Notes on Physiology for competitive examinations
Dr. Preetha .B, M.D (HOM-MM)
Dept. of Physiology & Biochemistry, GHMC, Trivandrum
- GIT is a tubular structures extending from the mouth up to anus with a length of about 30 feet.
- A normal healthy adult consumes about 1kg solid diet & about 1 – 2 liters of liquid diet / day.
- Auerbach’s plexus regulate the movements of GIT.
- Meissner’s plexus regulate the secretory functions of GIT.
- Auerbach’s plexus is present between the middle circular muscle layer & outer longitudinal muscle layer & its major function is to regulate the movements of GIT.
- The total volume of GIT secretions per day is about 8000 ml.
- Properties & composition of Saliva:
- Volume: 1000 – 1500 ml / day, (70% by submaxillary glands).
- Reaction: pH 6.35 – 6.85.
- Specific gravity: 1.0002 – 1.012
- Composition: 99.5% water & 0.5% solids.
- Digestive enzymes: salivary amylase (carbohydrate splitting) & lingual lipase (lipid splitting enzyme).
- Substances like mercury, potassium iodide, lead & thiocyanate are excreted through saliva.
- Saliva contains highest conc. of K+.
- Volume of stomach is 50 ml when empty & can expand up to 4 liters.
- Properties & composition of gastric juice:
- Volume: 1200 – 1500 ml / day.
- Reaction: pH 0.9 – 1.2.
- Specific gravity: 1.002 – 1.004
- Composition: 99.5% water & 0.5% solids.
- Digestive enzymes: Pepsin, Gastric lipase & other gastric enzymes.
- Action of pepsin: attacks peptide bonds adjacent to aromatic amino acids by hydrolysis.
- Action of gastric lipase: weak lipolytic enzyme becomes active only when pH is between 4 & 5.
- Action of HCL: activates pepsinogen into pepsin, bacteriolytic action, causes acidity of the chime & provides acid medium for the action of enzyme.
- Gastrin is one of the GIT hormones secreted by G cells present in pyloric glands of stomach.
- Action of Gastrin: stimulates the secretion of pepsinogen & Hcl by gastric glands, increases the motility of stomach, secretion of pancreatic juice & production of hormones by pancreas.
- Pancreas is a dual organ & has endocrine & exocrine function.
- Properties & composition of Pancreatic Juice:
- Volume: 500 – 800 ml / day.
- Reaction: pH 8 – 8.3.
- Specific gravity: 1.010 – 1.018
- Composition: 99.5% water & 0.5% solids.
- An adult pancreas has 2.5-7.5 lac islets.
- Total volume of pancreatic secretion per day is 2.5 liters.
- Pancreas is the only organ that contains Trypsinogen.
- Ascariasis can also cause acute pancreatitis.
- Serum amylase and lipase levels are usually not elevated in chronic pancreatitis.
- Duodenum is the principal site of iron absorption.
- Most sensitive method for assessing pancreatic exocrine function is Secretin Stimulation Test.
- Blood flow reaching the liver via portal versus hepatic artery is 4: 1.
- Hepatic venous pressure is 5 mm Hg.
- Most common complaints resulting from disorders involving the GIT include pain and alteration in bowel habit.
- Most potent stimulus for bile secretion is bile salt.
- Best stimulus for CCK secretion is Fat.
- Properties of Bile:
- Volume: 800 – 1200 ml / day
- Reaction: alkaline
- pH: 8 – 8.6
- Sp. Gty: 1010 – 1011
- Composition of Bile:
- Water: 97.6%
- Solids: 2.4%
- Bile is stored in gall bladder; it undergoes many changes in quality & quantity.
- There is increase in conc. of bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids & lecithin.
- Functions of bile salts:
- Emulsification of fats, due to emulsification, fat globules are broken down into minute particles.
- Absorption of fats.
- Stimulate the secretion of bile from liver.
- Prevention of gall stone formation.
