Monthly Archives: May 2012

MCI invites suggestions from Public – Why not CCH?

Dr Mansoor Ali

Medical Council of India invites opinion from public, academicians, professionals and  others  on Graduate Medical Education Regulations 2012  before June 30th 2012 .Public need to understand the document and give their  input to MCI which has requested the same from public. MCI want this regulations as perfect  as possible. The regulations displayed on the website are only to seek the opinion of the experts and all the other stakeholders. These are neither final nor approved

Why not our council – Central Council of Homoeopathy – not requesting any feedback from Homeopathic community, public or academicians before finalizing the Undergraduate or Post Graduate regulations?.

Just see the recent Post graduate Homoeopathy regulations 2012

The Organon of Medicine, Materia Medica, Repertory syllabus are same for both Main and Subsidiary.

Students must choose one subsidiary subject? – Even though Post graduation means specializing in one subject .

No clear cut demarcation on various specialties.

It seems to be difficult to concentrate on the concerned specialty – for example a Matertia Medica main students if opting Repertory as the subsidiary subject- he has to study the entire Repertory syllabus of the Repertory Main (Specialty) student.

Completely omitted one and half years of Man in Health & Man in Disease of the last year syllabus.

Introduced the same MD Homeopathy Syllabus of 1989 (discarded the same in 1993!!) again in 2012 without any modification or up gradation!

The last year PG syllabus Part – I (Up to 2011) is just like a repetition of BHMS syllabus – re reading Anatomy to Practice of medicine- with less importance to Homoeopathic subjects.

‘Experienced’ beurocrats and members  of  CCH not ready to accept changes as per growth and development in the medical field including teaching because of some unknown reasons, known to them only. They diluted the norms even in the latest regulation for the sake of private colleges. Many of the CCH members have their own Homeopathy colleges. Just observe the standard of  BHMS, MD and PhD run at their institute.   CCH must have good vision, loyalty and Dedication.

It is better to have an apex bod like – BOG- Board of Governors over CCH as in MCI  “To provide quality medical care to all Indians by promoting  excellence in Homeopathic education”.

The Board of Governors with inputs from leading homeopathic teachers and educationists to develop a new structure for Undergraduate and Postgraduate education is the need of the hour.

No recent updates available in CCH website since many years. But we are congratulating the Central Council of Homoeopathy for renovating their website recently after many years.

Let us hope for the best

MCI Proposed regulations 2012 :

Also Read :
Reforming Medical Curriculum in India in Recent Years:
Conflicts of Political, Regulator, Educationist and Professional Natures and Strategies for their Resolution.Rita Sood (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, India) and N. Ananthakrishnan (MGMCRI, Pondicherry, India) Volume 2, Issue 1. Copyright © 2012. Link :

Homeopathic Etymology

Dr Muhammed Rafeeque

Apart from Chemistry and Botany, Dr Hahnemann was also interested in the scientific study of different languages, which really helped him while translating various works. At the age of 22, he mastered different languages like Greek, Latin, English, Italian, Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Spanish and German.

Now the literature of homeopathy is fully translated into English, hence the medium of instruction in homeopathic curriculum is English. However, we should know certain terms used in the original literature by the master and his disciples. It is said that by translating a word, the original meaning may slightly deviate, or the exact expression may change slightly. But the great Hahnemann and some of his followers could translate the words without any errors.

It is always good to know the original words and the source of origin. It also strengthens the historical backing.

Many friends in Ayurveda are facing difficulty because of lack of proper knowledge in Sanskrit. Our literature is fully translated in to English by the stalwarts. Otherwise we would have to study German in the first year of our curriculum. Of course, learning a language is a wonderful experience; above all, it is a part of international integration.

Here are some words used in the literature of Homeopathy:

Latin words

Aude sapare: Dare to be wise.

Cito toto edjento: It was the motto of Asclepiades, which means: speedily safely and agreeably.

Materia pecans: Material cause of the diseases.

Materia medica: Medical material

Novum organum scientiarum: It is the work of Lord Bacon (written in 1620). It means new organ of logical works.

Reine arzneimittellehre: Materia medica pura

Insuratio magma: It is the work of Bacon. It means great instauration.

Fragmenta de veribus medicamentorum positivus:  published by Dr Hahnemann in 1805. It means fragmentary observations relative to the positive powers of medicines.

Similia similibus curantur: It means like cures like (let like be treated by like)

Prima causa morbi: Primary cause of the disease.

Psora: It means itch (also used in Greek)

Repertorium (0r repertire) The word repertory is originated from this word. It means an inventory, a table or a compendium where the information is so arranged that is easy to find.

Rubrica: The word rubric is taken from Rubrica. It means heading, a guiding rule.

Tolle causm: Remove the cause.

Non  inutilis vixi: Not lived in vain. It is the inscription on Hahnemann’s grave.

Vis medicatrix naturae: The healing power of nature.

Organum: Organ or tool.

Greek words

Organon: It was Aristotle who used this word for the first time. It means instrument of work, a method of scientific investigation.

Homoeos: It means similar.

Pathos: It means suffering.

Miasma: It means heavy vaporous exhalations, noxious influences, polluted material, putrid vegetable matter etc.

Psora agria: It is the Greek word for psora.

Psora: Means itch (also used in Latin)

German words

Beruf: This word was used by Hahnemann in the first aphorism of organon. It means mission.

Organon der Rationelien Heilkunde: It was the title given to the first edition of Organon. It means Organon of rational art of healing.

Reine arzneimittellehre: It means pure medicinal teachings. It is the German title for Materia medica pura.

Die chronischen karnleit: Chronic diseases.

Medicamens au globule: It means medicine of the globules. It was the name given to 50 millesimal potency.

Medicamens a la goultte: It means medicines of the drop. It was the name given to Centesimal potency.

Heikunde der erfahrung: Medicine of experience published in 1805.  It is considered as the forerunner of Organon.

Mongrel sects: Means cross breed dogs. This word was used by Hahnemann to criticize those homeopaths who use palliation to avoid looking for the correct remedy(foot note to 149).

Hebrew word

Psorat: It means a groove or fault. Psora is originated from this word.

The above given are a few words related with Homoeopathy. I will be glad to get a few more additions or corrections from the readers.

Dr Muhammed Rafeeque BHMS
Family Homoeopathic Clinic
Kerala, India.

Related links


Award for outstanding teachers – nominations invited for 2012

teachersFor last two years Higher Education Forum had undertaken a unique initiative of felicitating some outstanding teachers from among the members as well as others on the Teachers’ Day, 5th September. In 2010 and 2011, 14 and 20 teachers were felicitated.

Keeping in view the importance of the event, it has been decided to continue the tradition of felicitating a few teachers from the institutions of higher education, who are well respected teachers and have contributed to the society at large, this year also.

We are aware that there are thousands of such teachers and we salute to all of them. But with limited reach and financial strength, it is not possible for us to reach all of them and therefore, our sincere apologies to those who are great teachers but have not come within our scheme of things.

Scheme Outline:

A. Streams: The following are the disciplines from where the teachers would be considered:

1.  Engineering
2.  Graduation & Post-Graduation  (Science & Humanities)
3.  Management (Post-Graduate) from different functions like Finance, Marketing, HRM, IT, etc.
4. Medicine

5. Other unique achievements like young teacher award, teacher teaching some unique courses like entrepreneurship, contribution to CSR, etc. and / or achieved something significant

There is also a special award this time for life time achievement award.

B. Eligibility: The teachers must be involved in teaching in an institution of higher education in any of the areas identified above. Other criteria are as under:

a. Minimum possession of Master’s Degree

b. More than 40 years of age (except young teacher award where the upper age limit is around 35 years)

  1. Around 10 years of teaching experience
  2. Respected by students and peers as a good teacher
  3. Has been involved in mentoring / coaching students outside class room
  4. Has been instrumental in designing / creating / modifying some innovations in teaching pedagogy

g. Has been involved in activities aimed at contributing to community / society at large

h. Been active on the research front

All teachers may not be good at all the fronts and hence an overall view has to be taken while nominating.

The upper age limit is restricted to around 35 years for young teacher award.

C. Who will nominate: Any member can self-nominate himself / herself or any member can nominate any other member or any of the colleagues they would like to nominate as per the criteria mentioned above. The two forms (one form self-nomination and the other from nominating others) are enclosed. The nomination forms may be sent to the email id of the undersigned (

D. Last date of nomination: 30th June, 2012
The HEF will constitute a committee of Jury who will decide the final awardees out of the nominations received. The committee may also look for and consider any candidates who have not applied for the award.

E. Venue of Function: H R College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai

F. Date of the award: 5th September, 2012 (Wednesday)

A K Sen Gupta
Founder and Convener
Higher Education Forum (HEF)
Mob: 98211 28103

Format of self-nomination form :

Format of Nomination from others :

2 month foundation course for MBBS students-can we have one?

Two month foundation course now for MBBS students – can we Homoeopaths have one?

Tips on stress management and better interpersonal ties will now form part of the MBBS curriculum in colleges with the Medical Council of India, for the first time, mandating a foundation course to prepare students for the challenges of medical profession.

Each medical college would be obliged to make arrangements for meetings with parents of students henceforth.

The MCI, has, in the latest Regulations on Graduate Medical Education, 2012, mandated, for the first time, a two month foundation (or bridge) course for every student entering the system which aims at acclimatising students with the challenges of the medical profession and includes elements to make them comfortable in the classroom

The document also states that medicine professors would need to allow students 40 hours of sports and extracurricular activities including yoga for stress management.

The most novel provision in the latest MBBS syllabus document 2012 is the two month foundation course whose aims include, “enhancing the language skills of students, their interpersonal relations, communication and stress management.”

The course, to be offered at the start of the first professional, will orient students to the medical profession, alternate health systems in India and to medical ethics and attitudes. The element of family medicine will also be included in this course which will also talk about the national health priorities.

“The course is to prepare the new MBBS students, fresh from college, to prepare them for the new environment that awaits them in the profession. It will teach them on ethical issues and give the human touch required for doctors-to-be,” Chairman of MCI’s Board of Governors K K Talwar told PTI.

The document describes the foundation course as follows, “There shall be a bridge course termed as a foundation course to orient medical students to the MBBS programme and provide them with requisite knowledge, communication (including electronic), technical and language skills required for the programme.”

The document also includes a full module called professional development and ethics to which 35 hours have been dedicated during the period of MBBS study.

The students will also be periodically assessed as the document states, “Progress of medical students will be documented through structured periodic assessments that will include formative assessment.”

Source :

Let us hope our council – Central Council of Homoeopathy – also start one soon 


Annual Convocation of Dr N T R University of Health Sciences

convocationDr G Srinivasulu

A Report On The 16th Annual Convocation Of Dr.N.T.R.University Of Health Sciences, Andhra Pradesh Held On 2-5-2012 At Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh

Dr.N.T.R.University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, the first medical university in the country has celebrated its 16th Annual Convocation at Tummalapalli Kalakshetram, Vijayawada on   2nd May 2012. The Super Specialty, Post Graduate degrees and the Gold Medals, endowment awards in AYUSH and allopathy courses were given to the meritorious students by the Hon’ble Vice Chancellor Dr.I.V.Rao.

Dr. Bollampally Bhavana, J.S.P.S.Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hyderabad received the Dr.G.L.N. Sastry Gold Medal for highest marks in the M.D. ( Homoeo) examinations. Dr.P.Baby Chandana, Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Kadapa received the Nyapati Gold Medal and Surapaneni Chandramouli Endowment Prize for securing highest marks in the BHMS state wide. Dr.Salveru Priyanka, J.S.P.S.Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hyderabad had received the Prof.Nannegari Ramayya Gold Medal for highest marks in the BHMS examinations (Osmania University region)

Prof.Vishwa Mohan Katoch, Secretary, Department of Health Research and Director-General, Indian Council for Medical Research, Ministry of Health, Govt. of India  was the Chief Guest of the occasion and delivered the convocation address. Delivering the convocation address after being conferred the Doctor of Science by Dr.N.T.R.University of Health Sciences, he appealed to the young doctors to hone their skills and not become dependent on technology to make a diagnosis. He emphasized that doctors should develop diagnostic skills by examining patients without solely depending on the lab reports to treat the diseases.

Dr.Katoch said there was a need to focus on clinical skills and reduce dependence on technology. Technology was not to be shunned, but it should be used to help, he said. Indian doctors whether they belonged to our ancient systems of Ayurveda,Siddha, homoeopathy or modern allopathy were excellent in their clinical skills. However there was general feeling that these skills were being lost. This should not be allowed to happen at any cost, he opined. “When we say that medicine is art and science, art means clinical acumen for diagnosis, medical and surgical management”, he said. He further opined that medicine was a respected profession and students of medicine who do not have clinical skills could not be considered as doctors at all. Those who depend on tests alone to make a diagnosis were mere “ interpreters of printouts” .Dr.Katoch further stated that, the doctors should have ethics and integrity in discharging their duties. He said Andhra Pradesh had been among the progressive states of India and that also reflected the quality of medical education. The credit for this went to Dr.N.T.R. University of Health Sciences.

Health University Vice Chancellor , Prof.I.V.Rao, presenting the annual report, said this year was a milestone in the history of the first health university. The university completed 25 years and had many achievements to its credit. About the developments of the university, he said the state government sanctioned Rs.30 crores for construction of a three storied block required for conducting counseling for admission into various courses.

Dr.M.Gopal Krishna, Principal, J.S.P.S.Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hyderabad and Dean, Faculty of Homoeopathy, Dr.N.T.R. University of Health Sciences has administered the oath to the recipients of undergraduate and post graduate degree holders on this occasion.

Toppers of M.D. ( Homoeo) and BHMS examinations Dr.Bhavana, Hyderabad Dr.Baby Chandana,Kadapa and Dr.Pryanaka, Hyderabad expressed their gratitude to their sponsorers of medals and endowment prizes and conveyed their heartfelt thanks to their teachers for giving best of education and promised to work for the cause of homoeopathy. They advised their juniors to work hard and said that all the good work will be rewarded suitably in their life. They expressed their happiness over receiving the prestigious medals and awards from the Vice Chancellor during the glittering convocation ceremony.

Dr.T.Venugopal Rao, Registrar of the University stated that the digital library and the consortium of libraries ( is highly useful for all the post graduates and the research scholars  and a peer reviewed journal is being published by the University and it can be accessed He appealed to all the postgraduates of all systems of medicine to work diligently and publish qualitative papers in the university journals.

Dr.G.L.N.Sastry, President of Honour, Indian Institute of Homoeopathic Physicians, an octogenarian homoeopath donated one lakh rupees towards establishing the first gold medal in the post graduate courses in homoeopathy in the university. He complimented the recipient of the medal Dr.Bhavana on this occasion. Dr.Sastry stated that he has started a charitable trust viz., S.K.S.Trust, which is focusing on School Health programs through homoeopathy. He said the trust in collaboration with the Satya Sai Seva Organization is covering 10,000 children with homoeopathic health care. He appealed to the young doctors to spare some time for helping the poor, needy and downtrodden people through homoeopathy. Mrs.Shyamala and Mrs.Sandhya from S.K.S.Trust attended the function.

The former vice Chancellors, Director of Medical Education all deans of AYUSH and allopahty, Rector, Controller of Examinations and university Officials attended the function. Dr.S.Sanjeevi Rao, Member of the Executive Council proposed the vote of thanks.

