A Randomised Non- Controlled Clinical Study on UTI in Paediatrics and its Management with Homoeopathic Medicines of 50 Millesimal Scale Potency


Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a serious bacterial infection causing illness in infants and children. UTI is defined by a combination of clinical features and the presence of bacteria in urine, or it is the presence of more than 100,000 cfu / ml after doing urine culture, regardless to symptoms.

Clinical symptoms of UTI usually include frequency, dysuria, abdominal pain, back pain, fever, and urgency.  It has an impact on simple daily activities, such as work, travel, interpersonal activities, sleep etc.

In such a bothersome condition, the scope of 50 millesimal potency drugs  in the treatment of UTI was taken up for the study. The objectives of the study were as follows:

  1. To study clinical manifestations and etiological factors of urinary tract infection in pediatric age group. 
  2. To study the effect of LM potency in children for treatment of urinary tract infections.
  3. To study homoeopathic drugs effective in the treatment of urinary tract infections in children.

The following methodology was adopted; 

  1. Type of research: A Prospective case study 
  2. Sampling design: Simple random sampling.
  3. Selection criteria: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, history and clinical symptoms. 

The treatment was based on interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms

The following results were obtained at the end of the study;

The results for the study conducted revealed that 21 cases recovered, 6 cases improved and 3 cases did not improve. 

The conclusion of the study:
After the results were statistically analyzed it showed that medicines of 50 millesimal potency have a significant role in the management of UTI.

Key words: Urinary tract infection; Burning micturition; Frequency; Urgency; Quality of life; acute totality.

Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection seen in pediatric age group resulting in distress of the child and concern of the parents affecting 8% of boys and girls in early childhood and around 46% of adolescents out of which females are more prone to it . It is classified under ICD -10 of diagnostic codes. Recurrences of these conditions can lead to serious damage of urinary tract till kidneys. It is most ignored condition in children as they fail to produce the ethical symptoms of urinary tract infection and thus sometimes complicate the case. When turning towards the treatment part the children are bombarded with antibiotics from the conventional system of medicine without securing the child from the recurrence of the same.

Homoeopathic medicines are highly effective in management of such cases and with the flexibility in potencies the child gets the best suited medicine which treats him internally securing from the recurrence of the same condition again.

Prescription of lower potencies can sometimes cause prolonged and severe aggravation of symptoms in the child and asking them to wait with patience is like asking them to ‘’ wait in the storm’’. LM potency – the renewed dynamisation provides a much gentler and rapid alternative. “Weathering the storm” of an aggravation for a few hours for one day is a lot easier than for several days. Adjustment of the potency and the dose can be done easily and immediately if there is an aggravation with the well-selected remedy, also frequent repetitions can be done in acute and severe cases without any harm.

However there is limited data and researches exploring the full potential of homoeopathy,especially 50 millesimal potency drugs in urinary tract infection of pediatric age group . Prescription of LM potency in practice is still not has come into limelight and not been explored for its fullest capacities regarding present scenarios especially in children.

This prospective study has focussed towards fulfilling the purpose of a comprehensive review and the exploration of Dr. Hahnemann’s greatest discovery i.e. 50 millesimal scale potency in the urinary tract infections of the pediatric  age group along with clinical features and listing the common etiological factors making this age group vulnerable to this infections. 

Also by prescribing the 50 millesimal potency drugs we will be aiming towards the rapid and gentle healing of the patients devoiding them of their discomfort at the earliest possible hour.

Materials and methods:

Type of research: A Prospective case study 

Sampling design: Probability method of simple random sampling procedure for subjects whose showed clinical signs of urinary tract infection.

Selection criteria: 30 cases were selected On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria, history and symptoms. 

Inclusion criteria:

Subjects presenting with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection.

Subjects with parental consent was taken for study.

Exclusion Criteria:

Subjects presenting with symptoms of upper urinary tract infection.

Already diagnosed with advanced renal pathology and are already under treatment.

Subjects suffering from chronic ailments like tuberculosis, HIV were  excluded    

The study was conducted between May 2017 to November 2018 and all the cases were sufficiently given time period to understand and analyse the outcome. At the end of the study following data was observed which is placed in tabular form.

Age Incidence: Statistical study was done to identify the age group with highest incidence as shown in Table No.1. 

Table No. 1 – Age Incidence

Sl.No. Age in years No.of Subjects Percentage
1. 3 to 6 2 6.66%
2. 7 to 10 7 23.33%
3. 11 to 14 14 46.66%
4. 15 to 18 7 23.33%
Total 30 100%

 As shown in table, maximum incidence of  urinary tract infection was seen in age group11-14yrs 46.66% of the subjects (14); 23.33% of subjects were in the age group of 7-10yrs (7); 23.33% of subjects were in the age groups of 15-18yrs(7);6.66% of subjects were in the age group of 3-6yrs(2).

