Forensic Medicine & Toxicology – Final revision

steth2Dr. Sanil Kumar BHMS,MD(Hom)
Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College. Calicut
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Forensic medicine: is the application of medical and paramedical knowledge in the administration of law and justice. Legal medicine and state medicine are other names for it.

Medical jurisprudence: deals with the legal rights, privileges, duties and obligations of medical practitioner.

Points to remember  

  1. Pin – point pupils = Opium
  2. Dilatation of pupils = Dhatura, Cyanide
  3. Constriction of pupils = Opium, phenol, organo-phosphorus, physostigmine, chloral hydrate.
  4. Cumulative poisons are: Barbiturates, and methyl alcohol
  5. Habit forming poisons are: Caffeine and Nicotine.
  6. Addiction drugs are: Alcohol, Barbiturates, Coccaine, Cannabis, Chloral hydrate, Opium, Pethidine.
  7. Hemodialysis is good value in: Salicylate, methanol, barbiturate, and aspirin (except kerosene oil and diazephem)
  8. 1st sign of intra-uterine death: Gas shadow in aorta (as early as 12 hours).
  9. Increased anion gap is seen in Salicylate poisoning, lactic acidosis, starvation.
  10. Ideal suicide poison = Cyanide
  11. Ideal homicide poison = Thallium, fluoride compounds.
  12. Commonly used homicidal poisons: Arsenic, aconite
  13. Commonly used suicidal poisons: Endrine, Opium, Barbiturates, Organo-phosphorus compounds.
  14. Poison resembling cholera = Arsenic
  15. Poison resembling tetanus = Strychnine
  16. Poison resembling natural death = Thallium
  17. Poison resembling fading measles = Arsenic
  18. Poison resembling thyrotoxicosis = Bi-nitro compounds.

Tests for detecting poisons:

  • Arsenic = Marsh’s test, Reinsch’s test
  • Opium = Marquis test
  • Alcohol = Mc’evan’s test
  • Datura = Mydriatic test
  • Phenol = Green urine.


  1. The Percentage of blood alcohol in the stage of “dead drunk” is 0.5%.
  2. Pisiform gets ossified by 12 yrs of age.
  3. By 14 yrs. patella gets ossified.
  4. Anterior fontanelle closes by 18 months of age.
  5. The height of a child is double of birth height by 4 years of age,
  6. Under IPC, a person below 7 years is not criminally responsible.
  7. Fatal period of Datura poisoning is 24 hours.
  8. In India, rigor mortis sets within 1-2 hours.
  9. While dispatching blood and urine for chemical analysis, sodium fluoride is added as preservative in concentration of 50 mg/10ml.
  10. Critical level of alcohol in blood is 0.15%.
  11. The minimum age for giving consent for surgery is 18 years.
  12. In fractured ends of bone, soft provisional callus is formed by 15 hours.
  13. The minimum time required for adipocere formation in a dead body is 21 days.
  14. Indian Medical Council Act was enacted in 1956.
  15. Mental retardation is I.Q. Below 70.
  16. Ratio between ethyl alcohol in blood to urine is 1:1.33
  17. Gas rigidity appears after 72 hours.
  18. Marbling is noticed by 36 hours.
  19. Full development of rigor mortis takes about 12 hours.
  20. In exhumation, 6-7 samples of earth are collected.
  21. Intercourse with wife below 15 years of age is considerable rape.
  22. Fatal period of aconite isusually 1-5 hours.
  23. Cooling of body is gradual upto 1-3 hours.
  24. Hypostasis is mottled within first 3 hours of death.
  25. Killing range of a militry rifle is 3000 yards.
  26. Juvenile offender is a person under 16 years
  27. The dispersion of pellets is seen usually at distance beyond 10 feet.
  28. In a gunshot wound, the presence of singeing of hair or charring of skin denotes a fire up to 18 inches.
  29. Dispersion of pellets in shotgun injury is calculated as dispersion in inches = 1.5 times the dispersion in yards.
  30. An infant born before 210 days is not legally considered capable of maintaining a separate existence.
  31. A bruise showing bluish black discolouration is 4 days old.
  32. The upper limit of safety for carbon monoxide in air is 0.01%.
  33. Rh positivity in India is 93%.
  34. In an abrasion, the scab usually dries and falls between 4-6 days.
  35. Fatal dose of opium is 2 gm.
  36. The range of an air rifle is about 90 yards.
  37. Mixed dentition is seen in children between 6-12 years of age.
  38. Basisphenoid unites the basi-occiput at the age to 22 years.
  39. First permanent molar appears at age of 6-7 years.
  40. Judicial first class Magistrate can pass a sentence of imprisonment upto 3 years.
  41. Age of maturity for those under court of wards is 21 years. In India, sexual maturity is gained at 14 years of age.
  42. The degree of accuracy in determining sex from long bones is 80%.
  43. Fatal period of sulphuric acid poisoning is 18-24 hours.
  44. Multiplying factors for estimating stature from humerus and femur in males are 5-5.3 and 3.6-3.8 respectively.
  45. Colliquative liquefaction is seen within 1 week after death.
  46. A contusion assumes green colour by 6 days.
  47. Marriage age for boys and girls are 21 years and 18 years respectively.
  48. Internal organs take 24 hours to cool. A person becomes major at the age of 18 years. Eruption of temporary teeth is completed by 2 to 2.5 years.
  49. Foetal parts can be detected on plain X-ray usually by 16 weeks.
  50. Child below 12 years is not required to take an oath.
  51. Xiphoid process unites with sternum at age of 40 years.
  52. Cranial capacity is 10% less in females.
  53. Nuclear features persist in decomposition for a period of 2-3 years.
  54. Precipitin test is positive to be opium in dead body upto 10 years.
  55. After death, benzidine test is positive upto 150 years. Bones begin to decompose after death in 3-10 years.
  56. Less than 7 aminoacids in bone suggest age of bone after death as more than 100 years. The rate of cooling of body in first 6 hours is 2.5°F and in next 6 hours as 1.5″-2.0cF. Victim of drowning in a state of suspended animation can be revived as long as 10-20 minutes.
