Notes on Organon of Medicine & Philosophy – II

examNotes on Organon of Medicine & Philosophy – Part.II

SYCOSIS   (J.H Allen, H.A. Robert)
Diff. between gonorrhea & sycosis-

Gonorrhea is the a/c infection of Gonococci, incubation period-5-10 days.

Characterized-  by specific uretheritis- painful, spasmodic, vesical irritation.

Mental anxiety present with desire to examine the organ. It is purely an infection, the local manifestations are thrown outward by nature. a/c stage subsides in 6-8 wks.

If the gonorrheal a/c manifestations are driven upon the vital energy by ext. methods of suppression, then it becomes a systematic stigmata, permeating every cell of the organism. It shows no tendency to cure.

Sycosis is the most venereal of all C/C d’s.

Complications of first stage-(only if suppressed)

The suppressed gonorrheal infection is very apt to show itself in altering the blood to produce          1.Anemia

2. general catarrhal condition.

3. inflammatory rheumatism.

4. inflmn. in soft tissue changes.

5. stasis in lymphatics.

6. sweeling in groin.

7. inflmn. Of prostrate

Cure can be achieved by the reappearance of the discharge. Transmission of the Sycotic poison depends upon the stage in which it is transmitted.

Complications of the 2nd stage- It occurs as early as 90 days after the infection. Almost every d’s in the secondary stage is of inflammatory nature of some form/other.

  1. A/c, sub a/c, c/c.
  2. from mild —-malignant fever.
  3. frequently pelvic d’s of women- ovaritis, salpingitis, hydrosalpinx, pyo salpinx, metritis, cystitis.
  4. appendicitis, peritonitis, cellulitis.
  5. Mucus membrane—spotted appearance/mottled appearance, dark/ bluish tinge.
  6. discharge dirty colored, offensive with fish brine odor.
  7. erythemas & chaffing of skin with excoriating disharges.
  8. 8.     mucus cysts attached to ext. uterine walls, varying in size from that of an egg to a distended bladder, having pendulous attachments. Its contents being yellowish/ straw colored water.{ this can be considered as hydatidiform mole, polyps etc…wondering at the pre-vision of those masters!)
  9. 9.     in males- orchitis, epidydimitis, cystic troubles.

The common intervention that can be seen in this stage is by unnecessary operations.

Complications of 3rd stage
Things influencing the appearance of 3rd stage are early suppression , drying up of the discharge by local appln.(potass. Permanganate, silver nitr. Zinc sulphate).

Operations include removal of a diseased organ, or by curettments. Also suppression of secondary inflammation of cervix, leucorrhea, orchitis, a/c rheumatism, gleet by medicated douches.

Tertiary lesions- when a tertiary eruption makes its appearance, a suppressed gonorrheal discharge cannot be reproduced.

  1. Skin- verucca-filiformis, vulgaris, plana.
  2. Red mole- seen on chest & anterior portion of the body, size of a pin-head—pea, smooth, round, shiny, red as blood. Appearance of polka dot upon skin.
  3. Spider spot- on upper portion of face, below lower eyelid. This is a little sprangle of dilated capillaries.
  4. Acne- large red, angry looking papules during menses, reddish, blunt pointed, sore & sensitive to touch. Appear as isolated & separated from each other ( in psoric/tubercular-in groups ).
  5. Lupus erythematus, tinea
  6. Gout/ gouty diathesis.
  7. Prostatic & bladder troubles located in the neck of the bladder.
  8. Exanthematous d’s.

Children born of Sycotic parents:

  1. Opthalmia neonatorum.
  2. Colic, for 1-3 months after birth, gas is frequently being expelled from the stomach/ bowels.
  3. Indigestion, catarrh of bowels, vomiting & diarrhea.
  4. Snuffles.
  5. Gouty conditions in urethera, ear, nose,rectum,vagina.
  6. Children take cold at the slightest exposure.
  7. A/c coryza- copious, watery, excoriating. 

Signs of Sycotic infectionA H/o of good health in a robust girl before marriage, and then a sudden decline ( in a non-tubercular pt) in the health manifesting as pelvic inflammatory d’s is a + ve sign, especially when Sycotic symptoms are present.                      