Asst.Professor, J.S.P.S.Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hyderabad
Mob: 9440203747


AYUSH 2011 – final report by Planning & Evaluation Cell

JournalsPlanning and Evaluation cell of the department of AYUSH published 23rd issue of AYUSH 2011 this month. This publication provides reliable and authenticated data/statistics and covers various aspects of AYUSH infrastructural statistics. The data contained in the publication has been collected from various sources and agencies across India

Infrastructural facilities
The present chapter provides an overview of the Infrastructural Facilities in respect of AYUSH  System of medicines in India. It contains various indicators relating to healthcare delivery system and mechanism under the AYUSH system in India. These health structure indicators include educational infrastructure as well as service infrastructure. The database provided here will definitely serve as an authentic source of information for researchers, planners etc. via providing them a base for planning and policy formulation regarding AYUSH.

The Department of AYUSH is collecting the data on various aspects of AYUSH including infrastructural facilities available in India from various sources on annual basis. Since creation of a separate  epartment of AYUSH, a positive impact has been observed in growth of almost all AYUSH infrastructural facilities due to Departmental investment and focus on overall development of these systems since 8th plan onwards. During the successive plan periods, the departmental investment had shown an increasing annual growth rate. Financial investment of the department of AYUSH was Rs. 33.04 Crore in 1997-98, which has increased to Rs. 848.44 crore in 2010-11, showing an annual growth rate of 26.2% since 9th Plan onwards.

AYUSH Hospitals:
There were 3193 AYUSH hospitals in the country as on  1.4.2011. Maximum number of hospitals (2420) is Ayurveda hospitals, whereas, 258, 269, 23 and  215 hospitals pertain to Unani, Siddha, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy systems respectively.

There are only 6 Yoga hospitals and two Sowa-Rigpa (Amchi) hospitals in  India. On an average, AYUSH  hospitals have grown at the rate of 1.0% per annum since 1993.

Ayurveda hospitals registered a growth of 0.8% per annum, whereas, average annual growth rates of 2.1%, 4.8%, and 0.4% have been registered in the hospitals under  Unani, Siddha, Yoga and Naturopathy systems respectively.  On an average, Homoeopathy hospitals have declined by 1.6% per annum during 1993-2011. Yoga hospital have also declined by 1.5 % per annum during 2001-2011.

Bed Strength of AYUSH Hospitals:
There were 56842 beds under AYUSH hospitals in the country as on 1.4.2011.

Maximum number of beds (42271) has been reported in Ayurveda hospitals, whereas, 3684, 2360, 37, 659, 7799 and 32 beds pertain to Unani, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy,  Homoeopathy and Sowa-Rigpa (Amchi) hospitals respectively. On an average, beds of AYUSH hospitals have  grown at the rate of 2.4% per annum since 1993. Average annual growth rates of 2.8%, 0.7%, 2.9%, 0.8% and 1.2% have been registered in the bed strengths of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, , Homoeopathy and Sowa-Rigpa (Amchi) respectively during 1993-2011, whereas, bed strength of Yoga and Naturopathy hospitals have declined by 15.6% and 1.5% per annum respectively.

AYUSH Dispensaries:
 As on 1.4.2011, 24280 AYUSH dispensaries existed in the country. Maximum number of dispensaries (15017) have been recorded in Ayurveda system of medicine, whereas, 1021,  821, 140, 97, 7049 and 135 are Unani, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, Homoeopathy and SowaRigpa (Amchi) dispensaries respectively.

On an average, AYUSH dispensaries have increased at the rate of 0.8% per annum during 1993-2011. Ayurveda dispensaries registered a growth of 0.6% per annum  only, whereas, annual growth rates of 0.3%, 5.4%, 0.6% and 4.3%  have been registered in Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy and Sowa-Rigpa (Amchi) dispensaries respectively during the period  1993-2011. Average annual growth rate of 5.6% have been registered for Naturopathy dispensaries whereas Yoga dispensaries have by 8.0% per annum during 2001-2011.

Registered Practitioners under AYUSH Systems:
Human resource indicators cover the details  of AYUSH practitioners in the country.

These indicators provide an overview of the availability of ISM & Homoeopathy practitioners, and also give an idea of regional distribution and disparities.

There were 712121 AYUSH registered practitioners through out the country as reported by State Boards/Councils of Indian Systems of Medicine and  Homoeopathy (ISM&H)  as on 1.4.2011. Maximum 429246 practitioners have been registered under Ayurveda System, whereas, 224279 practitioners are under Homoeopathy System.  Only, 49431, 7568 and 1597 practitioners have been registered under Unani, Siddha and Naturopathy systems respectively. On an average, registered practitioners under AYUSH systems have grown at the rate of 1.3% per annum during 1993-2011. The number of Ayurveda registered practitioners observed a growth of 1.1% per annum only, whereas, average annual growth rates of 1.2%  and 1.8% has been registered in Unani and  Homoeopathy practitioners respectively during 1993-2011. However, on an average, the number of registered practitioners of Naturopathy has increased by 11.5% per annum during the period 1988- 2011. Similarly, there is 2.7% average annual growth rate of Siddha practitioners during the period 2004-2011.

Under Graduate Colleges under AYUSH Systems:
A considerable  increase in AYUSH colleges/Teaching institutions has been observed during 1993-2011.  There were 504 AYUSH under Graduate Colleges with admission  capacities for 25376 students through out the country as on 1.4.2011.

Maximum 260 Under Graduate Colleges with admission capacities for 9927 students belonged to Ayurveda, whereas, 183 Under Graduate Colleges with admission capacities for 12658 students were under Homoeopathy system. Only, 40, 7 and 14 Under Graduate Colleges with admission capacities for 1791, 350 and 650 students belonged to Unani, Siddha and Naturopathy systems respectively. On an average, Under Graduate colleges under AYUSH Systems have grown at the rate 3.4% per annum during the last four Five Year Plans.

Ayurveda Under Graduate colleges registered the growth of 4.7% per annum, whereas, average annual growth rates of 2.2%, 7.2%, 8.9% and 2.8% were registered for the Unani, Siddha,  Naturopathy and Homoeopathy Under Graduate colleges respectively during 1993-2011. Similarly, on an average, admission capacities of Under Graduate colleges under AYUSH systems have grown at the rate 5.2% per annum, while, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy Under Graduate colleges have been grown by 3.8%, 4.0%, 4.6%, 13.2% and 6.5% respectively during 1993-2011.

Post Graduate Colleges under AYUSH Systems:
Post-Graduate education comprises a significant component of teaching institutions under various systems of AYUSH.  There were 117 AYUSH Post  Graduate Colleges with admission capacities for 2424 students (including six exclusive Post Graduate colleges with their admission capacities for 216 students) were in existence in the country  as on 1.4.2011. Maximum 67 Post Graduate colleges with their admission capacities for 1293 students belong to Ayurveda system,  whereas, 41 Post Graduate colleges with their admission capacities for 905 students were under Homoeopathy system. Only, 6 and 3 Post Graduate Colleges with their admission capacities for 100 and 126 students belonged to Unani and Siddha systems respectively. On an average, the number of Post Graduate Colleges under AYUSH systems has grown at the rate 5.4% per annum and their admission capacities have grown by 8.2% per annum during 1993-2011. The average annual growth rates of 4.2%, 5.2%, 3.9% and 8.5% have been registered in the strengths of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy Post Graduate colleges, whereas, their admission capacities have been grown by 6.0%, 2.5%, 8% and 17.6% annually respectively during 1993-2011.

Drug Manufacturing Units under AYUSH Systems:
There were 8896 manufacturing units existing in the country as on 1.4.2011, engaged in manufacturing the AYUSH drugs. Maximum 7699 manufacturing units were engaged in manufacturing of Ayurveda drugs, whereas, 437, 346 and 414 manufacturing units were involved in manufacturing of Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy drugs respectively. A marginal growth trend of 0.01% per annum was (g) Drug Manufacturing Units under AYUSH Systems:

There were 8896 manufacturing units existing in the country as on 1.4.2011, engaged in manufacturing the AYUSH drugs. Maximum 7699 manufacturing units were engaged in manufacturing of Ayurveda drugs, whereas, 437, 346 and 414 manufacturing units were involved in manufacturing of Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy drugs respectively. A marginal growth trend of 0.01% per annum was (g) Drug Manufacturing Units under AYUSH Systems:

There were 8896 manufacturing units existing in the country as on 1.4.2011, engaged in manufacturing the AYUSH drugs. Maximum 7699 manufacturing units were  engaged in manufacturing of Ayurveda drugs, whereas, 437, 346 and 414 manufacturing units were involved in manufacturing of Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy  drugs respectively. A marginal growth trend of 0.01% per annum was (g) Drug anufacturing Units under AYUSH Systems:

Medical Education
The Central Council of Indian medicine (CCIM) is the statutory body constituted under the ‘Indian Medicine Central Council Act 1970’ which lays down the standards of medical education in Ayurved, Siddha and Unani through its various regulations. Similarly, Homoeopathy medical education is being regulated by Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH) through its various regulations under the ‘Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. For medical education in Yoga & Naturopathy, no such governing body exists.

Under Graduate  Under Graduate Education:
 A separate Department for Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy was established in 1995. Since then, there has been a substantial increase in the number of AYUSH colleges in the country. There were 504 colleges conducting undergraduate AYUSH education with an admission capacity of 25376 students in India as on 1.4.2011.

Out of which, 29.7% of the total colleges with 33.8% intake capacity belong to Government Sector. About 51.6% of the colleges with 39.1% admission capacity were of Ayurveda whereas about 36.3% of the colleges with 49.2% admission capacity belong to Homoeopathy. Only 12.1% of the colleges with 11.1% admission capacity pertain to Unani, Siddha and Naturopathy systems of medicine.

 As on 01.04.2011, only 24 states/ UTs were imparting medical education at under graduate level. The State of Maharashtra had a lead over other states for having the maximum number of AYUSH colleges  (23.0%), and also having maximum number of Ayurveda (24.2%) and Homoeopathy (25.7%) colleges in the country. The states of Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu had the maximum number of Unani (27.5%) and Naturopathy (28.6%) colleges respectively. As Siddha system of medicine is widely practiced in the state of Tamil Nadu, 85.7% of the Siddha colleges hail from this State.

It has been observed that there is lack of AYUSH colleges in the NorthEastern States and the Union Territories. There were no AYUSH college in the states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland,  Sikkim, and Tripura and in the Union territories of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry as on 1.4.2011. Apart from this, there were no Ayurvedic college in the state of Arunachal Pradesh and no Homoeopathic Graduate College in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Colleges imparting Unani medical education existed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal only. Siddha colleges existed in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu only. Medical education in Naturopathy was being imparted in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Average annual growth rate of 3.8% and 5.5% were observed in AYUSH colleges imparting under graduate courses and their admission capacity respectively during 1992-2011. Maximum of 13.8% annual  growth was observed in 1993-94 in AYUSH colleges while maximum of 26% annual growth was observed in admission capacity of total colleges in 2000. Average annual growth rates of 4.7%, 2.3%, 6.8%, 2.9% and 8.4% had been attained in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha,  Homoeopathy and Naturopathy colleges respectively  during 1992-2011, while the admission capacities under these systems had grown annually by 4.5%, 4.0%,4.6%, 6.5% and 12.4% respectively. The maximum annual growth rates of 21.1%, 19.4%, 30.4% and 66.7% were realized in the number of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani, Homoeopathy and Naturopathy in 1992-93, 1999-2000, 1993-94 and 1997-98 respectively. Siddha colleges augmented 2.1 times in the year 2003 over 2001. Maximum annual growth rates of 20.4%, 25.3%,  60% and 41.6% were realized in the admission  capacities of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy in 2003, 1996, 2002 and 2000  respectively. Admission capacity of Naturopathy colleges increased 1.7 times in 2011 over 2010.   Over the period 1992 to 2011, admission capacity had increased significantly (more than one and half times) with an average admission capacity of 37.4 per college in 1992, it  had gone up to 50.3 per College in 2011. Average admission capacity for Ayurveda Colleges had decreased from 39.6 in 1992 to 38.2 per college in 2011. However, intake capacity of Unani Colleges, has gone up from 32.5 in 1992 to 44.8 in 2011. Similarly, the average admission capacities of Homoeopathy and Naturopathy Colleges had increased from 36 and 23.3 in 1992 to 69.2 and 46.4 in 2011 respectively. However, the average admission capacity of Siddha Colleges had gone down from 75 in 1992 to 50 in 2011. The maximum intake capacity  of 56.9 per AYUSH College was realised during the year 2008. The maximum intake capacities of Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy colleges was observed in 2008, whereas, the maximum intake capacities of 77.5 per Siddha college and 46.4 per Naturopathy college were observed during the periods 1993-1997 and 2011 respectively.

States and Union territories having higher (greater than or equal to 60 students) average admission capacities for all the AYUSH colleges in 2011 were  Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra, whereas, states  with low (less than 40 students) average admission capacities in 2011 were Orissa, Punjab,Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Chandigarh. The state of Jammu & Kashmir had the maximum average  admission capacity of 90 students per College and Bihar had minimum average admission capacity of 12.7students per college in Ayurveda in 2011. The State of Andhra Pradesh had the maximum average admission capacity of 62 students per Unani College, and Rajasthan had the lowest average admission capacity of 20 students per Unani College in 2011. Maximum intake capacity of 95.3 students per College was observed in the State of Gujarat under Homoeopathy, whereas the lowest of 32.5 students per College was registered in Orissa. The states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala had the same intake capacity of 50 students per college under (b) Post Graduate Courses under AYUSH systems:

Since the creation of a separate Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy in 1995, Post Graduate education had been introduced in a number of  existing AYUSH colleges. As on 01.04.2011, there were 117 colleges with admission capacity of 2424 students imparting post graduate education in India. Out of which, 29.7% colleges with 33.8% admission capacity pertain to Government Sector. 55.8% of total post graduate colleges with 53.3% of total admission capacity were of Ayurveda whereas 35.1  % colleges with 37.7% of admission capacity belonged to Homoeopathy. Only 6.3% of the post graduate colleges with 6.4% admission capacity belonged to other systems of AYUSH.

Out of all medical colleges imparting post graduate AYUSH education, six colleges with admission capacity of 216 students were exclusively post graduate institutions. One exclusive post graduate college each of Unani and Siddha systems with admission capacities of  38 and 46 existed in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu respectively, whereas, two exclusive post graduate Ayurveda college each with admissioncapacities of 50 and 10  existed in the states of Gujarat and West Bengal. One exclusive post graduateHomoeopathy College each with admission capacities of 36 and 36 were in the states of Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh respectively.

There was a surge in demand for post graduate education in AYUSH systems and to meet it, the facility of getting medical education at post graduate level is available in 18 states.

Maharashtra had maximum number of AYUSH colleges (36%), it had also maximum numbers of Ayurveda (36.9%) and Homoeopathy (35.9%) postgraduate  colleges, whereas Uttar Pradesh had maximum number of Unani (40%) colleges. Neither the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Haryana, Jharkhand, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura nor any of the union territories of India except NCT of Delhi had a single postgraduate AYUSH college. Apart from these, the state of Tamil Nadu had no Ayurveda Postgraduate college and the states of Assam, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand had no Homoeopathy college. The colleges imparting Unani medical education existed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh only. Postgraduate education in Siddha existed in the State of Tamil Nadu only.

