Dr [Mrs.] Dhwanika J. Dhagat
Dr Jatin N. Dhagat
Logic is a Greek word, which means Discourse. When we try to understand the word Discourse it suggest that it is a communication of ideas, information etc. The study of logic began in ancient Greece. Whenever man debates, discuss, and argue logic remains in the background. Whenever a man debates a matter in his own mind a silent logic plays role. No man can think without logic. If he will try to break logic will break him. Logic has created deep and long lasting impression on language and culture. Logic is the air, which we breathe. It is a connected thought expressed in words. Discourse with one self is called meditation. From what others have said or from what we ourselves have thought conclusions and inferences are drawn. They are the special concern of logic. Logic trains the mind to draw right conclusion and to avoid wrong. It always deals with serious statement.
Words related to Logic:
1. Logic: Reasonable thinking.
2. Logical: Decision based on thinking.
3. Logically: Think reasonably that there must be this.
4. Logician: Skilled in Logic.
Definition: From Aristotle to Mill several definitions of Logic have been suggested. Each and every definition is unique. They are closely related to each other.
According to oxford dictionary: “Logic is a science of reasoning.”
Discussion of definition: On the basis of above-mentioned definition it is necessary for us to know the relation between science and reasoning. The word reasoning indicates: “The drawing of inferences or conclusions from known or assumed facts.” If we want to represent any of our concept it is necessary that it must be based on sound explanation of Philosophy and it must be verified by scientific experiments. Such Philosophical argument, which is supported by scientific experiments, is nothing but Logic. So we can say that Logic is a beautiful coordination of Science and Philosophy. Unless a person knows science and philosophy deeply he will not able to reason any thing. No doubt he will have that power of doing argument but it will not consider as logical.
Relation between Science and Philosophy: According to Funk and Wan galls dictionary science in the widest sense includes: exact knowledge of facts, exact knowledge of laws obtained by correlation of facts, exact knowledge of proximate causes.
Philosophy is the general principle, laws, or causes that furnished the rational explanation of anything. Science and Philosophy are not antagonist but they are complementary to each other. Philosophy is a hypothetical interpretation. Science arises in hypothesis and flows in to interpretation. Science is descriptive but it divides one thing in to many sub categories. Like organs, parts of body, diseases, etc. philosophy is the criticism of categories. Science describes philosophy while philosophy teaches us to accept science. Every science begins as philosophy and ends as an art. If we want to develop the art of reasoning we must develop the art of thinking, perceiving, and proper interpreting. Reasoning is the minds eye. If we want to develop the power of reasoning we make the habit of reading in between the lines. Reading enables us to explain the different phenomena critically. It is the intellectual faculty by which conclusions are drawn from premises by connected thoughts. It teaches us how one judgment arrives from other judgment. Any process of inference is based on reasoning. So logic is called science of inference. It provides us light in the dark way of searching truth.
History related to origin of Logic: The demand for logic aroused in ancient Greece from the Sophistic movement. Sophists were pioneers of higher education. As a result there were disputes so they required rules for regulating discussion. Logic supplied the rules. Aristotle was one of the greatest thinkers of all time and he wrote on logic which includes:
Prior analytic. [Formal aspect of Syllogistic reasoning.]
Posterior analytics. [Deeper problems of inference.]
Topic. [Technique of arguments.]
Aristotle was first to see the problems of logic as a whole. Logic is not a royal road. It will not teach you the entire things clearly. But it will help you to acquire and retain knowledge and to detect an argument. It will teach preciseness which is the first fruit of study of logic. When we proposed something to someone discourse begins. So proposition is unit of discourse and terms. This propositions leads towards inference. Connected propositions yield towards Syllogism. All these are base of Aristotelian logic.
In a proposition there are two terms. 1. Subject. 2. Predicate.
Example: Silence is golden.
Concept of various stalwarts related to logic:
1. Concept of Aristotle: Aristotle is considering as the founder of true logic because he systematically arranged different methodologies of logic and he is the father of both deductive and inductive logic. The most important logical work of Aristotle was organon. His method of logic was based on “Syllogism”. It is a Greek word. The meaning of this word is reasoning in general. To understand the basic concept of Aristotle’s logic it is necessary for us to understand certain basic principles.
a. Term: It is a word or a combination of words, which can stand by it self as the subject. This word was originated from a Latin word “Terminus” a limit or boundary. There is no order for terms in logic. For example in English we put subject first and predicate second. Example: Silence is golden. Here first word is subject and second is predicate. But this is not true according to Aristotle. Here order of term is not important but the meaning of proposition is important. About what are we speaking? That is the first question to ask. Answer to it gives the subject. The second question is what are we saying about subject? Answer is predicate. So in above example
1. What is golden? —– Answer is Subject.
2. What is Silence? —–Answer is Predicate.
Types of Terms helpful to study Logic:
1. Abstract: Abstract means to take away or to omit. It is related to generalities or qualities and related to object, which cannot be seen and touched. Abstract terms are qualities or attributes of persons or things. The aim and use of abstraction is finding out what individual or group have common. Example irritability or anger etc.
2. Concrete: Concrete terms are persons or things, which are visible and tangible. Objects, which define shape, size, etc, are concrete things.
