Medical Abbreviations for students and practitioners

students4Included here are common abbreviations used in medical records and in this edition.


Õ: divided dose

: decrease(d), reduce, downward

x: times for multiplication sign

: increase(d), upward (as in titrate upward)

/: per

+/–: with or without

+: with

<: less than, younger than

>: more than, older than

~: approximately

: approximately equal to


AAA: abdominal aortic aneurysm

A–a gradient: alveolar-to-arterial gradient

A/A index: ankle/arm index

AADC VAN DISSL: mnemonic for Admit/Attending, Diagnosis, Condition, Vitals, Activity, Nursing procedures, Diet, Ins and outs, Specific medications, Symptomatic medications, Labs

AAS: acute abdominal series

A&B: apnea and bradycardia

A/B index: ankle/brachial index

AB: antibody, abortion, antibiotic

ABD: abdomen

ABG: arterial blood gas

ABMT: autologous bone marrow transplantation

ac: before eating (ante cibum)

AC: assist controlled, air conduction

ACCP: American College of Chest Physicians

ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme

Ach-ase: acetylcholinesterase

ACLS: Advanced Cardiac Life Support

ACS: acute coronary syndrome, American Cancer Society, American College of Surgeons

ACT: activated coagulation time

ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticotropin

ADH: antidiuretic hormone

ADHD: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

ad lib: as much as needed (ad libitum)

ad lib: as often as desired

ADR: adverse drug reaction

AED: automated external defibrillator

AEIOU TIPS: mnemonic for Alcohol, Encephalopathy, Insulin, Opiates, Uremia, Trauma, Infection, Psychiatric, Syncope (diagnosis of coma)

AF: afebrile, aortofemoral, atrial fibrillation

AFB: acid-fast bacilli

AFP: alpha-fetoprotein

A/G: albumin/globulin ratio

AHA: American Heart Association

AHF: antihemophilic factor

AI: aortic insufficiency

AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AJCC: American Joint Committee on Cancer

AKA: above-the-knee amputation, also known as

ALL: acute lymphocytic leukemia

ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALT: alanine aminotransferase

AM: morning

AMA: American Medical Association

amb: ambulate

AMI: acute myocardial infarction

AML: acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia

AMMoL: acute monocytic leukemia

amp: ampule

AMP: adenosine monophosphate

ANA: antinuclear antibody

ANC: absolute neutrophil count

ANCA: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANLL: acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia

ANS: autonomic nervous system

AOB: alcohol on breath

AODM: adult-onset diabetes mellitus

AP: anteroposterior, abdominal-perineal

APAP: acetaminophen

APL: acute promyelocytic leukemia

aPPT: activated partial thromboplastin time

APSAC: anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex

APUD: amine precursor update (and) decarboxylation

Ara-C: cytarabine

ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker

ARD: antibiotic removal device

ARDS: adult respiratory distress syndrome

ARF: acute renal failure

AS: aortic stenosis

ASA: American Society of Anesthesiologists

ASAP: as soon as possible

ASAT: aspartate aminotransferase

ASCVD: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

ASD: atrial septal defect

ASHD: atherosclerotic heart disease

ASO: antistreptolysin O

AST: aspartate aminotransferase

ATG: antithymocyte globulin

ATN: acute tubular necrosis

ATP: adenosine triphosphate

AUC: area under the curve

A–V: arteriovenous

AV: atrioventricular

A–VO2: arteriovenous oxygen

AZT: azidothymidine (zidovudine)


B: band neutrophils

B I&II: Billroth I and II

B. burgdorferi: Borrelia burgdorferi

BACOD: bleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), dexamethasone

BACOP: bleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), prednisone

BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage

BAS: body surface area

BBB: bundle branch block

BC: bone conduction

BCAA: branched-chain amino acid

BCG: bacille Calmette-Guérin

BE: barium enema

BEE: basal energy expenditure

bid: twice/day

bili: bilirubin

BKA: below-the-knee amputation

BLS: basic life support

BM: bone marrow, bowel movement

BMD: bone mineral density

BMR: basal metabolic rate

BMT: bone marrow transplantation

BOM: bilateral otitis media

BOO: bladder outlet obstruction

BP: blood pressure

BPH: benign prostatic hypertrophy

BPM: beats per minute

BR: bed rest

BRBPR: bright red blood per rectum

BRP: bathroom privileges

BS&O: bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

bs, BS: bowel sounds, breath sounds

BSA: body surface area

BUN: blood urea nitrogen

BW: body weight

Bx: biopsy


c: with (cum)

