Dr. Komal Sharma,MD, Senior Research Fellow, Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy;
Dr. Divya Taneja, PG Student, Bakson Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Greater Noida, UP.
This is an exhaustive compilation from existing homeopathic literatures and from some internet sources in a single write up to understand the Kali group of drugs for different perspectives as given by stalwarts and practitioners from time to time. The bibliography is given in the end.
Potassium belongs to the Group 1A of Mendeleev Periodic table. The members of Ist group (viz Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) are generally known as the ‘Alkali metals’ and act as the univalent cations of salts in the lithosphere as well as in the organism. Potassium (K) as a chemical element is a metal, having an atomic number 19 and atomic weight 39.1. Potassium and all of its compounds are water soluble and are universally distributed. Earth’s crust consists of 2.45% of Potassium.
Human body consists of 35% of Potassium. Potassium is one of the minerals present in blood plasma as well as all tissues. Clarke in his “Dictionary of the Practical Materia medica”, states that Kalis, in general, cause great disturbance in the circulation of fluids in the tissues.
Kali salts produce the symptoms due to following properties:
- Cationic property.
- Strongly electropositive nature.
- Specific property of the anion group attached or properties peculiar to the salt.
So, while going through Kali group the symptoms common to individual remedies are due to potassium ion itself.
Like all alkali ions, potassium draws water to the place where it is richest itself. With increased administration in the blood by an addition in substance, that is, hypertonic solution, hydremia is the result. Reduction of muscle irritability is apparently a special property of potassium which accounts for complaint of general debility, weakness and paralysis so often associated with Kali group.
- Neither elemental potassium nor potassium salts as separate entities from other salts were known in Roman times, and the Latin name of the element, kalium, is not Classical Latin but rather neo-Latin. Kalium was taken from the word “alkali”, which in turn came from Arabic:al-qalyah “plant ashes.” The similar-sounding English term alkali is from this same root, whereas the word for potassium in Modern Standard Arabic is بوتاسيومbūtāsyūm.
- The English name for the element potassium comes from the word “potash”, and refers to the method by which potassium was obtained – placing in a pot the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves, adding water, heating, and evaporating the solution.
Discovery Of Potassium:
Potassium was first isolated in 1807 in England by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash (KOH, potassium hydroxide) by the use of electrolysis of the molten KOH with the newly discovered voltaic pile. Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.
Potassium levels influence multiple physiological processes, including:
- Resting cellular-membrane potential and the propagation of action potentials in neuron, muscular and cardiac tissue.
- Hormone secretion and action
- Vascular tone
- Systemic blood pressure control
- Gastrointestinal motility
- Acid–base homeostasis
- Glucose and insulin metabolism
- Mineralocorticoid action
- Renal concentrating ability
- Fluid and electrolyte balance
In food it is derived from fruits, such as apricots, bananas, kiwi, oranges, and pineapples, Vegetables, such as leafy greens, carrots, and potatoes, Lean meats, Whole grains, Beans and nuts.
Detailed medical literature exists on hypokalemic and hyperkalemic states both of which are seen as medical emergencies requiring immediate correction of electrolyte imbalances.
In homoeopathy, a number of medicines have been prepared from potassium salts, ranging from polychrests to small remedies.
List of medicines under the group:
- Kali aceticum
- Kali arsenicosum
- Kali asparticum
- Kali aurocyanatum
- Kali bichromicum
- Kali bioxalicum
- Kali bitartaricum
- Kali bromatum
- Kali borotartaricum
- Kali carbonicum
- Kali causticum
- Kali chromicum
- Kali chloricum
- Kali citricum
- Kali cyanatum
- Kali ferrocyanatum
- Kali formicum
- Kali fluoratum
- Kali hydroxydicum
- Kali hypophosphoricum
- Kali iodatum
- Kali lacticum
- Kali metallicum
- Kali muriaticum
- Kali natrumtartaricum
- Kali nitricum
- Kali oxalicum
- Kali perchloricum
- Kali permanganicum
- Kali phosphoricum
- Kali picricum
- Kali picro-nitricum
- Kali salicylicum
- Kali silicicum
- Kali sulphuricum
- Kali tartaricum
- Kali telluricum
- Kali thiocyanatum
- Kali xanthogenicum
DOCTRINE OF SIGNATURE
- High melting point of potassium reflects itself as: Kali personalities maintain their principles, rigid, stubborn (rubric: Obstinate) and hard to please.
- Atomic structure of potassium “body centered cubic”: Kali personalities are centered to their body i.e. extremely anxious and fearful about their health (rubric: Fear of disease; *hypochondriasis)
SPHERE OF ACTION
Clarke says, “Potassium salts have more specific relation to the solid tissues rather to the fluids of the body; to the blood corpuscles rather than to the blood plasma. The fibrous tissues are particularly affected, the ligaments of joints, of the uterus, of the back. It corresponds to the conditions in which these tissues are relaxed – joints give way; the back feels as if broken; the patient feels compelled to lie down in the street.”
- Kali salts are valuable in rheumatic and gouty states of wandering nature.
- Kali iod. affecting more the lymphatic and glandular system like Iodum.
- All Kalis, mainly Kali bi. affecting the mucous membranes everywhere, the fibrous tissues and ligaments and the eyes, nose and fauces particularly, causing deep ulcerations and destructions.
- Kali iod affecting all sites stated above and more the bones, periosteum, and the glands with similar effects.