  57. Centre of ossification for pisiform bone appears at an age of 10-12 years.
  58. The floatation time in summer for a dead body after drowning is one day.
  59. The age of 15 years old female is best determined by the radiography of upper end of radius and ulna.
  60. Maggots in a dead body do not appear before 48 hours.
  61. Hairs become loose after 72 hours of death.
  62. Epiphyseal union of sternal end of clavicle occurs at age of 22 years.
  63. Washer woman’s hands and feet usually occur within 12-18 hours.
  64. Saponification in drowning occurs in about 5 weeks.
  65. Death ensues in about 5 mts. of complete submersion.
  66. By ABO.RH, MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%.
  67. Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years of age. Gustafson’s method for estimation age of adult over 21 years.
  68. In poisoning by salicylates, the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours.
  69. The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum 12 years.
  70. If a person is absent from his usual haunts, and has not been heard for 7 hears, he is presumed to be dead.
  71. Infanticide means unlawful destruction of child below 1 year of age.
  72. By ABO, Rh, MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%
  73. Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years of age
  74. In poisoning by salicylates, the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours
  75. The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum 12 years
  76. In sin of Gomorrah, buccal swabs are useful upto 9 hours
  77. In most countries, breath alcohol concentration 35 mg/100 ml is considered an offence After absorption, the ratio of alcohol in blood and urine is constant and is 1:1.31 Histologically, reticulum fibres in an abrasion are seen on 8 days
  78. Widmark’s formula for urine analysis of alcohol is 3/4 prq
  79. Pancreas constitute 0.1% of body weight
  80. Punishment for false evidence is given under section 193 of IPC
  81. Length of a female larynx is about 3.8 cm
  82. Calcification of third molar begins at 8-10 years.
  83. Lip prints on cheiloscopy are divided into 8 patterns
  84. 1gm tablet of aluminium phosphide is able to liberate 1.0 gm
  85. The diameter of “human hair at 15 years of age is 0.053 ram *
  86. Alcohol gaze nystagmus is produced at an average blood levels of 80 mg%
  87. The residual alcohol in mouth takes about 20 min to disappear and within this period breath analyser test may be false positive
  88. Skeletal muscles constitute about 29% of body weight
  89. Term ‘under the influence’ of alcohol is used when blood concentration is 80-100mg%
  90. Statutory rape is rape under 15 years of age
  91. Weight for occluding internal jugular vein hanging is 2 kg
  92. Majority of deaths due to Aluminium phosphide occurs in within 24 hours
  93. During sleep, rectal temperature is 0.5-1.0°C lower
  94. Drowned body floats in about 12-18 hours in summer S
  95. Bones constitute about 12% of body weight
  96. Absence of III molar tooth indicates that the person is definitely under the age of 17 years
  97. In a dead body, maggots in rainy day are seen in 6 hours.
  98. Arsenic, Aconite and Dhatura are generally used as homicidal poisons.
  99. Ricin is the active principle of croton oil seed.
  100. Abrin is the active principle of abrus precatorius.
  101. Soneryl is a coloured babriturate.
  102. Breath alcohol can be measured by Alcometer or Drunkometer.
  103. The fatal dose of Dhatura is about one grain.
  104. Physostigmine can be regarded as the specific antidote of Dhatura.
  105. Amygdaline is the glucosides of vegetable origin found in cyanides.
  106. The process of putrefaction can be retarded by carbon monoxide gas.
  107. Euthanasia means “Mercy killing”.
  108. Joule burn is seen in electrocution.
  109. Amyl nitrate is an antidote for poisoning due to hydrocyanic acid.
  110. Olive green discoloration of urine on exposure to air is seen in poisoning due to carbolic acid.
  111. Overlying is a type of smothering.
  112. Optic atrophy is the characteristic feature of poisoning by methyl alcohol.
  113. Dryness of mouth, dilated pupils and delirium are symptoms of Dhatura poisoning. (All ‘D’s)
  114. The first permanent tooth to erupt is first molar.
  115. Dying declaration can be recorded by a medical officer.
  116. Presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth and nostrils is seen in drowning.
  117. Privation of any member of joint is a grievous hurt.
  118. Pugilistic attitude is seen in burn death due to coagulation of proteins.
  119. Dying declaration should be recorded by Magistrate.
  120. Nalorphine is an antidote for morphine.
  121. Locard’s principle states that every contact leaves a trace.
  122. The strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid.
  123. Arborescent markings are seen in lightening.
  124. Before performing Postmortem examination, body should be identified by Policemen.
  125. Warrant case means a case relating to an offence punishbale with death, imprisonment for life or for a term exceeding two years.
  126. In civil cases, a reasonable sum for travelling expenses is generally tendered when the summons is served. This is known as conduct money. It is paid by the party that has called his as a witness.
  127. Hair cells are of special interest in cell sexing since both Barr body and Y chromosome can be demonstrated.
  128. Nails, hairs and long bones are preserved in cases of chronic arsenic poisoning.
  129. Postmortem fibrinous clots in heart are known as “Cardiac polyp”.
  130. The surest sign of death is putrefaction.
  131. The rigor mortis start first at upper eye-lids.
  132. Dribbling of saliva from the angle of the mouth is generally considered as the surest sign of hanging.
  133. Presence of soot in respiratory tract is the surest sign of burn.
  134. Strong sulphuric acid when thrown on the face of a person is known as “Vitreol throwing”.
  135. Black gun powder consists of potassium nitrate, sulphur, and charcoal.
  136. Nitrocellulose or Nitroglycerine is used as a smokeless gun powder.
  137. Richochette bullet is one which strikes any other surface before striking the object.
  138. The pulmonary lesion in the injury of air blast is called “Blast lung”.
  139. Loss of virginity is called defloration.
  140. The Buccal coitus is called “Sin of Gomorrah”.
  141.  The commission of sexual assalut upon a dead body is called “Necrophily”.
  142.  “Testamentary capcity” is the capacity of a person to make a valid will.
  143. Malpraxis is defined as want of reasonable skill and or willful negligence on the part of doctor resulting in deterioration of patients’ health or his death.
