Fr.Muller’s Homeopathic Medical College. Mangalore
What is the originality and specialty of Homoeopathic pharmacy?
Theory of Dynamization, Drug Proving, single remedy, Purity and Totality of the drug source, Simple to dispense and easy to administer, Long shelf life, cost effective.
What are the types of pharmacy?
Official pharmacy – Preparation of drugs according to the processes that are prescribed in an official pharmacopoeia and are done in a pharmaceutical set-up.
Extemporaneous pharmacy – preparing and dispensing medicines according to the directions of a physician and is done at the dispensary level.
Galenical pharmacy – relate to preparation of crude drugs. (Following the concepts of Galen).
Institutional (Hospital) Pharmacy – Practice of pharmacy in hospitals, health maintenance organization and nursing homes.
Operative pharmacy – relates to the various aspects of standardization, manufacturing, retail and also includes administrative and hospital pharmacy.
Father of Pharmacopoeia – Valerius Cordus (1515 – 1544).
Father of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia – Dr Caspari (Leipzig, Germany, Dispensatory of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia in 1825).
It is the supreme authoritative book, published by an authority, government of any country that deals with the rules and regulations of standardization of drug substances. It contains directions for collection of drug substances from different sources, their preparation, preservation and standards that determine their strength and purity. A pharmacopoeia published by an authority is termed as ‘official’ and one that is published by any person, other than an authority is ‘unofficial’.
Source of Homoeopathic pharmacy –
In 1805, Hahnemann published the results of his observations of fifteen years in his ‘Fragmenta de Viribus Medicamentorum Positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatatis’. Between the years 1811 and 1832 were published his ”Materia Medica Pura” and ”Chronic Diseases”.
History of Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia –
1825: Dr. Caspari (Leipzig, Germany) published Dispensatory of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia.
1870: British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia by British Homoeopathic Society, London.
1872: Schwabe – Pharmacopoeia Homoeopathica Polyglottica.
1897 : Otis Clap & Son Inc. Agent, Boston, U.S.A. published Pharmacopoeia of American Institute of Homoeopathy
1898 – Pharmacopée Homoeopathique Française
1901: 2nd edition of Pharmacopoeia of American Institute of Homoeopathy, but title changed to “Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States”.
In India, M. Bhattacharya and Co. published ‘Pharmaceutists Manual’ in 1892.
A revised and enlarged twelfth edition was published in July 1962 as “M. Bhattacharya and Co.’s Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia”.
This is not officially recognized by the Government of India.
Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia of India –
HPI is included in the Second Schedule of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940.
The proposal to set up a Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee was initiated by the Homoeopathic Advisory Committee in the year 1956.
The Government of India constituted the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee in September 1962.
Dr.B.K. Sarkar was the first chairman of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee.
Various volume of HPI –
- Vol – 1 1971 – 180 drugs
- Vol – 2 1974 – 100 drugs
- Vol – 3 1978 – 105 drugs
- Vol – 4 1984 – 107 drugs
- Vol – 5 1986 – 114 drugs
- Vol – 6 1990 – 104 drugs
- Vol – 7 1999 – 105 drugs
- Vol -8 2000 – 101 drugs
Total number of monographs in HPI – 916
Monographs – The general plan of pharmacopoeias is to lay down the direction for the selection and preparation of drugs that are thoroughly adapted to the purpose of homoeopathic prescribing. These directions and specifications for each drug are called ‘monographs’.
Sources of Homoeopathic drugs –
Vegetable Kingdom (Plant Kingdom)
Without roots – Alfalfa, Lobelia inflata, Ocimum sanctum, Ranunculus sceleratus
With roots – Aconitum napellus, Aethusa cynapium, Arnica montana, Belladonna, Chamomilla, Chelidonium majus, Conium, Drosera, Dulcamara, Euphrasia, Hyoscyamus, Hypericum, Ledum palustre, Pulsatilla, Ruta graveolens, Spigelia, Stramonium
- Fresh : Arum triphyllum, Bryonia alba
- Dried : Ipecacuanha, Ratanhia
- Aerial : Ficus indica
- Root & rhizome : Aletris farinose
- Flowering stem: Cactus grandiflorus
- Stem with leaves: Clematis erecta, Sabina
- Rhizome: Gelsemium, Helleborus, Podophyllum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Veratrum album, Veratrum viride
- Corm: Colchicum autumnale, Crocus sativus
- Bulb: Allium cepa, Allium sativum
- Dried: Coca, Eucalyptus, Tabacum, Gymnema sylvestre
- Fresh: Digitalis purpurea, Rhus tox, Justicia adhatida, Kalmia latifolia, Ficus religiosa
- Asparagus officinalis, Pinus sylvestris
- Flower bud: Prunus spinosa
- Stigma: Crocus sativus
- Flowering heads (with leaves): Calendula, Eupatorium perfoliatum
- Flowering heads (without leaves): Cannabis sativa, cina, Melilotus alba, Solidago
- Fresh : Avena sativa, Cucurbita pepo, Ignatia, Syzygium jambolanum
- Dried: Cocculus indicus, Coffea cruda, Nux moschata, Nux vomica, Sabadilla, Staphysagria, Carduus marianus.
- Fresh outer bark: Abies Canadensis, Salix nigra, Viburunum opulus,
- Dried outer bark: Cinchona, Mezereum, Conduranga
- Inner bark: Cinnamomum, Fraxinus Americana, Prunus virginiana
- Fresh bark of root: Baptisia tinctoria, Berberis vulgaris, Hamamelis
- Dried bark of root: Gossypium
- Bark of root and stem: Robinia
Bark of trees: Azadhirachta indica, Jonosia asoka, Terminalia arjuna
- Fresh fruits (berry) – Agnus castus, Crataegus, Sabal serrulata
- Fresh leaves and berries – Viscum album
- Dried fruits (Nuts) – Aesculus glabra
- Pulp – Carica papaya
- Juices : Aloe socotrina (Inspissated juice of leaves), Opium (gummy juice of poppy), Anacardium occidentale (black oily juice of shell).