- Properties of succus entericus:
- Volume: 1800 ml / day
- Reaction: alkaline
- pH: 8 – 8.3
- Sp. Gty: 1010 – 1011
- Enzymes of succus entericus:
- Proteolytic enzymes: peptidases – amino peptidases, dipeptidase & tripeptidase.
- Amylolytic enzymes: sucrase, maltase, isomaltase, lactase, dextrase & trehalase.
- Lipase & enterokinase
- Bacterial flora of large intestine synthesizes folic acid, Vit B12 & Vit K.
- Vomiting center is situated bilaterally in medulla oblongata near the nucleus tractus solitarius.
- Segmentation contraction & pendular movement are involved in mixing of food in small intestine.
- Peristaltic movements peristaltic rush are the two movements involved in the pushing of chyme towards aboral end on intestine.
- Desire for defecation is elicited by an increase in the intrarectal pressure to about 20 to 25 cm H2O.
- Gastrointestinal hormones:
Source of secretion
|Gastrin||G cells of stomach; duodenum, jejunum, Ant. Pit & Brain||1. Stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.2. Increase the gastric motility.Stimulates the release of pancreatic hormones.|
|Secretin||S cells of duodenum, jejunum & ileum||Stimulates secretion of watery, alkaline & pancreatic secretions.|
|Cholecytokinin||I cells in duodenum, jejunum & ileum||Stimulates contraction of gall bladder; Activates secretin; Inhibits gastric motility; Increases secretion of enterokinase & intestinal motility.|
|Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)||K cells in duodenum & jejunum||Inhibits secretion of gastric juice, gastric motility & increase insulin secretion.|
- Digestion of Carbohydrates:
|Stomach||Gastric juice||Gastric amylase||Weak amylase||The action is negligible|
|Small intestine||Pancreatic juice||Pancreatic amylase||PolysaccharidesDisaccharides||Disaccharides – dextrins, maltose & maltrioseMonosaccharides|
- Skin is the largest organ in the human body.
- The normal body temperature varies is between 35.8 – 37.30.
- Axillary temperature is slightly lower, while rectal temp. is slightly higher.
- Heat lose center is situated in pre-optic nucleus of ant. Hypo thalamus.
- Heat gain center is situated in post. Hypothalamic nucleus.
- Primary motor center for shivering is situated in post. Hypothalamus, near the wall 3rd ventricle.
- The major phospholipids present in the surfactant are di-palmitoylphosphatidyl choline.
- Surfactant is secreted by type II alveolar epithelial cells.
- Total peripheral resistance falls about 50% in moderate exercise.
- Cyanosis is detectable when arterial oxygen saturation falls below 75% corresponding to PO2 of 40 mmHg.
- 250ml of oxygen enters the body per min and 200 ml of CO2 is excreted.
- 5 ml of 02 is transported to the tissues by 100 ml blood in every cycle
- Pulmonary alveolar macrophages form called “Dust cells”.
- Size and strength of respiratory muscles is 30-40% above normal in athletes whereas it is 20-30% less in physically weak people.
- There are about 300 million alveoli in man.
- There is no stimulation of ventilation by hypoxia until the alveolar O2 falls below 60 mm Hg.
- Oxygen transported from lung to tissues in chemical combination is 97%.
- In a healthy adult, 24 hour production of CO2 is about 330 liters.
- Diffusion capacity for carbon dioxide as compared to that of 02 is 20 times.
- Average area of the alveolar walls in contact with capillaries in both lungs is about 70 sq. m.
- Diffusion capacity of lungs for CO2 is 10-30 ml/min/mmHg.
- Normal composition of venous blood is PO2 – 40 mmHg, PCO2 -46 mm Hg and Hb saturation 75%.
- Peak expiratory flow rate is 400-500 L/mt.
- The presence of Hb increases the 02 carrying capacity of the blood by 70 fold.
- Intra-pleural pressure (recoil pressure) required to prevent collapse of the lung — 4 mm Hg in presence of surfactant.
- Intrapleural pressure at the end of deep inspiration is – 4 mm Hg.
- Intrapleural pressure during expiration is – 2 mm Hg.
- Compliance of the normal lungs and thorax combined — 0.13 liter/cm, of H2O.