  144. Copper sulphate is used as an antidote to phsophorus.
  145. Gyroget‘ are cartridges or miniature rockets driven by solid fuel, which produces considerable heat and smokeless gas on burning.
  146. Forensic means courts of law.
  147. Deposition means a statement on oath made by a witness in a judicial proceeding. It is taken down in writing and signed by the witness and magistrate.
  148. Document means any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of these means.
  149. Evidence includes all legal means which help to prove or disprove any matter of fat, the truth of which is submitted to judicial investigation. It can be oral (direct, indirect or hearsay), documentary & circumstantial.
  150. Hurt is defined as bodily pain, disease or infirmity caused to any person.
  151. Injury includes every inquiry other than a trial, conducted by a Magistrate or court.
  152. Investigation includes all the proceedings for the collection of evidence conducted by a Police officer or by any person other than a magistrate who is authorised by a magistrate on his behalf.
  153. Jury means a body of persons sworn to render verdict in a court of justice. It is composed of uneven number and not less than 7 and more than 9 persons.
  154. Metropolitan area means any area in the state comprising a city or a town whose population exceeds one millin.
  155. Offence means any act of omission made punishable by law for the time being in force.
  156. Perjury means wilful utterance of falsehood under oath.
  157. Plantiff is one who brings an action in a court of law.
  158. Summons case means a case relating to an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years
  159. Testimony means the evidence, oral or written, of a witness under under oath.
  160. Warrant means a written authority under “hand and seal”. It is used for the arrest of persons or for their forcible production in a court of law
  161. Traumatic rupture of hymen is seen on posterolateral aspect.
  162. Taylor gave a formula on rate of decomposition of dead body in air, water and earth.
  163. Most reliable method of determining personal identity is Dactylography.
  164. Contre-Coupe injury is seen in head injury.
  165. Strychnine acts on anterior horn cells.
  166. Last organ to putrefy in mate is prostate whereas in female it is ungravid uteus.
  167. In Carboluria, urine turns green on exposure to air.
  168. Cyanide poisoning produces cherry red colour.
  169. McEwen’s sign is seen in alcoholism.
  170. Cutis anserina is seen in drowning.
  171. Shaking palsy or ‘mad Hatters’ is seen with mercury poisoning.
  172. Poison which can be detected in burnt bodies in arsenic.
  173. Cepahlic index helps in identification of race.
  174. Tentative cuts are seen in suicides.
  175. Pugilistic attitude is seen in antemortem or postmortem burns.
  176. Death in police custody is investigated by Magistrate.
  177. Precipitin test is used to identify human blood in stains.
  178. Gelsimium is a spinal cord poison.
  179. Desferroxamine is antidote used in iron poisoning.
  180. Spalding’s sign is seen in maceration.
  181. Impotence is inability to perform the sexual act.
  182. Smack is crude form of heroin.
  183. Ganja is obtained from flowering tops.
  184. Stomach may be greenish in poisoning due to nitric acid.
  185. Lines of Zahn are present in antemortem clots.
  186. Conium is a peripheral poison.
  187. Emphysema aqueosum is seen in wet drowning.
  188. Formication (Magnan’s symptom) is seen in cocaine dependence.
  189. Rigor mortis is simulated by cadaveric spasm.
  190. Thorn apple is Datura stramonium.
  191. Dirt collar is seen in fire arm entry wound.
  192. Apoplexy is cerebral congestion.
  193. Feminine of impotence is frigidity.
  194. In oath taking, a medical man does not require to keep his hands on a holy book.
  195. Thanatology is science that deals with death.
  196. Number of hours since death is calculated by multiplying the fall in rectal temperature with 0.67.
  197. Dichotomy is related to splitting of fees.
  198. Fracture of hyoid bone in a case of strangulation is commonly seen in the greater horn.
  199. In a fresh case of death due to ventricular fibrillation, heart at postmortem will be flabby.
  200. Punctate basophilia is seen in lead poisoning.
  201. Felony is a category of rape, murder or burglary.
  202. Testamentary capacity is related to will.
  203. McNaughten was an accused.
  204. Accepted procedure of first aid for cafe coronary is Heimlich manoeuvre.
  205. Mode of death from obstruction of air passages from within is anoxic anoxia.
  206. Brain may be preserved in normal saline or rectified spirit.
  207. CSF is preserved in poisoning due to alcohol.
  208. Long bones are preserved inpoisoning due to arsenic, lead or antimony.
  209. Exhumation is usually done in the early morning.
  210. In India, Exhumation is done for Mohammadans and Christians.
  211. Macroscopically and microscopically, there will not be any change to the heart in case of myocardial infarction death up to 8 hours.
  212. Foamy liver is due to bubbing up of gas.
  213. Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level is low in CML.