- Resins: Abies nigra, Guaicum
- Gum-resins: Asafoetida
- Balsams : Balsamum peruvianum
Volatile oils: Oleum santali, Oleum gaultheria
Fixed oils : Oleum crotonis, Oleum ricinis
Alkaloids : Atropine, Morphine, Nicotinum
Glycosides : Digitalin
Algae – Fucus vesiculosus
Fungi – Agaricus muscarius, Bovista, Secale cor, Ustilago
Lichen – Sticta pulmonaria
Bryophyta: – Polytrichum juniperinum
Pteriophyta: – Lycopodium (Spore), Equisetum hymale
Calcispongiae – Badiaga: Fresh water sponge (Skeleton)
Spongia tosta: Common sponge (Skeleton)
Scyphozoa – Medusa: Jelly-fish (Whole living animal)
Hydrozoa – Physalia: Portuguese man-of-war (Whole living animal
Anthozoa – Corallium rubrum: Red coral (Skeleton)
Hirudineae – Sanguisuga: Hirudo, the leech (Whole living animal)
Gastropoda – Helix tosta: Toasted snail (Whole living animal)
Murex purpurea: Purple-fish (Juices)
Bivalvia – Calcarea calcinata: Calcinated oystershell (Shell)
Pectin: Scallop (Shell)
Cephalopoda – Sepia: Cuttle fish (Juice)
Eel serum (Serum)
Asteroidea – Asterias rubens: Star-fish (Whole living animal)
- Armadillo officinalis: Sow bug, Sow louse (Whole dried animal)
- Astacus fluviatilis : Crawfish or River crab (Whole living animal)
- Homarus: Lobster (Digestive fluid)
- Limulus cyclops: King crab (Blood)
- Scolopendra: Centipede (Whole living animal)
- Aranea diadema: The Cross spider (Whole living animal)
- Latrodectus katipo: Poison spider (Whole living animal)
- Latrodectus mactans: Black widow spider (Whole living animal)
- Mygale lasiodora: Black Cuban spider (Whole living animal)
- Scorpio europus: Scorpion (Whole living animal)
- Tarentula cubensis: Cuban spider (Whole living animal)
- Tarentula hispanica: Spanish spider (Whole living animal)
- Theridion curassavicum: Orange spider (Whole living animal)
Phylum Arthropoda – Insecta
- Apis mellifica: Honeybee (Whole living animal)
- Blatta orientalis: Indian cockroach (Whole dried animal)
- Cantharis: Spanish fly (Whole dried animal)
- Cimex acanthia: Bedbug (Whole living animal)
- Coccinella: Ladybird beetle (Whole living animal)
- Coccus cacti: Cochineal insect (Whole dried animal)
- Culex musca: Culex mosquito (Whole living animal)
- Formica rufa: The Ant (Whole living animal)
- Serum anguillar ichthotoxin: Eel serum (serum)
- Gadus morrhua: Cod (First cervical vertebra)
- Oleum jecoris aselli: Cod-liver oil (Oil)
- Pyrarara: River fish (nosode) (Whole living animal)
- Bufo rana: Toad (poison)
- Amphisbaena vermicularis: Snake-like Lizard (Poison)
- Heloderma: Gila monster (Poison)
- Lacerta agilis: Green Lizard (Whole dried animal)
Ophidia (Snake Poison)
- Bothrops lanceolatus: Yellow viper
- Cenchris contortrix: Copperhead snake
- Crotalus horridus: North American Rattlesnake
- Elaps corallinus: Brazilian Coral snake
- Lachesis trigonocephalus: Surukuku
- Naja tripudians: Indian hooded snake
- Toxicophis: Moccasin snake
- Vipera: Common Viper
- Calcarea ovi testae: Egg-shell (Shell)
- Ovi gallinae pellicula: Fresh membrane of shell of a Hen’s egg (Shell)
- Carbo animalis – made from charred ox hide.
- Castor equi – Rudimentary thumbnail of horse.
- Castroreum – Tincture of secretion found in preputial sacs of beaver.
- Fel tauri – Trituration of ox gall.
- Ingluvin – Gizzard of a fowl.
- Mephatis – Alcoholic dilution of the liquid contained in the anal gland of Skunk.
- Moschus – trituration of inspissated secretion contained in preputial follicles of Musk deer.
- Pulmo vulpis – fresh lung of wolf or fox.
Lacs (Milk & Milk Products)
- Koumyss: Fermentation from ass’s milk
- Lac caninum: Bitch’s milk
- Lac defloratum: Skimmed cow’s milk
- Lac felinum: Cat’s milk
- Lac vaccini floc: Cream
- Lac vaccinum: Cow’s milk
- Lac vaccinum coagulatum: Curds
Argentum met; Aurum met; Bismuthum; Cuprum met; Ferrum met; Indium; Iridium; Manganum; Niccolum; Osmium; Palladium; Platinum; Plumbum met; Rhodium; Stannum met; Tellurium; Thallium; Titanium.
- Acidum boracicum;
- Acidum hydrobromicum;
- Acidum hydrofluoricum;
- Acidum muriaticum;
- Acidum nitricum;
- Acidum nitro muriaticum;
- Acidum phosphoricum;
- Acidum sulphuricum
Calcarea arsenicum; Calcarea bromatum; Calcarea carbonicun; Calcarea fluorata; Calcarea hypophosphorosum; Calcarea iodatum; Calcarea lactica phosphorica; Calcarea muriaticum;; Calcarea phosphoricum; Calcarea picricum; Calcarea sulphuratum; Hepar sulphuris; Lapis albus
Aethyl nitrosum; Amylenum nitrosum; Anilinum; Atropinum; Benzenum; Camphora; Carboneum sulphuratum; Chloralum; Chloroformum; Formalin; Glonoinum; Glycerinum; Indigo; Iodoformum; Menthol; Methylene blue; Naphthalinum; Paraffinum; PetroleumPix liquida; Propylamine; Sulphanilamide; Sulphonal; Thiosinaminum; Thymolum; Trinitrotoluene; Urea; Uric acid.
