medicines have recorded 50 to 150 per cent increase in the blood flow in affected parts of the body within 30 minutes of the indicated medicine in variety of patients, Rao said in his paper on ‘Fundamental Research in Homoeopathy: Experiments with SULPHUR’ presented at the Meet.

“The reproducibility of these experiments largely depended upon the choice of indicated medicine, which was determined subjectively,” Rao said.

But with the development of Medical Analyser, BARC scientists, headed by J D Jindal, have shown that physiological variability show change in the spectrum caused by randomly selected potentised medicine and randomly selected control subjects (volunteers) in 2004 and “this opened the door to us for using physiological variability in the field of homoeopathy,” Rao said.

“We used in our experiments with SULPHUR, Anu Photo Rheograph developed by BARC which is based on the principles of Photo Plethysmography also developed by it,” Rao said.

Dr Nirupama Mishra and colleagues from National Institute of Homoeopathy, C Nayak from the Department of AYUSH along with other private doctors carried out an exploratory scientific trial on 72 healthy volunteers, studied different potencies of Aconitum Napellus and Nux Vomica with the placebo control.

Homoeopathy has been mired in controversy due to its concept of drug dynamisation leading to ultra diluted form of medicines. “Since these kinds of medicines do not come under any measurable pharmacological standards, the attention of scientific fraternity has been focused on this apparent lack of existence of material substance in homoeopathic medicine and to its potency concept in the light of Avogadro’s law, rather than on its effectiveness,” Mishra said.

Both Rao and Mishra pointed out that it was necessary that more medicines and potencies are to be investigated with this scientific tool for the welfare of the humanity.

BARC develops new medical instruments

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed a host of new generation medical instruments opening fresh dimensions to understand health care.

The approach of medical practitioners will now be more objective in terms of diagnosis and action of different drugs on human body, said BARC officials.

“Mobile ECG, Plethysmograph, Peripheral Pulse Analyser (3-channel), Tele Stress monitor, and Intent Detection System are few technologies BARC has developed. Many of these have been transferred to manufacturers,” said BARC director RK Sinha at a two-day meet on ‘Advanced Applications of Physiological Variability’ organised by the Electronics Division.

The Electronic Division began development work in the field of Physiological Variability in active collaboration with city’s Grant Medical College and the JJ Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (New Delhi), Father Muller Medical College (Mangalore), among others.

“These instruments, which have been tried and tested, have proved that even the Science of Homeopathy, Ayurveda and their effectiveness can be understood objectively,” Sinha said.

Read :
http://similimateam.blogspot.com/2010/11/barc-medical-analyser-reveals-selective.html
http://www.deccanherald.com/content/109956/barc-medical-analyser-enable-objective.html

patients1

Homeopathic Treatment for Chronic Disease: 6 Year Study

patients1Homeopathic Treatment for Chronic Disease: A 6-Year University-Hospital Outpatient Observational Study 

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess health changes seen in routine homeopathic care for patients with a wide range of chronic conditions who were referred to a hospital outpatient department.

Design: This was an observational study of 6544 consecutive follow-up patients during a 6-year period.

Setting: Hospital outpatient unit within an acute National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Trust in the United Kingdom.

Participants:
Every patient attending the hospital outpatient unit for a follow-up appointment over the study period was included, commencing with their first follow-up attendance.

Main outcome measure
: Outcomes were based on scores on a 7-point Likert-type scale at the end of the consultation and were assessed as overall outcomes compared to the initial baseline assessments.

Results
: A total of 6544 consecutive follow-up patients were given outcome scores. Of the patients 70.7% (n 4627) reported positive health changes, with 50.7% (n 3318) recording their improvement as better ( 2) or much better ( 3).

Conclusions:
Homeopathic intervention offered positive health changes to a substantial proportion of a large cohort of patients with a wide range of chronic diseases. Additional observational research, including studies using different designs, is necessary for further research development in homeopathy.

Read the full paper
: http://www.homeobook.com/pdf/chronic-disease-homeopathy.pdf

Effects of Ars.alb, Nosode, Gibberellic Acid on Duckweed

Effects of Homeopathic Arsenicum Album, Nosode, and Gibberellic Acid Preparations on the Growth Rate of Arsenic-Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.)

Jäger T, Scherr C, Simon M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S. 

This study evaluated the effects of homeopathically potentized Arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid in a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). The test substances were applied in nine potency levels (17x, 18x, 21x-24x, 28x, 30x, 33x) and compared with controls (unsuccussed and succussed water) regarding their influence on the plant’s growth rate. Duckweed was stressed with arsenic(V) for 48 h.

Afterwards, plants grew in either potentized substances or water controls for 6 days. Growth rates of frond (leaf) area and frond number were determined with a computerized image analysis system for different time intervals (days 0-2, 2-6, 0-6). Five independent experiments were evaluated for each test substance. Additionally, five water control experiments were analyzed to investigate the stability of the experimental setup (systematic negative control experiments). All experiments were randomized and blinded. The test system exhibited a low coefficient of variation (approximately equal to 1%).