- Compliance of the normal lungs alone is 0.22 liter/cm of H2O.
- During normal quiet breathing only 2-3% of the total energy expenditure is needed for pulmonary ventilation.
- The amount of alveolar air replaced by new atmospheric air with each breath is only l/7th.
- Expired air contains 2/3rd alveolar air + l/3rd dead space air.
- 63% of carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate form
- 97% of O2 is transported by Hb, rest 3% is in dissolved state in the water of the plasma and cells.
- Carbon mono oxide binds with Hb. 230 times more strongly than ()2.
- Under resting conditions each 100 ml of blood transports 5 ml of O2 to tissues and carries 4 ml of CO2 from tissues to the lungs.
- Death occurs usually when the pH of the blood falls to 6.9.
- The decrease in 02 affinity of Hb when the pH of blood falls is called Bohr’s effect.
- The degree of stimulation of chemoreceptors depends on arterial PO2.
- Spirometer cannot measure Functional Residual Capacity.
- Functional residual capacity is measured by Nitrogen wash out or single breath oxygen method.
- Most potent respiratory stimulant is carbon dioxide.
- Kausmaul breathing is seen in diabetic ketoacidosis and it is not a feature of Hypercapnic acidosis.
- Hering-breuer reflex: impulses from stretch receptors.
- Peripheral chemoreceptors are carotid & aortic bodies.
- Respiratory centers:
- Inspiration – dorsal group of neurons near tractus solitarius nucleus.
- Expiration – ventral group situated in ventral part of medulla.
- Normal value of FEV 1 in an adult male is 80%.
- Muscles of Inspiration — Diaphragm and External Intercostals muscle (Others – Stcrnocleidomastoid, Serratus anterior).
- Muscle of Expiration —Internal Intercostal muscle. (Rectus abdominis).
- Intra alveolar pressure during inspiration — 1 mm Hg.
- Tidal volume: 500 ml.
- Inspiratory reserve volume: 3300 ml.
- Expiratory reserve volume: 1000 ml.
- Residual volume: 1200 ml.
- Respiratory minute Volume in a normal person is 6.0 L/min.
- Inspiratory capacity: 3800 ml.
- Vital capacity : 4800 ml.
- Total lung capacity: 6000 ml.
- Functional residual capacity in a male is 2.2 liters.
- Normal dead space air volume — 150 ml.
- Timed vital capacity in 1sec is 83%.
- Timed vital capacity in 2 sec is 94%.
- Oxygen dissociation curve is ‘S’ shape or sigmoid shape.
Shift to right
Shift to left
|Decrease pH||Increase pH|
|Increase in temp||decrease in temp|
|Excess of 2, 3 DPG||Foetal blood|
|Increase PCO2 (Bohr effect)||
- Hormone which acts on the target cell is called as 1st messenger.
- Cyclic AMP is the most common 2nd messenger for protein hormones.
- Other 2nd messengers are Ca++, Calmoduline, Inositol triphosphate(IP3) & cyclic GMP.
- Anterior pituitary hormones are
- Growth hormone or somatotropic hormone
- Thyroid stimulating hormone
- Adenocorticotropic hormone
- Follicle stimulating hormone
- Luiteinizing Hormone or interstitial cell stimulating hormones in males
- Posterior pituitary hormones are
- Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
- ADH causes conservation of body water & contraction of vascular smooth muscle.
- Gigantism is due to the hyper secretion of growth hormone in childhood or in the pre-adult life before the fusion of epiphysis of bone with the shaft.
- Acromegaly is due to hyper secretion of GH in adults after the fusion of epiphysis with shaft of the bone.
- Dwarfism is a disorder of GH reduction in infancy or early childhood.
- Diabetes insipidus is a syndrome developed due the defiency of ADH.
- Hormone responsible for uterine contraction during labour & letting down of milk is Oxytocin.
- The anterior pituitary has the largest blood flow of any tissue in the body.
- Anterior pituitary hormones with diabetogenic effect – GH, ACTH, TSH, and PRL.
- Pigmentation is not a feature of panhypopituitarism.