Adamas; Aethiops antimonalis; Anthracite; Anthrakokali; Antipyrinum; Benzoaris; Eupionum; Fluorspar; Graphites; Hekla lava; Ichthyolum; Kaolin; Kerosolenum; Kreosotum; Mica; Slag; Tetradymite.
- Carlsbad: The waters of the Sprudel and Muhlbrunnen springs.
- Levico: An arsenical mineral water of South Tyorol
- Sanicula: A mineral spring water of Ottawa, Ill., U.S.A.
- Skookum Chuck: Skookum Limechen Chuck Lake.
- Vichy: Mineral springs at Vichy, France [Grande-Grille springs}.
- Wiesbaden: The spring at Wiesbaden, in Prussia.
Homoeopathic preparations from pure microbial culture obtained from diseased tissue and clinical materials (secretions, discharges, etc.) are known as NOSODES.
CLASSIFICATION OF NOSODES
- N-I – Made from lysates of microorganisms capable of producing bacterial endotoxins. Eg. Typhoidinum
- N-II – Made from microorganisms capable of producing exotoxin Eg. Diptherinum
- N-III – Made from purified toxins.
- N-IV – Made from microorganisms / viruses / clinical materials from diseased subjects eg. Psorinum
- Anthracinum – Anthrax poison, prepared from spleen of sheep or cattle.
- Carcinosinum – Cancerous tissue
- Diphtherinum – Diphtheric membrane
- Medorrhinum Urethral discharge from acute gonorrhoea
- Psorinum – Itch eruption
- Syphilinum – Syphilitic lesion – Primary or Secondary.
- Secale cornutum – Fungus growing upon seed of ergot rye
- Ustilago maydis – Fungus growing on stem of Indian corn
- Nectrianinum – Nosode of cancer of tree (Nectria ditissima)
- Ambra Grisea – Morbid secretion from liver of sperm whale. It is extracted from rectum and found floating on sea.
- Boletus Laricis – prepared from dried fungus purging Agaric / Larch Boletus.
- Cholesterinum– prepared from gall stone.
- Calculus renalis – prepared from renal calculus.
- Hippomanes – prepared from a sticky mucoid substance of urinous odour found in the amniotic fluid of the mare.
- Malaria officinalis – Prepared from mire taken during dryness of a malarial marsh.
- Malandrinum – lysate from exudates of horse malandra (grease) – discharge of eczema in the fold of the knee.
- Morbillinum – from exudates of mouth and pharynx of measles of infected patients.
- O.A.N – synovial fluid of articulations especially knee and hip of osteoarthritis patients.
- Pyrogenum – prepared originally from decomposition of meat of beef.
- Usnea barbata – prepared from lichen infecting soft maple.
- Vaccinonum – prepared from the lymph of cow pox.
- Variolinum – lysate obtained from the serosity of smallpox pustule.
- Epitheliomine – extract of epithelioma.
- Schirrinum – Carcinoma schirrus (Stomach)
- Carcinocin – Hepatica metastat.
- Carcinocin adeno vesica – papillary adenocarcinoma of bladder.
- Carcinosin pulmonale – pulmonary cancer.
- Tuberculinum avis – prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis aviare.
- Tuberculinum bovinum – prepared from the pus of tuberculosis abscess in animal.
- Tuberculinum Koch – culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Bacillinum Burnett – from the sputum of tuberculosis patients containing the bacteria.
- Bacillinum testium prepared from the testicle of tuberculosis patient.
- Morgan (Bach) – Morgan Pure- Morgan Gaertner
- Bacillus no.7
Sarcodes are preparations from the secretions of healthy organisms, healthy animal tissues and secretions.
- Pituitarum posterium
- Fel tauri
- Vulpis fel
Immaterial ‘dynamic’ energies that are utilized as potentized homoeopathic medicines. (Aphorism 286, 6th edition, Organon of Medicine)
- Natural source
- Luna – moon’s rays
- Sol – sun’s rays
- Magnetis poli ambo – the magnet
- Magnetis polus arcticus – North Pole of magnet
- Magnetis polus australis – South Pole of magnet
- Electricitas – Atmospheric & static
- Galvanismus – galvanism
Tautopathic or Synthetic Source
Compounds synthesized, that have found a place in allopathic system of medicine, are potentized, proved on healthy provers and administered on the Similia principle. This category of drugs is termed as ‘synthetic’.
- Histamine hydrochloride
Collection & preservation of Plant Drugs –
In flowering season, when partly in flower and partly in bud during sunny weather.
- ANNUALS: Early in autumn.
- BIENNIALS: In the spring of the second year.
- PERENNIALS: In the second or third year, before they develop woody fibers.
- STEMS: After development of leaves.
In early spring or late in autumn before the juices are not exhausted.
RESIN: In early spring, at the time of development of leaves and blossoms.
NON-RESIN: Late in autumn from young vigorous trees.
When they are fully developed, should be cut just above roots.
Just before and during early part of flowering time. Leaves of biennial plants
are collected in spring of second year as soon as flowering stems begin to shoot.
TWIGS: Of present year’s growth only.
Partly in bud and partly in blossom, in dry weather.
As soon as they mature when the leaves begin to decay.
FRUITS AND SEEDS:
When they are fully ripe. Succulent fruits, seeds or berries should be used while fresh. Only dried fruits, seeds or berries may be stored in well closed glass container.
Phytochemistry – active principles of plant drugs
The active principles of a drug are the potent constituents of the drug that is individual to the drug and are responsible for the pharmacodynamic action of the drug.
Glycosides are non-reducing organic substances. They are colourless, crystalline or amorphous solid substances soluble in water and alcohol. The name of all glycosides ends in ‘in’.
- Digitalis – digitoxin, digoxin, digitalin
- Mezereum – daphin.
- Cinchona – quinovin.
- Aesculus hippocastanum – aesculetin
- Ruta graveolens – rutin.