C. difficile: Clostridium difficile

Ca: calcium

CA: cancer

CAA: crystalline amino acid

CABG: coronary artery bypass graft

CAD: coronary artery disease

CAF: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), 5-fluorouracil

CALGB: Cancer and Leukemia Group B

cAMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cao2: arterial oxygen content

CAP: carcinoma of prostate

caps: capsule(s)

CAT: computed axial tomography

CBC: complete blood count

CBG: capillary blood gas

CC: chief complaint, clinical clerk

CCB: calcium channel blocker

CCI: corrected count increment (platelets)

CCO: continuous cardiac output

CO2: capillary oxygen content

CCU: clean-catch urine, cardiac care unit

CCV: critical closing volume

CD: continuous dose

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen

CEP: counterimmunoelectrophoresis

CF: cystic fibrosis

CFU: colony-forming unit(s)

CGL: chronic granulocytic leukemia

CH50: (total serum) hemolytic complement

CHD: coronary heart disease

CHF: congestive heart failure

CHO: carbohydrate

CHOP: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine (Oncovin), prednisone

CI: cardiac index

CIEP: counterimmunoelectrophoresis

circ.: circulating

CIS: carcinoma in situ

CK: creatine kinase

CK-MB: isoenzyme of creatine kinase with muscle and brain subunits

CKI: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

Cl: chlorine

CLL: chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CML: chronic myelogenous leukemia

CMV: cytomegalovirus

CN: cranial nerve

CNS: central nervous system

CO: cardiac output

C/O: complaining of

COAD: chronic obstructive airway disease

COLD: chronic obstructive lung disease

COMT: catechol-o-methyltransferase

conc: concentrate

cont inf: continuous infusion

COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2

CP: chest pain, cerebral palsy

CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure

CPK: creatinine phosphokinase

CPP: central precocious puberty

CPR: cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPT: Current Procedural Terminology

CR: controlled release

CrCl: creatinine clearance

CREST: calcinosis cutis, Raynaud disease, esophageal dysmotility, syndactyly, telangiectasia

CRF: chronic renal failure

CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRP: C-reactive protein

C&S: culture and sensitivity

CSA: cyclosporine

CSF: cerebrospinal fluid, colony-stimulating factor

C-spine: cervical spine

CT: computed tomography

CV: cardiovascular

CVA: cerebrovascular accident, costovertebral angle

CVAT: costovertebral angle tenderness

CVH: common variable hypogammaglobulinemia

CVO2: oxygen content of mixed venous blood

CVP: central venous pressure

CXR: chest x-ray


d: day

D: diarrhea

D50: 50% dextrose solution

DAG: diacylglycerol

DAP: diastolic pulmonary artery pressure

DAT: diet as tolerated

DAW: dispense as written

D/C: discontinue

D&C: dilation and curettage

DC: discontinue, discharge, direct current

ddI: dideoxyinosine

DDx: differential diagnosis

DEA: US Drug Enforcement Administration

DES: diethylstilbestrol

DEXA: dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

DFA: direct fluorescent antibody

DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS: dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

