Supportive Evidence for the Anticancerous Potential of Alternative Medicine against Hepatocarcinogenesis in Mice
S. Pathak; N. Bhattacharjee; J.K. Das; S.C. Choudhury; S.R. Karmakar; P. Banerjee; S. Paul; A. Banerjee; A. Khuda-Bukhsh
Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India
The present study examines if Lycopodium 200 (Lyco-200) has demonstrable anti-cancer activities in mice which are chronically fed carcinogens, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB) to induce liver cancer. Materials and Methods: Mice in 5 different groups were chronically fed for varying periods of time: group I: normal diet; group II: normal diet + alcohol 200); group III: p-DAB + PB; group IV: p-DAB + PB + alcohol 200 (vehicle of Lyco-200 being ethyl alcohol); group V: p-DAB + PB + Lyco-200. They were sacrificed at day 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 or 120, and the following parameters were assessed: cytogenetic endpoints like chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm-head anomaly; toxicity biomarkers like acid and alkaline phosphatases, alanine and aspartate amino transferase, glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase and catalase activities, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content.
Additionally, scanning and transmission electron microscopic analyses of liver tissues were made at day 90 and 120, and immunodetection of p53 protein as well as gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases in liver tissue were performed. Furthermore, studies were conducted on blood glucose, hemoglobin and cholesterol, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol, and lymphocyte and hepatic cell viabilities. Physical properties of Lyco-200 and potentized alcohol 200 were analyzed by using methods such as UV, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). Results: Lyco-200 reduced cytogenetic damages yielding positive modulations of all biochemical, pathological and other risk factors, cell viability and expression of p53 protein and matrix metalloproteinases as compared to controls. Conclusion: Studies on other mammals are recommended to further investigate the potential of Lyco-200 in liver cancer