- Thuja occidentalis – thujin, thujetin, thujenin.
Tannins consist of complex, organic, non- nitrogenous, phenolic compounds of high molecular weight. They possess the property to ‘tan’, i.e. to convert hide and skin into leather.
- Hydrolyzable tannins: Rheum, Hamamelis
- Condensed tannins: Cinnamon, Cinchona
- Pseudotannins: Nux vomica, Ipecacuanha
Resins are plant exudates, except shellac or lac, which the lac-insect
prepares from plant juices. Resins associated with volatile oil are called
oleo-resins. Resins in association with both volatile oil and gum are called oleo-gum- resins. If the resins contain benzoic acid and / or cinnamic acid and / or their esters, they are called balsams.
Gum-resins – Asafoetida
Lignan – Podophyllum: podophyllotoxin
Alkaloids are organic nitrogenous substances, more or less alkaline in action and are the secondary metabolites of a plant.
- Belladonna: atropine, apoatropine
- Stramonium: hyoscyamine, hyoscine.
- Cinchona: quinine, quinidine, cinchonine
- Ipecacuanha: emetine
- Opium: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine
- Secale cornutum: ergometrine, ergotamine
- Nux vomica: strychnine, brucine
- Conium maculatum: coniine
- Aconitum napellus: aconitine, benzoylaconine
- Colchicum autumnale: colchicine
Volatile oils are odorous constituents of plants. They are liquid and volatile with a characteristic smell. They are characteristic of certain orders such as Labiatae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Piperaceae and Zingiberaceae.
- Mentha piperita : Peppermint oil
- Camphora : Camphor
- Nux moschata : Nutmeg oil
- Eucalyptus : Eucalyptus oil
- Santalum album : Sandalwood oil
FIXED OILS, FATS AND WAXES
Fixed oils and fats, obtained from plants, differ only as regards their melting point but chemically they belong to the same group. If a substance is liquid at 15.5° to 16.5°, it is called fixed oil and if it is solid or semi-solid at the above temperature, it is called fat.
- Ricinus comunis: Castor oil
- Croton tiglium : Croton oil
- Hydnocarpus : Hydnocarpus oil
10. Collection & Preservation of Animal Kingdom
Venoms are obtained from serological laboratories and are quickly dry-freezed and preserved in glycerin.
Elaps corallinus : The venom is collected by compressing a butter-plate against the fangs or by letting the snake bite through a cloth covering a wide-mouth bottle.
Lachesis: The living snake is stunned with a blow; the venom is then collected on sugar of milk by pressing the poison fang upwards against the bag.
Crotalus horridus, Naja tripudians, Vipera :
Venom is procured by compressing the gland when the serpent is either pinioned in a frame or under the influence of chloroform.
Bufo rana: The live animal is fastened to a slab of cork by four strong pins stuck through the webs of the feet. The poles of an induction apparatus in action are slowly drawn over the back of the animal, whereupon the poison very soon issues from the dorsal glands.
Cantharis: In May or June when the insects swarm upon the trees, they are collected in the morning at sunrise, when they are torpid from the cold of night and easily let go their hold.. Person with their faces protected by masks and their hand with gloves shakes the tree or beat with poles. The insects are collected as they fall upon linen cloths spread underneath. They are then exposed in sieves to the vapour of boiling vinegar and having been thus deprived of life, are dried in the sun or in apartments heated by stoves.
Homoeopathic vehicles and bases.
Homoeopathic vehicles are material agents that are therapeutically inert, having no curative properties of its own, as well as chemically non-reactive with drug substances. They are a media for extraction of the properties of the drug, its preservation and conveyance of the properties of the drug to the intended site of action.
Classification of homoeopathic vehicles
- Solid vehicles –
- Sugar of milk
- Cane sugar
- Globules and Pilules
Liquid vehicles –
- Distilled water
- Solvent ether
- Syrup simplex
- Olive oil
- Almond oil
- Almond oil
- Sesame oil
- Chaulmoogra oil
- Coconut oil
- Sandalwood oil
- Lavender oil
- Rosemary oil
- Paraffin: Hard Paraffin; Soft Paraffin [Yellow soft paraffin, White soft paraffin];
- Liquid Paraffin
- Beeswax: Yellow beeswax; White beeswax
- Prepared lard
- Soap: Hard soap; Soft soap; Curd soap,
Vehicles for preparation of mother tincture, mother solution, mother substance-
- Distilled water
- Solvent ether
- Sugar of milk
- Vehicles for potentization-
- Sugar of milk
- Distilled water
Vehicles for dispensing of Homoeopathic medicines-
- Sugar of milk
- Distilled water
- Syrup simplex
Vehicles as bases for external applications-
- Distilled water
- Olive oil
- Almond oil
- Sesame oil
- Chaulmoogra oil
- Coconut oil
- Sandalwood oil
- Lavender oil
- Rosemary oil
- Prepared lard
(saccharum lactose, sugar of milk)
- Chemical formula: C12H22O11, H2O
- Molecular weight: 360.3
- Source: goat’s milk
- Stapfs process of purification of saccharum lactose (John Ernst Stapf)
- 450gm. sl +2 liters of boiling water
- filter using filter paper
- filtrate+ 2 liters of absolute alcohol
- keep for 3-4 days
- crystals deposits
- add some alcohol to crystallized mass and wash in purified water
- crystals are diluted by pouring through filter paper and kept airtight .
- Stable in air, but readily absorbs odors.
- 1gm is soluble in 5ml of water; in 2.6ml of boiling water; very slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether.
- Its solution is neutral to litmus.
- Impurities are Starch, Cane sugar, Acid radical, Alum, Chloride, Phosphates, and Copper.
14. Globules are prepared from pure cane sugar (pharmaceutical grade of cane sugar / sucrose) with globule making pan or pill tubes.
- It is sometimes made with 80% sucrose and 20% lactose.