- Kali brom acts chiefly upon nerves of the brain and spine causing cerebral irritation and anaemia developing acute mania, insomnia, epilepsy and other related states.
- Kali phos producing condition such as results from nerve exhaustion and those due to blood conditions as gangrene, typhoid states etc.
- Kali sulph has a group of symptoms like Pulsatilla< evening, intolerance of heat >motion; thick yellow-greenish pus and a group of symptoms like Sulphur such as hurried in work, irritability, skin symptoms, <warmth, warmth of bed, sinking of the epigastrium, faintness etc.
Kali sulph has a wide, clinical range, has cured epithelioma lupus, chronic intermittent fever, dropsy, fatty liver and fatty degeneration of heart. Its chief action is on mucous membrane, skin and joints.
|Sphere of action in summary:
EVOLUTION OF KALI PERSONALITY
As a child, “Need for Relationship & Harmony and Dependence on the Relationship”. These two are solely responsible for carving and evolution of Kali personality. Owing to his need Kali person gets attached to his family and later emerges as two different poles of behaviorism depending on his family upbringing.
- If the Kali child grows in a well-to-do family his dependency takes the form of pampering and he becomes timid (rubric Timidity; Confidence, want of self) and self-centered person. But if the child grows up in want of resources he learns the importance of money(* rubric Fear poverty, of kali-c). He also learns to take responsibility at an early age. Thus, Kali grows out to be a conscientious, reliable and reserved person.
- This keeps the child dependent and with weak will and the latter develops in a child high sense of duty and responsibility. This blend makes Kali closed and reserved, conscientious and reliable, timid and self-centered.
- Kali children can’t keep a low profile. They are attention seekers and if their demands are not met with, they exhibit various psycho-somatic expressions viz. bed-wetting, somnoloquy and somnambulism, stammering and tantrum.
- Pragmatism then becomes the theme. However, beneath this pragmatism lies his weakness of will which constraints him against major achievements and his hoarding makes him selfish.
- Kali has the attachment to his family in such measure that most of his fears and delusions are formed on its basis (*rubric: Delusions, dead, child was, her kali-bi, kali-br; falling brother, fell overboard in her sight –kali-br).
As an adult, this core feeling of Need of Relationship develops in Kali an inner insecurity leading to vulnerability. This makes the patient anxious with a desire for company (rubric: Anxiety ; anxiety fear with; Company desire for).
- In contrast, Natrum needs one person and Magnesium needs one mother for nourishment whereas Kalium needs a family and Calcarea a home. He needs much greater security than Natrum, security not balanced by one to one relationship; he needs the family or a group of family members. They feel tremendous anxiety without them.
- If anyone disturbs the relationship, the Kalium person gets quite fearful and out of that fear, can get quite aggressive. This aggressiveness is restricted to the family. (*synthesis rubrics, Quarrels with family; Kent’s- Company, desire for, treats them outrageously; Phatak repertory -Harsh, with his family & children; Quarrels with his bread and butter).
- Breaking off of the relationship produces in him Disappointment of love; the patient may try to cope up with it by suppressing his emotions, detaching himself (rubric: Suicidal disposition; Ennui, Forsaken )or takes the religious route (rubric: Religious affections, melancholia; Despair, religious of salvation) .
- Suppression and repression occur in some. Denying feelings may bury protection from emotional pain, but the price is high. Many adolescents develop the state of neurosis. Immediate other attachment helps them dissociate themselves from the pangs.
- The dreams of Kali patient also revolve around his family or his anxiety (rubric: Dreams, anxious; child about; death of; frightful; misfortune, of).
- Ego-centricitybut down to earth. The world revolves around ‘I’ and ‘my’ family. Kali parents push their virtues on for the sake of their children to be good citizens of the country. They take care of their children and are anxious when they are late at home. Restlessness, peevishness, anguishes are mirrored soon. Kali parents are pacifying towards progress of their children. They see that their children are moralistic, responsible and successful in their occupations.
- Kali adult life is more like a cocoon.
- Old Kalis become vulnerable, trap themselves in the state of anxiety (like Arg-n.), willing to pass responsibilities on to others.
- If rejected, Kalis reflect through irritability but this is more a secondary symptom, a reaction to the problem they are experiencing.
Sickness adds to the state of dependence. Kalis are indicated when multiple vital organs viz. heart, kidneys, lungs etc. are affected. Pathologies with water retention or with dryness turn up in old age. Disabling disorders with advancing pathologies destructive as well as degenerative characterize this phase.
General Characteristics of Kali Group
The symptoms and gradations are as given in the Guiding symptoms of our Materia Media by Dr Hering.
Potassium constitutions are heavily built. They are stout and robust. All Kali remedies are prone to tendency to gain weight and have premature old look. There are black rings around the eyes.
Causticum– Diseases corresponding to the hydrogenoid constitution of Grauvogl.
II Dark haired persons with rigid fibre most affected.
I Lymphatic, torpid temperament; bronchitis.
II Children with black hair and eyes; enuresis nocturna.
I Children with delicate skin; dentition.
IDuring evolution of a group of teeth, intertrigo appears with occasional convulsions; dentition.
I Diseases incidental to old age; varicose veins.
Kalibich– II Fat, light haired persons, who suffer from catarrhal, syphilitic or scrofulous affections.
II Fat, chubby, short necked children, disposed to croupous inflammation.
Kali brom– Acts more satisfactorily in children than in adults.
