Notes on Physiology for competitive examinations

exam22Notes on Physiology for competitive examinations

Dr. Preetha .B, M.D (HOM-MM)
Dept. of Physiology & Biochemistry, GHMC, Trivandrum


  • GIT is a tubular structures extending from the mouth up to anus with a length of about 30 feet.
  • A normal healthy adult consumes about 1kg solid diet & about 1 – 2 liters of liquid diet / day.
  • Auerbach’s plexus regulate the movements of GIT.
  • Meissner’s plexus regulate the secretory functions of GIT.
  • Auerbach’s plexus is present between the middle circular muscle layer & outer longitudinal muscle layer & its major function is to regulate the movements of GIT.
  • The total volume of GIT secretions per day is about 8000 ml.
  • Properties & composition of Saliva:
  • Volume: 1000 – 1500 ml / day, (70% by submaxillary glands).
  • Reaction: pH 6.35 – 6.85.
  • Specific gravity: 1.0002 – 1.012
  • Composition: 99.5% water & 0.5% solids.
  • Digestive enzymes: salivary amylase (carbohydrate splitting) & lingual lipase (lipid splitting enzyme).
  • Substances like mercury, potassium iodide, lead & thiocyanate are excreted through saliva.
  • Saliva contains highest conc. of K+.
  • Volume of stomach is 50 ml when empty & can expand up to 4 liters.
  • Properties & composition of gastric juice:
    • Volume: 1200 – 1500 ml / day.
    • Reaction: pH 0.9 – 1.2.
    • Specific gravity: 1.002 – 1.004
    • Composition: 99.5% water & 0.5% solids.
    • Digestive enzymes: Pepsin, Gastric lipase & other gastric enzymes.
    • Action of pepsin: attacks peptide bonds adjacent to aromatic amino acids by hydrolysis.
    • Action of gastric lipase: weak lipolytic enzyme becomes active only when pH is between 4 & 5.
    • Action of HCL: activates pepsinogen into pepsin, bacteriolytic action, causes acidity of the chime & provides acid medium for the action of enzyme.
    • Gastrin is one of the GIT hormones secreted by G cells present in pyloric glands of stomach.
    • Action of Gastrin: stimulates the secretion of pepsinogen & Hcl by gastric glands, increases the motility of stomach, secretion of pancreatic juice & production of hormones by pancreas.
    • Pancreas is a dual organ & has endocrine & exocrine function.
    • Properties & composition of Pancreatic Juice:
      • Volume: 500 – 800 ml / day.
      • Reaction: pH 8 – 8.3.
      • Specific gravity: 1.010 – 1.018
      • Composition: 99.5% water & 0.5% solids.
      • An adult pancreas has 2.5-7.5 lac islets.
      • Total volume of pancreatic secretion per day is 2.5 liters.
      • Pancreas is the only organ that contains Trypsinogen.
      • Ascariasis can also cause acute pancreatitis.
      • Serum amylase and lipase levels are usually not elevated in chronic pancreatitis.
      • Duodenum is the principal site of iron absorption.
      • Most sensitive method for assessing pancreatic exocrine function is Secretin Stimulation Test.
  • Blood flow reaching the liver via portal versus hepatic artery is 4: 1.
  • Hepatic venous pressure is 5 mm Hg.
  • Most common complaints resulting from disorders involving the GIT include pain and alteration in bowel habit.
  • Most potent stimulus for bile secretion is bile salt.
  • Best stimulus for CCK secretion is Fat.
  • Properties of Bile:
    • Volume: 800 – 1200 ml / day
    • Reaction: alkaline
    • pH: 8 – 8.6
    • Sp. Gty: 1010 – 1011
  • Composition of Bile:
    • Water: 97.6%
    • Solids: 2.4%
  • Bile is stored in gall bladder; it undergoes many changes in quality & quantity.
  • There is increase in conc. of bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids & lecithin.
  • Functions of bile salts:
    • Emulsification of fats, due to emulsification, fat globules are broken down into minute particles.
    • Absorption of fats.
    • Stimulate the secretion of bile from liver.
    • Prevention of gall stone formation.
  • Properties of succus entericus:
    • Volume: 1800 ml / day
    • Reaction: alkaline
    • pH: 8 – 8.3
    • Sp. Gty: 1010 – 1011
  • Enzymes of succus entericus:
    • Proteolytic enzymes: peptidases – amino peptidases, dipeptidase & tripeptidase.
    • Amylolytic enzymes: sucrase, maltase, isomaltase, lactase, dextrase & trehalase.
    • Lipase & enterokinase
  • Bacterial flora of large intestine synthesizes folic acid, Vit B12 & Vit K.
  • Vomiting center is situated bilaterally in medulla oblongata near the nucleus tractus solitarius.
  • Segmentation contraction & pendular movement are involved in mixing of food in small intestine.
  • Peristaltic movements peristaltic rush are the two movements involved in the pushing of chyme towards aboral end on intestine.
  • Desire for defecation is elicited by an increase in the intrarectal pressure to about 20 to 25 cm H2O.
  • Gastrointestinal hormones:


Source of  secretion


Gastrin G cells of stomach; duodenum, jejunum, Ant. Pit & Brain 1. Stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.2. Increase the gastric motility.Stimulates the release of pancreatic hormones.
Secretin S cells of duodenum, jejunum & ileum Stimulates secretion of watery, alkaline & pancreatic secretions.
Cholecytokinin I cells in duodenum, jejunum & ileum Stimulates contraction of gall bladder; Activates secretin; Inhibits gastric motility; Increases secretion of enterokinase & intestinal motility.
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) K cells in duodenum & jejunum Inhibits secretion of gastric juice, gastric motility & increase insulin secretion.
  • Digestion of Carbohydrates:





End Product

Mouth Saliva Salivary amylase Polysaccharides Disaccharides
Stomach Gastric juice Gastric amylase Weak amylase The action is negligible
Small intestine Pancreatic juice Pancreatic amylase PolysaccharidesDisaccharides Disaccharides – dextrins, maltose & maltrioseMonosaccharides
Succus entericus SucraseMaltaseLactase



Disaccharides Glucose


  • Skin is the largest organ in the human body.
  • The normal body temperature varies is between 35.8 – 37.30.
  • Axillary temperature is slightly lower, while rectal temp. is slightly higher.
  • Heat lose center is situated in pre-optic nucleus of ant. Hypo thalamus.
  • Heat gain center is situated in post. Hypothalamic nucleus.
  • Primary motor center for shivering is situated in post. Hypothalamus, near the wall 3rd ventricle. 