- Molecular weight – 342.3
- Colour: white
- Shape: uniform and perfectly globular
- Size: Size numbers 40, 50, 60, 70 or 80 are generally called pilules. The smaller sizes are called globules.
- Consistency: not be too soft or too hard
- Odor: odorless
- Taste: sweet, as it is made from cane sugar
- Solubility: entirely soluble in water
- Dispensing of homoeopathic potencies as well as placebo.
- For preservation of homoeopathic medicines.
- Globules are to be kept in airtight bottles and kept away from moisture.
- The globules retain their medicinal value for many years, if protected against sunlight and heat.
- Impurities are Flavour, Starch, Glucose, Glycerin, Talc, Chalk, Kaolin, Antioxidants, inorganic & whitening agents.
Pellets are small, sterile cylinders about 3.2 mm diameter by 8mm in length that are formed by compression from medicated masses. In Homoeopathy, it is a synonym for globule.
15. Cones – Source – Cane sugar and egg albumin
- Conical in shape
- Size – by the diameter of base in millimeter; common size – 6
- For preservation of medicines for a long time.
16. Tablet -source Pure refined sugar of milk. Prepared by tablet punching machine.
- Shape: discoid, round with flat or convex face
- Size: In size of 1grain or 65 mg
- Consistency: softer than globules
- Lactose content – not less than 94%
- Binder – not exceeding 3%w/w
- Lubricant – not exceeding 3% w/w
- Insoluble matter – not exceeding 5% w/w
- Disintegration time – with in 5 minutes.
- Ash value – 0.5% w/w
- Tablets serve as solid dosage forms for dispensing of homoeopathic medicines.
17. Distilled Water
- Synonym: Purified water; Aqua distillata; Aqua purificata
- Chemical symbol: H2O
- Molecular weight: 18.015
- Prepared by
- Compression distillation – using Leibigs condenser (Small scale).
- Purification by Stills – Conventional Stills & Multiple effect Still.
- Deionization- Cation exchangers (Zeokarb 225, Amberlite IR 120 resin)
- Anion exchangers (Amberlite IR 400, DeAcidite FF, Zeolite FF resin)
- Specific gravity – 1.000 at 25C.
- Boiling point – 100C
- Freezing point – 0C
- pH – 5.8 – 7
- Impurities – Acidity or Alkalinity, iron, lead, Ammonia, Chloride, Sulphate, Calcium
- For preparation of aqueous mother solutions according to Class VA and Class VB.
- It is used to convert solid trituration potency into a liquid potency for succussions.
- To prepare mother solution for LM scale.
18. Ethyl Alcohol. Synonym: Ethanol; Spirit of Wine;
- Chemical symbol: C2H5OH
- Molecular weight: 46.07
- Prepared by
- Distillation of fermented liquids containing carbohydrates or by synthesis. It contains not less than 94.7%v/v or 92.0%w/w and not more than 95.2%v/v or 92.7%w/w of ethyl alcohol.
- Usable carbohydrate -containing materials include molasses, sugarcane, beetroot, grapes, fruit juices, corn, barley, wheat, rice, maize, potato, wood and waste sulphite liquors.
- Impurities in alcohol are acid, fusel oil, water, methyl alcohol.
- Varieties of Alcohol:
- Absolute alcohol – Prepared by dehydration of rectified spirit with fresh quick lime or by distillation of rectified spirit, mixed with little benzene
- Contains not less than 99.4%v/v or 99%w/w of ethyl alcohol.
- Specific gravity – 0.795.
- It is used in Stapf process for the purification of sugar of milk.
- Dispensing alcohol –Prepared by diluting 947ml of strong alcohol to 1000ml with purified water
- Contains 91.4%v/v (limit 91.0 to 92.0%v/v) of ethyl alcohol
- Specific gravity: 0.8289 to 0.8319
- Dispensing alcohol is used for making most of the dilutions from tinctures, in Centesimal and Decimal scale, preparation of potencies of fifty millesimal scale and conversion of solid triturations into liquid potencies.
- Dilute alcohol – Prepared by diluting 632ml of strong alcohol to 1000ml with purified water.
- Contains 60%v/v (limit 59.5% to 60.5%v/v) of ethyl alcohol
- Specific gravity: 0.9139 to 0.9169
- After conversion of solid trituration, 6X potency to 8X in the liquid form, the next higher potency 9X is prepared with dilute alcohol (HPI).
- Dilute alcohol is used to prepare 1X and 1C potencies from the mother tincture prepared according to Old Hahnemannian Method, prepare evaporating lotions and cleansing of utensils.
- Proof Spirit – It is legally defined as being a spirit, which at a temperature of 51oF shall weigh exactly 12/13th of weight of an equal measure of distilled water.
- Specific gravity: 0.91976
- Contains 57.1% of ethyl alcohol by volume and 49.28% of ethyl alcohol by weight. Spirit of this strength is called 100% Proof Spirit. So 57.1% by volume of Spirit is equivalent to 100% Proof Spirit.
- Weaker spirits are termed as ‘Under Proof – U.P.’ and stronger spirits are termed as ‘Over Proof – O.P.’.
- Conversion of % concentration to proof strength and vice versa
- 20o OP = 120 / 1.75 = 68.57%
- 60o OP = 160 / 1.75 = 91.42%
- 10o UP = 90 / 1.75 = 51.4%
- 91.42% = (91.42 X 1.75) – 100 = 60 i.e. 60 OP
- 60% = (60 X 1.75) – 100 = 5 i.e. 5 OP
- 40% = (40 X 1.75) – 100 = – 30 i.e. 30 UP
- Rectified Spirit 60 O.P. means Pure Rectified Spirit containing 160 percent of Proof Spirit.
- Specific gravity: 0.829.
- Contains 91.29 % by volume of ethyl alcohol.
19. Glycerin –
- Chemical formula: CH2OH CHOH CH2OH or C3H8O3
- Molecular weight: 92.09
- Boiling point – 290C
- Specific gravity – 1.26
- For the preservation of poisonous animal products and venom of snakes.
- For preparation of glyceroles and lotions.