Average annual growth rate of 5.4% was registered in 2011 over 1993 in post graduate AYUSH colleges and admission capacity had grown 8.2%. Average annual growth rates of 4.2%, 5.2% and 3.9% had been attained in the number of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha respectively during the period 1993 to 2011. However, within the same period, admission capacities under Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha had grown annually by 6.0%, 2.5% and 8% respectively. Average annual growth rates of Homoeopathy Colleges and their admission capacities had been observed as 8.5% and 17.6% respectively during the period 1993 to  2011. The maximum of 45.5%, 66.7%, 100% and 50% annual growths had been realized in the number of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy in 2000, 2001, 2000 and 2000 respectively. Maximum annual growth rates of 23.1% and 37.5% were realized in the admission capacities of Ayurveda and Unani colleges in the years 2000 and 1994 respectively. Admission capacities increased by 3 times in case of Siddha in the year 2000 and more than 1.5 and 2.5 times in case of Homoeopathy colleges in the year 2000  and 2002 respectively over their previous years.

Over the period 1992 to 2011, average admission capacity has increased significantly (about 1.5  times), with an average admission capacity of 14.5 per college in 1992, it had gone up to 19.9 per college in 2011. An increasing trend had been observed in the admission capacity of Ayurveda, as average admission  capacity for Ayurveda colleges had increased from 14.2 in 1992 to 19.0 per college in 2011. However, the  intake capacity of Homoeopathy colleges had grown at a faster rate during the period 1993-2011, which had  been up from 5.0 in 1993 to 21.4 in 2011. Similarly, the intake capacity of Siddha colleges had been up from 20 in 1992 to 40 per college in 2011. However, in case of Unani system, the average admission capacities  had gone down from 16 in 1992 to 9.5 in 2005, then increased to 12.4 in 2011. The maximum intake capacity of 22.5 per AYUSH College was realized in 2010. The maximum intake capacities of 17.3 per Ayurveda college, 20 per Unani college, 45 per Siddha college and 33.5 per Homoeopathy college were realised during 2011, 1993, 2002-2004 and 2005 respectively.

As on 01.04.2011, States of Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Rajasthan were having higher (more than 25) average admission capacities, whereas, states of Bihar (8) and Delhi (6) were having low(less than 10) average admission capacities. Rajasthan had maximum average admission capacity of 91 students per college in Ayurveda, while Delhi had minimum average admission capacity of 6 students per college. Maximum intake capacity of 50 students per college had been observed in the state of Bihar, whereas, minimum of 4 students in Delhi under Homoeopathy.  Andhra Pradesh had maximum intake capacity of 34 students per college under Unani and Uttar Pradesh had minimum of 6 students per Unani College. Tamilnadu had intake capacity of 40 students per college under Siddha.

Licensed Pharmacies
During the recent past, inclination of populace towards AYUSH System of medicine has been observed. To meet the increasing demand of AYUSH medicines, and to provide AYUSH medicines of reasonably good quality, there is a need to have licensed pharmacies for AYUSH medicines with good manufacturing practices. Prior to 2007, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was mandatory for the Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani (ASU) drug manufacturing units only. It was also made mandatory for Homoeopathy in 2007.

 As on 1.4.2011, there were 8896 AYUSH drug manufacturing units (licensed pharmacies) in the country. Out  of these, 99.6% of the licensed  pharmacies were controlled by nongovernment bodies, and only 0.4% licensed pharmacies were in Government sector. System-wise distribution of these units were quite uneven as 86.5%  licensed pharmacies belonged to Ayurveda, whereas, 4.9%, 3.9% and 4.7% were under Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy systems respectively.

There were 28 states and union  territories of the country which have AYUSH licensed pharmacies as on 1.4.2011. No AYUSH drug  manufacturing unit have been reported in states of  Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and in Union Territories of Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. Uttar Pradesh has the Maximum number 2069 of AYUSH licensed pharmacies. The states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh each were  having more than 5% of AYUSH licensed pharmacies. Maximum number of Ayurveda and Unani pharmacies, viz., 1796 and 237  respectively are existed in the Uttar Pradesh. Licensed pharmacies under Siddha systems existed in the states of Tamil Nadu 332 Puducherry 10 and Kerala 4 only. A majority of Homoeopathy licensed pharmacies 25.36% existed in the state of West Bengal.

The States/ UTs of Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram,Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep reported to have no licensed pharmacy under any AYUSH system.

Besides, there was no Ayurveda licensed pharmacy in Nagaland, and no Homoeopathy licensed pharmacy in Chhattisgarh, Goa, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tripura, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu. Unani licensed pharmacies existed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,  Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.

Except Meghalaya and seven states mentioned above which had no AYUSH pharmacy, rest of the states have pharmacies with Good Manufacturing Practices. Out of all drug manufacturing  units, GMP-compliant units comprised 66.8% of the total drug manufacturing units, and within the total GMP-compliant units, 92.0% were Ayurveda drug manufacturing units and only 3.%, 3.5%  and 1.5% were Homoeopathy, Unani and Siddha drug manufacturing units respectively. The states/UTs having centpercent GMP-compliant drug manufacturing units were Delhi, Goa,  Nagaland, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jammu & Kashmir, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu.

The other states having higher (greater than 75%) proportion of GMP-compliant units were Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, whereas, the states / union territories  having less than 25% GMP-compliance were Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, There had been a significant  system-wise variation in the proportion of GMP-compliant units, as there were 71.0%, 47.1%, 25.4%  and 43.7% GMP-compliant drug manufacturing units under Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and  Homoeopathy systems respectively.

The States/ UTs of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu and Puducherry were having cent-percent GMPcompliant drug manufacturing units under Ayurveda system. Other states which have higher (greater than 75%) proportion of GMP-compliant units under Ayurveda were Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Punjab, Rajasthan and West Bengal.  All  Unani drug manufacturing units were GMPcompliant in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, and West Bengal. All Siddha drug manufacturing units were GMP-compliant  in the states of Kerala and Pudducherry, whereas, only 22.31% were GMP-compliant in the state of Tamilnadu.

Foreign Trade
AYUSH medicaments, medicinal plants and their by-products constitute an important part of the Indian Foreign Trade. This section on AYUSH related foreign trade provides a brief overview of  India’s foreign trade in respect of these AYUSH related products. A continuous growth in Export over Import as related to AYUSH Products has been observed during last five years that signify the  continuous increasing interest in AYUSH system of medicines outside the boundary of the territory.

Prior to 2003-04, for the purpose of foreign trade, AYUSH medicants and medicaments were categorized in two heads i.e., “AYURVEDIC & UNANI MEDICINES” and “HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE” only. However, 2003-04 onwards, medicants and medicaments of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathic and Bio-chemic systems have been differentiated and the import-export data related to foreign trade in respect of all these items is being recorded separately.

During the last four Plan periods, Total Trade of AYUSH related items had increased from Rs. 580.98 crore in 1995-96 to Rs. 1713.33 crore in 2010-11.  The export of AYUSH products has decreased from 2887.01 Crores in 2009-10 to 2099.00 Crores in 2010-11, showing an annual growth rate of -27% whereas the import of AYUSH products has increased by  11% annually, from 346.22 Crores in 2009-10 to 385.67 Crores in 2010-11. Thus, during this period the total trade of AYUSH products has decreased substantially from 3233.24 Crores in 2009-10 to  2484.67 Crores in 2010-11,  Since 2003-04, a continuous growing trend has been observed in India’s foreign trade with respect to  AYUSH related Items in  respect of export, import upto  2009-10. During 2010-11, declining trend has been observed in respect of export,  and Total Trade of AYUSH related Items whereas, Import has been increased.  During 2010-11, percentage share of AYUSH products in the total trade of 219India was 0.09%. Similarly, AYUSH products shared 0.18% of Export and 0.02% of Import of India. All India Balance of Trade have always been negative since the ninth plan period 1996-97, while AYUSH related products always shown a positive balance of Trade, indicating that AYUSH products are having significant role in foreign trade of the country.

Download full report :

CDC estimates 1 in 88 children in USA with autism

CDC estimates 1 in 88 children in United States has been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder

CDC data help communities better serve these children

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 88 children in the United States has been identified as having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a new study released today that looked at data from 14 communities.  Autism spectrum disorders are almost five times more common among boys than girls – with 1 in 54 boys identified.

The number of children identified with ASDs ranged from 1 in 210 children in Alabama to 1 in 47 children in Utah.  The largest increases were among Hispanic and black children.

The report, Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008, provides autism prevalence estimates from 14 areas. It was published today in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

“This information paints a picture of the magnitude of the condition across our country and helps us understand how communities identify children with autism,” said Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Kathleen Sebelius.  “That is why HHS and our entire administration has been working hard to improve the lives of people living with autism spectrum disorders and their families by improving research, support, and services.”

“One thing the data tells us with certainty – there are more children and families that need help,” said CDC Director Thomas Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “We must continue to track autism spectrum disorders because this is the information communities need to guide improvements in services to help children.”

The results of CDC’s study highlight the importance of the Obama administration’s efforts to address the needs of people with ASDs, including the work of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The IACC’s charge is to facilitate ASD research, screening, intervention, and education.  As part of this effort, the National Institutes of Health has invested in research to identify possible risk factors and effective therapies for people with ASDs.

Study results from the 2008 surveillance year show 11.3 per 1,000 8-year-old children have been identified as having an ASD.  This marks a 23 percent increase since the last report in 2009.  Some of this increase is due to the way children are identified, diagnosed and served in their communities, although exactly how much is due to these factors is unknown.  “To understand more, we need to keep accelerating our research into risk factors and causes of autism spectrum disorders,” said Coleen Boyle, Ph.D., M.S.Hyg., director of CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.

The study also shows more children are being diagnosed by age 3, an increase from 12 percent for children born in 1994 to 18 percent for children born in 2000. “Unfortunately, 40 percent of the children in this study aren’t getting a diagnosis until after age 4. We are working hard to change that,” said Boyle.

The most important thing for parents to do is to act quickly whenever there is a concern about a child’s development.

  • Talk to your child’s doctor about your concerns.
  • Call your local early intervention program or school system for an assessment.
  • Remember you do not need a diagnosis to access services for your child.

To learn more about this study, visit

Disruptive innovation educational model for tech universities

Dr P H Waghodekar 

This article presents the 21st Century Challenges before the Higher Education, in general and Technical and Management Education; in particular. The major issues faced by this sector like proliferation, affordable, access, equity and equality, quality education, etc., are presented. The features of sustaining and disrupting innovation models and their impact on industry world are highlighted. Traditional universities and business models like solution-shops, value-added processing and facilitated users networks are considered. The proposed recommendations for policy makers suggested by Christensen et al are listed. It has been argued that disrupting innovation model can afford low-cost education with quality as perceived by students and other stakeholders in terms of say demonstration of skills and knowledge acquisition rather than merely obtaining a paper degree certificate. The emphasis is not on building of buildings but on building of minds. A few suggestions like use of lean philosophy, reduction in teaching work-load, revising faculty qualifications, implementing process and performance management, in-service industrial training, superannuating age, etc., are made. It is believed that the article will be of interest, thought provoking and disrupting the status quo of Indian traditional universities.

1.0  Introduction
The Honorable Prime Minister of India on the eve of the National Education Day, i.e. on 11th November 2011 addresses the nation as “Education is a magic wand that can help us meet any challenge.  Education is necessary not only because it can get us jobs or status in society.  Education is essential as it enables us to build a new world.  It is magical because it helps us rediscover ourselves.  I am confident that education will help you scale new heights”.

Right from the time immemorial, education is considered as a key to the economic growth, prosperity of an individual and community as a whole. Life in the  21st  century, with world and Indian population crossing over 700 b and 120 b,  in an interconnected, globalized world , essentially demands work-force with such skills as critical-thinking and a sense of international mindedness. It is estimated that by 2020, India will need 500m technically competent workforce and the world will face a shortage of such a workforce to the tune of 45-60m. Thus, the main challenge posed before the Education Sector is to churn out competent Human Capital professionals to cope up with the 21st Century challenges. The world has completed one decade of the 21st Century and heading speedily towards global economy. The rules of the game have totally changed inviting new strategies and risk-full venture to be competitive in such an agile environment.  In case of industrial houses, it has been proved and time again that sustaining innovation hardly brings out desired outcomes, competitiveness, prosperity and good market share.  And therefore disruptive innovating models are being adopted by industry for not only survival alone but for prosperity and growth as well.

However, instead of striving for world class education, India is facing several challenges. Hardly 7% student-population goes to Higher Education, GER of India is hardly 12.5% compared to 50% of advance countries, the quality of education at all levels- UG, PG and doctoral- is deteriorating day by day, 15% employability of graduates [1-4], premier institutes churning out 20% quality students (Narayan Murthy’s speech in New York, 3rd Oct 2011), pathetic research quality [5-10], inadequate number of universities, affordability, lack of inclusion, not a single Indian institute/university appear within 300 rank of the world top universities [11], the need for alignment of primary-secondary-tertiary education sectors, etc [12]. Government have already taken some initiatives like privatization of professional education, improving budget for education, establishment of number of  institutes/universities of national importance, more provisions planned during 11th five Year Plan [13], Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Right to Education, Foreign University Bill, establishment of State wise Technological Universities [1], fast emergence of State Universities, etc.

Nevertheless, it appears to be a Herculean task to be competitive internationally in Higher Education sector as India is far behind even compared to Asian countries like China, Japan and Asian Tigers.  The major issues faced by the Indian education system are presented in the next Section.

2.0  The major issues  before Indian HE
The major issues faced by the Technical and Management education system in India can be summarized as given below:

  1. How to go for proliferation improving enrolment?
  2. How to churn out ‘thinkers’ through the system rather than examination centered students?
  3. How to improve quality of education and employability of graduates?
  4. How to make education cost effective and affordable to masses?
  5. How to tackle the principles like inclusive, equity and equality?
  6. How to make up shortage of faculty and improve their quality?
  7. How to go about for effective Human Capital Management?
  8. How to go about fund raising and resource generation?

Though privatization of education in mid-90s has helped unprecedented expansion of education in terms of number of institutes and students [1-3], this has raised several issues like fees structure, etc., and sometimes the Supreme Court of India had to intervene to sort out issues. Since the last 5-7 years, it has been argued that the conventional universities are overburdened and hardly do justice to technical and management education. Two ways are worked out: establishment of State Universities and emergence of state wise Technological Universities with anticipation that some of the issues listed in this Section can amicably be resolved [1], as presented in the next Section, by deploying either sustaining or disrupting innovation models.

3.0  Sustaining and disruptive innovation models [14]
World over education policy is shifting from how to enable more students to afford higher education to how can we make a quality education affordable. No Child Left Behind policy of US, the disruptive innovation of online education and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan of India are some of the initiatives in this direction. The challenge is to redefine the meaning of quality in HE and make a quality education affordable. Therefore, traditional universities including Technological or State universities are subjected to seismic shift in how society, broadly speaking, has judged high quality,  moving away from a focus on research and knowledge  creation and instead moving towards a focus on learning and knowledge proliferation.

A study of the disk drive industry shows that the leading companies are unable to sustain their leadership from one generation to the next (see Table 1 and Fig. 1) [14]. The outcome of this study is the theory of disruptive innovation. Disruption is the casual mechanism behind this phenomenon and Joseph Schumpeter, the great economics, terms this ‘creative destruction’.

