Dr Madhusree Dutta
Headache is one of the frequently encountered health issues that prevails among all age groups. The overall prevalence, as per a systemic review of the available data on headaches in children and adolescents, is 58.4%. A lot of people are compelled to take allopathic painkillers the long-term use of which causes several complications. Homoeopathic system of medicine can deal with these situations perfectly without causing any adverse side effects and gives relief to the patient.
The word migraine is originally a Greek word which means “hemikrania” but later converted into hemigranea which means derived from a Latin word and the French translation of such a term is known as “migraine”. Migraine, second most common cause of primary headache, is genetically influenced complex disorder in which there are episodes of moderate to severe headache, most often unilateral and mostly associated with nausea, increased sensitivity to light and sound.
ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF THE PAIN-
The older theory of migraine, according to which the headache is caused by vasodilatation and aura by vasoconstriction, is not viable anymore.
Calcitonin gene related peptide theory is acceptable for explaining the etiopathogenesis of migraine.
TYPES OF MIGRAINE –
International headache Classification divides migraine into two sub types which are as follows: Migraine with aura.
- Migraine without aura.
- Migraine with aura – It is also known as classical migraine. Recurrent fully reversible attacks ,lasting minutes, and aura will be present with unilateral headache. Aura may be in the form of disturbances of vision, speech and language, sensory, motor, brainstem, etc, usually followed by headache and the characteristic symptoms of migraine.
The disturbances of vision may be in the form in the following forms :-
- Photopsia which means unilateral flashes of white or silver or rarely multicolored lights.
- Enlargement of blind spot with shimmering edge which is known as scintillating Scotsman.
- There is information of dazzling zig-zag lines which is called fortification spectra or teichopsia.
Aura is seen in 25% cases and is due to changes in cortical function, blood circulation and neuromuscular integration.
- Migraine without aura- It is also known as common migraine. The duration of the headache is 4 to 72 hours. Character of the headache is unilateral in location ,pulsating or throbbing in nature which is triggered by physical activity, and associated with nausea, light (photophobia), sound sensitivity(phonophobia). Age of the patient is childhood, adolescence and early adult life.
- Often unilateral, has a characteristic pulsatile or throbbing feature and the intensity of the pain increases within the first few hours.
- There are other features like nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia, rhinorrhea, lachrymation, allodynia and osmophobia associated with headache(features of aura present in classical migraine).
- The pain gets ameliorated in the dark environment and usually resolves in sleep.
- A movement vulnerable pain is seen mostly in the postdromal phase.
- Homoeopathic case taking
- Repertorial approach
- Selection of medicine
- Kent’s repertory
- Murphy’s repertory
- Knerr’s repertory
APPROACH TO MATERIA MEDICA:
- Chronic sick headache since some severe diseases of youth. Headache arises from the nape of the neck ascends the vertex and finally settles over the right eye; generally right sided headache.
- Sensation of roaring or shattering in brain.
- Tearing in vertex as if it would burst.
- Headache with bruised feeling above the eyes so that the patient can scarely open them.
- Headache ameliorated by binding the head tightly, by profuse urination and covering the head warmly.
- Headache caused by chilliness and nausea.
- Headache caused by loss of sleep.
- Begins in the forehead extending to the occiput. As if head would burst. There is also a sensation as if top of head was lifted off and brain was coming out.
- The pain is most excruciating and unbearable. Intense throbbing pain in the forehead.
- Ameliorated by pressure, tight bandaging, profuse urination, cold application.
- Headache in anaemic, chilly patients who have tendency to Constipation. Headache associated with nausea, vomiting and blindness. Headache alternating with tonsillitis.
- Right sided headache. Headache begins in the occiput, spreads upwards and settles over the right eye.
- As if head would burst or as of eyes would be pressed out. Periodic sick headache , returns at the climacteric ,every seventh day ;sun headache.
- Throbbing ,pulsating and congestive headache.