  214. The essential lesion of coronary atherosclerosis is found in intima.
  215. The classical site of ischaemic colitis is splenic flexure.
  216. The rigor mortis disappears in the order of eyelids, neck, thorax, lower lumbs (in the order of appearance).
  217. Primary relaxation is stage of somatic death.
  218. After death, the onset of putrefaction is in the stage of secondary relaxation.
  219. Species of origin of blood is determined by precipitin test.
  220. It is a criminal offence in India, for a person to drive a motor vehicle after consuming alcohol.
  221. Dum dum bullet is so called because tip is chiselled off.
  222. Cyanides mainly affect Cytochrome oxidase.
  223. In electrocution, death is most often due to ventricular fibrillation.
  224. Le facies sympathique is seen in hanging.
  225. The characteristic sign of Korsakoff psychosis is amnesia.
  226. Aconite is most commonly used as a homicidal poison.
  227. Alcohol is maximally absorbed from small intestine.
  228. Absolute alcohol has 99.95% alcohol.
  229. Visceras obtained from a body due to death from alcoholic intoxication are preserved is suprasaturated saline.
  230. In strychnine poisoning, rigor mortis sets in early and lasts shortly.
  231. A short barreled rifle is called carbine.
  232. The most fragile bone in skull to get fractured is temporal
  233. The most common type of skull fracture is fissure.
  234. Rigor mortis sets early in cases with deaths due to apoplexy.
  235. In cadaveric spasm, stage of primary relaxation is missing.
  236. Heat stiffening is due to exposure of body to temperature above 75°C.
  237. The presence of blackening, tatooing and scortching in a shotgun injury indicates distance of fire upto 3 feet.
  238. Lucid interval is seen in extradural haemorrhage and insanity.
  239. In forgeries, oxalic acid is used as ink remover solution.
  240. Pond fracture (of skull) is found in children.
  241. Blasting effect is usually seen in a firearm injury from point blank range.
  242. Olive oil is used in stomach wash in carbolic acid poisoning.
  243. Fracture of middle cranial fossa causes injury to VII and VIII cranial nerves.
  244. Histologically amyloid deposits always begin intercellularly.
  245. Ischiopubic index is significantly more in females.
  246. Unconsciousness occurs immediately after head injury due to concussion.
  247. A female has more sternal index, ischiopubic index and sciatic notch index.
  248. Ewings postulates refer to accidents as a cause of death.
  249. Loss of muscular coordination and staggering gait are seen in patient with blood alcohol concentration of 150-300
  250. Dinitro compounds poisoning resembles thyrotoxicosis.
  251. Aconite is known as Sweet poison.
  252. CuSO4 is antidote of Phosphorus.
  253. Foder’s test compares weight of lungs to the body.
  254. Diaphanus test denotes that after death, finger webs lose their lusture.
  255. Gaping of deep incised wound is dependent on cleavage lines of Langer.
  256. When a patient is injured or dies due to some unintentional act during treatment by a doctor or agent of the doctor or known as therapeutic misadventure.
  257. Glass blowers shakes are seen with poisoning due to mercury.
  258. ‘Run amok’ is sometimes seen with cannabis.
  259. Abrus is viper-like poison.
  260. Bluish green hypostasis is seen in H2S poisoning
  261. Marquis test is used in opium poisoning.
  262. Datura is also known as ‘Road poison’.
  263. Marsh’s test and Reinsch test are used in arsenic poisoning.
  264. Exposure to nickel causes carcinoma nasopharynx.
  265. Best test for seminal stain is Florence test.
  266. Fall of a tooth is grievous injury.
  267. To conduct a postmortem, an authorisation letter is necessary from police officer, magistrate and coroner.
  268. A consent is invalid of obtained from a person who is intoxicated, insane or under threat.
  269. In India, exhumation has no time limit.
  270. Colour changes of putrefaction are first observed in iliac fossa.
  271. Dipsomania is seen with alcohol.
  272. Subpoena is a seen kind of document.
  273. In exhumated bodies, the poison likely to be detected most significantly is arsenic.
  274. Postmortem in a newborn is done by opening first the abdominal cavity.
  275. Tests for circulation are Magnus, Diaphanous and Icard’s.
  276. Compressed air is used to fire lead slugs in air rifle.
  277. Most important sign of defloration is ruptured hymen.
  278. Cafe coronary occurs when a person is intoxicated.
  279. Overlying is a type of smothering.
  280. Death in fresh water in comparison to salt water is earlier.
  281. Bevelling of inner table of skull is seen in fire arm entry wound.
  282. In burking, cause of death is traumatic asphyxia.
  283. Bansdola is a form of homicidal strangulation.
  284. Convincing proof of burial alive is sand in trachea and bronchi.
  285. In India. Coroner’s courts are held in Bombay.
  286. Corpus delict deals with body of crime.
  287. Burking is a name derived from person.
  288. Bullet is picked up with hands.
  289. The process which causes the drying up of tissues and internal viscera to a sufficient degree to halt putrefaction is called mummification.
  290. The most important cause of temporary impotence is fear.
  291. Minimum quantity of blood required to be preserved to mineral poisoning.
  292. Superimposition is technique most useful for identification from skull.
  293. Brown atrophy of heart is seen in starvation deaths.
  294. Most common type of finger impression is loop.
  295. Lead poisoning is common in children.
  296. Presence of alveolar duct membrane in foetal autopsies in indicative of live birth.
  297. The science of finger print was first demonstrated by Francis.
  298. Karl Pearson formula is used to calculate stature of the individual from long bones.
  299. Filigree burns are due to lightening.
  300. The commonest homicidal poison used in India is Arsenic.
  301. BAL is contraindicated in liver damage.
  302. KCN is ineffective as a poison if kept for long time, patient takes excess of carbohydrate or suffers from achlorhydria.
  303. Inquiry into circumstances of death is called inquest report.
  304. Non-poisonous pure metals are mercury, copper and lead.
  305. Phossy Jaw is produced by chronic white phosphorus poisoning.
  306. Ptysalism is seen in copper poisoning.
  307. Chloral hydrate is also called knockout drops or Micky Finn.
  308. Chromodacryorrhoea is sometimes preapilated by organophosphorus
  309. Rape is a cognizable offence.
  310.  To make a positive identification with the help of a partial finger print, the points of similarity should be at least 16.
  311. The most striking symptoms of pregnancy is cessation of menstruation.
  312. The most reliable chemical test for blood is benzidine test.
  313. The position colour of tests for blood are —Benzidine test (Blue), Guiacum test (deep blue), Kastle Meyer test, Leucomalachite test (Peacock blue), Haemin Crystal (dark brown).
  314. Takayama reagent is used in haemochromogen test.
  315. Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin.
  316. Term immerssion foot is used for cases with frost bite.
  317. Boxer’s attitude is seen in persons dying of burns.
  318. III and IV degree of burns are most painful. •
  319. Smokeless gun powder is composed of nitrocellulose.
  320. Gunshot wound is a type of perforated wound.
  321. Supreme Court is purely an appellate Court.
  322. Police inquest can be done by a person not below the rank of sub-inspector.
  323. Haemodilution occurs in fresh water drowning.
  324. In chronic mercury poisoning, face is first affected.
  325. Wrist drop and foot drop may be seen in poisoning with lead.
  326. After taking cyanide, patient first feels numbness in extremities.
  327. Nux vomica seeds contain 2 alkaloids, strychnine and brucine.
  328. Lynching is a form of homicidal hanging.
  329. ‘Arrow poison’ is nux vomical (also called Kuchila).