3. SingularTerms: Singular terms are individual. They are subjects of their propositions.
4. Common Terms: They are common to several persons or things. They are used by all so they are also called general terms. For example shoes, king, sheep etc.
5. Collective Terms: They apply groups of persons but not to individual. For example south Indian People.
6. Positive Terms: They are those, which suggest the presence of an attribute.
7. Negative Terms: They deny the presence of an attribute or suggest absence.
8. Probative Terms: They are those, which deny the presence of an attribute or suggest its absence where its presence was to be expected. For example Deaf, Dumb.
9. Infinite Terms: They are class of contradiction. For example this is not my pen. This indicates that as it is not mine it could be of any one.
10. Contradictory Terms: Opposite pairs of terms are contradictory when one is negative of the other it is called contradictory.
11. Denotation: This can be beautifully understood by example. What is house? We can paint any building and say that it is house. So here house denote all those buildings. This is nothing but denotation.
12. Connotation: Any one can say any building to house but no one precisely explains why it is house. It requires experts review. It is nothing but Connotation.
13. Intension: It is what you intend. Your term to mean. It is a statement of attribute.
b. Definition: To define something is a difficult task. To define a term is to state its limits. Connotation gives limits. So definition is the statement of connotation of the term. [Describe Precisely]. Rules for definition:
It must be adequate.
It must be precise and clear.
It must not contain a term equivalent to the term to be defined
It should not have negative attribute.
c. Description: It is a partial statement of the connotation of the term, sufficient to distinguish from other terms. It is an imperfect definition.
d. Division: It is a complementary process to definition. It is much like classification but in division. We start with whole and work down to parts. Where as in classification we usually start with parts and work up to the whole.
e. Propositions: They are important aspect of logic. Propositions propose something about something or something. Each proposition has two terms. 1.Subject and
2. Predicate. This can be beautifully understood by example. Do you like to be married with me? Here marriage is subject. Remaining whole sentence is Predicate. Here predicate is not isolated but it is joined with a word. This is known as “copula”.
Propositions come from the limitless human discourse. We can apply rules for logic at here. We select them from raw materials of sentences and prepare them for the process of logic. All propositions are sentences but all sentences are not propositions. It may be true or false. Prayer, wishes are not propositions. All propositions are not suitable for logical treatment. It they are unclear, deficient in subject, predicate form they are not helpful. There are mainly two criteria for converting propositions in to logical form.
a. Express the quantity of proposition.
b. Express the copula.
Example: All grass is green.
All— Quantity. Is green—- Copula.
Propositions have either affirmative or negative quality. Quantity of proposition is same as that of its subject. There are four types of propositions.
1. Singular Propositions: They have singular term for subject. Example: Socrates taught Plato.
2. Enumerative Propositions: These are those propositions, which represent a limited number of class or members of a kind. Example: all red roses look beautiful.
3. Simple Proposition: It is a type of proposition, which is stated without condition.
4. Hypothetical Proposition: It states by supposition. Example: If rain falls I shall go out for wetting. It consists of two predictions: a. Supposition or hypothesis.
5. Modal propositions: Here the prediction is qualified by words such as may be, must be, possible, probable, necessary etc. For example: It may be possible that exam will be delayed.
f. Syllogism: Aristotle’s method of logic was based on “ Syllogism”. It is a Greek word. The meaning of this word is reasoning in general. It is a Greek word. The meaning of this word is reasoning in general. In Aristotle phase to syllogize is: “ To put two and two together” in regulated discourse and together from them something other. There are three parts of syllogism:
They all are related to each other. Here conclusion follows other two.
The good are happy. —– Premises.
The unselfish are good. —– Premises.
Therefore unselfish are happy. —– Conclusion.
There are other ways of reasoning but man does syllogize. Structure of syllogism is neat. It helps the man to seek and find truth. It corrects fallacies, promotes precise treatment. If the conclusion follows from the premises it valid and as a result syllogism is also valid even though it may not true to fact. For example all fish are cold blooded. Whales are fish. Therefore whales are cold blooded. This is valid syllogism but false fact. There are certain criteria to make a syllogism.
1. Total six terms are there and each occurs twice.
2. The subject of conclusion must occur in premises.
3. The predicate of conclusion must occur in other premises.
4. Middle term occurs in both premises but not in conclusion.
Aristotle had a formula to express the principles of syllogistic reasoning. It is:
“What is predicted about any whole is predicted about any part of that whole.” Still there are disputes on it.
g. Categories. It is a Greek word. Categorizing is a process of entering in to minute analysis of any object. He made ten categories.
Such categories answer the question what is this predicate in itself? The word Predicate means what its subject is. The wood “is” has different aspect here. Dictionary meaning indicates [In relation to Logic] to assert (something) about the subject of a proposition. Another meaning of this word is: to affirm as a quality, attribute, or property of a person or thing. This can be beautifully understood by example.
1. The fish is small.
2. The fish is fresh.
3. The fish is in net.
4. The fish is taking food.
All these statements are about one subject but they differ in character. Here the fish is a thing, which has different characteristics. So in technical terms it is a substance. Here substance is the first and most important category. It means that which exist in it. All the other categories may be viewed, as ways in substance exist. According to Aristotle there is nothing that exist cannot be brought under one or another of the ten categories. We cannot go beyond them. Aristotle’s categories are opened for criticism. It helps us to classify predicates, to understand fundamental features of discourse.
h. Predicable: Under predicable predicates are to be considered. Aristotle recognized five heads of predicable.