Table 1: Differences in the economic models for each stage of disruption [14].

Generation of computer Characteristic unit volumes produced per year Gross margins   to cover overhead costs Typical sales price
Mai n-frames Thousands 60% $2,000,000
Minicomputers Tens of thousands 45% $200,000
Desk top computers Millions 30% $2,000
Notebook computers Tens of millions 15% $1,000
Smart-phones Hundreds of millions 15-40% $300

Thus, disruption is the process by which Toyota overtook General Motors, Cisco felled Lucent and Nortel, Wal-Mart and Target toppled the departmental stores, and Apple seized music distribution.  Disruptively attacking world markets is the engine that drove, for instance, Japan economic miracle from 1960 to 1990, the economic transformation of Korea, Taiwan and Singapore from 1980 to 2000 and ongoing economic growth of China and India.  Fig. 3 presents the theory of disruptive innovation relating customer level of wealth and skill. A very small percentage of customers fall in the category having both high wealth and skill. Organizations serving such customers can maintain their leadership by adopting sustaining innovation meant either through incremental or breakthrough types of technologies. However, one can serve the remaining customers having low wealth and skill through disruptive innovation making services/products accessible at affordable prices. In other words disruption is the process by which product/services become affordable and accessible to those lying in the outermost circle, reaching to the last man in the society. Disruptive innovation, therefore, does not necessarily represent a radical or breakthrough in the process, rather it replaces the original complicated expensive product/services with something different that is so much affordable and simple that a new population of customers in the next larger circle now has enough money and skills to buy and readily use the product/services (see Fig. 3).  Why are the odds of success at the two types of innovation? It is the pursuit of profit and prestige. In case of not-for-profit organizations, the ambition to do more and have a bigger footprint- an ambition driven both by administration and often alumina in case of education- precipitates precisely the same behavior as profit maximization in the for-profit world [14].

Depending upon the mode of functioning; an institute/university can be considered falling in one or more of the generic business models: solution-shops, value-adding process businesses (VAP) and facilitated user networks. Physical, organizational and information navigation are the essential elements of any business model that needs proper integration for organization’s effective-efficient-economic functioning[3].University faculty research is a shop-like activity.

Solution-shops tend to be a fee-for-service model. VAP does its business in relatively repetitive ways so that the capability to deliver value tends to be embedded more in processes and equipment rather than in intuitive expertise of people as seen in solution-shops. VAP charges the customers for the output of their work, not their inputs to it. Facilitated user network permits participants exchange of things with each other. The revenue model for this network is fee for membership, or fees for use. Today due to internet many of the university activities are switching over from solution-shops and VAP to facilitated users networks among students and faculty [14].

Traditional universities are organized into departments like a functional/job-shop plant layout.  A few universities can compute ‘direct labor content’ but hardly ‘burden rate’. It is estimated that in conventional universities overhead burden rate is in between 4 and 5, i.e., five rupees on overhead for every rupee spent in teaching, assessment and research. Traditional universities trying to emulate the prestige of Harvard or IITs or IIIMs in India are structured to optimize the ‘solution-shop’ activities of their faculty and VAP activities of teaching students are sub-optimally force-fit into this structure. Low cost- amount spent per student that is different from low-tuition or low-price-universities are structured like VAP rather than ‘solution-shops’, thereby optimizing flow of students through university. The cost advantage of disruptive low-cost universities is found to be more than 40% though they charge the same tuition fees charged by traditional universities. Some may disparage the quality of education offered by this low-cost business but the following counter-arguments will clear the cloudy sky [14]:

  1. The definition of quality depends upon the consumer’s perspective, e.g., in traditional universities little research is done, but students define quality in terms of convenience and cost including opportunity costs.
  2.  The job that students hire their universities to do, e.g., out-of-home transition to independent adulthood,  learning and receiving degree,  getting better employment, etc.
  3. Online learning technologies are adopted by low cost-universities.

Obviously, leaders of universities and policy makers need to evolve more permanent solutions rather than just relying upon such means as increased fundraising or increased tuition fees. The evolution of university is best managed at the corporate level rather than the business unit level as units can hardly be organized to evolve on their own. One, therefore, has to address the questions like:

  1. Is the traditional universities’ business model sustainable?  Such universities are considered historically as non-disruptable that have adopted sustaining innovation models.
  2.  Whether universities primary stewardship is to facilitate the best possible HE and training for the people in their states or whether they are appointed to be caretakers of the specific university that have historically provided HE? The leaders are appointed to serve the people rather than simply acting as custodians of universities. The low-cost disruptive universities need public-private partnership that foster new models of HE in autonomous business units different from the existing universities/institutes [14].

Evolve and encourage a campaign for competency-based next-generation learning models. A student progresses when s/he demonstrates mastery of a set of skills or of knowledge rather than completing credits and appearing examinations. Many of the conventional ways of measuring education  do not apply to disruptive innovation because they focus on inputs like seat time, rupees spent/student (thereby rewarding those institutes that cost more), and faculty-student ratio. Online learning, for instance, offers advantage of the inherent time variable-learning constant nature of the medium.  Naturally one has to move beyond measuring degree attainment as a degree is an artificial measurement in and of itself.

Accreditation plays a significant role today that is seen as a stamp of quality but the process of accreditation needs to be revamped [15]. Brand name, competition, benchmarking and standardization are some of the issues that can be tackled effectively through disrupting innovation. Allowing students to afford what is an unaffordable education is no longer a viable proposition because of heavy financial duress and only serving a very limited slice of the population.

4.0  Some major recommendations for policy makers
The recommendations proposed by Christensen et al [14] for evolving disrupting innovation model for HE; are summarized as given below:

  1. Eliminate barriers that block disruptive innovations and partner with the innovators to provide better educational opportunities.
  2. Remove barriers that judge universities/institutes based on their inputs such as seat time, credit hours and student-faculty ratios.
  3. Not focus on degree attainment as the sole measure of success.
  4. Fund HE with the aim of increasing quality and decreasing cost.
  5. Recognize the continued importance of research institutes.
  6. Apply the correct business model for the task,
  7. Drive the disruptive innovation.
  8. Develop a strategy of focus. The historical strategy of trying to be great at everything and mimic institutions such as Harvard is not a viable strategy going forward.
  9. Frame online learning as a sustaining innovation, i.e., disrupt the existing classroom model to extend convenience to many more students as well as provide a better learning experience.

5.0  Some suggestions (action progrmme) for  DIEM model
 Over 46 Technological universities and a few State Universities are already functioning in India since the last five years and many more are an anvil [1]. It is suggested that the functioning of these universities need to be on disrupting innovation model rather than the traditional university model in India. This will enlarge the circle of influence taking under their wings the untapped large population of students aspiring for HE

This model is not focused only on getting degree but also for providing quality education-demonstrating competency-based skills and acquired knowledge- at low cost, affordable to the last man in the society. The suggestions (action programme) for disrupting (disruptive) innovation educational model (DIEM) for HE; are listed as given below:

  1. 1.      Adoption of lean philosophy
    The universities’ functioning need to be based  on the principles of Lean Manufacturing deploying dully all 22 tools, using productivity improvement or Industrial Engineering approach to one and all activities of universities [16-17]. The waste elimination will drastically reduce burden, may be lab-work, purchase, maintenance, energy management or in-service training. This may improve equipment/amenities/physical infrastructure utilization by 30%, cost saving by 40% through waste elimination enhancing quality at low cost to a great extent [3].
  1. 2.      Blending approach, e-learning, lecture capturing, etc.
    Minimize classroom teaching and implement tools like blending approach (face-to-face and e-learning blended), e-learning, lecture capturing and smart class rooms. Faculty will use extensively websites (online education) for lecture notes, tutorials, quiz, assignment, laboratory manuals, counseling, examinations, and like purposes.

In a conventional institute investment in computer assets (including hardware and software in all departments put together) can be in the range 50-60 % of institute’s total investment in equipment. Utilization of computers is low in the sense that the institute functioning is not paper-less, computers are hardly utilized for any research purpose, students submit their submission mostly copying from others in hand, no online examination/unit tests or communication, etc.  In fact, during the program duration say of four years; every student needs to breathe-in and breathe-out only IT and generic skills. This will help students to be ‘thinkers’, autonomous imbibing the habit of independent study that will automatically improve the quality of education eliminating the need of coaching classes [18].

To achieve such a culture all fresh students admitted must possess their own laptops and other e-learning kits including lecture capturing. Laptops need to be provided at affordable cost, say Rs 5000 to Rs 10000. Banks will be encouraged to provide soft loans for this purpose. And students will be using their laptops in and out of institute premises. This will lead to a great reduction in overheads, say 20-30%, requiring less PCs, less lab areas, and other amenities.

  1. 3.      Work load norms and academic audit

Regulatory bodies like UGC, University, AICTE and State Government have prescribed work-load norms. For example, AICTE in her Notification No. F-65/CD/NEC/98-99 of May 3, 2000 has prescribed that the working hours/week should not be less than 40 hours with 180 actual teaching days pa, i.e., 90 days of actual teaching per semester. Further AICTE stipulates actual contact hours teaching load per week cadre-wise, from lecturer (16 hours/week) to principal (4 hours/week) considering 2 practical hours equal to one theory hour. The ground reality is something different: one practical hour is treated as one theory hour (note that prior to 1986, the faculty load calculation was done in terms of theory hours/week considering two practical hours equal to one theory hour), the effective teaching per semester in case of UG and PG seems to be in the range 30-60%,  submission of lab-work, project, seminars and workshop practical has become merely a matter of ritual, no process management or performance management, academic audit done hardly, students’ attendance in classes is miserably low (as per rule  UG and PG attendance must be 75% and 90% respectively), etc. Adhering to the directives of regulatory bodies (including statues, ordnances and rules) will certainly enhance the quality of teaching.  Assessment of student’s achievements/learning outcomes (including online- continuous assessment) is an essential component of a teacher’s job. The present system of formation of syllabi by some one, teaching by another, paper setting by third and answer-books assessment by forth is most undesirable for teacher is the only person who can authentically speak about the quality of students s/he taught and no one else. Then why not to make assessment as an essential component of teacher’s duties? This will not only reduce the overheads, but improve quality as teacher is accountable for the quality of his/her students.

  1. 4.      Faculty-student ratio

Institute faculty is divided into three cadres: Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor, later two are placed in the same Pay Scale under 6th Pay Commission.  AICTE has improved the cadre ratio from 1:2:4 to 1:2:6, keeping faculty: student ratio unchanged as 1:15.  The budgetary provision for faculty (direct labor) works out to be more than 60% of revenue collected by institutes. Generally for any program, university structure prescribes 35 hours/week, normally half for theory and remaining half for practical. drawing, seminar, project, etc. In view of the proposed adoption of e-learning technologies where faculty work as facilitator- involving more counseling, interaction rather than chalk-board business- the programme load can be reduced  to say 20 hours/week/programme keeping faculty-student ratio to say 1:20 to 1:30 and cadre ratio as 1:2:12.

  1. 5.      Faculty recruitment, qualifications, appraisal, training and superannuation

Adherence to the faculty recruitment norms is the first step towards quality education. Recruitment procedure and qualification norms appear to be often violated. Since mid-90s, for instance, professor/principal is required to possess PhD, but many candidates having PG qualifications are recruited against these posts, since 2005 or so, lecturer is required to possess PG qualifications but many institutes nominated candidates with BE/B Tech qualifications as lectures who are now placed in Assistant Professor pay scale and earlier Assistant Professor with PG qualifications are placed in Associate Professor pay scale. Because of the Court intervention since the last couple of years principals/professors with PhD qualifications are appointed due to fear of closure of institute. The candidates who have obtained PhDs during the last 3-4 years from conventional universities are appointed, forced-fitted, a compulsion, as principals who bargain compensation in the range Rs 1.25 – Rs 1.75 lakhs pm, twice that of the compensation received by Vice-chancellor or Divisional Commissioner. The quality of such teachers in many cases is poor. In fact, AICTE as per the Notification mentioned earlier has prescribed four components of a teacher’s job: Academic, Research & Consultancy, Administration and Extension.  R & D activities are at very very low ebb, even PhD holders are almost stagnant. Thus, one can infer the quality of education is suffered by such easily earned degrees at PG and doctoral level [5-9], and value-addition to teaching and research is almost missing. Thus, the quality of education does not solely depend upon the degree a teacher possesses but it depends how s/he is passionate for teaching and life-long learning. What is important: build minds or buildings? [18]. Only paper qualified faculty can hardly build quality education. Faculty appraisal (360 0 appraisal preferred) is hardly done (else why is like other public servants the percentage of faculty who are terminated during probation period almost zero?). Hence, it is necessary to revive the definition of quality of education as perceived by students and other stakeholders and frame the policies accordingly. With due in-service training to faculty like placement in industry for 3 months in a block of two years, updating and refreshing faculty from time to time [19-21], stringent promotion policies, salary linked with performance, removing vacations, etc., market driven quality can be built in. Like in industry world, the youngest CEO is of 14 years old and the eldest of 94 years old a teacher needs no any age bar subject to such senior faculty do real value-addition to the knowledge. But such teachers are exception, very small in number. Rest needs consideration. No teacher with 55 years of age and above is allowed to continue his/her job unless s/he proves the metal in terms of international publications, teaching skills, and mind set for lifelong learning and dealing with emerging subjects.

  1. 6.      Fund raising

Fund raising appears to be a big issue in India but in fact it is not so. Interestingly enough, State Government bears the cost of education over 60% of students admitted under various categories as SC/ST, OBC. EBC, etc. The UG and PG tuition fees are generally in the range of Rs 60000-Rs 160000 pa and Rs 80000 to Rs 180000 pa respectively. Thus, major funding comes from public, tax payers.  This funding can be reduced to minimum required and Government can offer several other benefits to institutes like they provide to industry and agriculture, say, tax exemption, energy, gas, other materials like papers, equipment and grain at subsidized rates, etc. India is perhaps the only country where education is considered as charity that can boost up fund raising from alumni, stakeholders and public (not through capitation). Especially the religious places like temples, churches, masjeed and Ashrams can contribute their might to educational institutes in the region/country. Consultancy and R & D activities can hardly raise the fund because of the obvious reasons. Can we devise a mechanism so that like Gurukul system both tuition and living for all students will be free? What about getting funds from passed outs, alumni, to the tune of 2.5% pa of their income throughout their earning period?