  330. Commonest industrial metal poisoning is by lead.
  331. Haemorrhagic spots are found in poisoning by thallium.
  332. Amyl nitrate is antidote of cocaine poisoning.
  333. In sea water drowning, there is steep rise in Na+ and Mg++.
  334. Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death.
  335. Least common type of finger prints is composite.
  336. Preauricular sulcus is useful for identification of sex.
  337. Seminal emission is common in hanging.
  338. In methyl alcohol poisoning treatment recommended is ethyl alcohol and sodium bicarbonate.
  339. The presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth indicates drowning.
  340. Lower end of femur can help to determine the age.
  341. Resipsa Loquitur means evidence speaks for itself.
  342. Resorption elution technique is used for detection of blood stains.
  343. In females, obturator foramen is triangular shaped.
  344. Absorption of lead is mainly through lung.
  345. Incised like lacerated wound appears at forehead.
  346. Medical jurisprudence is the subject concerned with knowledge of law in relation to the practice of medicine. In a nutshell, it deals with legal aspects of medical practice.
  347. Crime means a social harm which has been defined and made punishable by law.
  348. No conduct money is paid in criminal cases, however, provision is made by the Govt under sec. 312 Cr PC for payment of reasonable expenses of an expert witness attending before any criminal court.
  349. The body is exhumed only when there is a written order issued by 1st class Chief Judicial or Executive magistrate or the Coroner. There is not time limit for exhumation in India.
  350. Puterfaction is the surest sign of death. The earliest sign is manifested as greenish discoluration in the right ilic fossa.
  351. Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin and muscle proteins.
  352. Cold stiffening is due to solidfication of fats when body is exposed to very low temperatures
  353. Presence of blood stained froth in the air passage and diatoms in internal visceras and bone marrow is considered surest sign of drowning.
  354. The chief post mortem finding in case of starvation is distended gall bladder.
  355. Heat exhaustion is caused by dehydration and salt deficiency.
  356. Presence of soot in the respiratory passage is the surest sign of ante-mortem burn.
  357. Diatoms resist putrefaction.
  358. About 1900 cals is the minimum daily dieteic requirement below which manifestations of starvation appear.
  359. For estimating surface area in burnt patient “Wallace’s Rule of Nine” has been employed.
  360. The Taser Gun is a device for immoblizing vicitims by using electric current without causing death or serious injury.
  361. In drowning, Paltauf ‘s haemorrhages are seen subpleurally in the lungs
  362. Molecular death is more significant medico-legally than somatic death.
  363. Semen contains more than double quantity of CPK than any other body fluid. Levels over 400 units are almost diagnostic. The enzyme is stable and can be demonstrated as late as 6 months after soiling.
  364. Hanging is one of the common forms of suicide among men.
  365. Judicial hanging is the official method of execution of death sentence. The dislocation often takes place between the 2nd & 3rd cervical vertebra.
  366. Dribbling of saliva is the vital sign of ante-mortem hanging and is due to stimulation of salivary glands by ligature.
  367. Lynching is homicidal hanging where several persons acting jointly overpower an individual and hang him by means of a rope to a tree or like object.
  368. Strangulation is almost always homicidal.
  369. In strangulation, ligature completely encricles the neck horizontally below thyroid cartilage. Injury to carotid arteries common. Bleeding from nose, mouth and ears. Emphysematous patches on lungs are commonly seen during postmortem examination, fracture of hyoid bone commonly occurs in throttling (near the greater cornua).
  370. Smothering is a form of asphyxia caused by mechanical occlusion of the external air passages viz. the nose and the mouth by hands, cloth or any other material.
  371. Overylaying or compression suffocation results due to compression of the chest so as to prevent breathing. It is common method of infanticide.
  372. Burking is a method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia.
  373. Drowning is a form of asphyxia due to aspiration of fluid into air passage, caused by submersion in water or other fluid.
  374. Death ensues rapidly in fresh water than in salt water or sea water.
  375. The fine froth at the mouth and nose in pathognomonic of drowning.
  376. Cutis anserina or goose skin has no value as a diagnostic sign of death from drowning. Diatoms test is negative in dead bodies thrown in water or in dry drowning.
  377. In a typical case of drowning, diatoms are found in brains and bone marrow.
  378. Drowning is one of the commonest form of suicide amongst females.
  379. Buccal coitus is Sin of Gomorrah.
  380. Strychnine poisoning resembles tetanus / epilepsy / hysteria.
  381. Thallium resembles natural death.
  382. Exhumation is done: In presence of police officer. In the supervision of Medical Officer. Written order from 1st class Magistrate or coroner.
  383. Most common mode of death in strangulation is Asphyxia.
  384. The common mode of choking is Accidental.
  385. Caffey syndrome is Battered baby syndrome.
  386. In judicial hanging, fracture/dislocation of the vertebrae at the level of C3 and C4 vertebra.
  387. In Asphyxia, the place where the Tardieu spots occur in lung is interlobar fissures. Forensic thanatology deals with Medicolegal study of death.
  388. In dental fluorosis, the teeth are characterised by mottled enamel.
  389. Wreden’s test—for deleting the presence of air in middle ear for determining live birth or dead foetus.
  390. The rules for criminal responsibility of Insane:   Mc Naughten’s rule,  Durham’s rule,  Current’s rule
  391. Blood group of Parents, Child group possible: § OxO i.e 00×00 = 0,   A x B i.e OA x OB = O, A, B, AB. All are possible,  OxA i.e OOxOA = O, A.