- Neuralgia of face; pain extends to all directions from the upper jaw; relieved by kneeling down and pressing the head firmly against the floor.
- Causation – from exposure to cold, taking ice cream, decayed food, loss of vital fluids, abuse of alcohol and many more.
- Arsenic has a periodical headache in all parts of head : even forehead is congested. Headache every two weeks with throbbing and burning. Occipital headache is so severe as to make the patient dazed, feels as if the skull would burst out. Sensation as of there is vibration and looseness in brain. Nausea and vomiting is present, the patient always feels chilly except in the head during intermittent fever.
- The headache is aggravated by light, motion, commences from 1-3 pm, goes up to mid-night. Relieved by cold application, in dark room, lying with head on pillow.
CALC. CARB –
- From mental exertion.
- Chronic headache after suppression of itch.
- Located in the Frontal region and vertex especially in the morning and evening.
- Headache with nausea.
- Sense of weight on the top of the head.
- Violent headache on the top of the head, she thinks brain is dissolving and she will go crazy.
- Pressive drawing headache through day, concentrate about right eye in the evening.
NAT MUR –
- Headache in left sided clavus; as if bursting; with red face; nausea and vomiting before, during and after menses.
- Headache beginning with blindness ; with zig-zag dazzling, like lightening in eyes, ushering in a throbbing headache; from eye strain.
- Before attack, numbness and tingling in lips, tongue and nose, relieved by sleep.
- Chronic headache, semilateral, congestive, from sunrise to sunset, with pale face, nausea, vomiting, periodical,from eye strain; menstruation.
- Anaemic headache of school-girls; nervous, discouraged, broken down.
Stinging pain from within outward and upward mostly left, or in forehead, with nausea, vomiting ;worse indoors and when lying on painful side. Drawing pain seeming to be external on forehead and back to occiput, in single drawings. Headache in forehead and vertex, followed by anxiety in the throat pit of stomach with trembling, afterward violent nosebleed.
Headache is aggravated by mental labour and ameliorated after meals.
- Frontal and supraorbital pains.
- Neuralgic pains, commencing in the right Temporal region, with scalding lachrymation of affected side.
- Wandering stitches about head; pains extend to face and teeth; vertigo ; better in open air. Pressure on vertex.
- One-sided headache , as if brain would burst and fall out of head. The headache is aggravated in warm room and ameliorated in open air
- Headache from loss of vital fluid ,abuse of quinine and suppressed intermittents.
- Periodic type of headache ,every 2,3 or 4 days 9r every 2 or 3 weeks.
- Character of pain- Hammering , beating, pulsating type of pain in head. Congestive type of headache ,pain in the back of head. Pain compels the patient to lie down.
- Aggravated by coughing and ameliorated by pressure and slow walking about.
- With headache, there is vertigo, the patient feels a peculiar sensation, as of on water, or the vertigo appears on seeing flowing water, or as of walking over water when crossing a bridge, or on descending.
- Caused by suppressed catarrh and suppression of the nose bleed.
- Periodical attacks of semilateral headaches on small spots that could be covered with point of finger; nausea, eructation, vomiting.
- Headache over eyebrows, preceded by blurred vision.
- Pain in the left side of head and over left eye ; aggravated at night.
- Sudden violent pain in temples; shooting outward, in temples and over eyes with aching and fullness over the glabella.
- Aggravated at night, from beer, morning, hot weather and better from heat.
- Headache as if nails were driven out through the side. Congestive headaches following anger or grief; inclines head forward. Pressive pain in Frontal region, above root of the nose, must bend head forward, followed by qualmishness.
- Pressive, drawing headache above right orbit at root of the nose, renewed by stooping low down.
- Worse in smoking or smelling tobacco, in the morning ,open air, after meals, coffee, smoking, external warmth. Better while eating, change of position.
- Chronic tubercular headache ,pain intense, sharp cutting, from above right eye to occiput.
- Sensation as if iron hoop around head; when the best selected remedy only palliates.