  1. 7.      Autonomy

Granting institute autonomy is considered as a sure shot remedy for the ills in education sector. Autonomy in such functional areas as admission, administration, finance, teaching-learning, etc., is advocated. Autonomy can help grow an institute if in real sense the autonomy is adhered to [22]. Autonomy is expected to help excel in certain local/global fields, market driven delighting the stakeholders. Faculty, the backbone of education sector, needs to possess four attributes: pious or good conduct/behavior, knowledge, teaching skills (including those required for e-learning) and love and affection for students, profession. Unprecedented expansion of education after mid-90s, without providing a proper mechanism in place, has lost the spirit of educating our kids [23]. Autonomy was introduced through World Bank in a large scale two decades ago, but rarely one comes across a success story. For instance, are education leaders serious about learning outcomes? Most of the universities and institutes have adopted CGPA system of evaluation; can education leaders implement comprehensive and continuous assessment of students, the heart of CGPA? Neither India could adopt a right philosophy for education process [24] nor could our education system generate Steve Jobs [25]. Benchmarking, competition, craze for imitating brands like IIT/IIM, standardization, role of regulatory bodies, etc., are the road blocks for reaping the (real) fruits of autonomy: excel in what locally available with one. Ancient Indian Gurukul system was based on eco-friendly environment, to one according to one’s potential, tuition and living free, scientific and spiritual and renunciation based, teaching through experience and on-job training, etc. Therefore, Gurukul system could do wonders: Arjuna was the best warrior and the best dancer and Bhima was both the best wrestler and chef!  University of People, US, has successfully introduced online free education [26]. Even in India, a few decades ago NGOs like Pune Anatha Vidyarthi Griha, Pune, used to educate youths coming from poor families almost free of cost and society had taken responsibility to provide free food termed ‘madhukari’ to these students. Succinctly, autonomy needs to exploit local wealth and skills in terms of agriculture produce, local needs, export opportunities, human capital, etc., thereby excelling in certain unique local based domains, say, agro-based industry, and improving global market share. The real perspective of autonomy, therefore, will lead to low-cost education with market driven quality as perceived by the students and other stakeholders.

The list of points discussed above is not exhaustive in itself and many more points can be added, modified making HE cost effective with quality education and training delivered well in time. The above presentation is equally applicable to entire tertiary education sector as well; and primary and secondary education can be aligned appropriately.

6.0  Scope for future work

Disruptive innovation is an on-going process and can vary from time to time and place to place. Many avenues are open for further research and local education leaders can evolve acceptable solutions. Academics have no alternative but to evolve and grow.

7.0  Conclusions

Traditional universities follow sustaining innovation so that they can maintain their brand and competitiveness. But the cost of education is high and quality is not market driven leading to heavy national losses. Moreover, such universities can cater their services to those who can afford for their high-cost education. Disruptive innovation on the other hand tries to cover the big chunk unattended, untapped (who cannot afford for education due to lack of wealth or skills) by traditional universities. Disruptive innovation in case of, for instance, disk drive industry and steel mini-mills, has proved rewarding serving the people who cannot afford for high price/cost. Such industry provides product/services to customer only not at low-cost but also with quality as perceived by customer. In this article, it is argued that disruptive innovation education model can do a great service to a larger section of untapped students making for them education both affordable and with quality. The features of these two models are presented. The recommendations for policy makers and education leaders made by Christensen et al are also presented but in brief. The article also presents business models like solution-shops, value-added processing and facilitated user networks. Research universities are like solution-shops. Disruptive innovation based on e-leaning can lead to facilitated user networks where teacher works as a facilitator. A few suggestions like introduction of blending approach, e-learning, lecture capturing, revised work load norms, reduction in actual contact hours, removal of vacation, recruitment norms, reconsideration for faculty qualification norms, 360 0 faculty appraisal, academic audit, fund raising, autonomy, in-service industrial training of three months in a block of two years, do away with competition, no imitation of branded institutes, redefining market driven quality of education, superannuating age, etc., have been made. This will hopefully lead to low-cost, making quality education affordable to the last man in the society. Scope for further research is also presented. The article, it is believed, is thought provoking and is of interest and concerned to education leaders and policy makers.


[1] Waghodekar P H, 2011, Technical University: Shifting from the wrong building to the right philosophy, Int. J Emerging Technologies and Applications in Engineering, Technology and Sciences (IJ-ETA-ETS), ISSN: 0974-3588, Jan ’11 – June ’11, Volume 4; Issue 1, pp. 285-293.

 [2] Waghodekar P H, 2011, On some aspects of classroom management, Int. J Emerging Technologies and Applications in Engineering, Technology and Sciences (IJ-ETA-ETS), ISSN: 0974-3588, Jan ’11 – June ’11, Volume 4: Issue 1,   pp. 246-252.

[3]Waghodekar P H, 2011, LEM: Lean Education Model based on Industrial Engineering approaches,   The Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. XXIV, No. 4, April, pp. 14-28.

[4]Waghodekar P H, 2011, Research focused engineering college education: from here 2011 to where 2050, The Journal of Engineering Education, XII Special Issue on “Research in State Engineering Colleges- a Road Map”, Vol. XXV, No. 1 &2, July & October, pp. 25-41.

[5] Singh Ajit. 2011, Have you bought or earned PhD? Nov 10, Yahoo News, Website:

[6] Dhamodharan K, Paradigm shift and paradoxical effect of doctoral research in Indian Universities, Hon. Coordinator (SHIATS-Deemed University Allahabad -Neyveli Centre) .

[7] Balaram P, 2003, Paradigm Shift And Paradoxical Effect Of Doctoral Research In Indian Universities, Current Science, 84, 613–614. (

[8] Susanna S, 2008, Mapping of the PhDs in the Private Sector: A Literature Review, Discussion Paper, Research Institute of Finish Economy, 01/2008.

[9] Anon, 2009, Those who can, get a PhD; those who can’t, simply teach anyway, 27 August.

[10] Silicon India, 2009, Only 4 Indian companies in top 1000 R&D spend list, Monday, 16 November,

( (

[11] Gangan Prathap and B. M. Gupta, 2009, Ranking of Indian engineering and technological institutes for their research performance during 1999–2008, Current Science, 97 (3), 10 August.

[12] Schumpeter, 2011, Higher Education: The latest bubble, The Economist, Blog, 13 April.

[13] Anon, Action Plan to help UGC implement strategies of 11th Plan, 6 December, 2007, website:

[14] Christensen C M, Horn M B, Caldera L, and Soares L, 2011, Disrupting College, Center for American Progress and Innosight Institute, February. (Website: and )

[15] Dominic Jermano, 2007, The Fraud Of American University Accreditation, 07 October, and also see: accreditation/overview.htm

[16] Aza Badurdeen, 2007, Lean Manufacturing Basics, e-book, website: http://www.leanmanuf

[17] Aza Badurdeen, 2009, Lean Manufacturing Tools, June 3, Website: and also , complied by Waghodekar as e-book in 2011.

[18] Mike Guest, 2009, Universities as glorified high schools, Miyazaki University, October 22,

[19] Waghodekar P H, 1990, Training of Technical Teachers: A Normative Theory Approach, Proceedings of the 18th ISTE Annual Convention, Pune, Dec., 22-24, 1988 and also in Ind. Eng. J, XIX (4), Apr., 1990, p 1.

[20] Institute-Industry Linkage: Today and Tomorrow, proceedings of the 21st ISTE Annual National Convention, Madras, 14-16 Dec., 1991, and also appeared in J Eng. Education, Jan 1992

[21] Waghodekar P H, 1994, Professional Training for Technical Teachers, J Egg. Education, April, pp. 25-30.

[22] Waghodekar P H, 1994, The Autonomous Technical Institute: The Way Ahead, J. Eng. Education, VII (3), Jan – March, pp. 40-44.

[23]Waghodekar P H, 2011, Spirituality: The Single Most Vital Ingredient in Management Education,  PhilManQuest, e-Journal of Spiritual Teacher Forum, Kanpur,  1st Nov,  Vol. 1, pp.7-12.

[24] Waghodekar P H, 1989, Choice-centered Class Room: A Case Study, J Eng. Education, III (2), Dec., pp. 6-15.

[25]Anon, 2005, Steve Jobs’ address at Stanford University, US, Website:

[26] Kevin Carey, 2011, A College Education for All, Free and Online. June 10, website:

The role of feedback in medical education

This reflection on the role of feedback in education is based on a mailing list discussion as part of the SAFRI programme, as well as on a few of the assigned readings. I thank the organisers of the session, as well as all the participants in the conversation. The original wiki page will always be the most up to date version of this post, and also includes the citations.

Guidelines for effective feedback

The assigned readings seem to focus on providing readers with a list of guidelines for providing effective feedback and while this list is not exhaustive, it serves as a starting point. Feedback is better when:

  • It is promptly given
  • It is specific to the task being assessed, and to the objectives that were set (of course, this assumes that the student has set objectives for the task)
  • It is performance-based i.e. the feedback is along the lines of what you did, as opposed to who you are. One participant made the point that while it is performance-based, it is done to improve performance, and not to evaluate it
  • It does not focus on too many things
  • It helps the student plan for future learning
  • Feedback should seek to encourage self-assessment, self-reflection and self-awareness
  • Should / Could be better received if the supervisor / clinician allows the student to comment first e.g. What did they think went well? What did they think could be improved? (one participant said that “…a lot of feedback that I have to give to students is actually on written assignments [which]…means that we cannot start with the student’s agenda. There is no interactive discussion, no possibility to listen, respond to non-verbal cues, observation, etc.”
  • Positive feedback should be given first (builds self-esteem and encourages better performance)
  • This positive feedback should not be followed with a qualifier e.g. “You did well, but…”
  • “Listen and ask, don’t tell and provide solutions”

I’m glad someone pointed out that this (long) list is wonderful in ideal situations but is impractical in many real-world situation, which is where we find ourselves most often e.g. large student:teacher ratios, overloaded faculty and limited time to spend with students. On further reflection, it seems clear that this issue is not specific to feedback, and affects almost everything we want to do as teachers. The problem with teaching is that the way we want to do it (i.e. small groups with focused attention) doesn’t scale very well and we need to come up with a fundamentally different approach to teaching. My own view is that the internet and various associated technologies can enhance communication in ways that do scale, and that therein lies part of the solution.

Complexity in feedback
My own initial thought on a list of guidelines was that it was a wonderful “how to” for providing effective feedback to students. However, as I progressed through the conversation, I began to have my doubts, starting with this one. I worry that having a list of guidelines may deceive us into thinking that if we follow the list then we’ve given good feedback. This is like a student thinking that following a list of questions is a good way to conduct an assessment. Giving feedback seems to be a dynamic process, affected by context (e.g. social / cultural background, type of placement / task) and an understanding of the person/ality receiving it. Someone suggested that the complex process of giving / receiving feedback was also about the identity and character of the receiver and that “…in order to protect the integrity of their beliefs and knowledge, [they] will reject corrective feedback and find ways to devalue it”. Some studies have identified the importance of eliciting thoughts and feelings before giving feedback, which might go some way to alleviating this.

One of the participants insightfully related this back to the MBTI session in March, where it was clear that “knowledge of personalities is useful when giving and receiving feedback. What we know about ourselves and others is important feedback management”. In relation to this, another participant raised the point that “…the issues of culture, gender, religion, belief, age are very important in feedback.  Also, feedback for average students is different than feedback for failing students [as well as for] students who think they’re doing well [but] are actually failing”. I think it’s important to note that feedback is dynamic, contextual and complex.

Inappropriate feedback
I found a common theme in the conversation that went along the lines of “feedback drives learning”. This may be a matter of semantics but I’d like to challenge the idea that it does drive learning and suggest that it can drive learning. This may seem pedantic but I think it’s important, because when we say (or imply) that it does, we’re operating under the assumption that all feedback is equal, which it clearly isn’t. This was pointed out by several participants, who suggested that feedback can be inappropriate “…because of how, when or where it is presented”. Some teachers seem to be guilty of using feedback to highlight their own skills and knowledge, while at the same time making it clear that the student lacks these things (or in one horrifying example, actively humiliating them).

When using my own experiences to make a point, I often include examples of my mistakes. I think that as role models, we need to model our failures (and to elaborate on how we moved past them) as well as our successes. Students seem to have an idea that we’re infallible, which unfortunately makes them believe they must be too. If we can highlight that we’re also subject to errors of judgment and prone to forgetfulness (a big one for me), we show them that we’re human and go a long way to establishing trust.

Feedback as a skill
There was a suggestion that giving “feedback is a skill that has to be learnt” and that we should emphasize its importance. This was taken further with the idea that receiving feedback is also a skill that needs to be learnt (e.g. listening, reflecting, analyzing), and that we need to spend a lot more time preparing students to receive feedback effectively and with the right attitude / mindset. One participant spoke of students who receive feedback defensively, negating it whether it was appropriate or not. I liked the idea raised that feedback should not only emphasize knowledge, but also more generic skills like effective communication, conflict resolution, etc.

Feedback in teaching and learning
It was pointed out that feedback is not only about a student-teacher interaction, it can also be between peers or colleagues. In fact, feedback is “…for helping all who are interested in self development and actualization of goals, not only students”. This suggests to me that feedback between peers could be an important component of peer teaching, an area of that I’m increasingly interested in.

Feedback should also be given to students who are performing well. This will help to dispel the notion that feedback = criticism. It was pointed out that as teachers, we often have a tendency to focus on the student’s weakness (I know that I’m guilty of this), possibly as a remnant of our own experiences of being students, when this is how we received it. One of the dangers of focusing on the negative only, is inducing a lack of confidence on the students’ part, where they become incapable of identifying their strengths. Thus, feedback should be used to highlight strengths as well as weaknesses, in order to promote learning.

Feedback and evaluation
Before beginning, see the third point in the guidelines. All too often (as was pointed out by some participants), feedback = marks, and there is no action required after receiving the mark (or if there is, the response is along the lines of “What must I do to get a higher mark”). I wonder if we’re not the problem. We make the assumption (and model behavior showing) that feedback and marks are related, whereas they don’t need to be. Marks are quantitative, while feedback is qualitative. Marks are summative, feedback is formative. Apples are apples and oranges are oranges. When one person is evaluating another, there’s no real objectivity, and so quantitative measures of competence don’t seem to me to be a good fit.

We should distinguish between formative and summative assessment, and their relative relationships to feedback. In formative assessment, feedback is essential as its nature is to facilitate learning. In summative assessment, feedback is irrelevant because the nature of the examination is to evaluate, which we’ve seen is not the role of feedback.

I think we need to get away from this idea that feedback and marks are necessarily related. Of course they can be, but it doesn’t mean they must be. We have to disconnect feedback, which is about learning, and marking, which is about evaluation (and not a very good form of evaluation at that). If students are “marks driven” it’s because we’ve put marks at the centre of our curricula. How do we de-emphasise marks…well, by not marking (it’s radical, I know).

Feedback and reflection
In order for feedback to be effective and of any value, we must first identify the relationship between the task, the feedback, reflection on the task and feedback, and finally, acting on the feedback. Without first making sure that the receiver understands this, the feedback is of no value. We know that reflection drives deep learning, understanding and professional development, yet we leave little space in the curriculum for structured reflection (and forget about teaching students how to reflect). It was great to read the comment, “we do not learn from experience, but rather from reflecting on experience, and feedback must facilitate this reflection for the student”. I would argue that unless the feedback results in a behavioral change, it is ineffective. Of course, if the student cannot focus on anything but the mark, we clearly haven’t established for them the relationship between the task, the feedback, the reflection and the action.

“No feedback” as feedback?
There was a question of whether “no feedback could also be feedback”, and I agree with one response which stated that it was “…the most negative and most useless form of ‘feedback’ in that it borders on pure and simple indifference”, as well as being “regressive and inhibiting”. I’m reminded of a line from “A man for all seasons]]”, in which Thomas More states that …”the maxim of the law is ‘Silence gives consent’”. When I was a student and was not explicitly told to improve (and to do this), then it meant there was nothing to improve, which I found disturbing, knowing what kind of student I was. I worry that if we give no feedback, we risk the student believing that their performance is exemplary (which it may very well be, but then tell them that), or worse, that they don’t know what to believe, leading to anxiety and confusion.