  392. Macerated body of a foetus indicates—dead-born.
  393. Cadaveric spasm (Instantaneous rigor) affects voluntary muscles only.
  394. The most dependent means of identification of persons is finger prints.
  395. If a person survives after giving dying declaration, it can be used as corroborative evidence.
  396. Paraffin test or dermal nitrate test detects Gunpowder residue on hands.
  397. Knockout agents: Chloral hydrate, Potassium bromide
  398. Saturday night paralysis due to pressure on the Radial nerve.
  399. Leading questions are permissible in cross-examination.
  400. Preservation used to preserve the urine for chemical analysis is Thymol crystals.
  401. In Arsenic poisoning, putrefaction is delayed.
  402. Arsenic is employed for embalming of Cadaver.
  403. Subendocardial haemorrhages in Arsenic poisoning.
  404. The poison which is found in maximum quantities in various organs in Postmortem is —Arsenic.
  405. Poisoning resembling fading measles — Arsenic.
  406. Optic atrophy occurs in Methyl Alcohol poisoning.
  407. Minimum Alcohol consumed by person, estimated by — Widmarks formula.
  408. Widmark’s formula, to determine — Quantity of Alcohol consumed.
  409. The preservative used for viscera in Alcohol poisoning—Saturated sodium chloride solution.
  410. Barbiturates increase the toxicity of Alcohol by Synergism.
  411. Methylated spirit contains—95% Rectified spirit and 5% Methyl alcohol.
  412.  The common preservative for viscera—Rectified spirit
  413. The organs that resist putrefaction—uterus (Non pregnant); Prostate.
  414. The poisons which Resist putrefaction—Arsenic, Edrin, Datura, Strychnine.
  415. Thick and leathery stomach wall in —Phenol poisoning.
  416. Ochronosis (Pigmentation of skin and cartilages) in — Phenol poisoning.
  417. In Phenol poisoning —Urine is green coloured.
  418. Delicate and reliable test for Blood stains—Takayama’s test (Hemochromogen crystal test).
  419. Teichman test for blood stains is —Haemin Crystal test.
  420. Extremely delicate test for Blood stains—Phenophthalein test (Kastle-Mayer test).
  421. The best test for Blood stains—Chromatography absorption spectroscopy.
  422. Leukomalachite green test is a chemical test for —Blood.
  423. In severe burns, remnant indicative of Male sex—Inguinal canal.
  424. Carbonaceous soot particles in Respiratory tract suggesive of—Antemortem burns.
  425. Lichetenberg’s flowers or filigree burns or Arborescent markings is seen in Lightening.
  426. In chemical burns by Corrosives—Vesication does not occur.
  427. Paltauf’s haemorrhages (usually in lower lobes of lungs) in —Drowning.
  428. Immersion syndrome is due to—Vagal inhibition
  429. Froth may be absent in case of death due to — Dry drowning.
  430. The specimen used for Diatom’s test—Sternal bone marrow.
  431. Salt water drowning —Increased.
  432. Postmortem staining:      Usually mistaken for —Contusion.      Can occur before death in —Cholera.
  433. Hypostasis or cadaveric lividity — Postmortem staining.
  434. Purple colour in —Asphyxia.
  435. Blue green colur in —Hydrogen sulphide poisoning.
  436. Blue vitreol—Copper sulfate.
  437. Verdigris—Copper subacetate.
  438. Green line on the gums in —Copper poisoning.
  439. Most potent of all preparations of cannabis is —Charas.
  440. Stomach wash in opium poisoning, done with —Potassium permanganate.
  441. In opium poisoning, there is loss of all secretions except sweat.
  442. In opium poisoning, atropine is contraindicated.
  443. Methaemoglobinaemia is caused by poisoning due to Nitrates.
  444. Antidote used in common types of poisonous shakes, in India includes polyvalent antisnake venom.
  445. Viperbite like poison—Abrus.
  446. Sea snake venom—Myotoxic.
  447. Diwali poisons are —Mercury, phosphorous.
  448. Nephrotoxic poisons—Phenol, Oxalicacid, Mercury.
  449.  Blotting paper like stomach in sulphuric acid poisoning.
  450. Sodium nitrate looks and tastes like common salt.
  451. Tingling of skin and tongue by Aconite poisoning.
  452. Tannic acid precipitates alkaloids.
  453. Physiological antidote produce symptoms opposite to those of poison is:
  454.     Atropine—Physostigmine
  455.     Cyanide—Amyl nitrite
  456.     Strychnine—Barbiturate
  457. In phosphorous poisoning, avoid oil and fats as they increase absorption.
  458. In Endrin poisoning, the pupils are dilated.
  459. Albumin helps to precipitate in Mercury poisoning.
  460. Lead poisoning, causes constipation.
  461. In Potassium permanganate poisoning, lesions resemble Tertiary syphilis.
  462. Symptoms of Abrus precautorius poisoning resemble viperine snake bite.
  463. Cocaine acts as an Aphrodisiac.
  464. Charas is known as Hashish.
  465. In treatment of Nuxvomica poisoning, most important is I.V. injection of Barbiturates.
  466. Pupils show alternate contraction and dilatation in Aconite poisoning.
  467. Charcoal acts as a mechanical Antidote.
  468. Potassium ferrocyanide solution is used as gastric lavage solution of poisoning due to copper sulphate.
  469. Skin and mucous membranes are colored yellow in poisoning due to nitric acid.
  470. Delayed poisoning by oxalic acid is characterised by —Uraemia.
  471. Large amount of water is contraindicated in —Oxalic acid poisoning.
  472. Hypocalcemia can occur in —Oxalic acid poisoning.
  473. Hypocalcemia can occur in —Oxalic acid poisoning.
  474. Oxalic acid resembles—Magnesium sulfate.
  475. Coffee ground vomitus is seen in Oxalic acid poisoning.
  476. Datura seeds look like—Brinjal seeds capsicum seeds or Tomato seeds.
  477. Physiological antidote for Datura poisoning—Pilocarpine
  478. Stupefying poison—Datura.
  479. Road poison—Datura.
  480. If a person survives after giving dying declaration, it can be used as corroborative evidence
  481. Arsenic is employed for embalming of Cadaver
  482. Subendocardial haemorrhages are seen in Arsenic poisoning
  483. The poison which is found in maximum quantities in various organs in Postmortem is – Arsenic
  484. Poisoning resembling fading measles – Arsenic
  485. The preservative used for viscera in Alcohol poisoning – Saturated sodium chloride solution
  486. Barbiturates increase the toxicity of Alcohol by Synergism
  487. Methylated spirit contains 95% Rectified spirit and 5% Methyl alcohol
  488. The poisons which Resist putrefaction are— Arsenic, Edrin, Datura, Strychnine
  489. Thick and leathery stomach wall is seen in Phenol poisoning