  • The major phospholipids present in the surfactant are di-palmitoylphosphatidyl choline.
  • Surfactant is secreted by type II alveolar epithelial cells.
  • Total peripheral resistance falls about 50% in moderate exercise.
  • Cyanosis is detectable when arterial oxygen saturation falls below 75% corresponding to PO2 of 40 mmHg.
  • 250ml of oxygen enters the body per min and 200 ml of CO2 is excreted.
  • 5 ml of 02 is transported to the tissues by 100 ml blood in every cycle
  • Pulmonary alveolar macrophages form called “Dust cells”.
  • Size and strength of respiratory muscles is 30-40% above normal in athletes whereas it is 20-30% less in physically weak people.
  • There are about 300 million alveoli in man.
  • There is no stimulation of ventilation by hypoxia until the alveolar O2 falls below 60 mm Hg.
  • Oxygen transported from lung to tissues in chemical combination is 97%.
  • In a healthy adult, 24 hour production of CO2 is about 330 liters.
  • Diffusion capacity for carbon dioxide as compared to that of 02 is 20 times.
  • Average area of the alveolar walls in contact with capillaries in both lungs is about 70 sq. m.
  • Diffusion capacity of lungs for CO2 is 10-30 ml/min/mmHg.
  • Normal composition of venous blood is PO240 mmHg, PCO2 -46 mm Hg and Hb saturation 75%.
  • Peak expiratory flow rate is 400-500 L/mt.
  • The presence of Hb increases the 02 carrying capacity of the blood by 70 fold.
  • Intra-pleural pressure (recoil pressure) required to prevent collapse of the lung — 4 mm Hg in presence of surfactant.
  • Intrapleural pressure at the end of deep inspiration is – 4 mm Hg.
  • Intrapleural pressure during expiration is – 2 mm Hg.
  • Compliance of the normal lungs and thorax combined — 0.13 liter/cm, of H2O.
  • Compliance of the normal lungs alone is 0.22 liter/cm of H2O.
  • During normal quiet breathing only 2-3% of the total energy expenditure is needed for pulmonary ventilation.
  • The amount of alveolar air replaced by new atmospheric air with each breath is only l/7th.
  • Expired air contains 2/3rd alveolar air + l/3rd dead space air.
  • 63% of carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate form
  • 97% of O2 is transported by Hb, rest 3% is in dissolved state in the water of the plasma and cells.
  • Carbon mono oxide binds with Hb. 230 times more strongly than ()2.
  • Under resting conditions each 100 ml of blood transports 5 ml of O2 to tissues and carries 4 ml of CO2 from tissues to the lungs.
  • Death occurs usually when the pH of the blood falls to 6.9.
  • The decrease in 02 affinity of Hb when the pH of blood falls is called Bohr’s effect.
  • The degree of stimulation of chemoreceptors depends on arterial PO2.
  • Spirometer cannot measure Functional Residual Capacity.
  • Functional residual capacity is measured by Nitrogen wash out or single breath oxygen method.
  • Most potent respiratory stimulant is carbon dioxide.
  • Kausmaul breathing is seen in diabetic ketoacidosis and it is not a feature of Hypercapnic acidosis.
  • Hering-breuer reflex: impulses from stretch receptors.
  • Peripheral chemoreceptors are carotid & aortic bodies.
  • Respiratory centers:
    • Inspiration – dorsal group of neurons near tractus solitarius nucleus.
    • Expiration – ventral group situated in ventral part of medulla.
  • Normal value of FEV 1 in an adult male is 80%.
  • Muscles of InspirationDiaphragm and External Intercostals muscle (Others – Stcrnocleidomastoid, Serratus anterior).
  • Muscle of Expiration —Internal Intercostal muscle. (Rectus abdominis).
  • Intra alveolar pressure during inspiration — 1 mm Hg.
  • Tidal volume: 500 ml.
  • Inspiratory reserve volume: 3300 ml.
  • Expiratory reserve volume: 1000 ml.
  • Residual volume: 1200 ml.
  • Respiratory minute Volume in a normal person is 6.0 L/min.
  • Inspiratory capacity: 3800 ml.
  • Vital capacity : 4800 ml.
  • Total lung capacity: 6000 ml.
  • Functional residual capacity in a male is 2.2 liters.
  • Normal dead space air volume — 150 ml.
  • Timed vital capacity in 1sec is 83%.
  • Timed vital capacity in 2 sec is 94%.
  • Oxygen dissociation curve is ‘S’ shape or sigmoid shape.

Shift to right

Shift to left

Decrease pH Increase pH
Increase in temp decrease in temp
Excess of 2, 3 DPG Foetal blood
Increase PCO2 (Bohr effect)