Feedback as a form of academic literacy
I’ve also been thinking about feedback as a form of literacy, which was touched on by one participant, who suggested that “…conversation is a form of feedback, a sort of negotiation of understanding in which mutual feedback becomes recursive leading to shared understanding.  In this way, feedback is not one person who ‘knows’ helping another person who doesn’t ‘know’, rather it is mutual. By asking myself questions before and during the feedback, I am learning at the same time the other is learning”. I would take this in a more general direction and suggest that feedback is useless unless the student is at least familiar with the culture of the tribe, which includes the language and conventions we use.

We can give as much feedback as we like, but if we’re speaking a language the student doesn’t understand (I don’t mean English, etc.), we’re wasting everyone’s time. And in case you think that by final year, our students understand our “tribe”, think about this simple example: The first year student is starting out in the culture of higher education, the second year student is starting out in the culture of physiotherapy, the third year student is starting out in the culture clinical practice, and the final year student is starting out in the culture of being a physiotherapist. We need different languages and approaches for each of these different cultures / literacies / “tribes”.

DREEM Questionaire can be utilised . And may be a National Statistical facility can see analyse the results

Final thoughts

  • For most of the discussion, feedback was treated as a “thing”, rather than a process or interaction. My own view is that feedback is neither “given” nor “received”, but is a process that people participate in
  • How many of us ask our students for feedback on our feedback?
  • How many of use ask our students for feedback on our teaching? One participant had this to say “Should each of us offer the students who receive our teaching the opportunity to give feedback on our teaching as part of their learning? This may be a little threatening, but on the occasions that I have done so in the past it has mostly been encouraging and affirming. Occasionally uncomfortable.”
  • If we do ask for it, how many of us reflect on it and make an associated change in our teaching practice?

AM Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College, Belgaum

Dr Nahida Mulla

AM  Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital, P.G And Research Centre, Belgaum.

A.M. Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College was established in 1967 and has a standing of 45 long successful years in imparting quality education in the field of Homoeopathy. The college is recognized by Government of Karnataka, Central Council of Homoeopathy, New Delhi and affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. The college offers a modern and internationally recognized quality of education, with qualified and highly experienced faculty members. The college has the best infrastructure in all respects, meeting all the norms of apex bodies, which no other institution can boast of. It has the rare distinction of being the first college in India to get ISO 9001:2000 certificate for a meticulous systems approach. The college is running PG courses in Homoeopathic subjects and also has a Research Center.

The college has a multi-specialty hospital which serves the needy with great human concern and imparts clinical training to the students. The college runs 10 satellites OPDs where, clinical training is imparted to students, PGs and interns.

The college has a fully computerized modern library with over 10,000 books and journals.

Keeping pace with modern technology, the college has a state-of-the art computer lab, where students are trained professionally.

The institution firmly believes the overall personality development of Students. Regular cultural and sports activities are organized to encourage the talents of students.

The college has introduced a new concept called “Batch Mentor Professor’. A senior faculty is made in charge of a particular batch during their entire stay in the campus. The batch mentor is a friend, philosopher and guide to the students and maintains close interaction with every parent.

Our college is the Alma Mater of more than 20 principals of leading colleges in India.

Hostel facilities are available to both boys and girls. Girls hostel is equipped with all the modern amenities such as round the clock security, 24 Hrs. backup generator and hot water facilities.  

Virtual Learning for Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology and Surgery.

Accessibility to: E-Notes in all subjects.  Medical Software Training

Language Lab :   Most effective and interesting way of enhancing English language skills.

  :   4 ½ Years and 1 year internship.
Eligibility :Minimum 40% in Physics, Chemistry & Biology at Second Year Pre-University or Higher Secondary Certificate examination.

M.D. Homoeopathy :  3 years
M.D. (Hom.) – Materia Medica
M.D.(Hom.)-Organon of Medicine & Hom.Philosophy
M.D/ (Hom.) – Repertory
Eligibility    :  Minimum 50% marks in BHMS examinations.

Dr. Nahida M.Mulla.
Principal. HOD Repertory, HOD Paediatric OPD,
A M.Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College,Hospital & PG Research Centre,
Nehru Nagar, BELGAUM-590010 (Karnataka)
E-Mail :
Mobile : 09448814660

FIHA – the Federation of Indian Homoeopathic Associations

On the historic day, 20th May 2012 at Dr BR Sur Homoeopathic Medical College, Nanakpura, NewDelhi, the FIHA (Federation of Indian Homoeopathic Associations) was formed by three national organizations of Homoeopathy in India, IHMA, HMAI & IIHP under the convenership of Dr Eswardas, Consultant Advisor to AYUSH Dept, Govt of India. The Joint conveners were Dr Sreevals Menon from IHMA, Dr Shyamal from HMAI & Dr Mansingh from IIHP.

The invited guests to the meeting were the President of the CCH, the Director General elect of CCRH, the LMHI Vice President and the LMHI Asst National Vice President.

From among the 5 executive members of the three national organizations who participated in FIHA formation, a President, Secretary General & Finance Secretary representing each association was elected by lots. The three national associations shall take turns on the posts and the tenure of each shall be for a year. FIHA also appoints a coordinator for its regular functions.

FIHA President – Dr KRK Prabhakar Murthy (IIHP)
FIHA Secretary General – Dr Bhasker Bhatt (HMAI)
FIHA Finance Secretary – Dr VK Ajithkumar (IHMA)
FIHA Coordinator – Dr Eswardas

From IHMA, the following delegation attended FIHA formation as executive members of CIHA :-
Dr VK Dhawan, President IHMA
Dr VK Ajithkumar, Secretary General IHMA
Dr Sreevals G Menon, National Secretary IHMA
Dr Roshan Pinto, Former President IHMA
Dr Shenbaga Ganesh Babu, NWC Member, TN State Chapter, IHMA

FIHA would address the national & international issues related to Homoeopathy and in policy matters related to Govt bodies, national and international homoeopathy related bodies. Also in state issues of a regional nature and those with unbounded proportions.

FIHA would have a common minimum programme which concerns :-

1. Promotion of Homoeopathy & challenges faced
2. Homoeopathic academics & Research
3. Welfare of Homoeopathic professionals in private and Govt sector
4. Quality of Homoeopathic education and healthcare delivery
5. Role of India in International Homoeopathic scenario

FIHA shall have their annual congress every year which shall be the national congress of the national organization which the president represents.

FIHA executive shall meet three times a year and also when there is any emergency situation.

The other homoeopathic organizations in India may contact the Secretary-General or Coordinator for guidelines/details on associating with FIHA.

The contact of the FIHA Secretary General is & FIHA coordinator is

Report by
Dr Sreevals G Menon
National Secretary IHMA
Exec Member FIHA

Engage Online Students with Targeted Feedback

Feedback is good for students and instructors alike, and can lead to immediate improvements in instructor performance, student achievement, and course quality.

Learn how to create productive two-way online feedback with your students during Engage Online Students with Targeted Feedback, an online video seminar led by Jill Schiefelbein.

In just 60 minutes, participants will learn to:

  • Understand the role communication plays in an online student’s course experience and learning process;
  • Utilize multimedia technologies to deliver useful and purposeful feedback to students;
  • Initiate communication that leads to useful feedback; and
  • Improve student interactivity and performance through the use of an effective communication loop.

Feedback fosters a sense of community and creates more reciprocity in the student-to-instructor relationship. Put simply, it matters to students when instructors show they are invested in their students’ success and they care enough to provide meaningful feedback that enables students to improve.

Coming June 19, this seminar will teach you how to maintain an effective communication loop that increases student interactivity, performance, and satisfaction.

Link :

Now top universities offer free courses on the Web

Courses are taught through weekly new videos and quizzes Some of the top universities in the U.S are offering free courses on the Web not just for individual students but also for other universities to adopt. Earlier this year, MIT announced its engineering course that comes with a certificate on completion. Universities like Stanford are offering free online courses as well. Stanford Engineering Everywhere ( has modules on Programming Methodology, Programming Abstractions, and Programming Paradigms, as a part of a three-course Introduction to Computer Science which is taken by most Stanford undergraduates and was developed to reach out to students globally.

Built under the Creative Commons licence that allows for free use and adaptation of the material, colleges too can use them to supplement classroom instructions. Last year, a free online class on artificial intelligence (, conducted by Sebastian Thrun, Research Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, and Peter Norvig, Director of Research at Google Inc, attracted over 58,000 students from around the world. The class ran from October 10 to December 18, 2011. Students who successfully completed the course were given a statement of accomplishment. From high school learners to retired people, the age groups were widely varied. Though the enrolment for this course is closed for now, the course material can be accessed at overview.

For those who want to learn how to build search engines and web application engineering, courses taught by Sebastian Thrun are available at There are teams of voluntary translators, the videos are available in languages other than English as well. Two classes, the CS101 Building a Search Engine and CS373 Programming a Robotic Car, will soon be offered on the site. While the courses are taught through weekly new videos and quizzes, exams are personalized to prevent cheating.

Coursera (  is another interactive learning program that has subjects from various universities such as the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton and University of Michigan. The website runs various modules along with subjects as varied as “introduction to sociology” to “the ways vaccines work,” with the mandatory computer sciences lessons between lessons.

Started by Andrew Ng and Daphne, two Stanford computer scientists, whose free internet courses attracted a wide audience, Coursera has an innovative student’s platform where students from different parts of the world post answers to questions asked.  Some of the courses do not have set durations. So the students can pace the modules themselves, which helps in gaining in-depth knowledge about a subject or even find out what a particular topic might involve. For example, students interested in studying pharmacology would want to look at the module of “Fundamentals of Pharmacology” in Coursera from the University of Pennsylvania to understand what greater study of the field might entail.

EdX Online – a joint initiative by Harvard and MIT – its interactivity online is great. Combination of technologies are used. Regular assignments, virtual labs etc. are in place.

Mobile apps from some well known Universities:
1. Harvard:
2. Oxford:
3. Stanford:
4. Vanderbilt:
5. Princeton:

9th International Seminar in The Hague

with Alize Timmerman

On June 21-26, 2012

Chronic Diseases and the Art of Homeopathic Healing Creating Insight from the Inside  

This seminar focuses on the homeopathic treatment of chronic diseases (Cancer, Lyme disease, Thyroid problems, Heart diseases, Obesity, etc.) especially related to family situations (parents / child; siblings). Information about family members may provide very relevant insights when analyzing a case, especially when the patient is a child.

Topics to discuss are :
Interactions between generations and siblings, including observation of the family sensations and the miasmas in the family. Here we will not only study homeopathic remedies, but also do some exercises with family constellations. Specific topics to focus on are the influences of the family factor in, e.g.: Lyme disease .

Comments on detoxification of the body after allopathic treatments with chemotherapy, vaccinations and other substances, during constitutional treatment.

Treatment of cancer, with focus on assisting people in the final stages of the disease. Wiet van Helmond will present his insights on this item in a  guest lecture

Beautiful C4-remedy pictures will be shared like Emerald, Oak, Zinc-muriaticum, Ignatia, lac elephant ,Amniotic Fluid,Placenta eo.

Alize will use her knowledge and experience collected in 30 years of practice to explain and elucidate the long-term treatment of chronic diseases. Divya Chhabra will present guest lectures on the same topic. Alize Timmerman will zoom in on how to keep these chronically ill long-term patients committed to the homeopathic and naturopathic components of their treatment. Alize sees healing as a creative process and elicits from her patients their input and commitment to the creative mutual pursuit of healing. Her patients have a saying: “It is not so easy to leave Alize’s treatment.” And this makes for a successful, lively and busy practice, a goal which Alize wishes all homeopaths to realize.

The six day seminar will be a mixture of lectures and experiential activities. Besides the exploration of triturations and 4C Homeopathy in order to research and understand remedies from the inside out, creativity will be stimulated by using family constellations, dance, movement and drawing.

We will also start a discussion regarding the animal part of ourselves and our patients. The animal part of our being can be seen as a gateway to the core of ourselves. In this discussion we may gain insight into the nature of certain animal remedies and our own connections with the “soul” and “anima” of these remedies..

In the past years, the Hahnemann Institute developed more than 100 hand triturated remedies. These remedies offer enormous success in the treatment of many chronic diseases of our time.

We invite you to create insight from inside with us, during this inspiring 6 days seminar.

The fee for the seminar is € 600,00 (exclusive food and drinks)

Catering is done by Jenna Shamat who will ask a small contribution [€ 90] for the cost of food and drinks).

You can register by sending an email to The Hahnemann Institute ( or by calling +3170 3280862. The seminar qualifies for continuing educations for all major professional homeopathic societies in the Netherlands. At this point in time participants from about 10 countries have already registered, the total number of participants is limited to 45.

The Hague is a pleasant place to be in June, not too warm and definitely not too cold. There is a variety of inexpensive hotels in town and the beach is only 15 minutes from the institute by tram.


The end of Modern Medicine has arrived – WHO

whoThe day is coming when the host of antibiotics doctors currently use to fight off bacterial infections won’t work anymore, leaving the world’s population vulnerable to everything from scratches on your knee to disease, according to the United Nation‘s (UN)World Health Organization(WHO).

That’s because bacteria are becoming so resistant to common antibiotics that the phenomenon will bring about the “end of modern medicine as we know it,” warns Margaret Chan, the director-general of WHO.

What that will mean for mankind, she says, is that – if current trends persist – today’s antibiotics will essentially become useless, and so much so that even routine operations won’t be possible. A cut could be fatal. More than that, however, breakthrough drugs to treat long-standing diseases like tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS would suddenly become ineffective.

Speaking to a conference of infectious disease experts in Copenhagen, Denmark, recently, Chan said it’s possible the world could be moving towards a “post-antibiotic era.” ”Things as common as strep throat or a child’s scratched knee could once again kill,” she said. “Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise in Europe and elsewhere in the world. We are losing our first-line antimicrobials.”

An ‘evolving threat’
She said replacement medications for antibiotics would most likely take longer to heal and, naturally, would be more expensive. ”Replacement treatments are more costly, more toxic, need much longer durations of treatment, and may require treatment in intensive care units,” Chan noted. ”For patients infected with some drug-resistant pathogens, mortality has been shown to increase by around 50 per cent. A post-antibiotic era means, in effect, an end to modern medicine as we know it.”

Chan’s statement comes on the heels of a book published by the WHO detailing the potential crisis called The Evolving Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance which provides details on the coming “global crisis.” ”Bacteria which cause disease react to the antibiotics used as treatment by becoming resistant to them, sooner or later,” says an excerpt from the book. “A crisis has been building up over the decades, so that today many common and life-threatening infections are becoming difficult or even impossible to treat, sometimes turning a common infection into a life-threatening one.”

No boundaries
The biggest problem, WHO notes, is that antibiotics have been over-prescribed and used too long for years, and the result has been that bacteria are adapting to resist them. The book says an “inexorable increase in antimicrobial-resistant infections, a dearth of new antibiotics in the pipeline and little incentive for industry to invest in research and development had led to a need for innovation.”

The development and widespread prescribing of antibiotics in the early 1930s was a boon to modern medicine. Before they were invented, simple cuts and scrapes that became infected often led to serious illness and death. Since then, however – and especially within the past decade – doctors have regularly over-prescribed them, and often for the wrong reasons, say researchers. That has led to the current crisis. The phenomenon has led to the development, over time, of so-called “super bugs” – bacteria that cannot be beat down, even with the most powerful antibiotics.