- For preparation of mother tinctures of Apis mellifica, Tarantula, etc.
20. Solvent Ether– : (C2H5)2O – Mol Wt: 74.12
21. Oils –
- Olive oil – Oleum olivae – A fixed oil obtained from ripe fruits of Olea europea. Pale Yellow colour (green to greenish yellow), Spf. gr. – 0.910 – 0.913 at 20C.
- Almond oil – Oleum amygdalae expressum – : A fixed oil obtained from kernels of seeds of Prunus amygdalus.Pale yellow colour, Spf. gr – 0.910 – 0.915 at 20C.
- Sesame oil – Oleum sesami; Gingelly oil – : A fixed oil obtained from seeds of Sesamum indicum. Pale yellow colour, faint odour, Spf. gr – 0.916 – 0.921 at 20C.
- Chaulmoogra oil – Oleum chaulmoograe – A fixed oil expressed from fresh ripe seeds of Hydnocarpus kurzii or Hydnocarpus wightiana.Brownish yellow colour, rancid butter odour.
- Sandal wood oil – Oleum santali-: A volatile oil obtained from dried heartwood of Santalum album Thick, pale yellow colour, strongly aromatic odour, Spf. gr – 0.973 – 0.985 at 20C.
- Lavender oil – Oleum lavendulae – : A volatile oil obtained from fresh flowering tops of Lavendula officinalis.Yellowish green colour, Spf. gr – 0.875 – 0.888 at 25C.
- Rosemary oil – : Oleum rosmarini – A volatile oil prepared from fresh flowering tops of Rosmarinus officinalis. Pale yellow colour, characteristic odour of rosemary, Spf. gr – 0.894– 0.912 at 20C.
22. Semi – Solid Vehicles – Vehicles that are in the semisolid state at room temperature.
Paraffin hard (Paraffinum durum; Paraffin wax)
It is used, mainly to increase the consistency of ointments.
It is an ingredient of paraffin ointment, simple ointment and wool alcohol ointment.
Yellow soft paraffin (petrolatum; Amber petrolatum; Yellow petrolatum; Petroleum jelly; Paraffin jelly; Paraffinum molle flavum)
It is used as a base for ointments. It is highly occlusive and a good emollient.
White Soft Paraffin (white petrolatum; white petroleum jelly; paraffinum molle album)
The utility of white petrolatum is similar to yellow petrolatum, but is often preferred because of its freedom from color. It is employed as a protective, a base for ointments and cerates and forms the basis for burn dressings.
Liquid Paraffin (Mineral oil; Liquid petrolatum; white mineral oil; Heavy liquid petrolatum)
It is used in the preparation of eye ointment.
Yellow Bee Wax (Cera flava)
Source: wax from honeycomb or the hive bee of Apis mellifica
It is used in the preparation of cerates and ointments and used for hardening of soft ointment.
White Bee Wax (Cera alba)
It is used as a component of cerates and ointments.
Lanolin (wool fat, Adeps lanae)
Source: from the wool of sheep, Ovis aries
It is used as a base in water-absorbable ointment, increases the absorption of the drug from the skin. It is used also as an emollient.
Spermaceti (Cetaceum, Esperma de Ballena)
Source : from head and blubber of sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus and bottle- nosed whale Hyperoodon rostratus. It is one of the solid fatty substances employed to give consistency to cerates and ointments.
Prepared Lard (Adeps lard)
Source: purified internal fat known as ‘flare’, of the abdomen of hog, Sus scrofa or Sus domestica
It is used as an ingredient in ointments.
Isinglass (Russian Isinglass, Ichthyocolla)
Source : collagen derived from the thin, inner, silver shiny layer of the air bladder of some fishes, particularly Sturgeon, Acipenser huso.
It is an important component of plasters.
Soft soap (Sapo mollis)
Source : interaction of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide with a suitable vegetable oil or oils or with fatty acids derived there from.
It is used in soap liniment.
Hard Soap (Sapo durus)
Source: it is prepared from fats or oils, with sodium hydroxide and it consists of the sodium salts of the fatty acids.
Curd soap (Sapo animalis)
Source : Soap made with soda and purified animal fat consisting principally of stearin.
It usually constitutes the bar laundry soap.
It is a component of opodeldocs.
Source : grain of maize; grain of wheat tubers of potato; rice
It is a component of glycerol of starch.
It has absorbent and demulcent properties.
23. Glass mortar – for mercurial preparations, ointments.
24. According to HPI, the sieves are specified as sieve numbers 6, 8, 10,
22, 25, 30, 36, 44, 60, 85, 100 and 200.
25. For drying at a very high temperature, crucible made of silica is used.
26. Dessicator is used for removing moisture or dehydration of substances at moderate temperature. The air inside the desiccator is always kept dry by placing some drying agent like fused calcium chloride or Conc. sulphuric acid.
27. Pycnometer (specific gravity bottle) is used for determination of specific gravity &Hydrometer is used or rapid detection of specific gravity & relative density of liquid.
28. Alcoholometer – Used for estimating the strength of alcohol.
Markings are in actual percentage of alcohol.
29. Decantation is a process of slowly and carefully pouring out liquids from one vessel to another without disturbing the sediments that have been accumulated at the bottom of the liquid.
30. Filtration is a physical process of separation of a liquid from substances insoluble in that liquid with the help of a filtering medium through which only the liquid can pass but not the other substances insoluble in that liquid.
31. Evaporation is the simple process of removing a liquid slowly from a solution.
32. Distillation is a process of converting a liquid into a gas and condensing the gas back into a liquid.
33. Fractional distillation is the method used for separating a mixture of several liquids of different boiling points, as in the case of organic liquids.
34. Sublimation is the process of distilling a solid; of converting the solid into a vapor and condensing the vapor back to a solid. Sublimation is a method of obtaining crystals.
35. Desiccation is a process of removing water from a substance at moderate temperature, differing from exsiccation, which means removing the water from a substance at high temperatures.