DI: diabetes insipidus

DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulation

DIP: distal interphalangeal joint

DIT: diiodotyrosine

DJD: degenerative joint disease

DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis

D5LR: 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer solution

DM: diabetes mellitus

DMARD: disease-modifying antirheumatic drug

DMSA: dimercaptosuccinic acid

DN: diabetic nephropathy

DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid

DNP: deoxyribonucleic protein

DNR: do not resuscitate

DO2: oxygen delivery

DOA: dead on arrival

DOCA: deoxycorticosterone acetate

DOE: dyspnea on exertion

DOPA: dihydroxyphenylalanine

DP: dorsalis pedis

2,3-DPG: 2,3-diphosphoglycerate

DPL: diagnostic peritoneal lavage

DPT: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

DR: delayed release

DRG: diagnosis-related group

DS: double strength

DSA: digital subtraction angiography

DTPA: diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid

DTR: deep tendon reflex

DVT: deep venous thrombosis

D5W: 5% dextrose in water

Dx: diagnosis

Dz: disease


E: eosinophils

E. coli: Escherichia coli

EAA: essential amino acid

EBL: estimated blood loss

EBV: Epstein–Barr virus

EC: enteric-coated

ECC: emergency cardiac care

ECG: electrocardiogram

ECOG: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

ECT: electroconvulsive therapy

EDC: estimated date of confinement

EDTA: ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

EDVI: end-diastolic volume index

EFAD: essential fatty acid deficiency

EIA: enzyme immunoassay

ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EMD: electromechanical dissociation

EMG: electromyelogram

EMIT: enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique

EMS: emergency medical system, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome

EMV: eyes, motor, verbal response (Glasgow Coma Scale)

ENA: extractable nuclear antigen

ENT: ear, nose, and throat

eod: every other day

EOM: extraocular muscle

EPO: erythropoietin

EPS: extrapyramidal symptoms

EPSP: excitatory postsynaptic potential

ER: endoplasmic reticulum, emergency department, extended release

ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

ERV: expiratory reserve volume

ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESRD: end-stage renal disease

ET: endotracheal

EtOH: ethanol

ETT: endotracheal tube

EUA: examination under anesthesia

ExU: excretory urogram


Fab: antigen-binding fragment

FANA: fluorescent antinuclear antibody

FBS: fasting blood sugar

Fe: iron

FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s

FFP: fresh frozen plasma

FHR: fetal heart rate

FIGO: Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique

FIO2: fraction of inspired oxygen

FRC: functional residual capacity

FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone

FSP: fibrin split product

FTA-ABS: fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed

FTT: failure to thrive

FU: follow-up

5-FU: fluorouracil

FUO: fever of unknown origin

FVC: forced vital capacity

Fx: fracture

Fxn: function


G: gravida

G6PD: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid

GAD: glutamic acid decarboxylase

GC: gonorrhea (gonococcus)

G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GDP: guanosine diphosphate

gen: generation

GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease

GETT: general by endotracheal tube (anesthesia)

GF: growth factor

GFR: glomerular filtration rate

GGT: gamma-glutamyltransferase

GH: growth hormone

GHB: gamma hydroxybutyrate

GHIH: growth hormone-inhibiting hormone

GI: gastrointestinal

GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GNID: gram-negative intracellular diplococci

GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GOG: Gynecologic Oncology Group

gr: grain

GSP: glycated serum protein

GSW: gunshot wound

gt, gtt: drop, drops (gutta)

GTP: guanosine triphosphate

GTT: glucose tolerance test

GU: genitourinary

GVHD: graft-versus-host disease

GXT: graded exercise tolerance (cardiac stress test)


H. influenzae: Haemophilus influenzae

H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori

HA: headache

HAA: hepatitis B surface antigen (hepatitis-associated antigen)

HAV: hepatitis A virus

HBcAg: hepatitis B core antigen

Hbg: hemoglobin

HBeAg: hepatitis B e antigen

HBP: high blood pressure

HBsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV: hepatitis B virus

HC: hydroxycholesterol

HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin

HCL: hairy cell leukemia

HCO3–: bicarbonate

[HCO3–]: bicarbonate concentration

HCT: hematocrit

HCTZ: hydrochlorothiazide

HD: hemodialysis

HDL: high-density lipoprotein

HEENT: head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat

HELLP: preeclampsia with microangiopathic hemolysis, elevated liver function test results, and low platelet count

HFV: high-frequency ventilation

Hgb: hemoglobin

[Hgb]: hemoglobin concentration

H/H: hemoglobin/hematocrit, Henderson-Hesselbach equation

HIAA: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

HIDA: hepatic 2,6-dimethyliminodiacetic acid

HIT: heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

HIV: human immunodeficiency virus

HJR: hepatojugular reflex

HLA: histocompatibility locus antigen

HMG-CoA: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A

HO: history of

HOB: head of bed

H&P: history and physical examination

HPA: hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal

hpf: high-power field

HPI: history of the present illness

HPLC: high-pressure liquid chromatography

HPV: human papilloma virus

HR: heart rate

hs: at bedtime (hora somni)