SCROPHULA- derived from Latin ‘Scrophia’ meaning- propagating seed.

This is the malignant combination of psora + syphilis. The d’s scrophula could not wholly be due to the action of psora/ yet of syphilis & it partakes many peculiarities & characteristics of psora & at the same time many prominent features of syphilis. Even though it is arising from psoric condition , psora has no lymphatic involvement which is so characteristic of scrophula. Development of scrofulous diathesis is due to crude drugging & continued suppression used in the tt of syphilis.

A Comparative study of scrophula & syphilis.

1. Both concentrate on the glandular system.

2. Both have tendency to ulceration.

3. Both have preference to locate themselves upon the organs of special senses.

4.Both have periosteal inflmn.

5.Both have deposits on skin.

6. Both have skin complaints without itching.

Scrofula is the fill grown tree with all its luxuriant foliage. Tuberculosis is the blossom often , the degenerative stage of Scrofula. Whenever scrofula takes on a malignant nature it usually ends in TB either in lungs/ other parts. Medicines for scrofulous diathesis- Belladona, calc.carb, bar. Carb.

MIASMfrom the greek word ‘miasma’—heavy vaporous exhalations, effusion believed to cause disease, noxious influences, a polluted material, a putrid vegetable matter etc..

It is the only real fundamental cause of innumerable form of d’s(Ap-5).

Definitions according to Masters

1 .J.T Kent-it is that state of man in which he has so distorted his economy to the very utmost that he has become susceptible to every surrounding influences.

2. H.A Roberts– as a deficiency in properly balanced essentials are one & the same.

3. S. Close- a non- material unwhole some exhalation/ a polluting agent affecting the living being in a very subtle & detrimental manner, bending the economy so conducive for the manifestation of an unlimited no. of a/c & c/c d’s.

4.P.S Ortega-  as Causa causorum/ the cause of causes which is demonstrable & perfectly recognizable.

5. George Vithoulkas- it is the predisposition towards c/c d’s underlying the a/c manifestations of illness caused by 3 factors-a) c/c infections, b) Hereditary influences. C) use of violent drugs.

6. J.H Allen– maggots that are borne in mind.

7. Sir John weir– miasm means germ disease.

Types:

1. Acute       a) Recurring type (cholera, plague etc)

b) Non- recurring type/ fixed miasm (small pox, whooping cough etc)

2. Chronic          a) Psora

b) Sycosis

c) Syphilis

3. Half- acute miasm- Miasm of Hydrophobia-(infective. Long incubation period & non- eruptive) the infection usually has taken place irrevocably in the moment of contagion, that the immediate excision and amputation of the infected part does not protect from the progression of the disease within, nor from the breaking out of hydrophobia- there fore also the many hundreds of other external means for cleansing, cauterizing & suppurating the wound of the bite can protect just as little from the breaking out of the hydrophobia.

4. Accessory miasm of cow pox vaccine– the lymph of inoculated cow pox, besides the protective matter, contains the contagion capable of producing a general cutaneous eruption of different nature, like small, dry, pimples resting on a red areola, accompanied by most violent itching.

Antidotal observations – 1, 10, 12.

Palliative observations – 5, 6,7

Ideal cure–                         – 4, 11

HP <<                                – 3

2nd Prescription-

1. Repetition

2. Antidote

3. Change of remedy.

4. Complementary

5. Cognate

6. Change of plan of Treatment

Simple substance-        

Qualities

  1. Formative intelligence.
  2. Pervades the entire organism.
  3. Adaptability
  4. Not quantity, only quality.
  5. Subject to changes.
  6. Degrees.
  7. Realm of cause & realm of ultimates.
  8. reduced, but not restitution
  9. Simple, complex/ compound. 

Hughes Philosophy:
Hughes defines H’pathy as a therapeutic method, based on Similia similibus Curentur,  (not curantur.) & not a doctrine /system.Hughes calls Hahnemann as the Bacon of Therapeutics.Psora hypothesis is not in accordance with views of physiology & pathology, for Hughes is of the opinion that H’pathy will stand even without psora theory. Hufeland remarked H’pathy as ‘If H’pathy succeeded in becoming the general medical practice it would prove the grave of science’, but Hughes explains this comment as a complement for our system since our system is basically an Art & not a science. Hughes made a remarkable contribution in the construction of ‘Cyclopedia of drug Pathogenesy’, which he names as the Materia medica of future.