36. Precipitation is the process of separating a solid from its solution by the aid of physical or chemical action.
37. Crystallization is the process of separating substances in forms possessing definite geometric shapes.
38. Sifting is a process of separating finer portions of comminuted drugs from the coarser particles by the use of a sieve. This is determining particle size.
40. As per Pharmacopoeia, preparations of mother tinctures, solutions and triturates have been standardized in decimal scale and have uniform drug strength of 1/10.
41. Tinctures and solutions other than 1/10 or 1/100 drug strength
- Bufo rana 1/1000
- Cactus grandiflorus – 1/20
- Causticum – 1/2
- Chlorinum – 1/1000
- Moschus – 1/20
- Phosphorus – 1/667
- Sulphur θ – 1/5000
42. Determination of moisture content:
- Gravimetric method – Loss on Drying [as per HPI]
- Separation and Measurement of Moisture – Distillation Method
- Gas Chromatography Method
- Chemical Method – Karl Fischer Titration
- Spectroscopic Methods
It is the process of removing the active principles from a drug by allowing the latter to remain at room temperature in contact with the solvent for several days, with frequent agitation.
Gummy and mucilaginous substances with viscid juice.
Time required is 2 – 4 weeks.
It is a process of extracting the soluble constituents of a drug and preparing the mother tincture by the passage of a solvent through the powdered drug contained in a suitable vessel called percolator for a definite period of time as per directions specified in Pharmacopoeia.
Percolation is adopted for extraction of dry vegetable and animal substances.
Percolation usually requires 24 hours of extraction.
In preparation of liquid potencies, scales used are Centesimal, Decimal, and Fifty millesimal. In preparation of solid potencies, decimal and centesimal scales are used. When trituration attains 6X potency; then it is converted into liquid potency and potentized.
45. Centesimal scale – This scale was introduced by Hahnemann in 5th edition of Organon of Medicine, Aphorism 270, designated by ‘C’ or ‘CH’. Ratio – 1: 99.
46. Decimal scale
Dr. Constantine Hering of Philadelphia was the first who introduced the decimal scale. Dr. Vehsemeyer of Berlin, in 1836, in a precise manner, set forth the principles, therein involved. The decimal potency is denoted by suffixing the letter ‘X’ or ‘D’ to the number indicating the potency. Ratio – 1: 9
47. Fifty millesimal potencies are based on the principle enunciated by Hahnemann
in his sixth edition of Organon of Medicine – Aphorism 270. Fifty millesimal potencies were termed by Dr. Pierre Schmidt.
Preparation of LM potencies (HPI)
Triturate drug with the sugar of milk to prepare 3C potency. One grain of the 3C potency is dissolved (by shaking) in 500 drops of a mixture of one part of dispensing alcohol and four parts of purified water. Thus, the dry trituration is converted into liquid form. It is called as mother potency of LM potency. One drop of mother potency is put in a suitable vial of neutral glass and 100 drops of pure alcohol are added so that the vial is filled 2/3rd full. This is to be succussed 100 times. This makes the first LM potency- ‘ 0/1 ’. For preparation of each subsequent potency, soak few globules (100 globules weighing 65 mg and such 500 globules can hardly absorb one drop for their saturation are taken.) of nearly uniform size in a drop of the preceding potency, dry them. Take one globule and dissolve it in a drop of Purified Water in new phial. Add 100 drops of dispensing alcohol to it and give 100 strong succussions. All subsequent potencies are prepared by succussing 1 globule (equivalent to 1 / 500 th part of a drop) with 100 parts of alcohol, decreasing the material quantity by 50000 times at each potency.
Fifty millesimal potencies are designated by
- 0/1, 0/2, 0/3, … 0/30
- LM 1, LM 2, LM 3 … LM 30
- LM I, LM II, LM III … LM XXX
- 0/I, 0/II, 0/III … 0/XXX
Drug strength of 0/1 potency is 1/5×1010.
48. In triturating Plumbum, pestle has to be used softly.
49. In making the first trituration of Mercury, Graphites and Plumbum, double time is required.
50. In triturating Ferrum metallicum, the moisture has to be driven out by keeping the mortar warm.
51. Trituration –
Drug and sugar of milk are taken according to scale. Drug is taken in an unglazed porcelain mortar. Sugar of milk is divided into three parts in a definite ratio, on a measuring tile. The process of trituration consumes one hour time. Each stage consumes twenty minutes. In each stage, one part of sugar of milk is added. Each stage consumes twenty minutes. In each stage, one part of sugar of milk is added. Each stage is divided into two sub-stages that consume ten minutes each. The process carried out in the first ten minutes of each stage is repeated for the next ten minutes. Each sub-stage of ten minutes consists of – grinding or pulverizing for six minutes; and scraping and mixing for four minutes.(Organon – Ratio is 3:3:3, HPI – 1:3:5).
52. Conversion of trituration to succussion in decimal scale -Jumping Potency (Fluxion Potency)
All medicinal substances triturated to 6X trituration are soluble in water and alcohol.
Dissolve one part of 6X trituration in 50 parts of water and 50 parts of dispensing alcohol. Give 10 succussions to this liquid mixture. Number 7X dilution from 6X trituration is not possible. The first potency prepared from 6X trituration is 8X. The 7X cannot be prepared in the proportion of one to nine. To get 7X potency from 6X, 5 parts of water and 5 parts of alcohol are required to succuss 1 part of 6X potency. This quantity is not sufficient to dissolve the solute. Thus, 50 parts each by volume of water and alcohol is required for the dissolution of 1 part of 6X potency. After succussion, the solute is found to be reduced 100 times, giving drug strength of 8X potency.
53. Modified Potentization Techniques
Korsakoff Potencies – General Korsakoff of Russia was the real originator of high potencies. He believed that one single medicated globule when placed among many non- medicated globules communicated its medicinal power to the non-medicated globules.
Jenichen Potencies -Jenichen of Wismar pursued the idea that further attenuation is not necessary for dynamization of medicine, but continuous succussion without dilution is sufficient. He advocated that the degree of strength was directly proportional to the number of strokes given.