Especially adapted to large persons inclined to obesity.
Kali carb-I Suited for the aged; rather obese; lax fibre.
II Dark hair, lax fibre, inclined to obesity.
I Adapted to fleshy, aged people, and to complaints following parturition; diseases characterized by stitching pains.
II Adapted to diseases of old people, dropsies and paralysis.
IIAfter loss of fluids, or of vitality, especially in anaemia.
Kali iodatum-II Scrofulous patients; especially if syphilis or merculiazation is superadded.
Kali phos: Kent says, “The weakness, emaciation and anaemia and tubercular tendency are strong features
of this wonderful antipsoric remedy.”
- Temperament: Most of kali group remedies are phlegmatic, whereas kali phos is choleric.
- Diathesis: Rheumatics &Gouty
- Miasmatic Background:
Apart from antipsoric properties of the family of Kalis. Kali bichromicum and Kali iodatum are both useful for syphilitic affections. As Kali salts are polychrestremediesthey have got symptoms covering all miasms.
- Emotions: Care; Stress; Grief; Insult; Irritable; Bad-news; Fear; Anticipation; Anger; Suspense; Excitement; Shock
- Injuries: Abortion; Surgery; Contusion; Sprain; Burn; Fall
- Drugs: Diuretics; Quinine; Mercury; Blood transfusion; Lead
- Depleting Factors: Sweat; Exertion; Coition
- Suppression: Emotion; Eruption; Fistula; Discharges; Malaria
- Kent says, in Caust., “The suppression of eruptions is apt to bring out the mental symptoms. Mental exhaustion, hopelessness, despair, appearing after the suppression of eruption.”
- Oversensitivity: is a prominent feature of Kalis. Very sensitive to touch and all other things.
Kali ars: Oversensitive to noises, and especially to human voices.
Kali brom: ISo sensitive and irritable of mind she cannot give her music lessons; very thought of piano breaks her down, makes her shake all over, and then cry with fear and apprehension that she is losing her mind; cries easily; so easily confused that she cannot say what she wishes to; least thing worries her; makes her utterly miserable to be looked at or spoken to; fears to see people; always depressed and low-spirited; memory weak and unreliable. Ө Melancholia
Kali carb: Cannot bear to be touched; starts when touched ever so lightly, especially on the feet.
Kali phos: The oversensitive, nervous, delicate persons, worn out from long suffering, much sorrow and vexation, prolonged mental work; also such as are broken down from sexual excesses and vices.
Causticum: Kent says, “her nervous system becomes extremely sensitive to noise, touch, excitement or anything unusual. Starting from the slightest noise; starting in sleep; twitching and jerking; the child is easily startled or acts as if startled without cause”.
Kali silicatum: at times he is very sensitive to noise.
- Anxiety: Anxious all the time but most marked in morning, on waking, anxious about future, salvation, and disease.
Kali people are generally very reluctant to admit to their weaknesses. They will often deny all fears and worries during the consultation,will play them down as much as possible. Kali people do generally manage to hide most of their anxiety for a long time, often for their whole life. It shows only as a certain tension or hesitancy of speech. Sometimes, however, they do suffer a breakdown. This is especially likely to occur after the loss of some important source of security, such as their job or partner.
If the Kali person does breakdown, then there is intense anxiety, especially when alone (Kent: ‘Fear of being alone’), and especially in the small hours of the night. Even when the anxiety is intense, Kali may give the impression that he is in controland may continue to work fairly normally.
Causticum: I Timorous anxiety and depression. Ө Pertussis
I Anxiety.Ө Gastric headache.
I Anxiety and red face from urging to stool.Ө Obstruction of bowels.
IAnxiety before falling asleep, as though attack of fainting would return and he would die.
I Anxiety and despondency; has been subjected to night watching, care, trouble, etc. Ө Agalactia.
Kali ars: Kent says, “Arsenicum is stamped upon the mental symptoms. Anxiety even to great anguish, with great fear. Anxiety in the morning on waking, but most marked in the evening and during the night. He is anxious without cause, about his health; anxious before stool; wakens during the night with anxiety and fear”.
Kali bichromicum: Anxiety arising from chest.
Kali carb: A peculiar condition in Kali carb., is a state of anxiety felt in the stomach, as though it were a fear. Kent explains a case, “Doctor, somehow or other I don’t have a fear like other people do, because I have it in my stomach.” She said when she was frightened, it always struck to her stomach. “If a door slams, I feel it right here.” (epigastric region).
Kali iod: I Sadness and anxiety.
Kali phos: Apprehensive anxiety, in the evening in bed, and during the night; anxiety after eating, about the future, about his health, about his salvation.
Kali silicatum: Absent-minded and becomes angered over trifles; anxiety in the evening in bed and during the night; anxiety with fear; anxiety after eating, about his health; during menses, about trifles, capriciousness.
- Fearful: “Full of fears”, fear to go to bed at night. Fear of crowds, fear of bad news, and fear of being alone.
Causticum: I Fear of death. Ө Paralysis
“Timorous anxiety”, overwhelmed with fearful fancies. At every turn there is fear that something is going to happen. Fear of death, fear that something will happen to his family. Always anticipating some dreadful event.
Kali ars: He fears to go to bed. He fears death or a crowd of people, yet equally dreads being alone. Fear that something will happen. Fear of people. He is very easily frightened and startled. He has frightful delusions and sees images. He is very fretful and dislikes to answer questions.