- School girls headache which is aggravated by study or even slight mental exertion; using eyes in close work and glasses fail to ameliorate, with a tubercular history.
- Headache: deep seated in forehead, deep in the temples, on vertex with sensation of heat, from neck to forehead, in morning, passing away in afternoon.
- Piercing pain in the forehead from 10 a.m to 3 p.m.
- Aggravated from motion, music, before a storm, standing, dampness, from draught, early morning, and after sleep. Better in open air.
- Headache from suppressed catarrhal flow, getting wet.
- Pain and fullness, especially in forehead, also occiput, and temples. Sudden outcries and throbbing headache.
- Headache worse on the right side and when lying down; ill effects, colds, etc ; having hair cut.
- Headache from prolonged mental exertion of literary men habitual or gastric in origin and from dancing.
- Sensation of expansion of the head and face. Headache located in the Frontal eminence or temples.
- The headache is aggravated from mental exertion, during menstruation, bright light and relieved by sitting in a dark room, tight bandaging, open air, cold application and complete mental rest.
It is a very good medicine for Meningitis and hydrocephalus only if the symptoms corresponds.
Sudden, shrill piercing screams of children while waking or sleeping (Hell, Bell, Zinc met). Child lies in a stuporous condition, one side of the body twitching ,other side motionless. Rolling head from side to side ; head drawn back rigidly. A stupid state or state of semiconsciousness. Child lying with the eyes partly closed, as if benumbed. Pupils contracted or dilated ,eyes are very red. Face flushed. Child kicks off coverings, heat of the room worsens his complaints.
Headache is caused as a result of hemorrhage, sexual excess or loss of vital fluid and sleeplessness or suppressed coryza. Sensation as of skull would burst, as if the brain were balancing to and fro and is striking against the skull causing great pain. Headache from occiput over the whole head. Confusion and dullness of the headache if intoxicated. Intense throbbing of head and carotids. Head is inclined to draw backwards. Headache is worse in open air, on stepping and better in warm room. Headache becomes worse by slight touch, contact and mental exertion, but relieved by hard pressure. Headache is aggravated on sitting or by lying down; must stand or walk. Vertigo on waking at night. Nausea and vomiting of sour food, bile and mucus.
- It is caused from beer ot too much summer bathing. Sensation as if brain feels loose when stepping or shaking the head. Sensation of swashing in brain ; stupefying ; brain feels as if torn.
- Location : Frontal headache especially.
- Aggravation by sitting or lying in cold. Amelioration by warmth and motion.
- Vertigo when walking or standing, Aggravation when lying down, stooping (Bryonia), and amelioration when rising from bed.
- Headache in drunkards with high pressure. Left sided headache , tendency to go to the right. As if the blood has gone towards the head. Congestive type of headache as if skull would burst.
- There is pressing and bursting pain in temples. The head of very much sensitive to touch.
- There is Aggravation from motion, pressure, after sleep and ameliorated by menstrual flow(Zincum met, Allium cepa).
- Headache arising from or associated with gastric troubles ; headache if the patient doesn’t eat.
- Right sided periodic headache, starts in the right side and goes to the left.
- Pressing sensation as if the head would burst.
- Congestive type of headache , the headache of throbbing and pressing type.
- Aggravation from 4-8pm, from heat or warm, room. Ameliorated from uncovering the head and by eating.
Periodical headache, every 3rd or 7th day. Pain at the base of the brain. Congestive type of headache. Sensation as if head is going to burst. Throbbing pain in the head , pressure as if a cap of lead pressed over the whole skull; extreme soreness of the head. There is Aggravation after lying down. Vertigo with head ,sensation as of falling to the left.
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- Keynotes And Characteristics With Comparisons Of Some The Leading Remedies Of The Materia Medica By Henry Clay Allen, MD.
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Dr Madhusree Dutta
PG Scholar (Part 1)
Mahesh Bhattacharya Homoeopathic Medical College And Hospital.
Howrah, West Bengal
Very useful site