For selection of the similimum the following points are to be satisfied,

  1. Generic similarity
  2. specific similarity
  3. Individual similarity.

Generic –if a person is ill his remedy must be one capable of causing illness in the healthy and the more he is ill, the more potent should be the poison with which he is treated.

Specific-

  1. The drug should have the same seat of action
  2. Kind of action
  3. Modification of d’s ( modalities)
  4. Character
  5. Concomittance
  6. Sequence.

Individual-

  1. pt’s constitution & temperament.
  2. Mental & emotional state
  3. < & >
  4. Sides affected.
  5. Time of the day/ night 

DUNHAM’S PHILOSOPHY-

  1. Homoeopathy the science of Therapeutics-a) the nature & condition of Science of Therapeutics. B)To examine the methods by which the science is studied.

The appln of special stimuli (medicines) to the diseased organism is the domain of the science of Therapeutics, while all that concerns the restoration and maintenance of a proper equilibrium of the general stimuli is the science of Hygiene.

Vis medicatrix naturae- the natural tendency to a restoration of the balance of the functions. The law of Hygiene—causa sublata tollitur effectus ie what stimulus

( general stimulus) has been deficient / excessive in qty or abnormal in quality, and that the equilibrium of the stimuli be restored.

Conditions of the science of Therapeutics-

  1. Capability of infinite progress in each of its elements without detriment to its integrity as a whole.
  2. it shall provide the prediction of future events—prevision.                                                                 

Therapeutics

Morbid f/ns/ sick phenomena———-I——pathogenesis/ drug phenomena.

2. Relation of pathology to therapeutics-

To base therapeutics upon pathology alone is to make the former merely palliative—‘A pumping out of a leaking ship instead of stopping the leak’.

Pathology cannot serve as a basis/ foundation of the science of therapeutics, but it is an instrument in the practical application of the science of therapeutics.

  1. Primary & secondary s/o as guides in determining dose-

Reliquias—effects of very large doses. The classfn of s/o into primary & secondary on the basis of relative nature of s/o is not co-extensive with s/o logy.

No law can be deduced from the relation of opposition on the basis of which s/o have been divided into primary & secondary.

4. Dose in drug proving-

A)  Prove both in dilutions & in massive doses.

b) Proving should commence with dilutions & high dilutions should be employed until sure that the prover is not susceptible to their action.

C0 verify s/o by rptd experiments ( to avoid imaginary s/o) including all s/o & sensations without any verification—Pre raphalite method

  1. Alternation-

By alternation it means two or more remedies to follow each other at short intervals, the s/o of these emedies taken altogether without fresh examination of the case (apriori)

By succession- only after fresh examination of the case every time.(a posteriori).

Dunham strongly rejected Alternation.

ROBERT’S PHILOSOPHY-

Temperaments-

One’s customary form/ natural disposition.

  1. Bilious -/ chloreic- with general pigmentation.
  2. Nervous-
  3. Leucophlegmatic/lymphatic.
  4. Sanguine
  5. Melancholic-

If prescription is made out of an ordinary temperament it is a double indication for the case.

Susceptibility- He considers this as a vaccum in the individual. 

Psora— as deficiency, syphilis —-as degeneration & sycosis —-as over construction. 

General philosophy:
Logic :     The terms logic is derived from the Greek word “logos”, which means reason or expression of reason in words that is discourse.  Etymologically, therefore, Logic is the science of reasoning or argument.

J.S.Mill:- “Logic is the science of operations of understanding which are subsequent to the estimation of evidence of both the process itself of advancing from known truth to unknown and all other intellectual operations in so far as ancillary to this.”  The definition by Mill brings out the main characteristics of logic, namely ( i ) logic helps in evaluating the evidence in order to arrive at a proof; ( ii ) logic helps to discover unknown facts on the basis of known and  ( iii ) logic deals with all intellectual processes pertaining to deduction and induction.