- Definition: Statement of essence of anything.
- Genus: Part, which can be predicated also of other thing.
- Differentia: Distinguish from other species.
- Property: Proper attribute, peculiar to subject not a part of an essence.
- Accident: Attribute may or may not belong to subject.
These five heads of predicable can be understood by example of a man. When we classify man under such headings:
- Definition of a man: He is a rational animal.
- Genus of man: Animal.
- Differentia: Rational.
- Properties: Laughter, Tears, and Speech.
- Accidents: Cooking food, while traveling.
Genus, species, group, family all these words are used in daily practice for individuals. Genus and species have long history. There are certain differences between them. First is between natural class and artificial class. The natural class in more properly called Genus. It is there where we classify mankind or animal kind. Artificial class doesn’t mould the member of class. Animal is genus. Man is species. These two terms are so related with each other that the connotation of the one includes the connotation of others
I. Analogy: The dictionary meaning of this word is “Similarity”. It is an inference from a resemblance between particular things. It may help us to establish a link between Inductive logic and Deductive Logic. It is distinct from logical inference. It also helps us to enter in the process of Induction. There is uniformity in nature and natural laws. Objects are alike in some point. We also by analogy conclude that they are also alike in other points also. Therefore analogy enters in to process of Induction.
Example: when we lie down to rest on analogy we expect to wake up next morning refreshed and to find the sun arising.
j. Fallacies: It is but natural that every human being does mistakes. Mistakes, which occur in logic, are named and listed. They are called fallacies. It is nothing but the deceptive arguments. To be made aware of them, to know their names, it is a part of discipline of logic. Aristotle distinguished fallacies in speech from other fallacies. He made two corresponding lists. His way of treatment is open for criticism. But his work on fallacies was invaluable during his days.
Characteristics Of Fallacies:
- To use the word, which has double meaning, is not advisable. For example the word “Old”, it may be old age or old people or old time or old thing. Here it is necessary that we must use it precisely. Here this syllogism is fallacious.
- If there is improper compounding of words or object of thoughts it is called fallacies.
- Chances of accidents are there in fallacies. For example: The dog was a father and it was yours therefore he was your father. This is called fallacies of accident.
- From something we have to simply say something and we have to say according to something.
- For example: Opium is a poison. Physician gives their patients opium. Therefore they give their patients poison.
- Instead of attacking the statement we attack man who makes it. When some of those who hear the statement but does arguments not by all there are certain arguments accepted by a group of people and rejected by others. It only becomes fallacy. A person who accepts it knows that others may reject it but he consider as it is universally accepted.
- Trying to answer all questions at once is called fallacy of single answer.
- There are certain words where there is only a fine difference in the meaning of them so if we are not able to apply the proper meaning at proper place it called fallacy. For example: A king was told that if he will attack on Paris he would destroy a big empire. Here the word empire has two different meaning, which have only line of demarcation.
Thus Aristotle’s logic was based on Inductive syllogism. Here induction means leading. The main business of induction is to lead on from particular to general.
2. Concept of Lord Francis Bacon [1561-1626]:
a. His life: He was associated with royal family of England. He left the Cambridge school by saying that these studies are useless. In 1618 Lord Chancellor arrested for taking bribes but queen pardoned him but he had to abandon public life. He is considering as founder of modern inductive logic and said it is the only method of scientific discovery. He also introduced logical systematization of scientific procedures. His two important major writings are: 1. Advancement of learning. 2. Novum Organum.
b. His ideas:
1. Knowledge is power.
2. Scientific investigations are necessary for achieving mastery over nature.
3. He suggested the basic difference between Philosophy, Theory and Science.
4. He had also introduced the Doctrine of double truth. Which indicates accepting two truths at a time i.e. reason and revelation.
5. According to him syllogism of Aristotle is only helpful for rearranging acquired knowledge but useless for scientific discovery.
6. For scientific inquiry unprejudiced observation is necessary.
7. Before any scientific investigation first investigate oneself. The prejudiced can be corrected only at the individual level by correcting the subjectivity of the individual. Only by introspection and knowledge.
8. He also introduced the various sources of prejudiced. They are:
a. Idols of Tribe: It occurs due to teleological presupposition. [Human mind has imaginations, images and ideas of God].
b. Idols of Den or Cave: It occurs due to social and family influence and peculiarities of individuals, dispositions, likes modes of education, reading habits etc.
c. Idols of Market place: It occurs due to language association of words, Its meaning and interpersonal transactions. [The real feeling and meaning in mind vary often cannot be effectively expressed].
d. Idols of Theatre: It occurs due to false theories of science and philosophy.
c. His Concept: According to Bacon there are two ways of investigating and discovering the truth. 1. Inductive Logic. 2. Deductive Logic.