Kali brom: II Frightful imaginings at night (in pregnant women during latter months), they are under impression that they have committed, or about to commit, some great crime and cruelty, such as murdering their children or husbands.
I She is very fretful, crying at trifles, constantly brooding over loss of a daughter; almost crazy; from fretting, loss of rest and want of nourishment, is seized with nervous dysentery.
II Night terrors of children (not from indigestion), with screaming, unconsciousness of what is occurring around them; cannot recognize, nor be comforted by their friends; sometimes followed by squinting.
Kali carb: He never wants to be alone, is full of fear and imaginations when alone, “fear of the future, fear of death, fear of ghosts”.
Kali mur: Dread of bathing and worse from bathing. Fear that some evil will come to him. It has been used with benefit in imbecility.
Kali phos: Fear of crowd, of death, of disease, of evil, of people, of solitude. He is easily frightened, which increases his many nervous and mental symptoms.
II Anxiety, nervous dread without special cause, gloomy moods, fancies, taking dark views of things, dark forebodings.
Kali silicatum: Fear with anxiety; fear and dread of work; easily frightened.
Kali sulph: Fear at night of death, of falling and of people. Frightened at triflesand forgets what he was going to do and to say.
- Quarrelsome: Fault finding nature. Behaviour very crazy.
Causticum: II Peevish, irritable, censorious mood.
I Paroxysm of quarrelsome anger.ӨPertussis.
Kali carb: this patient is whimsical, irascible, irritable to the very highest degree, quarrels with his family and with his bread and butter.
- Irritable: Obstinacy marked at night, after coition, during headache and during menses.
Causticum: II Peevish, irritable, censorious mood.
Irritable temper, disposition to take everything in bad part.
Kali bi: I Ill humor; low spirited.
Kali carb: I Peevish, irritable; noise is disagreeable; easily startled, especially if touched; intolerance of human voice.
Kali iod.: there is a very strong degree of irritability, cruelty and harshness of temper. He is harsh with his family and with his children; abusive. It will take all the sense of refinement out of his mind and then he will become sad and tearful.
Kali phos: the irritability is very marked, in morning on waking, in the evening, after coition, during headache, during menses, when spoken to, on waking at any time, after becoming exhausted from a diarrhoea. Vexation brings on many complaints.
Kali silicatum: Extremely irritable; worse in morning and evening; worse after coition; worse from any attempt to console him.
- Depression or sadness or melancholic or hopelessness
Causticum: II The least thing makes the child cry.
II Melancholy from care, grief, and sorrow.
I Melancholy; she looks upon the dark side of everything. ӨAmenorrhoea.ӨMenorrhagia.
I Hopelessness and despair.ӨParalysis
I Hopeless weeping mood, expecting death.ӨHemiplegia.
Kali brom: II Fits of uncontrollable weeping and profound melancholic delusions.
II Depressed; low-spirited; has nervous anxiety.
I Imagines he is singled out as an object of divine wrath.
Kali carb: I Alternating mood, at one time good and quiet, at another excited and angry at trifles; constantly in antagonism with herself; frequently hopeful, frequently despondent; frets about everything; peevish, impatient, contended with nothing. ӨMelancholia.
I Despondent in open air; disappears on entering house.
Kali iod.: I Sadness and anxiety.
Kali mur:IAlternate states of sadness and cheerfulness, associated with congestion, > from nosebleed.
- Indifferent: To everything, to pleasure, to business matters and then becomes indolent and lassitude.
Kali ars: IScolding, morose, retired, quarrelsome and discontented, jealous, indifferent to everything, scarcely answered questions addressed to her, or replied to them in a peevish tone; eyes had a fixed look, face looked frightened and anxious; <every third day. ӨMelancholy.
Kali bi: I Indifferent or low spirited after least annoyance, with distress in stomach.
I Listlessness, languor; great disinclination for mental or physical labor.
Kali phos: Indifference to surroundings, to joy and to her family. Indifference to his business matters, and then comes indolence and lassitude.
Kali silicatum: indifferent to his friends and to pleasure; he takes pleasure in nothing.
- Weakness of memory, Dullness of mind: Cannot recollect past events, words. Absentmindedness in children. Difficulty in concentration.
Caust. : I Weakness of memory; absent minded. ӨChorea.
I Understands questions only after repetition.
I Dullness of head.
I Incapacity to think or to follow his business, after injurious effects of gaslight.
Kali brom: I Loss of memory, forgets how to talk, absentmindedness.
II Loss of memory; had to be told the word before he could speak it. ӨAmnesic aphasia.
I Single words forgotten; syllables are dropped.
Kali iod: I Intellectual weakness and paroxysms of dementia, accompanied by headache.
Kali phos: Weak memory. Forgetful.Cannot recall words.Dullness of senses.Weakness of memory for words, and great prostration of mind.Mistakes in speaking and writing.
Kali silicatum: It is very useful remedy for children in school when they cannot learn their lessons. Difficult concentration of mind; he has lost confidence in his own ability. Dullness of mind when reading and writing; in the morning on waking. Memory very feeble; mistakes in speaking and writing; misplaces words.
- Restlessness: Towards evening, during menses, headache.
Kali brom: II Hands constantly busy; all sorts of fearful delusions; walks the room groaning, bemoaning his fate; full of fear; unsteady.
Kali phos: Restlessness during menses.