HSG: hysterosalpingogram

HSM: hepatosplenomegaly

HSV: herpes simplex virus

5-HT3: 5-hydroxytryptamine

HTLV: human T-cell lymphotrophic virus

HTLV-III: human T-lymphotropic virus, type III (AIDS agent, HIV)

HTN: hypertension

HUS: hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hx: history


IBW: ideal body weight

IC: inspiratory capacity

ICN: Intensive Care Nursery

ICS: intercostal space

ICSH: interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

ICU: intensive care unit

I&D: incision and drainage

ID: identification, infectious disease

IDDM: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Ig: immunoglobulin

IgG1 : immunoglobulin G1 kappa

IHSS: idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis

inj: injection

IL: interleukin

IM: intramuscular

IMV: intermittent mandatory ventilation

inf: infusion

INF: intravenous nutritional fluid

Infxn: infection

INH: isoniazid

inhal: inhalation

inj: injection

INR: international normalized ratio

I&O: intake and output

IP3: inositol triphosphate

IPPB: intermittent positive pressure breathing

IPSP: inhibitory postsynaptic potential

iPTH: parathyroid hormone by radioimmunoassay

IPV: inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine

IR: inversion recovery

IRBBB: incomplete right bundle branch block

IRDM: insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus

IRV: inspiratory reserve volume

ISA: intrinsic sympathomimetic activity

IT: intrathecal

ITP: idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

IV: intravenous

IVC: intravenous cholangiogram

IVP: intravenous pyelogram


JODM: juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus

JVD: jugular venous distention


K: potassium

KIU: kallikrein inactivation unit

KOR: keep open rate

17-KSG: 17-ketogenic steroids

KUB: kidneys, ureters, bladder

KVO: keep vein open


L: left, lymphocytes

LAD: left axis deviation, left anterior descending

LAE: left atrial enlargement

LAHB: left anterior hemiblock

LAP: left atrial pressure, leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

LBBB: left bundle branch block

LDH: lactate dehydrogenase

LDL: low-density lipoprotein

LE: lupus erythematosus

LH: luteinizing hormone

LHRH: leuteinizing hormone releasing hormone

LIH: left inguinal hernia

liq: liquid

LLL: left lower lobe

LLQ: left lower quadrant

LLSB: left lower sternal border

LMP: last menstrual period

LMWH: low-molecular-weight heparin

LNMP: last normal menstrual period

LOC: loss of consciousness, level of consciousness

LP: lumbar puncture

LPN: licensed practical nurse

LR: lactated Ringer solution

LSB: left sternal border

LSD: lysergic acid diethylamide

LUL: left upper lobe

LUQ: left upper quadrant

LV: left ventricle

LVD: left ventricular dysfunction

LVEDP: left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy


M: monocytes

M. pneumoniae: Mycoplasma pneumoniae

MAC: Mycobacterium avium complex

MACE: methotrexate, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, epipodophyllotoxin

MAG3: mercaptoacetythiglycine

MAMC: midarm muscle circumference

MAO: monoamine oxidase

MAOI: monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAP: mean arterial pressure

MAST: military/medical antishock trousers

MAT: multifocal atrial tachycardia

max: maximum

MBC: minimum bactericidal concentration

MBT: maternal blood type

MCDT: mixed connective tissue disease

MCH: mean cell hemoglobin

MCHC: mean cell hemoglobin concentration

MCT: medium-chain triglycerides

MCTD: mixed connective tissue disease

MCV: mean cell volume

MEN: multiple endocrine neoplasia

mEq: milliequivalent

MESNA: 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium

met-dose: metered-dose

Mg: magnesium

MHA-TP: microhemagglutination–Treponema pallidum

MHC: major histocompatibility complex

MI: myocardial infarction, mitral insufficiency

MIBG: metaiodobenzyl-guanidine

MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration

min: minimum

MIT: monoiodotyrosine

MLE: midline episiotomy

MMDA: ecstasy

MMEF: maximal midexpiratory flow

mmol: millimole

MMR: measles, mumps, rubella

mo: month

MOPP: mechlorethamine, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, prednisone

