The Structure of Water – Potential Relevance to Homeopathy

Rustum Roy , W.A. Tiller , Iris Bell , M. R. Hoover

This paper provides an interdisciplinary base of information on the structure of liquid water. It   begins   with   a   synthesis   built   on   the   information   base   on   the   structure5   of   noncrystalline, inorganic, covalently-bonded condensed liquid phases, such as SiO , S, Se, P, and H O, which  exists in the materials science literature.

The data for water are analyzed through the prism ofished algorithm  well-establs in materials research: the connection of properties to structure; the pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagrams; the phenomenon of epitaxy; the phenomenon of    liquid-liquid     phase    separation;     the   stability   of  two    phase    colloids;    and,   the   recently discovered effects of weak magnetic and electric fields on the structure of simple inorganic oxides.   A   thorough   combing   of   the   literature  of the  condensed  matter   properties   reflecting structural   features   of   essentially   pure   water obtained   via   the normal   processes   of   preparing homeopathic remedies, provides another rich data base. The examination of these data through the standard materials science paradigms leads to the following conclusion:   Many different structures of liquid water must exist within the range of observations and processes encountered near ambient conditions.

A typical sample of water in    these  experimental       ranges    no    doubt    consists     of  a   statistical-mechanical-determined assemblage   of   monomers   and   oligomers   (clusters)   of   various   sizes   up   to   at   least   several hundred   H2O   units.       The   importance   of   the   structural   similarity   of   SiO2      and   OH2     is   very relevant to the structure of the latter as well as to the probability of epitaxy in controlling at least the region contiguous to the silicate glass surfaces of many common containers. The most distinctive feature of bonding in liquid water is not only the “well-known hydrogen bonds,   but   the   necessary   presence   of  a   wide   range”   of   van   der   Waals   bonds   between   and among the various oligomeric (cluster)  structural units.

It is this range of very weak bonds that could account for the remarkable ease of changing the structure of water, which in turn could help explain the half-dozen well-known anomalies in its properties. In its subtler form, such     weak    bonds     would    also   allow for   the  changes     of   structure    caused    by   electric   and 1 Evan Pugh Professor of the Solid State, Emeritus, and Founding Director of the Materials Research Laboratory at Penn State ( 2 Professor Emeritus and former Department Chair of Materials Science, Stanford University . 3 Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, Fami ly and Community Medicine, and Public Health, Director of Research, Program in Integrative Medicine, University of Arizona ( 4 Assistant Professor, Materials Research Institute, Penn State(

The term structure is used as in all materials research to designate the 3D arrangement of atoms or molecules, not the chemical usage of the term describing the structure of a single molecule or oligomer.

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