2)  Sex Incidence: Statistical study was done to identify the sex incidence with highest incidence as shown in Table No.2

Table No. 2 –Sex Incidence

Sl.No. Sex of subjects No. of Subjects Percentage
 1. Male 10 33.33%
2. Female 20 66.66%
Total 30 100 %

As shown in table above, 33.33%  of the subjects (10) were males and 66.66% of the subjects (20) were females.

3)   Incidence of Presenting Complaints: In the statistical study of 30 cases, the presenting complaints are shown in table no.-3. 

No. 3 – Incidence of Presenting Complaints

Sl.No. Symptoms No. of Subjects Percentage
 1. Burning, frequency 11 36.66
2. Burning, frequency, offensive urine 2 6.66
3. Burning, frequency, urgency 4 13.33
4. Burning, increased frequency, scanty urine 4 13.33
5. Burning, frequency, lower abdomen pain 4 13.33
6. Burning , dribbling of urine 3 10.00
7. Burning, frequency, hot urine 2 6.66
Total 30 100%

Table 4 List of common etiological factor observed

S.no Etiological factor No. of subjects
1. Lack of personal hygiene 05
2. After menstruation 03
3. Less water intake 02
4. Improper bladder habits 02
5. Use of common toilets 01
6. Travelling 01
Total 14

Table 5: Remedies prescribed

S.no Remdies No. of Pateints
1. Cantharis 07
2. Apis mellifica 04
3. Nux vomica 03
4. Sulphur 02
5. Nitric acid 02
6. Belladona 02
7. Phosphorous 01
8. Alumina 01
9. Pulsatilla 01
10. Natrum muriaticum 01
11. Bryonia 01
12. Chamomilla 01
13. Staphysagria 01
14. Arsenicum album 01
15. Sarsaparilla 01
16. Argentum nitricum 01
Total 30

Results  : table  6

Result of Treatment : In the statistical study of 30 cases the results of the 

treatment are summarized in Table No.8.   

Sl.No. Results No. of Subjects Percentage
1. Recovered 21 66.66%
2. Improved 6 23.33%
3. Not Improved 3 10.00%
Total 30 100%

The study undertaken here was one of the most common conditions found in our day to day life. Every person in his life time suffers from it one or the other time. This condition is not the one which may prove to be life threatening but is the one which causes lot of discomfort as the array of symptoms which it produces mainly like urgency, frequency & its affinity more towards the female sex due to anatomical structure may cause social constraints as the individual has to visit the toilet on and often and may feel awkward about it.

If left untreated there is a possibility of developing in to a persistent problem leading to further complications thereafter.

Works undertaken in the journey of this study:
The outcome of this prospective study has shown that homoeopathic medicines of 50 millesimal potency are efficient in treatment of urinary tract infection in pediatric age group.

Age incidence: In this study maximum incidence of  urinary tract    infection was seen in age group11-14yrs 46.66% of the subjects (14); 23.33% of subjects were in the age group of 7-10yrs (7); 23.33% of subjects were in the age groups of 15-18yrs(7);6.66% of subjects were in the age group of 3-6yrs(2). This result corresponds to the age incidence rates given in pediatric standard textbooks stating that adolescents age group have the peak rate.

Sex incidence: As seen in the study 20 were females and 10 were males. Prevalence couldn’t be estimated on the outcome of male: female ratio as number of female sample selected for the study was relatively large in number. The study shows that UTI prevalence is more in females but also according to the literature and various studies conducted already a female preponderance is showed mainly because of the anatomical structure which is different from males.

Incidence of presenting complaints: UTI is presented most commonly with 11 of the subjects presenting with burning, frequency, 4 of the subjects  with burning, frequency , urgency.  4 patient came with burning, increased frequency, scanty flow and burning , frequency, lower abdomen pain each. 3 pateints came up with the complaints of burning, dribbling of urine and  2 pateints showed up  with burning , frequency , hot urine and burning, frequency , offensive each.

The above nature, origin & frequency of complaints observed in 30 subjects coincide with standard pediatric and medicine textbooks where burning micturition is the commonest of the complaint first felt by the patient followed by dysuria and other complaints.

Results : In this study of 30 cases it is been observed that 20 subjects recovered; 6 were improved and 3 subjects did not report after taking medicines, therefore the prognosis of those cases were not known & they were placed under ‘not improved’ category. The above result showed that medicines of 50 millesimal scale potency had a remarkable effect in UTI cases.

Aetilogical factors found in patient : Among 30 subjects which were taken for study , 14 of them expressed clear etiological factor as evident in table  above, out of which lack of personal hygiene was found in 5 of the subjects,3 girls said it was after menstruation , whereas less water intake and improper bladder habits was confirmed by 2 subjects each.  Travelling was found to be a factor in 1 patient and also the use of common toilet was the causative factor in 1 patient.