6-MP: mercaptopurine

MPF: M phase-promoting factor

MPGN: membrane-proliferative glomerulonephritis

MPTP: analog of meperidine (used by drug addicts)

MRI: magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA: messenger ribonucleic acid

MRS: magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRSA: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MS: mitral stenosis, morphine sulfate, multiple sclerosis, medical student

MSBOS: maximal surgical blood order schedule

MSH: melanocyte-stimulating hormone

MSSA: methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

MTT: monotetrazolium

MTX: methotrexate

MUGA: multigated (image) acquisition (analysis)

MVA: motor vehicle accident

MVI: multivitamin injection

MVV: maximum voluntary ventilation

MyG: myasthenia gravis


N: nausea

N. gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae

N. meningitidis: Neisseria meningitidis

N/A: not applicable

Na: sodium

Na+/K+-ATPase: sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphate

NAACP: mnemonic for Neoplasm, Allergy, Addison disease, Collagen–vascular disease, Parasites (causes of eosinophilia)

NAD: no active disease

NAG: narrow-angle glaucoma

NAPA: N-acetylated procainamide

NAS: no added sodium

NAVEL: mnemonic for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty space, Lymphatic

NCV: nerve conduction velocity

NE: norepinephrine

neb: nebulization

NED: no evidence of recurrent disease

NG: nasogastric

NHL: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

NIDDM: non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

NK: natural killer

NKA: no known allergies

NKDA: no known drug allergy

nl: normal

NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance

NPC: nuclear pore complex

NPO: nothing by mouth (nil per os)

NRM: no regular medicines

NRTI: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NS: normal saline

NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

NSCLC: non-small-cell lung cancer

NSILA: nonsuppressible insulin-like activity

NSR: normal sinus rhythm

NT: nasotracheal

NTG: nitroglycerin


OAB: overactive bladder

OB: obstetrics

Obs: observation

OCD: obsessive-compulsive disorder

OCG: oral cholecystogram

7-OCHS: 17-hydroxycorticosteroids

OCP: oral contraceptive pill

OD: overdose, right eye (oculus dexter)

oint: ointment

OM: otitis media

OOB: out of bed

ophth: ophthalmic

OPV: oral polio vaccine

OR: operating room

OS: opening snap, left eye (oculus sinister)

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OTC: over-the-counter (medications)

OU: both eyes


P-24: HIV core antigen

P. aeruginosa: Pseudomonas aeruginosa

P. mirabilis: Proteus mirabilis

p: para

PA: posteroanterior, pulmonary artery

PAC: premature atrial contraction

PaCO2: arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PAD: diastolic pulmonary artery pressure, public access defibrillator

PAF: paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

PAL: periarterial lymphatic (sheath)

PaO2: arterial partial pressure of oxygen

PAO2: alveolar partial pressure of oxygen

PAOP: pulmonary artery occlusion pressure

PAP: pulmonary artery pressure, prostatic acid phosphatase

PAS: systolic pulmonary artery pressure

PASG: pneumatic antishock garment

PAT: paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

PBM: pharmacy benefit manager

pc: after eating (post cibum)

PCA: patient-controlled analgesia

PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention

PCKD: polycystic kidney disease

PCN: penicillin, percutaneous nephrostomy

PCP: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, phencyclidine

PCR: polymerase chain reaction

PCWP: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PDA: patent ductus arteriosus

PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor

PDR: Physicians’ Desk Reference

PDS: polydioxanone

PE: pulmonary embolus, physical examination, pleural effusion

PEA: pulseless electrical activity

PEEP: positive end-expiratory pressure

PEG: polyethylene glycol, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

PERRLA: pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation

PERRLADC: pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation directly and consensually

PET: positron emission tomography

PFT: pulmonary function test

PGE1: prostaglandin E1

PI: pulmonic insufficiency (disease)