Decrease PO2


  • Hormone which acts on the target cell is called as 1st messenger.
  • Cyclic AMP is the most common 2nd messenger for protein hormones.
  • Other 2nd messengers are Ca++, Calmoduline, Inositol triphosphate(IP3) & cyclic GMP.
  • Anterior pituitary hormones are
    • Growth hormone or somatotropic hormone
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone
    • Adenocorticotropic hormone
    • Follicle stimulating hormone
    • Luiteinizing Hormone or interstitial cell stimulating hormones in males
    • Prolactin.
  • Posterior pituitary hormones are
    • Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
    • Oxytocin
  • ADH causes conservation of body water & contraction of vascular smooth muscle.
  • Gigantism is due to the hyper secretion of growth hormone in childhood or in the pre-adult life before the fusion of epiphysis of bone with the shaft.
  • Acromegaly is due to hyper secretion of GH in adults after the fusion of epiphysis with shaft of the bone.
  • Dwarfism is a disorder of GH reduction in infancy or early childhood.
  • Diabetes insipidus is a syndrome developed due the defiency of ADH.
  • Hormone responsible for uterine contraction during labour & letting down of milk is Oxytocin.
  • The anterior pituitary has the largest blood flow of any tissue in the body.
  • Anterior pituitary hormones with diabetogenic effect – GH, ACTH, TSH, and PRL.
  • Pigmentation is not a feature of panhypopituitarism.
  • Hormones of thyroid gland are
    • Thyroxine (T4) – 90%
    • Triiodothyronine (T3) – 10%
    • Calcitonin
  • Potency of T3 is four times more than that of T4.
  • Graves’ disease is an auto-immune disease which causes hyperthyroidism.(exophathalmic goiter)
  • Cretinism is hypothyroidism in children & myxedema due to hypothyroidism in adults.
  • Parathormone is secreted by para thyroid gland & its main function is to increase the blood Ca++ level by mobilizing Ca++ from bone.
  • Calcitonin reduces the blood Ca++ level by decreasing the bone re-absorption.
  • Tetany results from hypocalcaemia, caused by hypoparathyroidism.
  • Pancreatic hormones are
    • Alpha cell – Glucagons
    • Beta cells – Insulin
    • Delta cells – Somatostatin
    • F or PP cells – Pancreatic polypeptide
  • Insulin is the only anti diabetic hormone secreted in the body.
  • Glucagons actions are antagonistic to that of insulin.
  • Somatostatin inhibits the secretion of both glucagons & Insulin.
  • Hormones of Adrenal cortex are
    • Mineralocorticoids (secreted by zona glomerulosa)
      • Aldosterone (↑ Na+ & excretion of K+)
      • 11 deoxy corticosterone
    • Glucocorticoids (zona fasiculata)
      • Cortisol
      • Corticosterone
    • Sex hormones (zona reticularis)
      • Dehydroepiandrosterone
      • Androstenedione
      • Testosterone
  • Cushing syndrome is a disorder characterized by obesity due to hyper secretion of glucocorticoids.
  • Conn’s syndrome is primary aldosteronism.
  • Addison’s disease is chronic adrenal insuffiency.
  • Hormones of Adrenal medulla (Catecholamines) are
    • Adrenaline or epinephrine
    • Noradrenaline or norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
  • Pheochromocytoma is a condition in which there is excessive secretion of catecholamines.
  • Melatonin is secreted by parachymal cells of pineal gland, acts on gonads.
  • Severe stress can raise ACTH and cortisol level by 20 folds.
  • Fetal lung maturation depends on increased fetal Cortisol just before birth.
  • Human prolactin causes synthesis of milk in the female breast.
  • The half life of circulating growth hormone in humans is 20 to 30 minutes. 


  • Blood is a connective tissue in fluid form.
  • Blood is 5 times viscous than water.
  • Blood cell count is greater in children than adult.
  • RBC is microcytic in iron defiency anaemia, prolonged forced breathing & increased osmotic pressure.
  • RBC is macrocytic in megaloblastic anaemia, muscular exercise & decreased osmotic pressure in blood.
  • Punctate basophlism is seen in lead poisoning.
  • Goblet ring is seen in certain types of anaemia like malaria.
  • Red cell vol. can be determined by radio isotope 51 Cr.
  • Cyanosis appears when the reduced Hb cone, of the blood in the capillaries is more than 5 gm/dl.
  • In vitro, coagulation is initiated by factor XII.
  • Life of RBC’s in adult human body is 120 days.
  • Average life span of RBC in a newborn is 100 days.
  • Average life span of RBC in transfused blood is 90 days.
  • Life span of transfused platelets is 4 days.
  • Life span of platelets is 9-12 days.
  • Complete erythropoiesis occurs in 7 days.
  • Erythropoiesis occurs in
    • In first trimester RBC’s are formed in Yolk sac. While in second trimester liver is the main organ. Third trimester in liver & bone marrow.
    • Upto age of 5 – 6 yrs – red bone marrow of all bones.
    • 6 – 20 yrs – red bone marrow of all bones & all membranous bones.
    • After 20 yrs – all membranous bones & ends of long bone.
  • Hb starts appearing in intermediate normoblastic stage of erythropoiesis.
  • Nucleus disappears during late normoblastic stage.
  • Factors needed for Erythropoiesis: erythropoietin, thyroxine, interleukins 3, 6, 11, stem cell factors, Vit B, C & D. (maturation factors Vit B12 & folic acid).
  • The iron remains in ferrous state.
  • The affinity of Hb for CO2 is 20 times more than for O2.
  • The affinity of Hb for CO is 200 times more than its affinity for O2.
  • Adult Hb consists of 2 alpha & 2 beta chains.
  • Fetal Hb consist of 2 alpha & 2 gamma chains.
  • In sickle cell anemia, the 2 alpha chains are normal but 2 beta chains are abnormal.
  • In Hb C, beta chains are abnormal.
  • Bilirubin is the final product formed from the destruction of Hb.
  • Total quantity of the iron in the body is 4gm.
  • 1 mg of iron is excreted every day through faeces.
  • Normocytic normochromic anaemia is seen in aplastic aneamia.
  • Marcocytic normochromic anaemia seen in folate deficiency, Vit B12 & hypothyroidism.
  • Pernicious anaemia or addsion’s anaemia is marcocytic normochromic anaemia.
  • Microcytic hypochromic is seen in iron deficiency, thalassemia, heamoglobinopathies & heamolytic anaemia.
  • ESR decreases in allergic conditions, sickle cell anaemia, polycythemia & afibrinogenemia.