- Principles, duty: The most important characteristic of Kalium people is that they are very conscientious. They are people with strong principles, they have their rules and norms and they stick to them; a man of his word. They are therefore very reliable, correct, stable and self-assured. They have a great sense of duty, are serious and responsible. In the course of time, however, this can go too far and the negative side might start to come up; being rigid, dogmatic, moralistic, conservative and stoic. In order to live according to their principles, they have to control the other aspects to live according to their principles of their life, such as emotions. They preferroutine to newand unexpected things. Playful and artistic traits are hardly acknowledged. That is why they seem to be materialistic, but they are more pragmatic and down to earth, than egoistic.
- Closed: This control is expressed physically in the form of constipation or difficult labor. They hold on to things and are closed and reserved. In spite of or on perhaps because of this control there are many fears, but these are often only felt physically in the form of stomach problems. They can also be quite ‘jumpy’, unexpected things are not under their control. Connected to this is their great sensitivity to being tickled. Tickling makes you laugh, you have to surrender to your emotions and their control does not allow this.
Kalis present the conflict between attachment and detachment, between resoluteness and indecisiveness, between determinism and non-determinism, between dependence and independence, between achievement and fear of failure, between co-operation and competition, between hostility and approval, between emotions and intellect, between holding and leaving or between hoarding and sacrificing.
The conflicting state of Kali could be related to two polar opposite states of water retention and dryness. Emotionalism reflects the water element, the emotional turbulences with the overtone of the intimate bond and attachment.
Painful experiences teach a lesson to get out of water and be dry. To stand on terra firma without jeopardizing the existing security, then becomes the motive, ego-centricity, hoarding instinct and pragmatism.
My happiness is your responsibility Trap: Kali people are irresolute and are dependent on the opinion of others. They have reluctance to expose their true feelings and have a tendency to avoid confrontations.
Detachment: The source of this trap is attachment itself. The sensitive Kalis no longer are capable to use their resources to keep intimate and smooth relations. Various negative dispositions like jealousy, anger, resentment, rejection come on the surface.
“Less intimacy, less pain”, “The less I open myself up to you, the better”, “Better to reject than be rejected” are the conclusions. Self – righteousness, straight – forwardness and ego – centricity play a role in making this trap. However, this trap is imposed upon the Kalis by the others. It is rather a state of freedom than cut-off relations. If the relations are cut off, Kali people get deeply hurt and develop rejection trap.
- Optimism: They are closed and do not easily share their inner feelings. But they are melancholic like Natrums. One could sooner call them optimistic. They achieve what they want to achieve, through perseverance and hard work.
- Work tasks: Their sense of duty is expressed in their tasks. Perhaps ‘task’ is an even better theme for the Kaliums than the ‘duty’. They are very task conscious. They are very hard workers, able people, and the builders of the society. They are practical and pragmatic. They work hard and steadily, although they don’t overdo it. They are not real workaholics. They have a sort of fatherly aura. Professions in which they thrive are: managers, policemen, judges, translators, book keepers, etc.
- Family: They are on the whole, very much family oriented. The family is very much important to them and they work hard to support them.
- Thermal Reaction: Chilly. Generally they are chilly, but some of them, especially Kali iodatum and kali sulphuricum, will be quite warm. A scale-
- Kali iodatum the hottest.
- Kali sulphuricum also quiet warm.
- Kali nitricum also quiet warm.
- Kali phosphoricum is between here, not so chilly.
- Kali carbonicum to the chilly state.
- Kali bichromicum even more chilly usually
- Kali arsenicosum quite chilly.
Kali ars:The chilliness is very marked. Extreme sensitiveness to cold and complaints are aggravated from cold, from cold air, from becoming cold, from entering a cold place.Aversion to open air.Takes cold from a draft, and from being heated.
Kali bi: The patient is sensitive to cold. There is a lack of vital heat. In fact, he wants to be wrapped up and covered warmly, and many of his complaints are much better when he is perfectly warm in bed. All the pains and his cough are relieved from the warmth of the bed, and yet there are other complaints like rheumatic conditions, that come in hot weather. The Kalis generally are sensitive to cold, dry weather, but Kali bichromicum throat troubles are continuous in the winter and during cold, damp weather, and are worse in cold, damp winds.
Though Kali bi. has liability to take cold in open air but complaints occurring in hot weather.
Kali carb:He is oversensitive to everything, sensitive to every atmospheric change; he can never get the room at just exactly the right temperature; he is sensitive to every draft of air and to the circulation of air in the room. He cannot have the windows open, even in a distant part of the house. He will get up at night in bed and look around to see where that draft of air comes from. His complaints are worse in wet weather, and in cold weather. He is sensitive to the cold and is shivering.
Kali iod:If he remains in a warm room he becomes weak and tired, and feels as if he could not stir, does not want to move, and does not know what is the matter with him. He is worse in the warmth of the house, but as soon as he goes into the open air he feels better, and as soon as he begins to walk he feels still betterand can walk long distances without fatigue; goes into the house again and becomes weak and tired and exhausted. The coryza is <in open air, but all the rest of the patient is > in open air.
Kali mur: Aversion to the open air and sensitive to drafts. The open air aggravates many symptoms. Cold in general makes the symptoms worse; worse from cold air; worse from becoming cold; worse from cold wet weather. Worse from cold food, fat food and cold drinks.