Unsuccussed and succussed water did not result in any significant differences in duckweed growth rate. Data from the control and treatment groups were pooled to increase statistical power. Growth rates for days 0-2 were not influenced by any homeopathic preparation. Growth rates for days 2-6 increased after application of potentized Arsenicum album regarding both frond area (p < 0.001) and frond number (p < 0.001), and by application of potentized nosode (frond area growth rate only, p < 0.01). Potencies of gibberellic acid did not influence duckweed growth rate. The systematic negative control experiments did not yield any significant effects. Thus, false-positive results can be excluded with high certainty.

To conclude, the test system with L. gibba impaired by arsenic(V) was stable and reliable. It yielded evidence for specific effects of homeopathic Arsenicum album preparations and it will provide a valuable tool for future experiments that aim at revealing the mode of action of homeopathic preparations. It may also be useful to investigate the influence of external factors (e.g., heat, electromagnetic radiation) on the effects of homeopathic preparations.

Source : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

homeo2

Importance of Polychrest drugs in clinical practice

homeo2Dr Mohd Furqan Aamer  M.D(Hom)

Homoeopathy can be defined as a System of Drug – Therapeutics based on the Law of Similars. This law states that a drug, capable of producing in a healthy person a diseased-state exactly Similars to that observed in a diseased person, acts as a curative agent if the diseases are in a curable stage. In the incurable stage of the disease, however, the same drug acts as the best palliative. Homoeopathy has logically evolved as an experimental science according to the method of inductive reasoning in which exact observation; correct interpretation, rational explanation and scientific construction play a leading role.

The Materia Medica of Hahnemann is an enduring monument to the genius of its author Original in its conception and design and unique in its forms and contents. Its foundation is on the bedrock of natural law. It is constructed of the cut stones of accurately observed facts, lay up in the cement of irrefragable logic. Over its portals are graven the words, Similia Similibus Curenter; Simplex, Simile, Minimum.

Hahnemann on apprehending a new general principle in therapeutics, was confronted with the problem of creating an entirely new materia medica by means of which the principle might be applied in practice .If disease were to be treated according to the principle of symptom similarity it was necessary to know what symptoms drug could produce in healthy persons, since these would be the only symptoms which could possibly resemble the symptoms of sick person.

Undismayed by the magnitude of task it was Dr.Hahnemann who set about creating a materia   medica, which should embody the facts of drug action upon the healthy. Hahnemann’s genius affected a break-through when he established experimental human pharmacology by instituting Drug proving on healthy human beings. He thus obtained data on the pure effects of drugs, which he recorded in the Materia Medica Pura and in the Chronic Diseases. This data he presented in a systematic manner, arranged according to a scheme of locations, which has since been known after him. He ensured complete objectivity by recording faithfully the effects as experienced by the observations have been recorded as far as possible. His personal comments and observations have been recorded separately in his introductory remarks. These also assuring the clinician of a constant potency and efficacy. These precautions enabled other clinicians to test his results. His directions, therefore, are rigidly adhered to in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia even today.

After collecting the data pertaining to disease and drug, Hahnemann determined the criteria for establishing similarity between the picture of a disease as revealed in a patient and that of a drug in the Homoeopathic Materia Medica.

It will be interesting to examine the manner in which Hahnemann puts the case for the Law of Similars. He proceeds thus – Drugs cure by virtue of their capacity to effect a change in human beings. This capacity could be determined only through actual experiments on the healthy. The change thus produced, which could be termed as a drug-induced-disease, could either be similar or dis-similar to the state in the patient, which is the natural disease. Drugs, therefore, could be selected as remedial agents on the basis of their known capacity to produce either a similar or a dis-similar state. No amount of reasoning will enable one to conclude as to which method of selection will lead to cure. Pure experience alone will enable one to arrive at the right conclusion.   In the present revolution of modern higher antibiotics period giving instant results to the suffering humanity in various diseases with the gift of lot side effects Homoeopathy gives two steps ahead simple, Medicine in minute doses without side effects.

The testimony present in this dissertation is not a new one this is a genuine collection from the thousands of pages of our Materia Medica. This work is like a drop from the ocean of knowledge gathered from the stalwarts, Hahnemann down till today.  This dissertation gives a brief conformation, verification of hard facts gathered from literature for a study of the Polychrest Drug and it’s importance.  This work ill illustrate the study of Polychrest drug and its importance in various disorders. Proper use of Materia Medica will show how a Physician can be more indispensable to Polychrest drugs.

I put in all my sincere efforts to make this dissertation to enlighten the subject.

Aims and Objectives of the Study

  • Evaluate the efficacy of Polychrest drug and it’s importance.
  • To affirm the efficacy of Polychrest drug comparing in various disorder.
  • To confirm the clinical utility & wide scope of Polychrest medicine in       treatment of various disorders.
  • Conformation of symptomatology of Polychrest drugs in diseases.
  • Review of study of the Polychrest drug from various Materia Medicas and it’s importance.
  • Study of the Polychrest drug from the view of Physiological as well as the       homoeopathic point of view.
  • To study the Characteristic symptoms of Polychrest drugs.
  • To study the miasmatic coverage (Review) of Polychrest drugs.
  • Miscellaneous findings.

Download full thesis : www.similima.com/pdf/polychrest-drugs-in-clinical-practice.pdf