This can be done in two ways: by moving from general to particular, as in the example “All men are rational, Ram is a man, therefore, Ram is rational”, or by moving from particular instances to a general conclusion as in “Apples, bananas, mangoes etc. fall to ground because they are heavy and, therefore, all heavy things must fall to the ground”.  The first example illustrates the deductive reasoning while the second illustrates inductive reasoning, and both are within the scope of logic.

That logic studies all intellectual processes involved in deduction and induction.

In deduction we study laws of thought, viz., law of identity, law of non-contradiction and law of exclused middle.  We also study the different types of terms.  We also study genus differential and accidental properties of terms.  We also study formal rules of deduction, the immediate and mediate inferences.  And, finally we study various fallacies in argumentation.

In induction we study the difference between form and matter, the nature of definition, hypothesis, evidence, experimental techniques, probability etc.  We also study rules of classification, taxonomy (giving new names) etc.  Finally, we study the fallacies incidental to inductive reasoning.

logic and philosophy

Philosophy is the philosophical process, which deals with certain specific problems from the philosophical viewpoint with the help of philosophical methods and arrives at certain philosophical conclusion.  This definition of philosophy, abstract though it is, shows the distinction between philosophy and science.  Science is a systematic study of a limited field of experience.  Thus philosophy and a science differ in connection with methods, problems, viewpoints and conclusions.  The most important branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology and axiology of those logic comes within the fields of axiology.  Axiology is the study of values.   These values are generally of three kinds – truth, good and beauty.  While ethics studies good, aesthetics studies beauty, Logic studies truth.

fundamental laws of thought

“Logic has often been defined as the study of ‘Laws of thought’ and in particular three principles:-

The principle of identity.

The principle of contradiction.

The principle of excluded middle.

Besides the above-mentioned three laws, Leibnitz considers Law of sufficient Reason, an additional law.

saves tome and energy.

terms and their classification

According to Aristotle, all propositions affirm or deny something.  That about which an affirmation or denial is made is the subject term and that which an asserted of the subject is predicated term.  The subject and the predicate are connected with each other by a copla, which always is some part of the verb “to be”.  Let us now consider each element:

(1) subject – Consider the proposition “Man is moral”.  Here mortality is being affirmed about man and, therefore man is the subject of his proposition.  The subject may be one word or many.  In the above example to has one word only; but in the proposition ‘Alexander’ the great, was pupil of Aristotle’, the subject is made of three words.

(2) Predicate –  In the proposition ‘Man is mortal’, mortality is asserted about man and man is the subject therefore, mortal is the predicate Again, the predicate term may consist of single word, as in the above example, or it may have many words.  In our second example “pupil of Aristotle” is the predicate an it consists of three words.

(3)Copula –  The verb “is” and its conjugated serve as connect in words between subject and predicate, and this connecting word is called  copula of the proposition.  The word copula  is derived from the copule, which means to join.

Definition of induction
According to Joyce, “Induction is the legitimate derivation of universal laws from individual cases”.  And, according to Fowler, “Induction is the legitimate inference of general from particular or of the more general from the less general”.

definition and place of deduction
For these purpose the use of deduction is necessary.  As a matter of fact deduction and induction are not opposed to each other, though descriptions general to particular and particular to general suggest so if they are mutually exclusive-they are twin processes of reasoning and each complements the other.  To consider an example from decal science@ A, B, C, D… bitten by mad dog develops hydrophobia (fear of water) and dies, therefore the saliva of mad dog is poisonous.  Working on this basis doctors produce a vaccine to counter act this poison.  Now whoever gets bitten by reasoning as we may perceive is wholly deductive here: whoever is bitten by mad dog is given injection, A is bitten by mad dog, therefore A is to be given injections.

It should be remembered that deduction is used in investigation where induction is not usable.  For example, if we know that the bite of a mad dog is highly dangerous and results in sure death unless antidote is injection and we comes across a man whom a mad dog has bitten.  Now should we act upon our assumptions and send him to hospital or should we watch for the effect of bite upon the person in question? Obviously, we must act upon our assumption.  Of course, if a man is bitten by a domestic dog, we shall wait to see if the dog goes mad and dies ultimately.  In brief in the case of established principle we can and should think deductively and here we are studying facts to arrive at a conclusion we must observe facts carefully upon the basis of our hypothesis.