“It is a worldwide issue – there are no boundaries,” said Prof. Peter Hawkey, a clinical microbiologist and chair of the British government’s antibiotic-resistance working group (Professor Peter Hawkey BSc, DSc, MBBS, MD, FRCPath. Professor of Public Health and Clinical Bacteriology, University of Birmingham, School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 “We have very good policies on the use of antibiotics in man and in animals in the UK. But we are not alone. We have to think globally.”

While the threat of known bacteria becoming resistant to current antibiotics, there is also a threat from bacteria that was previously unknown. Just last month, scientists found “ancient” bacteria in the Lechuguilla Cave in Carlsbad Cavern National Park in New Mexico, which has been cut off from any input from the surface for four million to seven million years.

How to fix the problem?
Dr. John Turnidge, Chairman of the Australian Expert Committee (John Turnidge, MB BS, FRACP, FRCPA. Clinical Professor of Paediatrics and Pathology, Affiliate Professor of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adjunct Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical, Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of South Australia, Chief, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s, Youth and Women’s Health Service, North Adelaide, South Australia. Division of Laboratory Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 72 King William Rd, North Adelaide, South Australia, 5006, Email: which examined animal and human antimicrobial resistance, says human antibiotic usage can be halved, drug companies can stop trying to refine antibiotics used for animals to make them suitable for humans, and human and animal drug use can be kept separate.

Other experts say more aggressive development of new antibiotics is also necessary.

But the bottom line appears to be this: The medical system needs to stop over-prescribing these drugs, lest they force bacteria – which has survived on earth for millions of years – to continue to mutate in ways that become resistant to our ability to kill them.

Sources for this article include:,-who-director-general,-nominated-for-second-term

MCI's 'disciplined dose’ for future doctors

COIMBATORE: Becoming a doctor may no longer be easy in India. The Regulations on Graduate Medical Education 2012 drafted by the Medical Council of India (MCI) mandate MBBS students to undergo a two-month foundation course for qualifying for the Phase I (main degree) examination. Besides, attendance requirement has become stricter and accumulating arrears in exams would lead to detention.

The foundation course is being mooted to orient students to the MBBS programme and provide them communication (including electronic), technical and language skills. “Once the Regulations take effect, only students who have at least 75% attendance in the foundation course will be eligible to take the Pre-Clinical Phase I examination,” a MCI official said. Similar attendance requirement would apply separately for theoretical and practical classes throughout the course.

While the MBBS course shall be of four-and-a-half years’ duration, students would have to undergo compulsory rotating internship for one year thereafter.

“Only those who clear all papers in the first professional exam would be permitted to proceed to Phase II of the training. This mandate would apply at each stage. A student will get four attempts to pass the first professional exam within four years,” the official said.

If a student fails to pass in all subjects within nine years of joining the first year MBBS course, he/she shall not be eligible for graduation.

The new regulations also mandate universities to conduct day-to-day internal assessment for students based on their participation in the learning process including assignments, seminar and clinical case studies/presentation. At least two internal assessment exams must be held in each non-clinical subject and one exam in every clinical subject annually.

“Only students who secure a minimum of 50% marks separately in theory and practical/clinical tests in the internal assessment would be eligible to appear in the final university exam of that subject. The internal marks will not be added to the final exam marks to determine pass or fail,” the official said.

Source :

Google launches the Knowledge Graph

When you search, you’re not just looking for a webpage. You’re looking to get answers, understand concepts and explore.

The next frontier in search is to understand real-world things and the relationships among them. So we’re building a Knowledge Graph: a huge collection of the people, places and things in the world and how they’re connected to one another.

This is how we’ll be able to tell if your search for “mercury” refers to the planet or the chemical element–and also how we can get you smarter answers to jump start your discovery.

Get answers no matter where you search
This feature is available on desktop, tablet and your smartphone. So wherever you search on Google, you’ll find that answers and discovery are at your fingertips.

See it in action
When you search for things, people, or places that Google knows about, we can use the Knowledge Graph to enhance your search results.

Find the right thing
The words you search with can often have more than one meaning. With the Knowledge Graph we can understand the difference, and help you narrow your results to find just the answers you’re looking for.

Get the best summary
See key facts about your search with the most useful and interesting information for that particular topic, based on the questions other people have asked.

Go deeper and broader
Make unexpected discoveries and explore a topic more deeply with a springboard of information at your fingertips. What you find may surprise you!

Homeopathy- Why does it attract so much Controversy?

Robert Medhurst
It’s probably pretty obvious to most that complementary medicine (CM) in general attracts a great deal of criticism by advocates of orthodox western medicine. Vitamins are frequently described as agents that do little  more than produce expensive urine, herbs are labeled as useless if not outright dangerous. Bach flowers, reflexology and aromatherapy are dismissed as fanciful nonsense. Vast clinical studies with questionable methodology that find no benefit from these therapies are held up as proof that they have no effect while smaller properly designed studies that show them to be successful are ignored. Yet CM continues to provide relief for millions of people and every year sees more and more people turning to these therapies. This situation appears to cause enormous irritation for orthodox western medicine and as much as they’d like it to, CM refuses to go away.

Fortunately, in recent times the critics of herbs and supplements have become marginalised and their credibility has become increasingly dubious as they struggle under the weight of higher quality evidence of clinical effect. Regrettably, criticism aimed at homeopathy remains undiminished. It comes under regular attack in pharmacy and other orthodox journals1, 2. And it is vilified by national broadcasters3.Organisations have been established with the apparent aim of eradicating it4 and clinical trials that fail to show an effect receive inordinate levels of attention while successful trials are ignored.

What are the criticisms of homeopathy?

There is no scientifically plausible mechanism for Homeopathy.
This is certainly true, but it’s also true that the mechanism for the action of many commonly prescribed drugs, such as dexamphetamine in the treatment of ADHD, is yet to be determined. The failure to understand the mechanism of a therapeutic substance, particularly where that substance is a drug, does not normally diminish the enthusiasm for it by prescribers. Why then should homeopathy be criticised for this?

The concept of a memory for water is unscientific.
This relates to the fact that many researchers have speculated that the potentisation process used to manufacture homeopathic medicines causes the water in which the medicines are made to retain a “memory” of the starting material from which the potencies are derived. In response to this criticism, we should be clear on what “science” actually is. Science is not a body of facts. It’s a process used to study, by deduction and inference, specific issues that one seeks to understand. The fact that the memory of water has yet to be adopted by orthodox science does not make it unscientific. In fact, various studies have shown that water may be imprinted by the electromagnetic energy signature derived from physical substances to which it is exposed5-7. These studies would tend to support the concept the memory of water.

There’s nothing in a homeopathic medicine so it couldn’t possibly work.
Those making these kinds of assertions seem to miss the point that past certain potencies (12C or 24X), a homoeopathic medicine will contain the base substance (alcohol and water in the case of a liquid, or sugar in the case of a solid dose form such as a pilule) and it will also contain the electromagnetic energy that’s derived from the starting material via the process of potentisation. This latter component is not detectable by normal assay techniques, but its effects are certainly demonstrable. Studies have confirmed that biological systems can be influenced by these electromagnetic frequencies8-12. The criticism that there’s nothing in a homeopathic medicine is also frequently leveled at products, often homeopathic combination products, where the medicines are used at potencies below 12C or 24X. Anyone making the statement that there’s nothing in these products , may have a little difficulty with the information in the following table, which demonstrates the levels at which the human body responds to normal human hormones and metabolites.

Lower Limit of Biological Activity of Human Hormones and Metabolites

Substance Limit Equiv. homeopathic potency
Parathyroid Hormone 10 picograms/mL 11X
Free Oestrogen 0.6 picograms/mL 12X
Brain Natriuretic Hormone 4 picograms/mL 12X
ACTH 20 picograms/mL 11X
Oestrogen 10 picograms/mL 11X
Vitamin B12 150 picograms/mL 9X
Testosterone 200 picograms/mL 9X
Progesterone 100 picograms/mL 10X
Free Thyroxine (Pregnancy) 5 picograms/mL 12X
Triiodothyronine (Children) 1 picograms/mL 12X
Acetylcholine (miniature end potential) 0.0001 picograms/mL 16X

Homeopathy is not evidence based- there are no successful trials.
This is an interesting point. It’s true that the number of successful homeopathic trials is relatively small, the numbers of people participating in the trials is often relatively small and few trials have been replicated. The reason for this is that unlike drugs, homeopathic medicines in most cases cannot be patented, so there is little incentive to invest the vast quantities of money that the drug companies often spend to mount large clinical trials if the sponsors cannot monopolize the results. However, homeopathy has produced successful clinical trials, and they’re relatively easy to find13-17. As a final point, surveys have found that only 10-20% of all standard medical procedures have been validated by controlled clinical trials18 and yet orthodox medicine is held up as the gold standard to which homeopathy should aspire.

Homeopathy stops people from using drugs that may provide better results in disease control.
This again is an interesting issue, and the criticism can be answered with a few simple facts. Trials comparing homeopathy with standard medical treatment have found that it can provide outcomes as good as or better than orthodox medicine for particular conditions19, 20. It’s also useful here to put the relative safety of various forms of medicine into perspective. The total number of adverse reactions to drugs in Australia from the year 1999-2000 was 400,00021. The total number of adverse reactions from CM for the same year was 2322, and none of these were caused by a homeopathic medicine23. Even more interesting is the fact that only 1-10% of all adverse drug reactions are reported24. In the US up to one fifth of all new prescription drugs may ultimately be recalled or produce potentially harmful side effects25. No homeopathic medicine has ever been subject to a product recall on the basis of toxicity, or has been recorded as producing serious side effects.

Homeopathy keeps people away from medical doctors.
The facts would indicate that this, in many circumstances, may not be such a bad idea. In the US, doctors are the third leading cause of death, with iatrogenic (medically induced) disease accounting for 250,000 deaths every year (I2,000 from unnecessary surgery, 7,000 from medication errors in hospitals, 20,000 from other errors in hospitals, 80,000 from infections in hospitals, 106,000 from the negative effects of drugs)26.

Homeopathy is expensive.
This is rarely the case. US doctors who used homeopathy were found to use less diagnostic testing and conventional medicines, resulting in a significant reduction in their impact on the cost of public health27. Patients using homeopathy cost the French government half of what it cost for patients who used orthodox treatments28 . French researchers have noted that the number of paid sick leave days taken by patients under the care of homeopathic physicians was 3.5 times less than patients under the care of medical practitioners29 . UK doctors using homeopathy cost the government 12% less than UK doctors who do not use homoeopathy30. In Germany researchers found that homeopathic care for infertility was 30 times less expensive per successful delivery than orthodox medical care31.

Criticisms leveled at homeopathy seem more often than not to be based on emotion rather than logic, and the types of criticisms made and the way they’re articulated ,would tend to indicate that orthodox medicine has great difficulty in accepting anything outside of itself, regardless of the evidence. If one looks at it objectively, and when in possession of the facts, the criticisms of homeopathy can be shown to be largely baseless.

The author discusses the criticism directed at homeopathy.


  1. Payne F., Homeopathy- to believe or not to believe, The Australian Pharmacist, 22, 6, June 203, 420
  2. Roller L., Homoeopathy: where’s the evidence?, Australian Journal of Pharmacy, 84, July 2003, 519
  3. Catalyst, ABC television, April 3, April 10, 2003
  4. National Campaign Against Health Fraud ( see also
  5. Shui-Yin Lo, “Anomalous State of Ice,” Modern Physics Letters B, 10,1996:909-919.
  6. Shui-Yin Lo “Physical Properties of Water with IE Structures,” Modern Physics Letters B, 10, 1996:921-930
  7. IE Vittorio Elia and Marcella Niccoli, “Thermodynamics of Extremely Diluted Aqueous Solutions,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1999, 827:241-248.
  8. Benveniste J, Aissa J, Guillonnet D The Molecular Signal is Not Functional in the Absence of “Informed” Water FASEB Journal, 1999, 13, A163
  9. Benveniste J, Aissa J, Guillonnet D A Simple and Fast Method for In Vivo Demonstration of Electromagnetic Signaling (EMS) via High Dilution or Computer Recording FASEB Journal, 1999, 13, A163
  10. Benveniste J, Aissa J, Guillonnet D Digital Biology: Specificity of the Digitised Molecular Signal FASEB Journal, 1998, 12, A412
  11. Aissa J, Jurgens P, Hsueh W, Benveniste J Transatlantic Transfer of Digitised Antigen Signal by Telephone Link J Allergy Clin Immunol, 99, 1997, S175
  12. Thomas Y, Schiff M, Belkadi L, Jurgens P, Kahhak L, Benveniste J. Activation of Human Neutrophils by Electronically Transmitted Phorbol Myristate Acetate Medical Hypotheses, 2000, 54, 1, 33-39)
  13. Medhurst R., Current State of Research in Homoeopathy Part 1, Journal of the Australian Traditional Medicine Society, December 1998, 4, 4, 131-132.
  14. Medhurst R., Current State of Research in Homoeopathy Part 2, Journal of the Australian Traditional Medicine Society, March, 1999, 5, 1, 25-26.
  15. Medhurst R., Update on Research in Homoeopathy, Journal of the Australian Traditional Medicine Society, December 2000, 6, 4, 145-147.
  16. Medhurst R., Homoeopathy Research Update, Journal of the Australian Traditional Medicine Society, December 2002, 8, 4, 175-176.
  17. Medhurst R., Further Update on Research in Homoeopathy, Journal of the Australian Traditional Medicine Society, March 2003, 9, 1, 31-32.
  18. Fluhrer J, Integrative Practice Overview. Complementary Medicine, July/ August 2002, 33-35
  19. Friese, K., Kruse S., et al, The Homoeopathic Treatment of Otitis media in Children. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1997, Jul, 35, 7, 296-302.
  20. Riley D., Fischer M., et al, Homoeopathy and Conventional Medicine: An Outcome Study Comparing Effectiveness in a Primary Care Settings. J Alt and Comp Med, 2001, 7, 2, 123-5).
  21. Australian Journal of Pharmacy, 83, September 2002, 774
  22. Australian Journal of Pharmacy, 83, June 2002, 516-517
  23. ADRAC private correspondence, 2002
  24. New Scientist 17 July 1980, 218
  25. Lasser KE et al, Timing of New Black Box Warnings and Withdrawals for Prescription Medications,Journal of the American Medical Association 2002, 287:2215-2220., 2002;287:2215-2220, 2273-2275
  26. Starfield B., Is US Health Really the Best in the World?. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, July 26, 2000, 483-485.
  27. Jennifer J et al, Patient Characteristics and Practice Patterns of Physicians Using Homeopathy,Archives of Family Medicine. 1998, Nov/Dec, 537-540
  28. Caisse Nationale de l’Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaris, 1996 Fisher P, Cost Savings for the NHS, Natural Medicine Society News, June 1992, 21
  29. Gerhard, I, G. Reimers, C. Keller, and M. Schmuck, Weibliche fertiltitasstorungen. Vergleich homoopathischer einzelmittel–mit konventioneller hormontherapie Therapeutikon. 1991;7:309-315

Why Polio Isn't Going Away

As the number of cases of the paralytic disease fall, world health officials have to grapple with a vexing problem: a component of the most widely used polio vaccine now causes more disease than the virus it is supposed to fight

The shadows lengthen in a guesthouse cafeteria on the sprawling campus of christian Medical College, Vellore, in India. Wrapped up as he is in an issue that has possessed him for years, T. Jacob John notices neither the dying light nor the gathering mosquitoes. He is talking about the oral polio vaccine.