1. Inductive Logic:
a. Introduction: The Inductive method in science is the application of the principles of inductive logic to scientific research. Lord Bacon originated this method. He set forth in his Novum Organum. John Stuart mill in his great System of Logic further developed it. It has been the inspiration, the basis and the instrument of every modern science.
b. Dictionary Meaning: The word has originated from the word Induce that means to tell someone to do something or to cause something to happen. The word induction suggests:
1. Logical Reasoning.
2. The process of being initiated.
c. Definition: “Inductive method in logic is the scientific method that proceeds by Induction.”
“Induction is a process of drawing universal conclusion from Particular premise.”
d. History related to Inductive Logic: Before lord Bacon’s time logic was used principally as an instrument for argument and disputation. Little or no attention was given to facts. Direct and systemic investigation of nature was unknown or ignored. Opinions, speculations, and theories were used as the material for constructing more opinions and theories. The search for truth ended nowhere.
Lord bacon called upon men to cease speculating and go direct to nature in their for truth. He demolished innumerable false systems and restores logic to its true place as the guide to truth.
According to Bacon [mentioned in Novum organum Axiom 19]: “There are and can exist, but two ways of investigating and discovering the truth. The one hurries on rapidly from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from them as principles and their supposed indisputable truth derives and discovers the intermediate axioms. This is the way now in use. The other constructs its axioms from the senses and particulars by ascending continually and gradually till it finally arrives at the most general axioms, which is the true but unattempted way.”
e. Requirements To understand the Inductive Logic: There are four basic requirements to understand the inductive method of Logic
1. Exact Observation: The word ‘Exact’ indicates: ‘Accurate or correct in all details.’ Another meaning of this word is: ‘Tending to be accurate and careful about minor details’. The word Observation indicates: ‘The action or process of closely observing or monitoring.’ In short this method suggests monitoring minor details.
2. Correct interpretation of observed facts: There are three important words in this and their dictionary meanings are:
a. Correct: Free from error.
b. Interpretation: [Interpret]: Explain the meaning of. Perform in a way that conveys one understands of creator’s idea.
c. Facts: A thing that is indisputably the case. Information used as evidence or as part of report.
In short what ever the information collected should be interpretated in such a way that such information should be free from error. The purpose of this is to understand them in relation to each other and their causes.
3. Rational explanation of facts: There are two important words in this and their dictionary meanings are:
a. Rational: Based on or in accordance with reason or logic. Able to think sensibly or logically. Endowed with the capacity to reason.
b. Explanation: [Explain]: Make clear by describing it in more detail. Excuse or justify one’s motives or conduct.
In short whatever facts we have should be describe in detail on the basis of logic.
4. Scientific Construction: Here the word Construction indicates: The action or process of construction. The original word is to construct which means to build or erect or form from various conceptual elements.
In short we have to represent the facts on the basis of science in such a way that it looks as reality.
According to F and W dictionary the search for the cause of anything may proceed according to any one of four methods:
- The method of agreement in which a condition uniformly present is assumed to be probably a cause.
- The method of difference in which the happening of an event when a condition is present and its failure when a condition is absent, lead to the assumption of that condition as a cause.
- The method of concomitant variations, in which the simultaneous variation in similar degree of condition and event establishes a causal relation.
- The method of residues or of residual variations, where after subtracting from a phenomenon the part due to cause already established the remainder is held to be due to some other unascertained cause or to the known remaining causes.
f. Basic Characteristics of Inductive Logic: The way of argument of this logic is rested on principles a posteria. This indicates that in this method principles are derived from our uncontradicated experience. In other words we can say that we accept it without contradiction. On the base of these arguments we never yields a necessary truth. This does not indicate that Inductive Logic is only a wild speculation. But in this method of logic conclusion does not necessarily follow from it premises. This condition is seen in deductive method of logic. Here conclusion is based on a certain degree of probability. Greater the reliability of premises higher the probability of the truth of conclusion.
Here particular conclusion is drawn from particular to general. For example: Tom, Hick, Harry have yellow eyes. They have Jaundice. Therefore those who all have yellow eyes have Jaundice. Here it is noticeable that the transition here is from the part to the whole from the particular to universal from some particular truth we leap to generalized truth.
By inductive reasoning we ascertain what is true of many different things. Our senses tell us what happens around us and by proper reasoning we may discover the laws of nature, in consequence of which they happen.
Every mind conceives intuitively some ideas or judgments which are at once primary and certain otherwise we could have no foundation for inference and to infer one idea or judgment from others would give no certainty. These ideas are called first truths. They are given by the senses, the consciousness and the reason and they are innumerable. For example: “I exist. There is an external world. This body is solid, extended, round, red, warm or cold are first truths.” At first these ideas are particular but afterward the mind unites those which are similar or which agree in some respect in to classes. This is called “Generalization”. To express this we no longer say this or that body but body, not coat, shirt, trousers, but clothes only.