Miasmatic Analysis contd… S/O of PSORA(subjective s/o more)

Vertigo–< by walking/motion/ looking up quickly, rising from sitting/emotional. With a desire to lie down & > by lying down.

Head-

  • Paroxysmal h/a <  in morning which increases & decreases with sun.
  • Frontal /temporal/ parietal.
  • Hair lusterless, and dry with dandruff/ dry eruption.

Eye –

Intolerant of day light /  sunlight.

< Morning,> heat. Spots before the eyes./ red lids—tubercular.

Ear – over sensitiveness to sounds.

Face – inverted pyramid. During fever face gets red/ hot/ shining with simple acne.

Nose – over sensitiveness to smell.

Mouth –sores/ apthae/ stomatitis with burnt taste.

Stomach –hungry – never satisfied even while eating. Crave acids, sweets, sour. Craves indigestible things during fever. There is a weak gone feeling in the stomach in the middle of fore noon  < night. Repugnance to boiled foods, crave highly seasoned foods. {psora –hot foods, syphilis- cold foods, sycosis- either hot/ cold.}

Chest –Cough –dry, teasing, spasmodic with tasteless expectoration.

Always conscious about heart d’s, always taking the pulse etc.

Rectum – morning diarrhea (aloes. Podo, sulph)—spasmodic, painless, offensive.

Constipation- no desire for stool/ alternate constipation & diarrhea.

Urinary – children with retention of urine whenever body gets chilled. Involuntary urination < sneezing/ coughing/laughing.

Females –dysmenorrhea/ amennorhea.

Skin –rough/ dirty/ unwashed appearance. Sensation of coldness with all ailments. 

Syphilis  – { less subjective s/o, while in psora more subjective s/o}

Impure coition — chancre on genitals-à suppressed—à internal organs—CNS/Arterial system/heart/ intestines.

Heriditary syphilis-

When this occurs it will result in constitutional problems like deformities, chronic catarrh in intestines, nose, throat and malformations of teeth & bony structure/ulcer.

Latent syphilis-

Mentally dull, heavy, stupid, stubborn, sullen, morose, and suspicious. Depressed over sulks.  Fixed ideas. Slow mental comprehension. Likes to be alone, yet desire to escape from themselves as well as from others.

Forgetful , starts a sentence, forget what to say, should re-read to comprehend. < night. 

Head : Occipital head ache with dull heavy pain. Child bores into pillow/ rolls from side to side. << Sundays, travel, exertion, warmth, rest, lying down. >> by cold, nose bleed.

(High blood pressure).

Moist hair, greasy with offensive odor, hair falls in bunches from vertex , temples, eye brows, beard, and lashes.

Hydrocephalus with non closure of fontanelles. Eruptions with thick yellow pus.

Eyes – Astigmatism/ deformities of lens &cornea. Pt is intolerant of artificial light.

Ptosis/ neuralgia.

Ear – As long as discharges are there pt feels better. Ears are very large.

Nose – Anosmia, with destruction of nasal bones.

Appearance- children with ashy grey face & with features of Marasmus.

Mouth – decaying of teeth. Child gets sick every time a tooth comes.

Aversion to meat.

Nails –irregular , brittle which breaks & spilt easily. 

Tubercular– (more subjective s/o)

Benign combination of psora & syphilis.

A problem child who shows slow comprehension, dull, unable to keep a line of thought. Children cry in sleep. Child cannot assimilate cow’s milk. Dentition is difficult. Children with weak ankles & wrist joints.

Pt is sullen, morose, and unsocial. Natural eliminations>> ( h’age from nose > neuralgias)

Vertigo—base of brain

Ears- eczema about & behind the ears with thick fetid pus. Eruptions on scalp< by bathing. Discharge –thick yellow. Large ears with pale white transparent lobes.

Nose– epistaxis > head aches. Discharges smell like old cheese.

Face– circumscribed red spots on cheeks with hot flushes. Deep fissures in lips.

Edema of face < morning after waking. During fever circumscribed redness on cheeks.

Eyes – granulations & styes with widely dilated pupils.

Mouth –taste—putrid/sweet taste— Bloody taste.

Stomach– ravenous hunger even after a full meal.