Most of the Kalis are chilly according to Gibson Millers classification, but this depends on the component element. Except Hot (Kali-i. 2, Kali-s 3)
Generalities, cold in general agg:-Causticum 3, Kali ars 3, Kali bich 2, Kali carb 3, Kali phos 3
Generalities, warm amel:-Causticum 2, Kali bich 2, Kali carb 3, Kali phos1, Kali iod 2.
- Time aggravation
Early morning (2-5 A.M)
- Kali bich- 2 to 3 A.M.
- Kali brom- Night, 2 A.M.
- Kalicarb-2 to 4A.M.
- Kali cyan- Night, daily 4 A.M. (Neuralgia cease at 4 P.M.)
- Kali ferrocyanatum- On rising, waking (Periodic neuralgia like Kali cyan)
- Kali iod- (Chest symptom) 2 to 5 A.M.
- Kali mur- morning on rising
- Kali nit- 3 A.M.(cough)
- Kali phos- 3 to 5 A.M.)
Exceptions:in time aggravation
- Kali arsenicosum-Night, Midnight before 1 am
- Causticum-Evening & Night
- Kali sulphuricum-Evening
Kali bi: Neuralgia everyday at same hour.
Kali brom:5p.m.:periodic colic in infants. Epilepsy at new moon; usually a day or two before menses.
Kali ars: II Worse every other day in the morning. ӨNeuropathia.
Kent says, “The most marked periodicity every third day.”
Kali carb: one week before catamenia: feels very badly.
- Side Affinity
Right sided:Caust 2, Kali carb1, Kali nit 2, Kali mur1, Kali carb 1
Left sided: Kali bi 1, Kali mur 2, Kali chl 2, Kali nit 1.
Right side then left side:Caust
- Desire and Aversions:Kalis desire sweets and other soft edible items.
Caust.:I Desire for beer: II for smoked meat. I Aversion to sweet things.ӨDiarrhoea.ӨPertussis.
Kali ars: Desires sour things, sweets, warm drinks. Aversion to food and meat.
Kali bi: I Longing for beer; for acid drinks, which increases. IDislike to meat.
Kent says, “When a beer drinker has arrived at a point where he can no longer tolerate his beer but it makes him sick, Kali bichromicum is a useful remedy.”
Clarke told about the Hering’s dictum which states that “wine drinkers should take coffee and beer drinkers should take tea.” Coffee antidotes wine and tea antidotes beer; so as Kali bi.corresponds to beer effects, tea will be likely to agree with it better than coffee.
Kali carb:I Desire for acids; for sugar and sweets.
I Aversion to food, especially meat; it has a good taste when he eats, yet he does not eat much.I Aversion to rye bread. Milk and warm food disagrees.
Kali phos: Desires cold drinks, sour thing, sweets. Aversion to food, to bread, to meat.
- Depression of sexual power: Aggravation after coition
- Psychology behind it -Relations with opposite sex frequently cause Kali anxiety. This is in part because he feels awkward and self-conscious. The usual adolescent awkwardness with opposite sex may continue well into adulthood and may never disappear. Once Kali does establish a relationship, he is liable to be dutiful, but detached. Family life is an opportunity for him to lighten up a little, and it often makes the Kali person more confident and more relaxed.
- Clarke mentions, “Storer, cured with Kali bi., a case of asthma in a man who noticed that the attacks were caused by and always followed coitus. The Kali bi. was prescribed on other indications, but this symptom must be noted for future verification.”
- Kali bi: Sexual desire absent in fleshy people.
- Caust.has stupid feeling in the head the day after an emission.
- Kent mentions, “All the symptoms are likely to be worse after coition in Kali carb. He has weak vision, weakness of the senses, tremulousness, and is generally nervous; he is sleepless, and weak, and he shivers and trembles for a day or two after coition. Similar symptoms are observed in the woman. Inspite of the fact that the patient is weak, the sexual desire is excessive. It is not orderly. There is a sexual erethism, which is not under the command of will, and in the male, he is subject to copious and frequent pollutions, nightly dreams and sexual prostration”.
- General Modalities
- Aggravation: Cold drought, thinking, touch, coition, exertion, during menses, 2 to 4 a.m.
- Amelioration: movement, leaning forward, eating, motion etc.
- In Kali iod., “While all the external symptoms and the rest of the body symptoms are relieved in the cold air and by the contact of external cold, internally cold things aggravate. Cold milk, ice cream, ice water, cold drinks and cold food, cold things in the stomach <all the symptoms.”
- In Caust.I Thinking of complaints aggravates them. ӨHaemorrhoids.
- Though Kali bi. has liability to take cold in open air but complaints occurring in hot weather. <heat of summer; hot weather.
- Mucous discharges:
Potassium salts affects markedly the mucous membranes producing congestion, inflammation, ulceration and increased or altered mucous discharges.
From mucous membrane: Thin, acrid, watery discharge- Kali bi., Kali carb., Kali mur, Kali iod.
Copious; ropy, yellow mucous, which can be drawn out in threads; plastic exudation and greenish, elastic plugs- Kali bich.
Thick yellow or greeish discharges- Kali carb, Kali sulph.
Produces tough mucus which is pure white like milk- Kali mur.
Green yellow and bloody, foul smelling muco-pus discharge- Kali iod, Kali phos.
- Character of pain:
All Kalis have a characteristic ‘prominent sticking pain’. Also there is tearing, cutting, neuralgic pains. Erotic types of pain shifts from one part to another. Pulling, stitching and shifting pains. Pain in small parts that can be covered by tip of finger.