2. Deductive Logic:
a. Introduction: The deductive method in science is the application of the principles of deductive logic to scientific research.
b. Dictionary Meaning: The word has originated from the word deduce that means to
1. Trace the course or derivation of.
2. To infer by logical reasoning.
3. Conclude from known facts or general principles.
The dictionary meaning of the word deduction suggests:
1. A deducting or being deducted; subtraction
2 A sum or amount deducted or allowed to be deducted.
c. Definition: “Deductive method in logic is the scientific method that proceeds by deduction.”
d. Basic Characteristics of Deductive Logic: This method of logic works on certain basic priority principles. This method finally reach to such truths that are justified by pure thoughts or reasoning. The theme of this method is: In a valid argument if premises are true than conclusion from these premises must necessarily be true also. In this method conclusion of a deductive argument never goes beyond what the premises state. In this method conclusion is drawn from general to particular. This can be beautifully understood by example:
1. All doctors are wise. [General]
2. Kent is a doctor. [Particular]
Therefore Kent is also wise. [General To Particular.]
This is a syllogistic argument. It is a process of reasoning from out of two statements having common part. On the basis of this third statement is given. In above-mentioned example ‘Doctor’ is a common part, which is there in both the statements on the basis of this third statement, is given.
In deductive reasoning we do the opposite and infer what will happen in consequence of the laws.
As induction is the antonym of deduction. This is a belief of a common man. But this is an error. They are simply opposite ways of arriving at the same conclusions, two modes of using the same general process, namely: inference or inferring. Reasoning a priori and a posteriori are not different modes of reasoning but arguments differing in the character of one of the premises. It is merely a difference of viewpoint. In one we reason from antecedents, in other from consequents. [Antecedents: any happening or thing prior to another.] [Consequents: following as a result; resulting.]
4. Concept of John Stuart Mill [1806-1873]: J.S.Mill is considered to be a great philosopher. His philosophy is called utilitarianism i.e.
a. Man looks for pleasure. [Basic tendency]
b. All activities to avoid pain and gain pleasure.
c. Present is most important. So live well and die well.
Dr. Hahnemann was not aware of Mill’s philosophy when he framed homoeopathy but he used his principle earlier than Mill.
In short Mill’s theory suggest [Theory of Induction i.e. Principal of association]:
- No generalization.
- Only association between particular events is sufficient.
- Similarity is the basis of association.
- Particular to Particular. This similar pattern is called generalization. It is not a general principle; it is a pattern recurring in particular events.
Logic and Homoeopathy: Analysis of Organon of Medicine as well as the history of emergence of Homoeopathy shows clearly that Homoeopathy is a product of Inductive logic applied to the subject of medicine. In fact it is one of the most and first brilliant examples of the application of inductive method to the solution of one greatest problem of humanity, namely treatment and cure of disease. This is the chief contribution to the science by Dr. Hahnemann. He was first to make a comprehensive induction of medical facts and deduce the general law of therapeutic medication upon a sound basis. Now we will try to understand the application of Logic to basic principles of Homoeopathy.
a. Emergence of Homoeopathy and Law of Similar: Hahnemann was not the first clinician to note that drugs selected on the basis of their similarity to the disease, can cure the similar disease condition. He cites previous experiences of clinicians like Hippocrates, parcelus and Stahl in whose writings he found the most definite statement of the Law of Similar. But none of these proceeded systematically to offer an experimental proof. He also cites instances in which naturally occurring similar disease tend to repel each other as in the celebrated instances of Cow-pox and Small-pox which guided jenner towards vaccination as a method of protection against small-pox. While translating Cullen’s materia Medica from English in to German, he took exception to the explanation Cullen advanced for the undoubted efficacy of Cinchona bark in the treatment of ague. He thought that Cinchona helped cases of ague on account of its capacity to produce a similar state. He proceeded to dose himself with Cinchona and recorded in detail his experiences in the form of symptoms. He found to his great surprise that the troubles he went through resembled closely a mild attack of ague. This convinces him that he was following right path. Gradually he started to prove various drugs on himself, family members and others. In short through the method of proving he tried to apply this principle for all. [Particular to General—-Inductive Logic] on the basis of such rich experience of years finally he came to the conclusion that a drug capable of producing in a healthy person a diseased state exactly similar to that observe in a diseased person, acts as a curative agent if the disease is in a curable stage. This was nothing but the systematic establishment of the law of similar based on Deductive logic. [On the basis of General information to Particular conclusion—- Deductive logic] Up to the year 1810 Dr. Hahnemann used the word Similia Similibus only. There is not a single evidence of using the word ‘Curenter’ or’Curanter’ before 1810. Later on he used the word ‘Curenter’.
b. Holistic Concept of Homoeopathy: Homoeopathy is based on holistic concept.
The dictionary meaning of the word ‘Holistic’ suggest: “concerned with, or dealing with wholes or integrated systems rather than with their parts.” Again the word ‘Integrate’ suggest; “ make in to a whole”. And further the word ‘whole’ suggest:
“ All of something including all its component elements or parts.” Or “An assemblage of parts that is regarded as single only.” This is the area where Homoeopathy differs from Modern Medicine. They believe that whenever a person is diseased his particular system or an organ or a particular part of the body is diseased and remaining other portion of body becomes free from disease. At this place homoeopathy believes that there is a spirit like dynamic power [Vital force] that animates the human organism and gives the life to it. Whenever such dynamic force is deranged it affects the person as a whole. As a result of this internal derangement a person become a patient and he express this derangement in the form of different out word manifestations, which include mental, emotional, intellectual as well as physiological and pathological manifestations. When we integrate all these data it clearly represent the person as a whole. So this Holistic concept indicates application of the method of Inductive Logic.