- Hormones of thyroid gland are
- Thyroxine (T4) – 90%
- Triiodothyronine (T3) – 10%
- Potency of T3 is four times more than that of T4.
- Graves’ disease is an auto-immune disease which causes hyperthyroidism.(exophathalmic goiter)
- Cretinism is hypothyroidism in children & myxedema due to hypothyroidism in adults.
- Parathormone is secreted by para thyroid gland & its main function is to increase the blood Ca++ level by mobilizing Ca++ from bone.
- Calcitonin reduces the blood Ca++ level by decreasing the bone re-absorption.
- Tetany results from hypocalcaemia, caused by hypoparathyroidism.
- Pancreatic hormones are
- Alpha cell – Glucagons
- Beta cells – Insulin
- Delta cells – Somatostatin
- F or PP cells – Pancreatic polypeptide
- Insulin is the only anti diabetic hormone secreted in the body.
- Glucagons actions are antagonistic to that of insulin.
- Somatostatin inhibits the secretion of both glucagons & Insulin.
- Hormones of Adrenal cortex are
- Mineralocorticoids (secreted by zona glomerulosa)
- Aldosterone (↑ Na+ & excretion of K+)
- 11 deoxy corticosterone
- Glucocorticoids (zona fasiculata)
- Sex hormones (zona reticularis)
- Mineralocorticoids (secreted by zona glomerulosa)
- Cushing syndrome is a disorder characterized by obesity due to hyper secretion of glucocorticoids.
- Conn’s syndrome is primary aldosteronism.
- Addison’s disease is chronic adrenal insuffiency.
- Hormones of Adrenal medulla (Catecholamines) are
- Adrenaline or epinephrine
- Noradrenaline or norepinephrine
- Pheochromocytoma is a condition in which there is excessive secretion of catecholamines.
- Melatonin is secreted by parachymal cells of pineal gland, acts on gonads.
- Severe stress can raise ACTH and cortisol level by 20 folds.
- Fetal lung maturation depends on increased fetal Cortisol just before birth.
- Human prolactin causes synthesis of milk in the female breast.
- The half life of circulating growth hormone in humans is 20 to 30 minutes.
- Blood is a connective tissue in fluid form.
- Blood is 5 times viscous than water.
- Blood cell count is greater in children than adult.
- RBC is microcytic in iron defiency anaemia, prolonged forced breathing & increased osmotic pressure.
- RBC is macrocytic in megaloblastic anaemia, muscular exercise & decreased osmotic pressure in blood.
- Punctate basophlism is seen in lead poisoning.
- Goblet ring is seen in certain types of anaemia like malaria.
- Red cell vol. can be determined by radio isotope 51 Cr.
- Cyanosis appears when the reduced Hb cone, of the blood in the capillaries is more than 5 gm/dl.
- In vitro, coagulation is initiated by factor XII.
- Life of RBC’s in adult human body is 120 days.
- Average life span of RBC in a newborn is 100 days.
- Average life span of RBC in transfused blood is 90 days.
- Life span of transfused platelets is 4 days.
- Life span of platelets is 9-12 days.
- Complete erythropoiesis occurs in 7 days.
- Erythropoiesis occurs in
- In first trimester RBC’s are formed in Yolk sac. While in second trimester liver is the main organ. Third trimester in liver & bone marrow.
- Upto age of 5 – 6 yrs – red bone marrow of all bones.
- 6 – 20 yrs – red bone marrow of all bones & all membranous bones.
- After 20 yrs – all membranous bones & ends of long bone.
- Hb starts appearing in intermediate normoblastic stage of erythropoiesis.
- Nucleus disappears during late normoblastic stage.
- Factors needed for Erythropoiesis: erythropoietin, thyroxine, interleukins 3, 6, 11, stem cell factors, Vit B, C & D. (maturation factors Vit B12 & folic acid).
- The iron remains in ferrous state.
- The affinity of Hb for CO2 is 20 times more than for O2.
- The affinity of Hb for CO is 200 times more than its affinity for O2.
- Adult Hb consists of 2 alpha & 2 beta chains.