- Predominantly stitching and shooting- All Kali salts
- Periodical fugititive or in small spots- Kali bi
- Darting, stitching or cutting – Kali carb
- Stitching, burning or tearing followed by exhaustion- Kali phos.
- Character of pain and modalities are as of Pulsatilla, pain wandering, cutting, stitching, burning, tearing- Kali sulph.
- Gen. pain stitching (Externally):Caust2,Kali ars 1,Kali bich 2,Kali carb 3,Kali nit 2,Kali phos 3,Kali sulph 3
- Gen. pain stitching (Internally):Caust 2,Kali ars 1,Kali bich 2,Kali carb 3,Kali iod 2,Kali nit2,Kali sulph 3
- General weakness & Action upon Nervous system
- Kali salts especially kali carb causes profound muscular weakness, and eventually paralysis. In case of poisoning – weakness of cardiac muscle is an early symptom. This furnishes the key to some of the grand characteristics of the potassium salts. Sluggish debilitated persons: Lack of reaction- Kali sulph.
- Lassitude, weakness, heaviness of the extremities and depression of the sexual power is profound in a potassium salt patient, who are unduly affected by mental and physical exhaustions or sexual intercourse (especially- bromide, carbonate and phosphate).
- Kali carb:II Debility and desire to lie down.
- Kali iod:IGreat general debility; exhaustion.
- Kali mur: I Great weakness; with diarrhoea.
- The key feature of Kali salts is debility and weakness; paresis and paralyzing action of muscles also leads to constipation and difficult labor.
- Caust: Paralysis of single parts; vocal organs; tongue; eyelids; face; extremities; bladder; generally of right side; from exposure to cold wind or draft; after typhoid, typhus or diphtheria; gradually appearing, disturbed functional activity of brain and spinal cord, from exhausting diseases or severe mental shock resulting in paralysis.
- Kali brom: Incoordination of muscles; nervous weakness or paralysis of motion and numbness.
- Kali carb: IParalytic conditions which slowly and insidiously develop; attacks of vertigo in open air; finally paralysis of lower limbs, upper limbs also becoming involved.
- Kali mur: IRheumatic paralysis.
- Kali iod: IParalysis of any of the muscle dependent upon syphilitic periostitis.
IHemiplegia; paralysis; spinal meningitis.
- Increased perspiration during night:
All of the Kali salts, generally have the power to arrest abnormal secretions, whether they may be mucousor serous, perspiration or haemorrhage.
- Inability to perspire, dryness of the skin- Kali carb, Kali phos.
- And on the other hand profuse or easily induced perspiration due to secondary phase of their action.
- Perspiration night: Caust 3,Kali ars 3,Kali bich 1,Kali carb 3,Kali nit 1, Kali phos 2,Kali sulph 3.
Truly haemorrhagic remedies are Kali carb, and Kali phos (Phosphorus content is truly haemorrhagic)
- Metrorrhagia is more often indicated- Kali carb
- In Epistaxis- Kali bich.
- In haemoptysis – Kali carb, Kali mur, Kali phos.
- Dropsical tendency: Edema everywhere, particularly around the ankles and the eyelids, with a most typical symptom of swelling of the medial side of the upper eyelid. Majority of Kalis produce oedema, dropsy, ascites etc.
- Bag like swelling above the upper eyelids is an unfailing indication of Kali carb.
- Oedema of the lower extremities- Kali carb.
- Pulmonary oedema- Kali iod.
- Dropsy, fatty degeneration of the heart and liver – Kali sulph.
- Dropsy,external: Kali-ars 1, kali carb 2, kali nit 1, kali-p 1, kali-s 1.
- Dropsy,Internal:kali ars 2,kali-c 2, kali-p 1, kali-s 1.
- The Kali’s have many stomach complaints. Their stomach is highly sensitive, they are also prone to stomach pains and ulcers. A typical process is that they transfer their fears to their stomach, Kali-c doing this especially. The whole region of the solar plexus becomes very sensitive.
- Most often needed- Kali carb, Kali iod
- Less often needed- Kali phos
- Kali bi and Kali carb are frequently indicated in the ailments of stout persons or fat chubby children.
- Choreic movements / Convulsions/ Epilepsy
Choreic movement, twitching, jerking and convulsions common to all Kali salts.
- Jerking of the limbs on falling asleep – Kali carb
- Chorea – Kali brom
- Convulsions- Kali brom, Kali carb, Kali mur.
Caust.: Epilepsy in young persons at the age of puberty, from fright, from being chilled or exposed to some great change in the weather. Epilepsy, chorea, paralysis, hysteria worse during menses.
Kali brom:Spasms: from fright, anger or emotional causes in nervous plethoric persons; during parturition, teething, whooping cough, Brights disease. Epilepsy: congenital, syphilitic, tubercular; usually a day or two before menses; at new moon; headache follows attack.
Kali mur:IEpilepsy, if occurring with, or after suppression of eczema.
- Heart affections & Myocardial weakness
Affections of the heart, ranging from simple palpitations and high blood pressure to hardening of the arteries and (sudden) heart attacks. All the emotions are held inside, until suddenly the heart gives up.
- Caust.:I Stitches in cardiac region.ӨPertussis. I palpitation of heart. ӨPertussis
Hypertrophy of heart from calisthenics in young girl.