[Particular to General—- Inductive Logic.]
c. Concept of Generalization: Generalization is the process of identification and applies forming general notions or formation of general concepts or conceptualization of facts from particulars by the process of mental abstraction. Generalization becomes valid when it follows deductive and inductive method of logic. It becomes invalid when these methods are not co-ordinated and conclusions drawn are wide than data and does correspond reality.
Definition: Generalization is an act or process of arriving at generals out of particulars.
Capacity of mind to take in objects in wholes, to store these images in memory in complete form and to revive these original images when necessary for evaluation in comparison to new experience is the process of individualization.
Dictionary Meaning: To form general principles or conclusions from detailed facts, experience etc.
Process: Generalization is a process, which is achieved by proceeding from particular to general through:
a. Progressive Generalization. b. Abstraction.
This is the reverse process of individualization. This can be beautifully understand by the process of mind which entirely depends upon:
1. Complete, accurate and unprejudiced observation.
2. Recording of observations with regards to its description, character, number etc. A mind is trained to classify the facts comprising the database and to rearrange them so that interrelationship between them becomes apparent. Facts can be grasped and stored readily for subsequent use.
1.Generalization at the level of Location: When a particular symptom is found at two or more locations it becomes general. A particular lesion at fold of palm, mouth angle or inner canthi will be considered as skin fold.
2. Generalization at the level of Sensation and Pathology: When a particular sensation or pathology is found at two or more place it becomes general. Pricking at fingers, soles or palms will consider as pricking in general.
3. Generalization at the level of Modalities: When a particular modality is found at two or more places it becomes general. Pain in knee joint which is aggravated by motion and pain in shoulder joint aggravated by motion will consider as aggravation by motion in general.
In short the process of Generalization is applied in the field of homoeopathy for the purpose of formation of conceptual image, which is based on basic principles of Inductive logic.
d. Concept of Individualization: The word ‘Individualization’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Invidious’. In means not and dividuous means divisible. The individual is unique, not further classifiable. It is what it is. It is not in the sense that is incapable of being divided in to parts but it cannot be so divided in its nature and remains what it is.
Definition: Individualization means identification of a particular instance in a group of common attributes. It is the highest expression of one’s expression.
Dictionary meaning: Different terminologies connected with Individualization and their dictionary meanings are as under.
- Individual: A single person especially when regard as distinct from others.
- Individuality: A total character peculiar to and distinguishing an individual from others.
- Individualize: To make individual in character.
Process: Individualization is a process, which is achieved by proceeding from general to particular through:
a. Decrease generalization. b. Progressive differentiation.
This is the reverse process of generalization. This technique of individualization forms an integral part of the homoeopathic system of medicine and its concept of health, disease and cure. Each individual has to be kept in mind in relation to health, disease and cure because no two men are alike in this world. The psychosomatic make up of an individual varies widely from other. Not only has that but the successful application of the Law of Similar depended entirely on the concept of individualization, which forms the cornerstone of homoeopathic practice. The concept of individualization takes in to consideration the total response of the organism to the unfavourable stimuli or environment. This response is seen through signs and symptoms of an individual on three planes: Emotional, Intellectual and Physical. The exact similarity in the application of law of similar can be ensured only if the patient is observed through the principle of individualization. So on the basis of patients causation, present history, past history, family history, etc physician has to individualize the patient as a person and it can only possible with an exhaustive knowledge of deductive Logic.
1. Individualization at the level of causation: Common cold and coryza in a cold weather is a common characteristic but if it is in cold, damp basement that Dulcamara will be the choice of remedy.
2. Individualization at the level of Location: For a person who is suffering from renal calculi and especially in the left kidney, we may think of Berberis Vulgaris out of so many drugs.
3. Individualisation at the level of Sensation: Sore, lame and bruise feelings are characteristics sensations, which individualize the patient of Arnica from other similar medicines.
4. Individualization at the level of Modalities: Aggravation between 4.00 to 8.00.pm is a characteristic, which suggests the rug Lycopodium and individualize that patient as a person from others.
5. Individualization at the level of Extension: Stitching pain in chest is a feature indicating to a large number of drugs in the Repertory and if it is extended to the liver region it narrows down from many drugs to a single drug Calc. Phos that individualize that patient as a person from others.
On the basis of above discussed matter it is clear that Homoeopathy doesn’t exit without the process of Individualization and for that the exhaustive knowledge of Deductive logic can only help us.
e. Concept of Drug proving: In the time of Dr.Hahnemann, knowledge of the true properties of drugs hardly existed. The systematic knowledge of Materia medica in those days was not there. Data from poisonings, uncritical clinical observations of drugs applied on the basis of fanciful theories of the origin of disease. Dr. Hahnemann was not satisfied with this method. In such a critical situation he ascertained the true properties of drugs by careful experimentation on healthy human beings and not on animals. Hahnemann thus could be considered as the father of human experimental pharmacology. He insisted that only those drugs whose properties were carefully ascertained by experiments on the healthy human beings and which were prepared according to specific instructions should be employed as remedial agents for cure. In this way all the altered sensations and functions experienced by the provers were recorded in the words of persons and they all were noted in the original language of patient without adding or changing any word. Dr. Hahnemann called it as Materia Medica Pura.