Cravings—for unaccountable things, for acids/ sweets/ to chew chalk/ lime/ pencils/ indigestible things.  Craves salt. Craves spirituous liquors / drunkards. Craves meat/potatoes. There is an inability to assimilate starch.

Chest – changes in chest wall, aversion to fresh air. Expectoration- purulent which taste salty/ sweetish.

Palpitation in high altitudes.

Rectum – H’ages from rectum. Alternation of chest c/o with rectal d’s.

Stool is bloody/ slimy with musty smell.

Urinary –Diabetes. Nocturnal eneuresis.

Skin & nails – hang nails with white specks/ spots. Varicose veins, a/c exanthematous d’s, urticaria, freckles, non- healing of wounds. Pernicious anemia.

Sycosis-

Suspicious both about himself & about others leading to jealousy. Pt is cruel and cunning with fixed ideas.

Mental condition >> by appearance of warts/ return of old gonorrhea, & by catarrh.

Head –pain at vertex, > by motion, mid night. Hair loss lading to circular baldness.

Eye – arthritic eye troubles ( sjorgen’s syndrome).

Nose – red nose with prominent capillaries. Moist snuffles with fish brine odor. Discharge greenish yellow.

Chest – rheumatic troubles of heart, valvular troubles.

Face – bluish/ cyanotic, puffy.

Rectum & Stools – gushing & ejaculated forcibly. Sinuses in rectum/ fistulae/ strictures etc.

Child – Smells sour, screams before urinating, likes to lie in abdomen.

Females – pelvic organ d’s & appendicitis.

Abdomen – colicky pains, mottled MM, fish brine odor, & acrid discharge corroding the skin.

Joints –stiffness/ lameness/ soreness. < by rest, weather changes. > by rest.

Nails – ribbed/ thick/ heavy with moles & warts. Herpes , stitch abscess, barber’s itch etc.

PHILOSOPHY Contd…, other writings- 

DUNHAM’S PHILOSOPHY-

  1. 1.    Homoeopathy the science of Therapeutics-

a) The nature & condition of Science of Therapeutics.

B) To examine the methods by which the science is studied.

The appln of special stimuli (medicines) to the diseased organism is the domain of the science of Therapeutics, while all that concerns the restoration and maintenance of a proper equilibrium of the general stimuli is the science of Hygiene.

Vis medicatrix naturae- the natural tendency to a restoration of the balance of the functions.

The law of Hygiene—causa sublata tollitur effectus ie what stimulus

( general stimulus) has been deficient / excessive in qty or abnormal in quality, and that the equilibrium of the stimuli be restored.

Conditions of the science of Therapeutics

  1. Capability of infinite progress in each of its elements without detriment to its integrity as a whole.
  2. It shall provide the prediction of future events—prevision.                                                         

Therapeutics

Morbid f/ns/ sick phenomena———-I——pathogenesis/ drug phenomena.

2. Relation of pathology to therapeutics- 

To base therapeutics upon pathology alone is to make the former merely palliative—‘A pumping out of a leaking ship instead of stopping the leak’.

Pathology cannot serve as a basis/ foundation of the science of therapeutics, but it is an instrument in the practical application of the science of therapeutics.

  1. Primary & secondary s/o as guides in determining dose 

Hahnemann says that when using vegetables we should base on primary action.

Reliquias—effects of very large doses. The classfn of s/o into primary & secondary on the basis of relative nature of s/o is not co-extensive with s/o logy. It is partial confinrd to a moderate no. of conceivable phenomena.

Primary &  secondary implies a succession of s/o.

Herring’s view-

  1. the longer lasting more permanent & more opposed to the earlier the later s/o are the more useful in practice.
  2.  the course of drug d’s must correspond to that of the d’s to be treated.
  3. s/o arising from high potencies are similar to the later effects of lower stronger doses.
  4. conclusion—whether the s/o the case resemble to the earlier (primary) s/o then give lower potencies & if it resembles to the later (secondary) s/o then give higher potencies.

Views of E.M Hale-

  1. Select a remedy whose primary & secondary s/o correspond with those of the malady to be treated.
  2. 2.    If primary s/o dose should be the smallest & if secondary dose should be— large.

