Senecio aureus 6c in primary dysmenorrhoea in 18-24 years old females using mymop2 scale

Senecio aureus 6c in primary dysmenorrhoea in age group of 18-24 years old females using mymop2 scale – randomized, non- controlled prospective study

Dr Vishakha Gangawat Ramgopal
Dr Jalpa Atri


Homoeopathic system of medicine also contribute a lot in management of female disorders and provides large data to guide physician for handling cases related to females. Dysmenorrhoea is considering as a one of the most common complaints among female which can make them miserable and disturb their quality of life during menstruation. Many homoeopathic remedies prove their efficacy in relieving dysmenorrhoeal pain among female group. Among them senecio aureus is one of the remedies which help us to manage case of dysmenorrhoea but little data about its indications was hurdle to use this medicine. Verification of this medicine will help us to explore more about this medicine. So, this study aims to explore role of Senecio 6c in primary dysmenorrhoea with objective to study action of senecio aureus in dysmenorrhoea.

30 cases were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria where pre and post treatment score was taken with the help of MYMOP2 scale Showings criteria for improvement. Scoring was analysed using paired t test statistically.

RESULT AND OBSERVATION– apart from demographic data,  9 cases show involvement of urinary and 5 cases show respiratory system during menses and paired t test was applied on pre and post score treatment where  mean difference of 4.4 suggest action of this remedy.

CONCLUSION– this study verifies one characteristic inflammatory symptom of other systems like urinary and respiratory during menses. Apart from that some other observation help us to form qualitative totality for senecio aureus in dysmenorrhoea. Further studies with more sample size and research designs help us to explore more about role of senecio aureus in dysmenorrhoea of female.

KEYWORDS– Dysmenorrhoea, Homoeopathy, Senecio aureus, Verification

Dysmenorrhoea literally means painful menstruation. But a more realistic and practical definition includes cases of painful menstruation of sufficient magnitude so as to incapacitate day-to-day activities. Dysmenorrhoea is commonly divided into two types based on pathophysiology. Primary(spasmodic) Dysmenorrhoea is the one where there is no identifiable pelvic pathology. Secondary(congestive) Dysmenorrhoea is normally considered to be menstruation associated pain occurring in the presence of pelvic pathology. The incidence of spasmodic Dysmenorrhoea of sufficient magnitude with incapacitation is about 15-20%. The pain begins a few hours before or just with the onset of menstruation. The pain is spasmodic and confined to lower abdomen; may radiate to the back and medial aspect of thighs. Systemic disturbances like nausea, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhoea, headache, tachycardia, pallor, cold sweats and occasional fainting may be associated.

On study confirms that, Dysmenorrhoea cannot be easily treated with conventional therapies, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the most common drugs used for its treatment, may cause some severe gastro intestinal side effects and are contraindicated for or intolerable by some women. Therefore, many women seek alternative therapies to cope with the condition. Most women self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs whereas some use herbs or supplements.

Homoeopathy is used in many regions worldwide specially in high income countries. It is recognized as one of the top five complementary medicines (16). Many patients accept it as a safe and acceptable alternative medicine that can be used alongside conventional medicine.

Many homoeopathic medicines have been verified clinically that are efficient in relieving spasmodic Dysmenorrhoea like Belladonna, Mag phos, Colocynth, etc. according to symptom similarity. One among such remedy is Senecio Aureus which is commonly known as golden ragwort, life-root, squaw-weed, etc. The whole plant is used to prepare the tincture. Senecio is reputed in treating female disorders, urinary and respiratory problems. Its action on the female organisms has been clinically verified. It has verified clinically that this remedy is efficient in functional amenorrhea of young girls with backache, also anemic Dysmenorrhoea with urinary disturbances. But lesser data is available for the study of efficiency of Senecio aureus in spasmodic Dysmenorrhoea. So, this study will help in extensive understanding of the Senecio Aureus in spasmodic Dysmenorrhoea.