Later on Dr. Hahnemann followed an anatomical schema that is from head to foot, in recording the positive drug effects and under each heading he collected and put all the symptoms from as many provers there were in each case. Then he shifted the symptoms common to each of them from symptoms peculiar to each of them. Finally he put under the heading [For example ‘head’] and put all the common symptoms and peculiar symptoms noted by idividual provers. This shows that how many varieties of head symptoms that drug is capable of producing in various individual.
This clearly indicates that to prove a single drug to know its disease producing power on various healthy provers and on the basis of this available data try to make common as well as peculiar characteristics of that particular drug and consider its disease producing capacity as disease curing capacity requires the application of Inductive method of logic. [Particular to General].
f. Concept of Causation:
History: Hippocrates taught that all diseases aroused from an interdependent constellation of causes rather than any single, isolated etiological factor. This constellation includes the nature of the pathogen, the environmental conditioning factors and the susceptibility of an individual.
Since the beginning of the nineteenth century when the European medicine decided to become a science they had a belief that every event must have a cause and that under similar conditions; the same cause produces the same effect. Concept of causation of disease is different in different schools of medicines. So-called modern medical science believed that multiple factors are responsible for the emergence of disease. In homoeopathy the concept of causation is closer to multifactorial causation theory. Broadly speaking Exciting cause, maintaining cause and Fundamental cause are the responsible for the causation of disease. Apart from this Vital force plays an important vital role in the evolution of disease.
Dictionary meaning: dictionary meanings of the various terminologies related to the word causation are as under.
- Cause: Something that brings about an effect or a result.
- Causal: Expressing or indicating cause.
- Causality: The relation between and its effect.
- Causation: The act or process of causing.
- Causative: Expressing causation.
Definition: causation or causality is the operation of causal energy.
Concept of modern science regarding characteristics of cause:
1. When cause appears effect follows it: This is a wrong belief of modern medical science. This can be beautifully understood by examples. All pathogenic bacteria are supposed to give rise to lesions. But it is known however that this is not so, as pathogenic bacteria may be found in so called carriers, i.e. in people who do not present any lesion or clinical manifestations.
2. When cause disappear effect disappear: Clinical experience teaches that the disappearance of a certain structure, function or microorganism need not necessarily be followed by the disappearance of the clinical syndrome that was considered to be its effect.
3. When cause varies effect varies: variations in the number of pathogenic bacteria are seldom accompanied by corresponding variations in the lesion. Similarly variations in the percentages of blood calcium are not necessarily reflected by corresponding variations in the clinical picture.
4. Cause always precedes the effect: In so many cases it going to happen that initially on the basis of clinical manifestations the diagnosis of condition is done and later on the causative factor for that condition is find. For example Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium Tuberculin.
Types of Causes: Homoeopathy believes that there are mainly three types of basic causes responsible for emergence of acute as well as chronic disease conditions.
1. Exciting cause: Exciting causes are those causes, which excites the disease conditions to occur. They are responsible for the production of acute disorders that are rapid in their onset, quick to reach crisis and ends in complications or recovery. Usually exciting factors are Physical, chemical, biological, environmental, social, cultural, economical, or spiritual conditions or factors which activates a latent miasm and brings forth crisis and serious complications. They are responsible for the production of individual, epidemic and sporadic disease conditions as well as acute exacerbation of chronic disease conditions. [Reference apho. No. 5 and 73.] In short what ever may be the particular diagnosed and named acute condition these are the general responsible factors for its emergence. [Particular to General- Role of Inductive Logic.]
2. Maintaining cause: The dictionary meaning of the word ‘ maintain’ suggest:
‘To continue’. These are those conditions, which maintain the present disease condition. Dr. Hahnemann raises this category of etiology in aphorism no. 7 and 77 of the Organon of medicine and also in the chronic disease. Maintaining cause can be of several types including those conditions which need mechanical or surgical aid and those induced by unhealthy life style, poor living conditions, occupation hazards, continuous telluric and meteoric environmental stress as well psychological strain. These also include diseases maintained by soul through spiritual crisis, mental confusion and emotional turmoil. In the aphorism no. 77 Dr. Hahnemann points out that maintaining cause produce pseudo chronic diseases. If a maintaining cause continues for a number of years it may activates a latent miasm and the constitution will suffer from pathological states. In short all such general maintaining causes are responsible for maintenance of any particular disease condition or conditions. [Particular to General- Role of Inductive Logic.]
3. Fundamental cause: Fundamental causes are the ‘Miasms’, which have the power to disturb the tune of vital force and causing disharmony in the constitution and temperament. Here the layer of miasm remain dominant over the constitution
and display the symptoms of their syndromes. These fundamental causes are responsible for the emergence of various disease conditions and Dr. Hahnemann broadly classify them in to:
1.Psoric miasmatic disease. [Functional Disturbances]
2.Sycosis miasmatic disease. [Extra growth or formations]
3.Syphilis miasmatic disease. [Destructive changes]
When we refer to the aphorism no.80 in the organon of medicine it clearly indicates that what so ever may the disease condition from a simple bronchitis to cancer psora is the mother of all the disease conditions. This concept of giving general causation for various named and classified disease condition according to modern medical science suggest application of the knowledge of Inductive method of logic.