Lack of personal hygiene remains a causation for many disease let alone urinary tract infection especially in unattended children who are all by themselves and lacks knowledge about hygiene which also include hygienic measures during and after menstruation which is peak of vulnerability for females. 

Remedies given to the patient: As evident from the study all total of 16 remedies were totally prescribed to 30 subjects, out of cantharis was the highest given remedy i.e to 7 subjects, followed by apis mellifica which was given to 4 subjects,  nux vomica to 3 subjects , belladonna , sulphur, nitric acid to 2 subjects each and Alumina, pulsatilla, natrum mur , bryonia, chamomilla, staphysagria, arsenicum album ,sarsaparilla, argentums nit to 1 patient each.

Observations and results show the homoeopathic medicines of 50 millesimal scale potency is very effective in the treatment of urinary tract infections in pediatrics age group.

After sedulous, statistical and logical testing of the result, the null hypothesis was rejected.


This study which was conducted on 30 subjects of pediatric age group concentrated mainly on providing rapid relief to the subject with the utilization of 50 millesimal scale remedies and also listing out the commonest etiological factor responsible for the condition. 

It was noted that the lack of maintenance of personal hygiene played a major role as the etiological factor of urinary tract infections as seen in this study group followed by improper voiding habits in young children. Burning micturition which was the most common symptom in this study responded well to the medicines of 0/1 potency and also the subjects showed increased general wellness.

Hence, it may be concluded that 50 millesimal drugs are well efficient in the treatment of urinary tract infection in pediatric age group.