  490. Ochronosis (Pigmentation of skin and cartilages) is seen in Phenol poisoning
  491. Extremely delicate test for Blood stains – Phenophthalein test (‘Kastle-Mayer test).
  492. The best test for Blood stains is Chromatography absorption spectroscopy
  493. In severe burns, remnant indicative of Male sex is inguinal canal
  494. Lichetenberg’s flowers or filigree burns or Arborescent markings are seen in Lightening
  495. In chemical burns by Corrosives Vesication does not occur
  496. Immersion syndrome is due to Dry drowning
  497. Rule of House is used for calculating age of the fetus-
  498. PM staining usually mistaken for -Contusion
  499. PM staining can occur before death in – Cholera
  500. Most potent of ail preparations of cannabis is Charas
  501. Amenorrhoea and infertility can occur in Chronic lead poisoning
  502. If a person is absent from his usual haunts, and has not been heard for at least 7 years, he is presumed to be dead
  503. In opium poisoning there is loss of all secretions except sweat
  504. In opium poisoning, atropine is contraindicated
  505. Strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid
  506. Antidote used in common types of poisonous snakes in India includes polyvalent antisnake venom
  507. Viperbite like poison is Abrus
  508. Sea snake venom is Myotoxic
  509.  Diwali poisons are – Mercury, phosphorus
  510. Blotting paper like stomach is seen in sulphuric acid poisoning
  511. Spinal poisoning may be mistaken commonly for Tetanus
  512. Sodium nitrate looks and tastes like common salt
  513. Tingling of skin and tongue is seen in Aconite poisoning
  514. In phosphorous poisoning, avoid oil and fats as they increase absorption
  515. In Endrin poisoning, the pupils are dilated
  516. Albumin helps to precipitate poison in Mercury poisoning
  517. Lead poisoning causes constipation
  518. In Potassium permanganate poisoning, lesions resemble Tertiary syphilis
  519. Cocaine acts as an Aphrodisiac
  520. In treatment of Nux vomica poisoning, most important is I.V. injection Barbiturates
  521. Pupils show alternate contraction and dilatation in Aconite poisoning
  522. Charcoal acts as a mechanical antidote.
  523. Delayed poisoning by oxalic acid is characterised by Uraemia Large amount of water is contraindicated in Oxalic acid poisoning Hypocalcemia can occur in Oxalic acid poisoning
  524. Coffee ground vomitus is seen in Oxalic acid poisoning
  525. Datura seeds look like- Brinjal seeds, capsicum seeds or Tomato seed
  526. Antidote for chlorpyriphos poisoning is. PAM.
  527. Prussian blue is used in poisoning by thallium.
  528. In gastric lavage, tube is passed upto 50 cm mark
  529. Oleander causes heart block
  530. Puppe’s rule is used for bullet injuries
  531. Wredin’s test detects changes in middle ear
  532. Rain drop pigmentation of skin is seen is arsenic poisoning
  533. Algor mortis refers to cooling of body
  534. American Law Institute Test is related to criminal responsibility
  535. Poroscopy was described by Locard
  536. Burrowed servant doctrine is related to vicarious liability
  537. Wax-drippings or bone pearls are due to thermal injuries
  538. Lichtenberg’s flowers refers to Filigree burns
  539. Cutis anserina is due to exector pilae
  540. Cupping’ is a method of criminal abortion
  541.  Crocodile flash burns are due to antemortem electric burns
  542. Hospital providing defective equipment or drugs is causing Corporate, negligence Contusion collar is a proof of Gun shot entrance
  543. In ‘Commando punch’, injury usually occur in neck 
  544. Blast lung is seen due to air explosion Thereapeutic orphans result due to experimentation
  545. Thee name hatters shake is given because it is common in hat making industry
  546. Trotter and Glesser’s formulae are used for estimating stature
  547. Rachiotomy saw is used to remove spinal cord
  548. In cases of increased intracranial pressure, Kernhan’s notch is seen on midbrain
  549. In artificial insemination of Donor without husband’s consent, if the legal presumption of legitimacy be rebutted, parental rights will be vested in mother only
  550. Agonal period is period between lethal occurrence and death
  551. K master is responsible for the faults of his servants is known as Vicarious liability, Biliard ball ricochet effect is seen in firearm injuries
  552. Cavett test is used for determing blood alcohol
  553. Dactylography was first used in India by Sir W. Herschel
  554. Huffling is common solvent abuse
  555. Sewer gas contains CO2, methane and H25
  556. Stomach-bowel test’ is used for knowing if infant respiration occurred
  557. ‘Swallow tails’ are seen in lacerated wound
  558. Most common type of abrasions of grazes
  559. Osteometric board is used to estimate stature
  560. Skull is square in Mongolians
  561. In human head hair, bar bodies are found in hair follicles in a proportion of 29± 5% in females and 6+2% males
  562. Curator bonis is person appointed to manage the affairs of mentally incompetent
  563. “Crib deaths’ are due to asphyxia
  564. Commoriants’ literally means dying together
  565. For identification, palatoprints are taken from anterior part
  566. Pink teeth are seen in death due to asphyxia
  567. The order of appearance of rigor mortis follows Nysten’s law
  568. Postmortem lividity in a case of hanging is most prominent over lower extremities
  569. Postmortem staining of a dead body lying undisturbed persists till it merges with discolouration of putrefaction
  570. Bleeding from nostrils, mouth and ears is relatively common in strangulation
  571. Contre coup injury is seen in brain
  572. In deep incised wounds, Langer’s lines determine gaping
  573. Mugging by definition is homicidal
  574. Ligature mark in hanging is an example of imprint abrasion
  575. Immediate cause of death in burns is neurogenic shock
  576. Common cause of death in crush syndrome is acute renal failure
  577. Abrasion is seen in injury with rifled arm
  578. Spermin in semen is detected by Barberio test
  579. The impotent quoad is impotent to a particular woman
  580. Seminal fluid choline originates from Leydig cell
  581. To establish diagnosis of feigned insanity, the person can be observed for a maximum period of 30 days
  582. Incessant sexual desire is known as satyriasis
  583. Dhatura poisoning is due to intake of seeds
  584. Mercury damages glomeruli and renal tubules