In this study, following were research question and research hypothesis. Research Question: Will the verification of Senecio aureus in management of case with Primary Dysmenorrhoea helpful in homeopathic Practice? Research Hypothesis: Null hypothesis: There will be no usefulness of Senecio aureus in management of case with Primary Dysmenorrhoea. Alternative hypothesis: There will be usefulness of Senecio aureus in management of case with Primary Dysmenorrhoea.
Study settings: the study was conducted at the-O.P.D. of Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Dethali, Tal. Siddhpur; Dist. Patan. Peripheral camps conducted by Government Homoeopathic Medical college and Hospital, Dethali, Tal. Siddhpur; Dist. Patan Study duration: 6 months.
Study design: Prospective, randomized clinical verification study.
Selection of samples– Sampling method: Consecutive Random Sampling. Sample size: 30 [screening was done with 50 patients]. In this study, Inclusion criteria:18-24 years old females irrespective of occupation, ethnic group and socio-economic status, Cases with clear diagnostic indications of Dysmenorrhoea, Cases with reversible pathological conditions, Cases with systemic disorders along with Dysmenorrhoea, Cases with history of medication for complain of Dysmenorrhoea, Cases with totality of symptoms that indicates Senecio aureus. Exclusion criterias were Cases with age group other than 18-24 years old female. Cases with irreversible pathological conditions.Withdrawal Criteria was Cases which will not maintain regular follow-ups. Tools were Specially prepared case record form, Source books for verifying corresponding totality of Senecio aureus for case of primary Dysmenorrhoea, MYMOP2(Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile) scoring form, Consent form (English and Gujarati), Microsoft excel for Symptom Scoring and statistical analysis.
Data collection: Data collection method: Personal interview. Senecio aureus was prescribed to all cases of Dysmenorrhoea where it indicated through its totality of symptoms mentioned in source book, after excluding other similar medicines on therapeutic basis. Potency: According to study, 6c potency was prescribed.
Frequency and Repetition: As per need of case during treatment on the basis of guidelines given in the Organon of medicine 6th edition. Medicine Dispensing: Dispensing in globule form (size 30) From dispensing unit of Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Dethali, Tal. Siddhpur, Patan.
Follow Up: Follow up Prescription on CTP as per requirement of case. Data analysis: Data analysis was done using Microsoft excel sheet on the basis of symptom score before treatment and after treatment using MYMOP2 Scoring system.Criteria for Results: The result will be analyzed. Significantly improved: Pre and Post score difference about 6 or 5 at 24 hours [after starting treatment] indicates significant improvement. Moderately improved: Pre and Post score difference about 4 or 3 at 24 hours [after starting treatment] indicates moderate improvement. Status Quo/not improved: Pre and Post score difference 0 at 24 hours [after starting treatment] indicates status quo/not improved case.
Statistical Techniques: Data was analyzed on the basis of t test (paired t test) of statistical technique using Microsoft Excel Office 2007. To compare pre and post treatment scores of all the patients in the study. Paired t test was applied for Pre and Post MYMOP Scores. (level of significance (p value-≤0.05) Ethical Aspect– Ethical guidelines were followed as mentioned in Declaration of Helsinki [revision 2008] and ICMR [2006].  No harm produced to any human being during this study. Consent form was prepared in English as well as in Gujarati to make patient aware about the aim and methods of study. Privacy and confidentiality were fully respected during study. Change of medicine or treatment method was allowed during this study as per patient’s preference and health status.


SAMPLING ERROR  Random Sampling technique was selected for study to exclude selection and sampling error as well as other biases
INTERVIEWER BIAS One observer was always there in case taking to minimize this error.

Researcher and guide turn by turn plays role of observer during case taking.


  • Case taking according to 6th edition of Organon of Medicine was performed at Project sites then 50 Cases meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study.
  • Senecio Aureus 6c was Prescribed for study cases and According to need of cases, Follow up on Case Taking Performa every 15 minutes, 1 hr, 2 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs,  3/7/15 days as per need of case.
  • Difference of Pre and Post treatment scoring at 24 hrs after first prescription decided improvement level in case.
  • After 24 hrs if case needed further management it was managed with further Homoeopathic/Allopathic or other treatment as per Demand of Patient.
  • After Intervention on the basis of: – Follow up On Case Taking Performa and Assessing Scoring System Criteria, Outcome assessment was done with statistical analysis


  • The Pre treatment and Post treatment score of study To Study indications of Senecio Aureus 6c in Primary Dysmenorrhoea in age group of 18-24 years old female using MYMOP2 scale –Randomized, non-controlled prospective study are mentioned in the following table:

Table -9

Case No. Pre-T/t Score


Post -T/t Score


D=(µ1 2) Or  X=(µ1 2)  




1 4 1 3 -1.23 1.51
2 6 1 5 0.77 0.59
3 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
4 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
5 4 1 3 -1.23 1.51
6 5 2 3 -1.23 1.51
7 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
8 5 5 0 -4.23 17.89
9 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
10 5 3 2 -2.23 4.97
11 4 0 4 -0.23 0.0529
12 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
13 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
14 6 0 6 1.77 3.13
15 6 0 6 1.77 3.13
16 6 0 6 1.77 3.13
17 6 0 6 1.77 3.13
18 6 4 2 -2.23 4.97
19 6 1 5 0.77 0.59
20 6 0 6 1.77 3.13
21 6 5 1 -3.23 10.43
22 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
23 5 0 5 0.77 0.59
24 4 1 3 -1.23 1.51
25 6 1 5 0.77 0.59
26 6 2 4 -0.23 0.0529
27 6 2 4 -0.23 0.0529
28 6 1 5 0.77 0.59
29 6 2 4 -0.23 0.0529
30 6 2 4 -0.23 0.0529
Total 161 34 ∑D or ∑X = 127 (X-Ẋ)2 =67.3745
  • Here in this test, p value is 0.00013 which is smaller than 0.05 and this result suggest the strong probability to reject null hypothesis. This result supports the result of theoretical testing.
  • Null hypothesis: (REJECTED)
  • Alternative hypothesis: (ACCEPTED)
  • So, here Null hypothesis is rejected and Alternative hypothesis is selected to apply further statistical calculations.
  • So, with acceptance of Alternative Hypothesis we can apply Student t test for further analysis.

Table -10

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means
  pre t/t post t/t
Mean 5.366666667 0.966666667
Variance 0.516091954 1.826436782
Observations 30 30
Pearson Correlation 0.084056873
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
Df 29
t Stat 16.32502157
P(T<=t) one-tail 1.8554 E-16
t Critical one-tail 1.699126996
P(T<=t) two-tail 3.7108E-16
t Critical two-tail 2.045229611
  • Here, Means of Pre- and Post- treatment scores are respectively 5.36 and 0.96. So, Mean difference between this variable (Pre and Post Treatment Score is as follows,
  • Mean difference of Pre Score – Mean Difference Of Post Score

i.e. 5.36-0.96 = 4.4 (Mean Difference)

INFERENCE: Value of Mean Difference in Pre and Post treatment Score shows that the decreased in Post treatment value due to action of Homoeopathic medicines. Result of p value and t test also support the alternative Hypothesis. These all data suggest, Senecio aureus is useful in primary dysmenorrhea.


  • The study reveals (8) maximum cases of 23 years old females present with Dysmenorrhoea and 20 cases show significant improvement, 7 cases show moderate improvement and 2cases show mild improvement and 1 status quo.
  • The study was statistically analyzed with Pre treatment and Post Treatment data of Subjective Scoring System MYMOP2 used in this study. Statistically Student’s t- test was applied and shows mean difference of 4.4 indicating action of medicinal intervention in cases.
  • The following Some Special observations were seen during study which helps us to form a new qualitative prescribing totality of Senecio aureus.
Dysmenorrhoea after abortion or miscarriage *
Dark coloured of menstrual discharge
Backache during menses

*This symptom was verified in only one case but significant improvement was seen in follow up so it may help to get some hint on further verification.

Limitations of study-

  • Small sample size- this becomes one of the limitations to verify maximum numbers of symptomatology of Senecio Aureus.

Further recommendations:
As this was a small sample sized, so study with More Sample Size and Control trial will be more effective to explore the more verified Symptoms of Senecio aureus


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT- We are grateful to institute Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital to provide opportunity for carried out this study. We would like to thank Principal & Superintendent of hospital (Dr. R.P.Sharma) and other hospital Staff and College’s Teaching and Non- teaching staff for providing guidance and encouragement.

Dr. Vishakha Gangawat Ramgopal
Intern doctor (Batch 2022-2023) at Government Homoeopathic Medical College, Dethali, Siddhpur, Patan, Gujarat

Dr. Jalpa Atri
Assistant Professor, Community Medicine Department, Government Homoeopathic Medical College, Dethali, Siddhpur, Patan, Gujarat

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