- Fetal Hb consist of 2 alpha & 2 gamma chains.
- In sickle cell anemia, the 2 alpha chains are normal but 2 beta chains are abnormal.
- In Hb C, beta chains are abnormal.
- Bilirubin is the final product formed from the destruction of Hb.
- Total quantity of the iron in the body is 4gm.
- 1 mg of iron is excreted every day through faeces.
- Normocytic normochromic anaemia is seen in aplastic aneamia.
- Marcocytic normochromic anaemia seen in folate deficiency, Vit B12 & hypothyroidism.
- Pernicious anaemia or addsion’s anaemia is marcocytic normochromic anaemia.
- Microcytic hypochromic is seen in iron deficiency, thalassemia, heamoglobinopathies & heamolytic anaemia.
- ESR decreases in allergic conditions, sickle cell anaemia, polycythemia & afibrinogenemia.
|1.||ESR||Male: 3 – 7 mm / hrFemale: 5 – 9 mm / hr|
|2.||PCV (Packed cell volume)(Hematocrit)||Male: 40 – 45 %Female: 38 – 42 %|
|3.||MCV (Mean corpuscular volume)||90 cuµ (78 – 90 cuµ)|
|4.||MCH (Mean corpuscular Hb)||30 pg (27 – 32pg)|
|5.||MCHC (Mean corpuscular Hb Conc.)||30% (13 – 38%)|
|6.||Colour index||1 (0.8 – 1.2)|
|7.||WBC||4000 – 11,000 / cmm|
|50 – 70%2 – 4 %
0 – 1 %
2 – 6%
20 – 30 %
|9.||Platelet count||2,50,000( 2 lakhs – 4 lakhs)|
|10.||Bleeding time||3 – 6 min|
|11.||Clotting time||3 – 8 min|
|12.||Prothrombin time||12 sec|
|13.||Activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT)||25 – 40 sec|
|14.||RBCAdult maleAdult female
|4 – 5.5 millions / mm35 millions / mm34.5 millions / mm3
8 – 10 millions / mm3
|15.||Heamoglobin Adult maleAdult female
|14 – 18 gm / dl12 – 16 gm / dl
16 – 22 gm /dl
|17.||Blood volume||5 liters|
- Granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils.
- Agranulocytes are monocytes & lymphocytes.
- Monocyte is the largest lymphocyte.
- In hemophilia clotting time is prolonged in presence of normal bleeding time.
- Christmas disease occurs due to deficiency of factor IX.
- Clotting factors
|Factor V||Pro accelerin (labile factor)|
|Factor VI||No such factor|
|Factor VII||Stable factor|
|Factor VIII||Anti hemophilic|
|Factor XI||Plasma thrombplastin antecedent|
|Factor XII||Hegman (Conduct)|
|Factor XIII||Fibrin stabilizing factor (Fibrinase)|
- Blood group:
|Group||Antigen in RBC||Antibody in serum|
|A||A||Anti – B (β)|
|B||B||Anti – α|
|AB||A & B||No anti body|
|O||No antigen||Anti A & Anti B|
- Universal recipient are Blood Group ‘AB because it does not contain either Anti A ab or anti B ab.
- Universal donor is Blood Group “()” because it docs not contain either A or B agglutinogen (antigen).
- Commonest blood group is O.
- Diseases associated with blood groups:
- Group A – C.A stomach
- Group O – duodenal ulcer
- Normal basic acid output is 5-10 mmol/hour.
- Blood is stored in the blood bank at 40C.
- The number of iron Heme in one Hb molecule is 4.
- The number of O2 molecules carried by one Hb molecule is 4.
- Mean corpuscular diameter is 7.5 nm.
- Maximum concentration of Hb normally found in RBC’s is 34%.
- In arterial blood, saturated Hb with 02 is 97%.
- Thromboxane A2 is synthesized by platelets and promotes vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation.
- In sickle cell anemia, valine is substituted for glutamic acid.
- Platelets are derived from megakaryocytes.
- Pus contains — Dead neutrophils, macrophages and necrotic tissues.