PICC: peripherally inserted central catheter

PID: pelvic inflammatory disease

PIE: pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia

PIH: prolactin-inhibiting hormone

PKU: phenylketonuria

PM: afternoon and night

PMDD: premenstrual dysphoric disorder

PMH: past medical history

PMI: point of maximal impulse

PMN: polymorphonuclear neutrophil

PMNL: polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophil)

PN: parenteral nutrition

PND: paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

PNS: peripheral nervous system

PO: by mouth (per os)

pod: postoperative day

postop: postoperative, after surgery

PP: pulsus paradoxus, postprandial

P&PD: percussion and postural drainage

PPD: purified protein derivative

PPN: peripheral parenteral nutrition

PR: by rectum

preop: preoperative, before surgery

PRG: pregnancy

PRN: as needed

PRA: plasma renin activity

PRBC: packed red blood cells

PRG: pregnancy

PRN: as often as needed (pro re nata)

PS: pulmonic stenosis, partial saturation

PSA: prostate-specific antigen

PSV: pressure support ventilation

PSVT: paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Pt: patient

PT: prothrombin time, physical therapy, posterior tibial

PTCA: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PTH: parathyroid hormone

PTHC: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram

PTT: partial thromboplastin time

PTU: propylthiouracil

PUD: peptic ulcer disease

PVC: premature ventricular contraction, polyvinyl chloride

PVD: peripheral vascular disease

PVR: peripheral vascular resistance

PWP: pulmonary wedge pressure

PZI: protamine zinc insulin


Q: mathematical symbol for flow

q: every

qd: every day (use not recommended)

q__h: every __ hours

qid: 4 times/day

QNS: quantity not sufficient

qo: every other

qs: quantity sufficient

Qs: volume of blood (portion of cardiac output) shunted past nonventilated alveoli

Qs/Qt: shunt fraction

Qt: total cardiac output


R: right

R/O: rule out

RA: rheumatoid arthritis, right atrium

RAD: right axis deviation

RAE: right atrial enlargement

RAP: right atrial pressure

RBBB: right bundle branch block

RBC: red blood cell (erythrocyte)

RBP: retinol-binding protein

RCC: renal cell carcinoma

RDA: recommended dietary allowance

RDS: respiratory distress syndrome (of newborn)

RDW: red cell distribution width

REF: right ventricular ejection fraction

REM: rapid eye movement

RER: rough endoplasmic reticulum

resp: respiratory

RF: rheumatoid factor

% RH: percentage of relative humidity

RIA: radioimmunoassay

RIH: right inguinal hernia

RIND: reversible ischemic neurological deficit

RL: Ringer lactate

RLL: right lower lobe

RLQ: right lower quadrant

RME: resting metabolic expenditure

RML: right middle lobe

RMSF: Rocky Mountain spotted fever

RNA: ribonucleic acid

RNase: ribonuclease

RNP: ribonucleoprotein

ROM: range of motion

ROS: review of systems

RPG: retrograde pyelogram

RPR: rapid plasma reagin

rRNA: ribosomal ribonucleic acid

RRR: regular rate and rhythm

RSV: respiratory syncytial virus

RT: radiation therapy, respiratory therapy, reverse transcriptase, rubella titer

RTA: renal tubular acidosis

RTC: return to clinic

RTOG: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

RT-PCR: reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

RU: resin uptake

RUG: retrograde urethrogram

RUL: right upper lobe

RUQ: right upper quadrant

RV: residual volume

RVEDVI: right ventricular end-diastolic volume index

RVH: right ventricular hypertrophy

Rx: treatment

Rxn: reaction


s: without (sine)

S: segmented or stab neutrophils

S&A: sugar and acetone

S. aureus: Staphylococcus aureus

S. pyogenes: Streptococcus pyogenes

SA: sinoatrial

SAA: synthetic amino acid

SAE: serious adverse event

SaO2: arterial oxygen saturation

SBE: subacute bacterial endocarditis

SBFT: small bowel follow-through

SBS: short bowel syndrome

SCD: sudden cardiac death

SCr: serum creatinine

segs: segmented cells

SEM: systolic ejection murmur

SER: smooth endoplasmic reticulum

SG: Swan-Ganz, specific gravity

SGA: small for gestational age

SGGT: serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase

SGOT: serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase

SGPT: serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase

SI: Système International

SIADH: syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

sig: write on label (signa)