- Kali carb:Tendency to fatty degeneration; as if suspended by a thread.
- Kali bi:I Cold sensation about heart. I Hypertrophy of heart; insufficiency of aortic valves.
- Kali iod.:IValvular defects after repeated endocarditis, especially affecting r. ventricle, which gradually becomes dilated.
- Kali mur:IPericarditis, second stage.
- Kali phos: IIntermittent action of heart: with morbid, nervous sensitiveness; from violent emotions, grief, care.
- Chest- pain heart: Causticum 1,Kali ars 3,Kali bich 2,Kali carb 2,Kali chl 2,Kali iod 1,Kali phos I
- Chest -palpitation heart:Causticum 2, Kali ars 2,Kali nit 2,Kali bich 2, Kali phos 2, Kali carb 3, Kali sulph 2,Kali chl 2, Kali -nit2,Kali fer 2,Kali iod 2.
- Skin eruptions
- Papular and pustular eruptions- All Kali salts
- Pustule with a hair in the centre of it- Kali bi, Kali brom
- Desquamating –Kali ars, Kali carb, Kali sulph
- Desquamating, eczematous, crusty, moist, herpetic with violent itching- Kali sulph
- Crusty eruptions after abuse of mercury- Kali iod
- Blisters- Kali ars, Kali carb, Kali sulph
- Cancerous ulcers- Kali ars, Kali carb, Kali iod
- Deep punched out ulcer- Kali bich
- Deep rodent ulcer- Kali iod, Kali nit.
- Ulcers with black scabs- Kali bi, Kali iod
- Herpetic eruptions- All Kali salts
- Urticarial rash before and during rash- Kali carb
- Rheumatic affections
- There are many rheumatic affections e.g.inflammation of the joints with deformities, especially in the hips and knees.The Kali’s are often needed in backaches with sciatica.The sciatica is aggravated from pressure, lying on the painful side, menses.
SAYINGS OF STALWARTS
Nash says, “If Hahnemann had never given to the homoeopathic school any remedy but CAUSTICUM, the world would still be to him under lasting obligation.”
Kent says, “Causticum has two kinds of paralysis of bladder, one affects the muscles of expulsion and the urine is retained; the other centring on the sphincter, when the urine passes involuntarily.”
“He urinates so easily that he is not sensible of the stream and scarcely believes, in the dark, that he is urinating, until he makes sure by sense of touch.” It is a very useful remedy in children that wet the bed.
“A woman who is too greatly embarrassed to pass through a crowd of observing men to the closet at the end of railroad car, at the end of journey finds that she is unable to pass the urine.”
Hahnemann gives a curious mental symptom-what we have come to call “Spoonerisms”. Confounds letters and syllables, for instance, says, “cluentforyza, instead of fluent coryza” for several days- after proving.
- KALI ARSENICUM
Kent says, “A most useful remedy in threatened phthisis, and especially when there are cavities in the lungs, and the patient cannot get warm even with warm clothing and in a warm room. Cannot get warm in summer; and when cold drinks brings on symptoms.”
It is used frequently when Arsenicum album stops its action on bronchial asthma, even after increasing potency during repetition. Kali ars can go deeper than Ars alb very well, it has same mental symptoms like Arsenic.
Jonathan Hutchinson has recorded a number of cases of right sided herpes.
- KALI BICHROMICUM
Kent (Lesser Writings) details a stomach case cured by Kali bich., where “There were no catarrhal symptoms of nose or chest, and no thick, ropy discharges, therefore, Kali bich.was neglected. The stomach symptoms alone guided to its use, as he had no other symptoms of importance.”
Farrington notices the rash like measles, for which it has been used, “with the catarrhal symptoms of Pulsatilla, eyes, ears, mouth, with watery yellowish-green secretions only worse and advancing to ulceration.”
Kent says, “there are very few mental symptoms owing to the fact that the remedy has been proved only in crude form. It needs to be proved in potencies to bring out the mental symptoms.”
- KALI CARBONICUM
Kent says, “the Kali carb patient is a hard patient to study, and the remedy itself is a hard one to study.”
We quote from Boenninghausen an account of an ancient epidemic of whooping cough, where the symptoms were not those of Drosera, which failed, Kali carb proved curative: the curious symptoms that suggested its use being a bag like swelling between the upper lid and the brow. This swelling seems peculiar to Kali car. “It is not a bulging and sagging of tissues as in old age, but a definite little sac, that looks as if filled with fluid.”
Kent also told that the cough following measles is very often a Kali carb cough.
“Do not be afraid to give the antipsoric remedies when there is a history of tuberculosis in the family, but be careful when the patient is so far advanced with tuberculosis that there are cavities in the lung, or latent tubercles, or encysted tubercles. Your antipsorics might rouse him into a dangerous condition.” “It is a very dangerous medicine in gout.”
Hahnemann says, “Persons suffering from ulceration of the lungs can scarcely get well without this antipsoric.”
“Will bring on the menses, when Nat-m., though apparently indicated, fails- Hahnemann”
Homoeopathic Materia Medica is a vast subjectlike an “Ocean of Medicines” to study. There are various ways to study Materia Medica accompanying with certain limitations. This group study is not new, but a good way to understand the Materia Medica.
As Kent stresses on the mental generals to be consider as most important symptoms for our prescription, I tried to correlate the mind and personalities of different kali members which will help us to distinguish among them and hence will help us in their application.
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