  1. Ramadan, A. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in primary school children and its relation to school achievement in Ismailia Governorate, University of Cairo, Egypt ,2003.pp 184 https://library.ju.edu.jo/, accessed on 26/11/2018
  2. Tanagho, Emil A., Mcaninch, Jack W,Bacterial infection of genitourinary tract McGraw-Hill companies Inc, United States of America,2004. pp 203-227.
  3. Zorc, JJ., Levine, DA et al . Clinical and demographic factors associated with urinary tract infection in young febrile infants, published on September 2005, volume 116. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/3/644, accessed on 14/11/2018
  4. Marcdante, Karen,  Essentials of paediatrics, sixth edition , published by –elsevier , adviser of Reed Elsevier India Pvt Ltd,2010 , pp 414
  5. Lakshmi, V., Satheesshkumar, T., Kulkarni, G. Utility of Urochrom 2- A chromogenic medium for uropathogens. Indian Journal of  Medical microbiology, 2004 July-sept; 22(3);153-158. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/m/pubmed/17642722/, accessed on 10/22/2018
  6. Walsh PC, et al. Campbells Urology. Vol2  7th ed. Philadelphia (USA): Saunders publishers; pp. 1689.
  7. Lindstorm, TC. Baerheim, A., Flataas, AS.Behaviour modification group-treatment of children with recurrent lower urinary tract infections. Scand j Caring Sci.2000; 14(4):259-67 https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar? cluster=12320498359406398896&hl=en&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5, assessed on 10/12/2018
  8. Bakker, E., Van Sprundel, M., Van derAurwera, JC., Van Gool, JD., Wyndaele, JJ. Voiding habits and wetting in a population of 4332 Belgian schoolchildren aged between 10 and 14 years. Scand J Urol Nephrol.2002; 36(5):354-62. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365590232078 3863?journalCode=isju19, accessed on 14/ 12/ 2018
  9. Meadow, SR. Day wetting. Pediatr Nephrol.1990 Mar; 4(2):178-8 https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Day-wetting- Meadow/442ae0d7eee3 a3d15b73ec335476e9b0c2bc7d55#citing-papers, accessed on 17/12/2018
  10. Mazzola, BL., Von Vigier, RO., Marchand, S., Tonz, M., Bianchetti, MG. Behavioral and functional abnormalities linked with recurrent urinary tract infections in girls. J Nephrol. 2003; Jan-Feb; 16(1):133-8 https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12649544, accessed on 23/12/2018
  11. Wan, J., Kaplinsky, R., Greenfield, S. Toilet habits of children evaluated for urinary tract infection. J Urol.1995 Aug https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7609183/, accessed on 23/12/2018
  12. .www.urology.wisc.edu/education/module_7_pediatric_uti.pdf, accessed on 23/12/2018
  13. Alper, B., Curry,S. Urinary Tract Infection in children. American Family physician.2005 Dec.Volume 72.number 12 www.aafp.org/afp, accessed on 23/12/2018
  14. Santen, SA.,Altieri,MF. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection.Emerg Med Clin North AM. 2001 Aug; 19(3): 675-90 https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?q=Santen,+SA.,+Altieri,MF.+Pediatric+Urinary+Tract+Infection&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart, accessed on 28/12/2018
  15. Shaikh, N., Morone, NE., Bost, JE. Farrell, MH. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood: a meta-analysis. Pediatr InfectDis J.2008 Apr; 27(4):302-8. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/573963_1, accessed on 28/12/2018
  16. Lazarevic, G., Petreska, D., Pavlovic, S. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from the urine of children with urinary tract infections from 1986 to 1995. SrpArhCelokLek. 1998 Nov-Dec; 126(11-12):423-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9921014/ Accessed on 05/01/2019
  17. Yildiz, B., Kural, N., Durmaz, G., Yarar, C., Ak, I., Akcar, N. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection. Saudi Med J. 2007 Dec; 28(12):1850-4. https://www.smj.org.sa/index.php/smj/article /download/6072/3846, accessed on 5/01/2019
  18. Schlager, TA. Urinary tract infections in children younger than 5 years of age: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes and prevention. Paediatr Drugs.2001; 3(3):219-27. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12023414 Urinary_tract_infections_in_children_younger_than_5_years_of_age_Epidemiology_diagnosis_treatment_outcomes_and_prevention accessed on 5/01/2019
  19. Livingstone Churchill, Edwards et al. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. 17th ed. U.K:Harcourt publishers Ltd;1995. pp 649.
  20. Mangiarotti, P., Pizzini, C., Fanos, V. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections. J chemother. 2000 Apr; 12(2):115-23.  https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/joc.2000.12.2.115?journalCode=yjoc20
  1. Heffner, V., Gorelick, M. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection. ClinPed Emerg Med. 2008; 9: 233-237 https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q =&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwj66eGVlu3hAhWLfSsKHavpD1gQFjAAegQIAhAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.academia.edu%2F26896051%2FPediatric_Urinary_Tract_Infection&usg=AOvVaw2MRc_a6EXxa35iijJh11IX, accessed on 7/01/2019
  2. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Urinary tract infection in children: diagnosis, treatment and long-term management.2007 August. NICE clinical guideline 54. http:// www.nice.org.uk/cg054, accessed on 8/01/2019
  3. Resnick MT, Andrew CN. Urology Secrets. 2nd ed. Jaypee Brothers medical publisherspvt ltd; pp. 236,239,240.
  4. Speight Phylis. Comparison of Chronic Miasms. New Delhi:B.Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd; pp 1, 66, 69.
  5. Sutherland Allan D. Potency and Polarity, The Homoeopathic Recorder. VolXlV, No 1. 1930.pp 20
  6. Hahnemann, samuel. Chronic Diseases (theoretical part). Reprint ed.New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers;1998. pp 119.
  7. Banerjea,S.K, Miasmatic Diagnosis, Practical tips with clinical Comparisons. New Delhi. B. Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd; 2003. pp 70-73.
  8. Murphy Robin, Homoeopathic Clinical Repertory, Third edition, Lotus Health Institute, Virgina, USA, August 15, 2005, pp188 to 223, 1281 to 1294 & 2240 to 2256.
  9. William D Gentry. The Rubrical and Regional textbook of Homoeopathic MateriaMedica. Section on Urine and Urinary organs , New Delhi: B Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd; 1992
  10. LM or Q potencies: retrospection of its use during 15 yrs in Brazil, homoeopathic links 2005, 2(18):pp 87-91
  11. Banerjee.D.D: Augmented textbook of Homoeopathic pharmacy, second edition, B Jain publishers, New Delhi, reprint edition 2006 pp-304,327-334
  12. Dr,Mathur, KN: Principles of prescribing collected from clinical experiences of pioneers of homoeopathy, B Jain publishers, New Delhi, reprint edition—2008, pp 37-39
  13. Dr. Master.J, Farukh and Dr Fernandes, Natasha: understanding posology in classical homoeopathy published and printed by Emryss Distribution B V , November 2013, pp 56-60
  14. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475491699902321accessed on 15/01/2019
  15. Brandl,Almut , Pocket homoeopathy,  Borm Bruckmeier Pub Llc; 1 edition , 2003
  16. FKonigsberger,  LM potencies 12 years experience, published originally in British homoeopathic journal Oct 1998, vol 87, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475491699902321 accessed on 15/01/2019
  17. Little, David,  Dosage and potency according to Organon .This article was presented in The American Homoeopath, the Journal of the North American Society of Homoeopaths, 1998, page 128.http://www.simillimum. com/education/little-library/case-management/dpato/article.php accessed on 28/01/2019
  18. SchepperDL, LM potencies: one of the hidden treasures of the sixth edition of the Organon Volume 88, Issue 3, June 1999, Pages 128-134 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475491699903090; accessed on 6/02/2019

E mail : drnahida.mulla@gmail.com

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


ten + 14 =