  585. Cyanide poisoning kit contains amyl nitrite, Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate
  586. Chromolachryorrhoea in organophosphorus poisoning is due to porphyrin
  587. A green line in gums in copper poisoning is Clepten line
  588. In Eonism, there is cross dressing
  589. Garrotting is used as a method of execution in some countries
  590. Tardieu spots are numberous in thymus, AV junction and conjunctiva
  591. In body packer syndrome, person dies of abused drug overdose
  592. In drowning, emphysema aquosum is seen in 80% cases
  593. In embalming fluid, the concentration of formaldehyde and methyl alcohol are 40% and 10% respectively
  594. Emmenagogues are used for criminal abortion
  595. McNaughten rule has been included in India in section 84 of IPC
  596. Hydrocution is another term for immersion syndrome
  597. Diminished responsibility is a term used for borderline mental state
  598. Minisatellite or stutters are terms used for DNA finger printing
  599. Section 312 IPC is related to abortion
  600. Sankya or somalkhar is a compound of lead
  601. The compounds used for taking finger prints are French chalk, lead carbonate and mercury
  602. ‘Central pocket loop’ is a variety of Composite finger print
  603. Reaction phenomenon is seen drowning
  604. Alcoholic palimpsests are a type of blackout
  605. Arsenic poisoning may lead to thrombocytopenia, leukemia and BM suppression
  606. In arsenic poisoning, bands of opacity in finger nails are called Aldrich-Mees lines
  607. Affiliation cases are related to paternity dispute
  608. Kennedy phenomenon results due to surgical alteration
  609. Incineration, dismembement and advanced putrefaction are methods of effacement of identity
  610. Moletova cocktail is a bomb
  611. Medullary index is used to determine sex
  612. Harrison and Gilroy test is used for firearm injury
  613. After respiration, the weight of lungs increases by about 30 gm
  614. The most characteristic defence injuries are those sustained during an attack by knife
  615. Ploucquet’s test is used to estimate live birth
  616. Weight of pineal gland is 0.1 to 0.2 gm
  617. In smothering, there is abrasion on the inner side of upper lip
  618. Death during anaesthesia, D.C. to be written by anaesthesist
  619. Privileged communication may be used by a doctor to blackmail his patients
  620. Repeated intentional advertisement by a doctor in newspaper is professional misconduct
  621. Oath taking in the court is court formality
  622. The inquiry into the circumstances of death is inquest report
  623. 16 years age of female is an age to give valid consent for lawful sexual intercourse
  624. Age of consent for medical examination is after eruption of III molar
  625. Fragmentary medulla is seen in Negroid
  626. For saliva, test used is alpha amylase test
  627. Rule of Haase is used for estimation of foetal age
  628. Wilson’s classification is used to classify burns
  629. Drugs interfering in blood grouping are barbiturate, aspirin and heparin
  630. Phenol also retards putrefaction
  631. In strangulation, neck muscle rupture is common
  632. In fresh water poisoning, there may be hyperkalemia, hemolysis and ventricular fibrillation
  633. Brain stem death occurs in encephalomyelitis
  634. Postmortem examination is done for all organ of the body

Historical milestones
Code of Hammurabi
—oldest known medico-legal code.
Hippocrates (father of Medicine)
— discussed lethality of wounds
—  formulated medical ethics.

Manu law’s — medical ethics— many sexual matters — most scientifically discussed. Justinian code
— regulated the practice of medicine & surgery.
— established the function of the medical expert for legal procedure.

Bartolomeo De Varignana — first medicolegal autopsy done by him in Italy.
Paulus Zacchias — written “medico-legal questions”, questions Medico legalis.” Fortunato Fedele—written first book on Forensic medicne.

Orfil—considered as father of Modern Toxicology.
a. In the 18th century, study in legal Medicine as a subject was established by appointing professorship in Germany.
b. In England Me Naughten’s (who was aschizophrenic) rule has been established to deal with legal matters in cases of insanity or like situations whatsoever

  1.  Sec 118 IPC—Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or improsonment for life.
  2.  Sec 176, IPC—Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it.
  3.  Sec 177 IPC—Furnishing false information.
  4.  Sec 182 IPC—False information with intent to cause public servant to use lawful power to the injury of another person. .–Sec 191 IPC—Giving false evidence
  5.  Sec 192 IPC—Fabricating false evidence.
  6.  Sec 193 IPC—Punishment for false evidence.
  7.  Sec 194 IPC—Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence.
  8.  Sec 195 IPC — Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment.
  9.  Sec 197 IPC—Issuing or signing false certificates.
  10.  Sec 201 IPC—Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false information to screen offenders.
  11.  Sec 203 IPC—Giving false information respecting an offence committed.
  12.  Sec 204 IPC—Destruction of document to prevent its production as evidence.
  13.  Sec 284 IPC —Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substances.
  14.  Sec 304 IPC—Causing death by negligence.
  15.  Sec 309 IPC—Attempt to commit suicide
  16.  Sec 313 IPC—Causing miscarriage without woman’s consent.
  17.  Sec 318 IPC—Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body.
  18.  Sec 319 IPC—Hurt.
  19.  Sec 320 IPC—Grievous hurt.
  20.  Sec 351 IPC—Assault.
  21.  Sec 362 IPC—Abduction.
  22.  Sec 375 IPC —Rape.
  23.  Sec 376 IPC—Punishment for rape.
  24.  Sec 377 IPC—Unnatural offences.
  25.  Sec 497 IPC—Adultery.
  26.  Sec 39 Cr. P.C—Every person, aware of the commission of or of the intention of any other person to commit any offence is punishable under I.P.C. shall forthwith give information to the nearest magistrate of police officer of such commission or intention.
  27.  Sec 84 IPC—Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who at the time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of the act or what he is doing is either wrong or contrary to law.
  28.  Confabulation—Pathological loss of memory, e.g. — Korsakoff s psychosis. — Early stages of dementia.

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