1. ESR Male: 3 – 7 mm / hrFemale: 5 – 9 mm / hr
2. PCV (Packed cell volume)(Hematocrit) Male: 40 – 45 %Female: 38 – 42 %
3. MCV (Mean corpuscular volume) 90 cuµ (78 – 90 cuµ)
4. MCH (Mean corpuscular Hb) 30 pg (27 – 32pg)
5. MCHC (Mean corpuscular Hb Conc.) 30% (13 – 38%)
6. Colour index 1 (0.8 – 1.2)
7. WBC 4000 – 11,000 / cmm
8. D.CNeutrophilsEosinophils




50 – 70%2 – 4 %

0 – 1 %

2 – 6%

20 – 30 %

9. Platelet count 2,50,000( 2 lakhs – 4 lakhs)
10. Bleeding time 3 – 6 min
11. Clotting time 3 – 8 min
12. Prothrombin time 12 sec
13. Activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT) 25 – 40 sec
14. RBCAdult maleAdult female


4 – 5.5 millions / mm35 millions / mm34.5 millions / mm3

8 – 10 millions / mm3


15. Heamoglobin Adult maleAdult female

New born

14 – 18 gm / dl12 – 16 gm / dl

16 – 22 gm /dl

16. RBCDiameter 7.5 µ
17. Blood volume 5 liters
  • Granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils.
  • Agranulocytes are monocytes & lymphocytes.
  • Monocyte is the largest lymphocyte.
  • In hemophilia clotting time is prolonged in presence of normal bleeding time.
  • Christmas disease occurs due to deficiency of factor IX.
  • Clotting factors
Factor I Fibrinogen
Factor II Prothrombin
Factor III Thromboplastin
Factor IV Calcium
Factor V Pro accelerin (labile factor)
Factor VI No such factor
Factor VII Stable factor
Factor VIII Anti hemophilic
Factor IX Christmas
Factor X Stuart-power
Factor XI Plasma thrombplastin antecedent
Factor XII Hegman (Conduct)
Factor XIII Fibrin stabilizing factor (Fibrinase)
  • Blood group:
Group Antigen in RBC Antibody in serum
A A Anti – B (β)
B B Anti – α
AB A & B No anti body
O No antigen Anti A & Anti B
  • Universal recipient are Blood Group ‘AB because it does not contain either Anti A ab or anti B ab.
  • Universal donor is Blood Group “()” because it docs not contain either A or B agglutinogen (antigen).
  • Commonest blood group is O.
  • Diseases associated with blood groups:
    • Group A – C.A stomach
    • Group O – duodenal ulcer
  • Normal basic acid output is 5-10 mmol/hour.
  • Blood is stored in the blood bank at 40C.
  • The number of iron Heme in one Hb molecule is 4.
  • The number of O2 molecules carried by one Hb molecule is 4.
  • Mean corpuscular diameter is 7.5 nm.
  • Maximum concentration of Hb normally found in RBC’s is 34%.
  • In arterial blood, saturated Hb with 02 is 97%.
  • Thromboxane A2 is synthesized by platelets and promotes vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation.
  • In sickle cell anemia, valine is substituted for glutamic acid.
  • Platelets are derived from megakaryocytes.
  • Pus contains — Dead neutrophils, macrophages and necrotic tissues.
  • Cardiac output in anemia is above normal while in polycythemia is about normal.
  • Agglutinins are either IgM or IgG.
  • In Erythroblastosis fetalis, mother is Rh-, father is Rh+, foetus is Rh positive.
  • Hapatoglobin is a plasma protein responsible for carrying free Haemoglobin.
  • Usual anticoagulant used for transfusion is a citrate salt.
  • Earliest feature of iron deficiency anemia is decreased serum ferritin.
  • Arneth count is used in the determination of the percentage distribution of different types of neutrophils on the basis of no: nuclear lobes.
  • Wilson’s disease is due to decrease in caeruloplasmin.