- Cardiac output in anemia is above normal while in polycythemia is about normal.
- Agglutinins are either IgM or IgG.
- In Erythroblastosis fetalis, mother is Rh-, father is Rh+, foetus is Rh positive.
- Hapatoglobin is a plasma protein responsible for carrying free Haemoglobin.
- Usual anticoagulant used for transfusion is a citrate salt.
- Earliest feature of iron deficiency anemia is decreased serum ferritin.
- Arneth count is used in the determination of the percentage distribution of different types of neutrophils on the basis of no: nuclear lobes.
- Wilson’s disease is due to decrease in caeruloplasmin.
- Hormones secreted by kidney are erythropoietin, thrombopoitein, renin & 1, 25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol.
- 1 kidney contains about 1 – 1.3 millions nephrons.
- Ratio of corical nephrons to Juxtamedullary nephrons 85: 15.
- The GFR of average sized normal man is approximately 125 ml / minute or 180 liters / day.
- At the rate of 125 ml/min, the kidneys filter an amount of fluid equal to 4 times the TBV, 15 times the ECF vol. and 60 times the plasma volume.
- 1 – 1.5 liters of urine formed / day.
- Urine osmolality in diabetes insipidus is 300 mmol/L.
- Normal protein excretion is 50 -150 mg%.
- The quantity of water lost as sweat per day is 600-800 C.C
- Normal urea clearance is 44 ml/min.
- Renal blood flow is 25% of cardiac output (1300 ml blood/min).
- Total length of distal convoluted tubule is 5 mm.
- Glomerulus membrane permits the passage of substances upto 4 nm and almost totally excludes substance with size greater than 8 nm.
- Each glomerulus is a net work of approximately 50 parallel capillaries.
- Urinary osmolality in diabetes insipidus is 300 m mol/Lit.
- Glucose and amino acid are absorbed in proximal convoluted tubules by secondary active transport or sodium Co-transport.
- Descending limb of thin segment of loop of Henle is freely permeable to water.
- Areas impermeable to water — ascending limb of thin segment thick segment of loop of Henle. Proximal half of convoluted tubule.
- Areas impermeable to urea — Distal convoluted tubule & cortical portion of collecting tubules.
- Substances completely reabsorbed in PCT — Glucose, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, acetoacetate.
- Substances partially absorbed in PCT—Na. K, Cl (7/8 reabsorbed in PCT).
- Substances secreted in PCT — H+, PAH (para amino hippurate). creatinine.
- H+ are actively secreted in proximal tubules, distal tubules, collecting ducts.
- Hyperosmilality in the interstitum is the prerequisite for excretion of concentrated urine.
- Urea is reabsorbed from inner meduallary collecting ducts only in presence of ADH.
- K+ is actively secreted in Late Distal tubules and Collecting ducts.
- Macula densa is the epithelial cells of the distal tubule that comes to contact with the arterioles.
- Juxtaglomerular cells produce renin.
- Renin acts on angiotensinogen & convert it into angiotensin I.
- Renal threshold for glucose is reduced in renal glycosuria.
- Creatinine clearance represents GFR.
- Clearance test for renal function includes inulin clearance, creatinine clearance & PAHA test.
- PAHA test is performed to assess renal blood flow.
- Micturition is primarily a spinal reflex.
- Thick ascending loop of henle is impermeable to water.
- Majority of sodium absorption occur in the proximal tubule.
|pH||4. 5 – 6|
|Volume||1000 – 1500 ml / day|
|Specific gravity||1.010 – 1.025|
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- Average pH of semen is 7.5.
- Life span of spermatozoa within the female genital tract is upto 24 hours.
- Speed of human sperm in female genital tract is about 3 mm/min.
- Male sex hormones are called the androgens (secreted by leydig cells); testosterone, dihydro testosterone & androstenedione.
- Mullerian ducts gives rise to female accessory sex organs such as vagina, uterus & fallopian tube.
- Wolffian duct gives rise to male accessory sex organs such as epididymis, vas deferens & seminal vesicles.