[Particular to General- Role of Inductive Logic.]
g. Role of Diagnosis in homoeopathy and its relation with logic:
One of the popular misconceptions about homoeopathy is that it has little to do with diagnosis and that a homoeopathic physician does not require the various ancillary facility like X-ray, pathological and Bacteriological investigation, E.C.G. etc. It is very easy for us to understand the basic misconception behind this. The prescription in homoeopathic practice is determined by a detailed study of the symptomatology out side the diagnostic sphere. This gives impression to common people that a homoeopathic physician is not primarily interested in diagnosing his cases. It makes easy to apply the principles of homoeopathy for those persons who do not have medical education of homoeopathy. But actually it is not true.
Dictionary meaning: The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms.
Definition: Diagnosis implies the understanding and detection of the site and nature of lesion in a particular anatomical part of the body.
This concept of diagnosis of modern medicine presupposes two assumptions, which are open for criticism:
1. The material part of the living organism is the sole and fundamental reality and all other phenomena excepting the structural changes of the body are nothing but functions or effects of the altered of the body.
2. The body is looked upon as a machine consisting of an assemblage of different parts and change or damage of any part can take place independently of that of any other or rest of the body. According to this view a disease can be cured by treating the part particularly affected just as a machine is adjusted and set going by repairing the particular damaged part.
But Homoeopathy treats the patient as a whole, which is more than the sum of its parts, which is something over and above them. Homoeopathy aims at individualization of patient and drug. So only nosological diagnosis is not the sole aim of homoeopathic physician but along with this diagnosis of the patient as a person is an important diagnosis every homeopathic physician has to do. That will only solve the fundamental purpose of individualization. Dr. Hahnemann has nicely mentioned this thing in his book organon of medicine in the aphorism no. 3.Acoording to him every homoeopathic physician must know what is to be cured in disease and what is curable in medicine. This will direct throw some light on the importance of diagnosis in the field of Homoeopathy.
Importance of Diagnosis in Homoeopathic Practice:
1. A complete diagnosis offers a full comprehension of the patient’s personality, his constitution and the mechanism of the production of symptoms.
2. It gives an idea of the locations, the pathological changes, the pathogenic agent, the physiological disturbances induced, the psychological accompaniments, and the pathogenesis.
3. Similarly, it will not be possible to give the prognosis with any resemblance of accuracy unless we possess this knowledge of knowledge.
4. The knowledge of diagnostic symptoms helps in determining the individual characteristic symptoms, which form the basis of a prescription in homoeopathic practice according to the concept of the totality of symptoms.
5. Diagnosis also enables the physician to choose his case and to eliminate cases requiring, primarily, surgical or other measures.
6. It aids prescription by giving information about the locations and the nature of pathological changes present [pathological Generals].
7. Diagnosis can help a homoeopathic physician to plan the general treatment and prophylactic measures. It also makes comparative assessment of the therapeutic results possible.
In short by the process of Diagnosis we will only try to emerge a portrait of a person who is patient and try to individualize him on the mental as well as on the physical level [as a whole]. This clearly indicates the predominant role of Deductive method of logic. [General to Particular—Role of Deductive Logic]
Statistics and Logic: The English word ‘statistics’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘Status” which means, a state. In fact in olden days, statistics was used only to keep the records of the income and expenditure of a state. Later on it became a common term to denote numerical facts related to the state.
Definition: Statistics is a science of statistical method, meaning thereby the study of the methods used in statistics such: Collection of data, classification, and generalization of data, interpretation and analysis of data.
Classification: Statistics ha been classified as:
1. Descriptive Statistics.
2. Inferential Statistics or Inductive Statistics.
Logic has direct relation with Inductive Statistics. Whenever the population is too large, we try to infer about that population on the basis of our study of a sample of that population and that part of Statistics, which deals with such matters, is known as inductive statistics. It deals with concept like reliability, confidence, and probabilities etc. Regarding Inductive Statistics Blalock says: ‘ Statistical inference as the process is called involves much more complex reasoning than does descriptive statistics but when properly understood and used it becomes a very important tool in the development of science. In short on the basis of a selected sample we have to take judgment regarding the whole community on the basis of statistics.
Conclusion: On the basis of above mention discussion it is very clear that each and every basic principle upon which Homoeopathy stands is firmly supported by Logic and this it self prove the scientific basis of Homoeopathy.
- Dhawale. M. L., The Principles and Practice of Homoeopathy, ICR Publication, Bombay.
- Hahnemann S., Chronic Disease Their Peculiar Nature And Cure, B.Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
- Mohanty N, Evolutionary Unfolding Of homeopathic repertories, IBPP, 1st Edition. New Delhi.
- Text book on logic. Syllabus of Arts Faculty.
- Sarkar B.K.Organon Of Medicine.
- Sarkar B.K.,Notes on Homoeopathy.
Dr. [Mrs.] Dhwanika J. Dhagat MD(Hom)
Dr. Jatin N. Dhagat MD(Hom)
Lecturer, Dept. of Organon of medicine and Homoeopathic Philosophy.
Dr.V.H.Dave Homoeopathic Medical College, Anand. Gujarat.
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