  • Hormones secreted by kidney are erythropoietin, thrombopoitein, renin & 1, 25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol.
  • 1 kidney contains about 1 – 1.3 millions nephrons.
  • Ratio of corical nephrons to Juxtamedullary nephrons 85: 15.
  • The GFR of average sized normal man is approximately 125 ml / minute or 180 liters / day.
  • At the rate of 125 ml/min, the kidneys filter an amount of fluid equal to 4 times the TBV, 15 times the ECF vol. and 60 times the plasma volume.
  • 1 – 1.5 liters of urine formed / day.
  • Urine osmolality in diabetes insipidus is 300 mmol/L.
  • Normal protein excretion is 50 -150 mg%.
  • The quantity of water lost as sweat per day is 600-800 C.C
  • Normal urea clearance is 44 ml/min.
  • Renal blood flow is 25% of cardiac output (1300 ml blood/min).
  • Total length of distal convoluted tubule is 5 mm.
  • Glomerulus membrane permits the passage of substances upto 4 nm and almost totally excludes substance with size greater than 8 nm.
  • Each glomerulus is a net work of approximately 50 parallel capillaries.
  • Urinary osmolality in diabetes insipidus is 300 m mol/Lit.
  • Glucose and amino acid are absorbed in proximal convoluted tubules by secondary active transport or sodium Co-transport.
  • Descending limb of thin segment of loop of Henle is freely permeable to water.
  • Areas impermeable to water — ascending limb of thin segment thick segment of loop of Henle. Proximal half of convoluted tubule.
  • Areas impermeable to urea — Distal convoluted tubule & cortical portion of collecting tubules.
  • Substances completely reabsorbed in PCT — Glucose, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, acetoacetate.
  • Substances partially absorbed in PCT—Na. K, Cl (7/8 reabsorbed in PCT).
  • Substances secreted in PCT — H+, PAH (para amino hippurate). creatinine.
  • H+ are actively secreted in proximal tubules, distal tubules, collecting ducts.
  • Hyperosmilality in the interstitum is the prerequisite for excretion of concentrated urine.
  • Urea is reabsorbed from inner meduallary collecting ducts only in presence of ADH.
  • K+ is actively secreted in Late Distal tubules and Collecting ducts.
  • Macula densa is the epithelial cells of the distal tubule that comes to contact with the arterioles.
  • Juxtaglomerular cells produce renin.
  • Renin acts on angiotensinogen & convert it into angiotensin I.
  • Renal threshold for glucose is reduced in renal glycosuria.
  • Creatinine clearance represents GFR.
  • Clearance test for renal function includes inulin clearance, creatinine clearance & PAHA test.
  • PAHA test is performed to assess renal blood flow.
  • Micturition is primarily a spinal reflex.
  • Thick ascending loop of  henle is impermeable to water.
  • Majority of sodium absorption occur  in the proximal tubule.