- Fetal testes begin to secrete the testosterone at about 2nd to 4th month of embryonic life.
- The secretion from seminal vesicles contains fructose, phophorylcholine, fibrinogen, ascorbic acid, citric acid, pepsinogen, acid phosphatase & prostaglandin.
- Fructose & citrate acts as fuel for the spermatozoa.
- Prostatic secretion is rich in enzymes, fructose & citrate.
- Androgen appears to be essential for spermatogenesis. Whereas FSH is required for spermatic maturation.
- Testes do not produce fructose.(seminal vesicle)
- Sertoli cells provide nutrition to the developing sperm; secrete oestrogen & hormone binding proteins.
- Testosterone is synthesized from pregnanolone.
- Testosterone stimulates the process of spermatogenesis, also necessary for the formation of secondary spermatocyte from primary spermatocyte.
- Growth hormone is essential for the general metabolic processes in testis.
- Male sex hormone is secreted mainly by interstitial cells of Leydig.
- Development of male sex organ in fetal life depends on testosterone produced under the influence of HCG.
- Testosterone circulates in Combination with Gonadal steroid binding globulin.
- Hormone used for treating osteoporosis in old age — Testosterone.
- In males FSH promotes spermatogenesis by enhancing the transport of Testosterone to seminiferous tubules and androgen binding protein synthesis from sertoli cells.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- During menstrual period, upto 20 gm of protein may be lost.
- Quantity of blood expelled during normal menstral cycle is 40 ml (approx) & serous – 35 mls.
- FSH level is high in post menopausal women.
- Ovarian hormones are estrogen and progesterone
- Ovulation occurs on the 14th day of menstrual cycle in a normal cycle of 28 days.
- Oxytocin causes contraction of smooth muscles of uterus & enhances labour.
- Hormones secreted are HCG, Oestrogen, progesterone & human chorionic somato mammo tropin.
- Relaxin is a hormone secreted from the maternal ovary during the later periods of pregnancy.
- Biological test for Pregnancy can be performed only after 2 – 3 weeks of conception.
- LH is concerned with follicle maturation and ovulation.
- Menopausal hot flushes are due to LH surge.
- Estrogen increases the secretion and ciliary beating in fallopian tubes.
- Estrogen changes the cuboidal lining of vagina to stratified.
- Estrogen changes the break down of glycogen into lactate in vagina.
- Estrogen initiates breast development.
- Estrogen causes early epiphyseal closure.
- Estrogen causes water retention.
- Important function of progesterone is to promote secretory changes in endometrium.
- Progesterone is the hormone for maintenance of pregnancy.
- Progesterone inhibits ovulation.
- The most important function of progesterone is to promote secretory changes in endometrium.
WATER & ELECTROLYTE / ACID-BASE BALANCE
- In human beings the total body water varies from 45 – 75 % of body weight.
- Total water in the body is about 40 liters. (ICF forms 55% & ECF forms 45%).
- The volume of interstial fluid is about 12 liters.
- The volume of plasma is about 2.75 liters.
- Osmolality is the measure of a fluid’s capability to create osmotic pressure, also called as osmotic conc. of a solution.
- Osmolarity is the no: of particles / per liter of solution.
- Isotonic solutions are having same effective osmolality as body fluids. Eg: 0.9% Nacl solution & 5% glucose solution.
- The insensible water loss from the body is about 600 to 800 ml. per day.
- The quantity of water lost as sweat per day is 600 – 800 C.C.
- The normal pH of plasma is 7.4
- Acidosis is pH below 7.38
- Alkalosis is pH above 7.42
- Respiratory acidosis: primary excess of carbonic acid
- Due to hypoventilation as in respiratory diseases & neural diseases.
- Metabolic acidosis: primary deficiency of bicarbonate
- As in lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, uremic acidosis & diarrhea.
- Respiratory alkalosis: primary deficiency of carbonic acid
- Due to hyperventilation as in hypoxia, neural diseases & psychological conditions.
- Metabolic alkalosis: primary excess of bicarbonate
- As in vomiting & treatment with diuretics.
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