A slight man who speaks and moves with a speed that belies his 76 years, John is one of India’s leading polio experts. Trained as a pediatrician, virologist and microbiologist, he is also a longtime critic of the continued reliance on the oral polio vaccine—OPV in polio speak—used by the nearly 25-year-old international campaign to rid the planet of the paralyzing and sometimes fatal disease. The vaccine is at once an excellent and an imperfect tool. Inexpensive and easy to administer (each dose consists of a few drops of serum on the tongue), it has brought the world to the point where polio eradication is visible on the horizon. Indeed, the World Health Organization announced this past January that there have been no cases of naturally occurring polio in India for a year. But if the distribution of the vaccine is not choreographed with exquisite care, its continued use—at least as it is currently formulated—could actually keep the world from eliminating polio.

Today John is talking with a reporter about a problem raised by a specific component of the oral vaccine, which uses weakened viruses to elicit immunity against the three strains of polio—known as types 1, 2 and 3. (An expensive, alternative vaccine, popular in wealthy nations, consists of an injected formulation that is made up of completely inactivated, or “killed,” viruses; it is known as IPV.) The issue: type 2 poliovirus no longer exists in nature; the last case stemming from naturally circulating virus was reported 13 years ago.

Ongoing vaccination against type 2 would not be worrisome if the viruses in the oral vaccine were perfectly benign. In rare cases, however, the weakened viruses from the vaccine can revert to disease-causing pathogens and provoke the very illness they are meant to prevent. In places where wild polioviruses are still a threat, the risk from natural infection is greater than the small hazard the vaccine poses. But if the only risk of paralysis from type 2 polio comes from the strain in the vaccine itself, then that strain’s continued usage could well be considered unproductive at best and quite possibly unethical. As long as the oral vaccine contains the type 2 virus, however, children in more than 100 countries around the globe must—paradoxically—be vaccinated against type 2 polio to protect them from the type 2 virus in the vaccine.

In 2004 John wrote a letter to the medical journal the Lancet, urging the international community to remove the type 2 component from the oral vaccine, thus making it a “bivalent” vaccine that would protect against types 1 and 3 polioviruses. Like other complaints John has made about the oral polio vaccine, however, the suggestion went nowhere—until now.

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative—a partnership of the WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—is marshalling support for an initiative to drop the type 2 component from the oral vaccine. The proposal is part of a substantial overhaul of the plan to eventually phase out the oral polio vaccine altogether once all types of wild polioviruses are demonstrated to have been extinguished. The WHO’s governing council, the World Health Assembly, will be asked to approve the early withdrawal of the oral vaccine’s type 2 component at its annual meeting in May.

If the policy change passes—and the assembly is expected to vote in its favor—the move would eliminate an ethical problem that has been bedeviling the eradication effort for years. It could also speed the job of wiping out the remaining two strains of polio in the three countries where they remain endemic (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria); a 2010 Lancet study showed that the two-target vaccine is at least 30 percent more effective than the one that has to protect against three strains of polio. And yet the poliovirus has a nasty habit of eluding efforts to contain it. Last year, for example, China reported its first cases—genetic tests traced their origin to Pakistan—in more than a decade. Adjusting the oral polio vaccine, some fear, could have unintended consequences and thus disrupt an eradication campaign that is already 12 years past its original deadline and counting.

Read more :

24 days Clinical Workshop on Sensation Method

Basic Course in Homoeopathy – Introduction in Sensation Method – 24 days Clinical Workshop


How does a beginner start his practise?
The common questions that haunt every student once they step into their final year of college or internship is,

  • Will I be able to set up a successful practise?
  • How will I apply all that I have learnt in college in practise?
  • Do I have the confidence to treat common ailments and acutes?
  • How will I make it in life?

One tends to compare with their friends doing graduation in commerce or arts, and they feel their peer group will probably be more successful than them despite of spending 5 years in a medical college. But this is harsh reality, which is responsible for many potentially good students drift away from Homoeopathy. We often see the best of the student, don’t practise Homoeopathy. This happens despite of the best formal education in colleges, and one reason being a lack of clinical training. Maybe what they get in their internship is not enough. Maybe they need more vigorous hands-on training and demonstration of successful case after case to get an optimal level of confidence.

This scenario, which is more critical in reality than what it appears on paper, as it means a progressive dwindling of homoeopaths taking up full time serious homoeopathic practise, which indicates a direct threat to the existence of the science in coming years. This is the fact not only in India, but globally.

Recognising this need, we have designed basic courses which are applicable for all interns and beginners, that being the most vulnerable stage, and also the most vital moment for them to see practical application of all the theory taught in college. Its only after they see case after case, with good results, they will develop the optimal level of confidence to start their practise. In these courses, we will only focus on showing them successful cases of well known, polycrest remedies, and then towards the end show live cases demonstrating the practical application.

Course Design and Content
The course is specially designed for interns & beginners to understand the Principles of Homoeopathy & its application in their practice. This course will give them an insight into practical homoeopathy; an opportunity to witness the cases treated by Senior Practitioners followed by a detailed discussion in which the teachers will share practical tips from their vast clinical experiences.

The course content includes live demonstrations of case taking and a few video cases to highlight the importance of different techniques of case taking to better understand patients and hone one’s skill on the same.

The course is designed to further refine the clinical skills & learn the concept of the Sensation Method with a detailed understanding on kingdoms, sub-kingdoms & miasms. This enables the practitioner to understand and treat their patients with greater clarity and confidence.

Lecture Topics 

All courses will cover lectures on the following topics:

  • Practical application of case taking techniques by integrating the fundamental principles of Classical Homoeopathy with concepts of the Sensation Method
  • Detailed discussions with senior homoeopaths on case-taking, case understanding, and case management.
  • Learning various questioning techniques with a parallel thought process of the homoeopath
  • Case Analysis
  • Differentiating between common and characteristic symptoms
  • Converting characteristic symptoms into rubrics
  • Practical application of the concepts of Miasms and Levels of Experience
  • Understand and distinguishing between Delusion and Sensation
  • Differentiating between Sensation and Miasm
  • Deepening students’ understanding of well known remedies from the plant, mineral and animal kingdoms, and integrating them with the Sensation Method
  • Selecting the right potency and repetition
  • How to manage acute situations
  • Further refinement in case taking techniques
  • Understanding how to deal with patients in denial/ projection/ rationalization/ intellectualization
  • Determining how deep one should go into a case
  • How to determine when case taking is complete
  • Further exploring and assessing Miasms and Levels of Experience in a case
  • Further exploring the three kingdoms:

Plant kingdom – differentiation between apparently similar families

Mineral kingdom – differentiation between the rows

Animal kingdom – differentiation between the classes 

Students are expected to carry at least one repertory.

Eligibility: For Interns and Beginners 

Duration: 24 Working Days (except Sunday & Public Holidays)

Why do a 24 day course?

“In doing a 24 days course, firstly it takes 2 weeks to get acclimatized, to know what is happening, to understand the concepts and to see the different styles of practice. To see others who are practicing the same concepts but applying in their own unique ways. Once we see it, once we get acclimatized, then it takes 2 weeks to see the same process repeated, to see it more solidified and to be able to think and participate. And also get to see some of the follow-ups of some of the cases you see. Anything less than 24 days is like being a spectator. 

I found in my practice that even 24 days is a very small amount of time. I believe some of my assistants took many years to learn the technique, refine it and make it their own. Some of the senior teacher’s have been associated with me for years. Then they branch out on their own. 24 days itself is a sampler. Anything less than this, you may just get familiar to the concept.”    Dr Rajan Sankaran 

Course timings:  9:00am to 5:00pm Monday – Saturday,   10:00 am to 6:00 pm on the 2nd and 15th of every month 

Course Fees:

  • Interns – sponsored by academy*    provided the intern successfully completes the course
  • Practitioners – Rs. 12,000/-
  • M.D Students: 50% discount i.e. Rs. 6000/-
  • Beginner Practitioners within 3months of completion of internship: 50% discount i.e. Rs. 6000/-
  • Additional charges for food and accommodation

Group discount:
If 10 students join any course together as a group, they get 1 complimentary seat in the same course, or in any other advanced or teachers’ training programmes.  

Course Certification:
A certificate of participation will be issued to all students who successfully complete the course. 

For more details on courses contact:


the other song—International Academy of Advanced Homoeopathy*
1001, Peninsula Heights,
C. D. Burfiwala Marg, Juhu Lane, Andheri (W), Mumbai – 400 058
(Maharashtra), INDIA
Tel: +91 (0) 22 42616666
Fax: +91 (0) 22 42616677

Homeopathic Education & Career – Fast Facts

Best BHMS colleges: Dr. M. L. Dhawale Memorial Homoeopathic Institute, Govt. Homeopathic Medical College, Calicut, Father Muller Homoeopathic Medical College, Mangalore,  National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata, Nehru Homoeopathic Medical College, Delhi

Best PG colleges: NIH-Kolkata, Dr. M. L. Dhawale Memorial Homoeopathic Institute, Nehru Homeopathic Medical College-Delhi, Government Homeopathic Medical College-Thiruvananthapuram

India, a homeopathy hub
With India being the super hub of largest number of homeopaths (over 5 lakhs) in the world, homeopathy is fast being viewed as a mainstream form of treatment in India and the world today. Homeopathy market is likely to grow 30 percent annually and reach a size of Rs. 4,600 crore as the number of takers is growing fast within and outside India.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) homeopathy is the second largest system of medicine in the world. It can be an effective alternative treatment for chronic occurrences like allergies, skin diseases, chronic gastritis, sinusitis and migraine and many more.

“The armoury of homeopathic drugs is very huge. Allopaths still prescribe a list of less than 200 drugs, whereas homeopaths have to deal with 4000 drugs” 

Dr. Manish Bhatia
Founder Director of

“I have treated Leukaemia patient who was put on a ventilator. Homeopathy medicine worked well with allopathy medicines”
Dr. Rahul Tewari,
Private Practitioner, Delhi

“Two specialisations, paediatrics and psychiatry, have gained popularity among students” –
Asst. Prof Dr. Mansoor Ali  K R
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College, Calicut,

Dr Valavan Manager – Scientific Affairs, Schwabe India
Schwabe is the only MNC operating in the field of homoeopathic manufacturing. It entered India when the demand for its products shot up. Dr Valavan reviews the expansion and job outlook .

Research is also an option
Researchers are involved in three kinds of work – fundamental research, clinical research and drug proving. “I work on fundamental research where I focus on collaborative research projects with institutes like IITs, AIIMS. I design protocols and review them,” says Dr. Saurav Arora, Senior Research Fellow at CCRH. Dr. Mansoor feels doing private practice is more lucrative than any other job. Running your clinic may not give revenue immediately, but it has more potential for the growth. With decent personal set-up and experience one can earn between Rs. 20,000 to 50,000 per month. However, there is no limitation once the doctor builds reputation in the market. “Clinical practise has its own charm. It’s a different pleasure to meet patients and cure them. Whereas in research you can explore a lot but you have a limited clinical contact,” concludes Arora.  

Read the full article :

One minute Preceptor – case based teaching

What’s a good way to structure case based teaching?

This 5 step microskill model, often known as the One Minute Preceptor, provides a framework for teaching in the office or emergency room. The structure encourages students to think critically about the case and gives insight into clinical reasoning skills.

It also reminds preceptors to provide feedback on performance. Try using it after a learner has presented a case summary.

UGC invites 300 fellowships

The University Grants Commission invites applications for 300 Post Doctoral Fellowships for Indian Scholars in United States for the year 2012 under Singh‐Obama 21st Century Knowledge Initiative 2012. The applicant should be a permanent teacher within 40 years of age as on Dec. 31, 2012, in an institution recognized under 2(f) and 12B of UGC Act and should possess a Ph.D. Degree in the respective field. Details of the scheme can be accessed from

The applications in the prescribed format may be submitted only through online mode latest by 11th July, 2012.   (non‐extendable) by logging into website

1. Application submitted only through online mode shall be entertained and no application submitted in hard copy shall be entertained or considered for the Award in any circumstances whatsoever.

2. Record of the non‐selected candidates shall not be preserved beyond 3 months from the date of declaration of results.

3. The decision of the Commission with regard to the selection of the candidates for the award shall be final.


  • The applicant should be a permanent teacher in a university/institution recognized by UGC under 2(f) and 12B of UGC Act.
  • The applicant should possess at least 60 per cent marks or equivalent in the post-graduate degree.
  • The applicant should possess a Ph.D. degree in respective academic discipline (Humanities, Social Sciences, Natural Science, Engineering, Technology, Agricultural Sciences) or  MD/MS/Ph.D. in Medical Sciences.
  • The Applicant must provide proof of having carried out independent research work published in peer reviewed journals preferably indexed.
  • The applicant should be of age up to  40 years as on 31 December 2012.
  • The reservation will be available in accordance with the national norms.

Journal – Medical Education Development

Advancing knowledge in medical education

I am delighted to share with the medical educationists of India details of a new medical journal.  Medical Education Development (MED) is a new, peer-reviewed, Open Access, online-only journal dealing with all aspects of Medical Education. It has a unique focus, as you can see from the description attached. The core of the journal is the “Innovations” section, reserved exclusively for the systematic and concise description of educational innovations in medicine.

10 full articles have been so far published since the journal began operations in late 2010. The PubMed indexing issue will be taken up early next year. I also feel proud to share the editorial board with Professor Juanita  Bezuidenhout, Co-director, Southern Africa-FAIMER Regional Institute, and FAIMER 2005 fellow (PHIL).

Link :

Call for papers – Central Asian Journal of Global Health

The Central Asian Journal of Global Health (CAJGH), Official Journal of the Global Health Network Supercourse project Nazarbayev University

Special Inaugural Issue on: “Public health, medicine and bioengineering for Central Asia and the world”

This special issue will examine issues related to health, medicine, and bioengineering in Central Asia and how these relate to Global Health. The Central Asian Journal of Global Health is a peer-reviewed scientific journal developed at Nazarbayev University in collaboration with the Supercourse at the University of Pittsburgh, WHO Collaborating Centre.  We encourage submissions in the following areas:

  • Medicine
  • Public Health
  • Pharmacology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Epidemiological Studies
  • Disasters
  • Agriculture and Health
  • Global Health Libraries

The Central Asian Journal of Global Health is the first official journal of the Global Health Supercourse network of over 50,000 individuals in 174 countries and a library of over 5200 lectures in public health and medicine. Our aim is to develop one of the leading journals in Central Asia and the world.

Notes for Prospective Authors

  1. Articles should be in English and should be submitted through the journal’s website (
  2. Papers should not have been previously published.
  3. Instructions for authors, format requirements, and other information about the journal can be found at At this point, there is no charge for publishing or accessing articles at CAJGH.
  4. Publication decisions are reached by the editorial board and communicated to authors.  Authors of accepted articles are giving permission to place their work in an open access internet based journal.

The deadline for article submissions for the inaugural issue is June 1, 2012. If you cannot submit the article through the online system, please send it via email to Faina Linkov and Sholpan Askarova with the subject “article for submission” at

Please send this call for papers to your friends and colleagues. We are looking forward to your submissions!