pH 4. 5 – 6
Volume 1000 – 1500 ml / day
Specific gravity 1.010 – 1.025


  • Average pH of semen is 7.5.
  • Life span of spermatozoa within the female genital tract is upto 24 hours.
  • Speed of human sperm in female genital tract is about 3 mm/min.
  • Male sex hormones are called the androgens (secreted by leydig cells); testosterone, dihydro testosterone & androstenedione.
  • Mullerian ducts gives rise to female accessory sex organs such as vagina, uterus & fallopian tube.
  • Wolffian duct gives rise to male accessory sex organs such as epididymis, vas deferens & seminal vesicles.
  • Fetal testes begin to secrete the testosterone at about 2nd to 4th month of embryonic life.
  • The secretion from seminal vesicles contains fructose, phophorylcholine, fibrinogen, ascorbic acid, citric acid, pepsinogen, acid phosphatase & prostaglandin.
  • Fructose & citrate acts as fuel for the spermatozoa.
  • Prostatic secretion is rich in enzymes, fructose & citrate.
  • Androgen appears to be essential for spermatogenesis. Whereas FSH is required for spermatic maturation.
  • Testes do not produce fructose.(seminal vesicle)
  • Sertoli cells provide nutrition to the developing sperm; secrete oestrogen & hormone binding proteins.
  • Testosterone is synthesized from pregnanolone.
  • Testosterone stimulates the process of spermatogenesis, also necessary for the formation of secondary spermatocyte from primary spermatocyte.
  • Growth hormone is essential for the general metabolic processes in testis.
  • Male sex hormone is secreted mainly by interstitial cells of Leydig.
  • Development of male sex organ in fetal life depends on testosterone produced under the influence of HCG.
  • Testosterone circulates in Combination with Gonadal steroid binding globulin.
  • Hormone used for treating osteoporosis in old age — Testosterone.
  • In males FSH promotes spermatogenesis by enhancing the transport of Testosterone to seminiferous tubules and androgen binding protein synthesis from sertoli cells. 


  • During menstrual period, upto 20 gm of protein may be lost.
  • Quantity of blood expelled during normal menstral cycle is 40 ml (approx) & serous – 35 mls.
  • FSH level is high in post menopausal women.
  • Ovarian hormones are estrogen and progesterone
  • Ovulation occurs on the 14th day of menstrual cycle in a normal cycle of 28 days.
  • Oxytocin causes contraction of smooth muscles of uterus & enhances labour.
  • Hormones secreted are HCG, Oestrogen, progesterone & human chorionic somato mammo tropin.
  • Relaxin is a hormone secreted from the maternal ovary during the later periods of pregnancy.
  • Biological test for Pregnancy can be performed only after 2 – 3 weeks of conception.
  • LH is concerned with follicle maturation and ovulation.
  • Menopausal hot flushes are due to LH surge.
  • Estrogen increases the secretion and ciliary beating in fallopian tubes.
  • Estrogen changes the cuboidal lining of vagina to stratified.
  • Estrogen changes the break down of glycogen into lactate in vagina.
  • Estrogen initiates breast development.
  • Estrogen causes early epiphyseal closure.
  • Estrogen causes water retention.
  • Important function of progesterone is to promote secretory changes in endometrium.
  • Progesterone is the hormone for maintenance of pregnancy.
  • Progesterone inhibits ovulation.
  • The most important function of progesterone is to promote secretory changes in endometrium. 


  • In human beings the total body water varies from 45 – 75 % of body weight.
  • Total water in the body is about 40 liters. (ICF forms 55% & ECF forms 45%).
  • The volume of interstial fluid is about 12 liters.
  • The volume of plasma is about 2.75 liters.
  • Osmolality is the measure of a fluid’s capability to create osmotic pressure, also called as osmotic conc. of a solution.
  • Osmolarity is the no: of particles / per liter of solution.
  • Isotonic solutions are having same effective osmolality as body fluids. Eg: 0.9% Nacl solution & 5% glucose solution.
  • The insensible water loss from the body is about 600 to 800 ml. per day.
  • The quantity of water lost as sweat per day is 600 – 800 C.C.
  • The normal pH of plasma is 7.4
  • Acidosis is pH  below 7.38
  • Alkalosis is pH above 7.42
  • Respiratory acidosis: primary excess of carbonic acid
    • Due to hypoventilation as in respiratory diseases & neural diseases.
  • Metabolic acidosis: primary deficiency of bicarbonate
    • As in lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, uremic acidosis & diarrhea.
  • Respiratory alkalosis: primary deficiency of carbonic acid
    • Due to hyperventilation as in hypoxia, neural diseases & psychological conditions.
  • Metabolic alkalosis: primary excess of bicarbonate
    • As in vomiting & treatment with diuretics. 

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