SIMV: synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation

SIRS: systemic inflammatory response syndrome

SKSD: streptokinase-streptodornase

SL: sublingual

SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus

SMA: sequential multiple analysis

SMO: slips made out

SMX: sulfamethoxazole

SOAP: mnemonic for Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan

SOB: shortness of breath

SOC: signed on chart

soln: solution

S/P: status post

Sp, sp: species

SPAG: small-particle aerosol generator

SPECT: single-photon emission computed tomography

SpO2: pulse oximetry reading

SQ: subcutaneous

SR: sustained release

SRP: single recognition particle

SRS-A: slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis

SSKI: saturated solution of potassium iodide

SSRI: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSS: sick sinus syndrome

stat: immediately (statim)

supl: supplement

supp: suppository

susp: suspension

STD: sexually transmitted disease

SVD: spontaneous vaginal delivery

S O2: mixed venous oxygen saturation

SVR: systemic vascular resistance

SVT: supraventricular tachycardia

SWOG: Southwest Oncology Group

Sx: symptom

Sz: seizure


T: one

T3 RU: triiodothyronine resin uptake

T3: triiodothyronine

T4: thyroxine

tabs: tablet(s)

TAH: total abdominal hysterectomy

TB: tuberculosis

TBG: thyroxine-binding globulin, total blood gas

TBLC: term birth, living child

TBW: total body water

T&C: type and cross-match

TCA: tricyclic antidepressant

TC&DB: turn, cough, and deep breathe

TCF: triceps skin fold

TCP: transcutaneous pacer

Td: tetanus-diphtheria toxoid

TD: transdermal

TFT: thyroid function test

6-TG: 6-thioguanine

T&H: type and hold

TIA: transient ischemic attack

TIBC: total iron-binding capacity

tid: 3 times/day

TIG: tetanus immune globulin

TKO: to keep open

TLC: total lung capacity

TMJ: temporomandibular joint

TMP: trimethoprim

TMP-SMX: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

TNF : tumor necrosis factor alpha

TNM: tumor-nodes-metastases

TNTC: too numerous to count

TO: telephone order

TOPV: trivalent oral polio vaccine

TORCH: toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus (O = other [syphilis])

tox: toxicity

TPA: tissue plasminogen activator

TPN: total peripheral resistance, total parenteral nutrition

TRH: thyrotropin-releasing hormone

tri: trimester

TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone

TT: thrombin time

TTP: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

TU: tuberculin units

TUR: transurethral resection

TURBT: TUR bladder tumors

TURP: TUR prostate

TV: tidal volume

TVH: total vaginal hysterectomy

Tx: treatment, transplant, transfer

type 2 DM: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus


UA: urinalysis

UAC: uric acid

UDS: urodynamic studies

UGI: upper gastrointestinal

uln, ULN: upper limit of normal

UPEP: urine protein electrophoresis

URI: upper respiratory tract infection

US: ultrasonography

USP: United States Pharmacopeia

UTI: urinary tract infection

UUN: urinary urea nitrogen


V: vomiting

VAERS: Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System

VAMP: vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), methylprednisolone

VAS: visual analog scale

VC: vital capacity

VCUG: voiding cystourethrogram

VDRL: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory

VF: ventricular fibrillation

VLDL: very low density lipoprotein

VMA: vanillylmandelic acid

VO: voice order

VP-16: etoposide

/ : ventilation–perfusion

VSS: vital signs stable

VT: ventricular tachycardia


WB: whole blood

WBC: white blood cell, white blood cell count

WD: well developed

WF: white female

WHI: Women’s Health Initiative

WHO: World Health Organization

WM: white male

WN: well nourished

wnl, WNL: within normal limits

WPW: Wolff-Parkinson-White


XR: extended release

XRT: x-ray therapy


y: year

YO: years old


ZE: Zollinger-Ellison

Courtesy : The McGraw-Hill Companies

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