View of Dunham-

No law can be deduced from the relation of opposition on the basis of which s/o have been divided into primary & secondary

4. Dose in drug proving-

A)  Prove both in dilutions & in massive doses.

b) Proving should commence with dilutions & high dilutions should be employed until sure that the prover is not susceptible to their action (measuring of susceptibility)

c) don’t pervert susceptibility. Repeated expts should be made at long intervals with high potencies until no new varities of s/o are evoked.

To show this schematically—

High———à low—à small doses of crude drug rptd.—————-à large doses.

d) A long period of time should be used.

e) verify s/o by rptd expts.( to avoid imaginary s/o)- to include all s/o & sensations without verification—Pre-Raphalite method of proving.

f) S/o are of 3 types, chemical, mechanical & dynamic. Again dynamic is of 2 types—generic & specific.

Specific—-2 types—–central s/o & peripheral s/o.

Central— s/o of alimentary tract got when large doses are given.

Peripheral —-s/o of bones, glands & skin got when small doses are given.

g)Thumb rule—Take a small dose first, increase the dose until unequivocal s/o manifest themselves.

Hempel’s view-

  1. drugs should not be proved with attenuated substances.
  2. saturation of the system by massive doses of a drug renders it more susceptible to the action of middle & higher potencies.
  3. It is unreliable to commence the proving with high potencies.

 Dunham’s view—

  1. Attenuations have produced s/o which have not also been produced by massive doses.
  2. Some provers are susceptible to the action of dilutions/ small doses & not that of massive doses of crude drug substance.
  3. s/o have resulted from potencies which are not preceded by massive doses.
  4. Idiosyncrasy favors drug action. 
  1. 8.    Alternation-

By alternation it means two or more remedies to follow each other at short intervals, the s/o of these remedies taken altogether without fresh examination of the case (apriori)

By succession- only after fresh examination of the case every time.(a posteriori).

Dunham strongly rejected Alternation. But Drysdale, Coxe, Hawley, Quin favored alternation. 

Aphorisms

which needed detailed study-

  1. Intermittent d’s-(231-244)

2 types, Typical & (d’s which recur at certain periods.)

Alternating diseases.

Typical is classified into a) A febrile (234) & Febrile (235-44).

A febrile– seen in one single patient at a time. They are c/c d’s of psoric origin treated by antipsorics. This may seldom get complicated with syphilis which may need antisyphilitic remedy.

Febrile- —à 4 types.

  1. 1.    Intermittent fever of sporadic/ epidemic in origin-

Here each paroxysm consists of 2 alternating states- cold-heat/heat-cold. Or may be of 3 states.

TT- not antipsorics, but with common medicines & if this fails only then antipsoric medicine.

Time of administration- very soon after the termination of paroxysm.

  1. Epidemic in non-marshy district.

They are c/c d’s having single a/c paroxysm. Usually they need a genus epidemicus.

  1. 3.    Pernicious type attacking individuals not residing in marshy district-

TT like a/c d’s, if it fails then Antipsoric medicines.

4 .Endemic in marshy district-

In young healthy man who preserves a faultless regimen, one / two doses of potentized china + a regulated mode of living can cure. But if in persons who take sufficient exercise both physically & mentally can’t be cure by china, so Antipsoric medicine is needed.

MENTAL DISEASES (210-230)-

One sided d’s.

Classifiction- 4 types

  1. 1.    Mental d’s appearing with decline of corporeal d’s (somato-psychic- 216)

Construct a complete picture, including s/o before the appearance of d’s + present remnants of corporeal d’s + present s/o mind & disposition.

Antipsoric medicines are needed.

  1. 2.    Mental d’s appearing suddenly (221)-

Treatment should commence with a/c medicines like Aconite, Belladona, Strammonium, Hyosyamus etc, then prolonged antipsorics tt.

  1. 3.    Mental d’s of doubtful  origin (224)-

This may be due to faults of education, bad practices, corrupt morals, neglect of mind, superstition or ignorance etc. If this is of psychic cause give consolation, & advice. If this is due to a real mental disease depending on bodily d’s it will b <<d. TT same as of 4th type.

  1. 4.    Mental d’s from prolonged emotional causes.(psycho-somatic-225)

From continued anxiety, worry, vexation, wrongs, fear, fright etc. TT by Antipsric medicines, appropriate diet & regimen, psychotherapy.

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