Dunham potencies – Carroll Dunham was one of the early people to mechanize the process of potentization. He used an abandoned oil-mill for preparing potencies. His potencies were suffixed by letter ‘D”.
Fincke’s continuous fluxion Potency – Bernhard Fincke used a spring as a model of power for his succussions. A one drachm vial filled with a hand – made 30C potency is subjected to a continuous water flow. When one drachm of water has flowed through the vial, the potency was considered to have been raised by one degree. The important concept in this process is that the walls of the glass vial have adsorbed the medicinal substance.
Skinner’s discontinuous fluxion Potencies – Skinner’s potencies were prepared by a process of discontinuous fluxion in contrast to the continuous fluxion of Fincke. Thomas Skinner developed ‘Skinner Fluxion Centesimal Attenuator’. This device was designed to mount above a small to mount above a small sink in the office or home. The motive power was water pressure. The potencies are labeled ‘F.C.’ (Fluxion Centesimal).
Swan’s Potencies – Samuel Swan used fractional part of potencies and attenuated from them. He suggested that if one drop of tincture were used to make 1M potency, then 1/10th of a drop of the 1M would be used to make the 10M. This method had more to do with the dilution of the final potency rather than the serial dilution of each potency along the way.
Multiple or Single vial Potencies- Hahnemannian method of potentization requires a new vial to be used for every stage of potentization, which is the original method developed by Hahnemann. It is known as Hahnemann’s Multiple Vial method.
Single vial potencies are easier and cheaper to produce. They are also called Korsakoff potencies.
54. Mother tincture for external use-
When a mother tincture is to be used for the purpose of preparing external applications, it needs to undergo a modification. Normally, except otherwise specified, 10% mixture of mother tincture for external application and suitable base is used.
If the mother tincture is prepared according to New method, equal weight of mother tincture and ethyl alcohol are to be taken and this mother tincture will be used for external application.
According to Old Hahnemannian method, Tincture of Class I and II, 1 part by weight of mother tincture and 1.5 parts by weight of ethyl alcohol (45%) are to be mixed. For tincture of Class III, 1.5 parts by weight of mother tincture and 1 part by weight of ethyl alcohol (60%) are to be mixed. Fortincture of Class IV, 1 part by weight of mother tincture and 1 part by weight of ethyl alcohol that was used for the preparation of the mother tinctures are to be mixed
55. External Applications (Apho- 284 -285, 6th edition)
Liniments are liquid preparations, applied with or without friction, by rubbing, anointing or painting. Liniments may be alcoholic solutions, oily solutions or emulsions, prepared with tincture of soap or olive oil. Liniments are prepared by mixing one part of the required drug with four parts of olive oil or tincture of soap (according to HPI).
Lotions are aqueous solutions, suspensions or dispersions for application to the skin surface. If they contain insoluble solids in suspension, they are sometimes suspension; they are sometimes referred to as ‘Shake Lotions’. Lotions may be prepared by diluting medicine with water in proportion of 1 to 10 or 100 or by adding 1 part of glycerole with 4 or 9 parts of water.
Glyceroles are mixtures of solutions of mother tincture in glycerin. They are usually viscous with jelly like consistency.Glyceroles are made by adding mother tincture of a drug to glycerin in various proportions. All glyceroles (except of starch) are prepared by mixing one part of the required drug with four parts of glycerin. Glyceroles are anti-fungal, anti-pruritic and used in cases of stomatitis and gingivitis.
Glycerole of starch – 1 part of starch + 8 parts of glycerin. Transfer the mixture to porcelain dish. Apply heat, stir till starch particles are completely broken and a jelly like preparation is made.
Ointments are semi-solid preparations used for application to the skin. They are used for emollient, protective or other surface effects.
Fusion method – When wax, spermaceti or other hard fusible bodies are to be incorporated with soft, oleaginous materials, fusion method is employed. The insoluble solid medicament is finely powdered.
Mechanical incorporation or trituration method: This method is used when the base is soft and the medicament is either a solid insoluble in the base or a liquid present in small quantity. Mechanical incorporation is performed by trituration in a mortar or a glass slab with a spatula.
Opodeldocs are semi-solid liniments prepared by mixing specified quantities of white curd soap and purified water are heated gently till the solution becomes transparent. Strong alcohol is then added gradually. The mother tincture of the drug is then added and it is stirred well.
Cerates are oily substances containing cera or wax. Mix spermaceti 3 parts, white wax 6 parts and olive oil 14 parts. 1 part of mother tincture is mixed 9 parts of simple cerate. It is used as dressings for inflamed areas.
Poultices (Cataplasms) are soft, semi – sold external applications that either stimulate the body surface or alleviate an inflamed area by applying medicated substances in the presence of heat and moisture. It helps in drawing infective material from the affected area due to its hygroscopic and absorptive properties of the ingredients.
Fomentations are one method of external applications. They do not contain any medicament. They act firmly on thermal principle. Two types – Hot & Cold.
56. The term Posology originates from the Greek posos meaning how much and logos meaning study or discourse.
The terminology of dose originates from the word dosis, which means the quantity of a drug.
Minimum Dose- It is the amount of medicine which is though smallest in quantity produces the least possible excitation of the vital force, yet sufficient to effect the necessary changes in it. It is that dose which is sufficient to overpower and annihilate the disease and capable o producing slight homoeopathic aggravation scarcely observable after its ingestion.
Maximum Dose – it is the maximum or largest possible amount of medicine, which can be taken at a time by an adult, not harmful to human life.
Lethal of Fatal Dose – it is also known as toxicological or narcotic dose. It is such amount of dose which can cause death of living being.
Booster Dose – A subsequent dose given to enhance the action of initial dose.
Fractional or refractive Dose – It is the fraction of a full dose which is to be taken at sort intervals.
Physiological Dose – Dose which stimulates the normal physiology or function of the different organs or systems of our body and the symptoms thus appearing are known as physiological symptoms.
57. ‘Prescription’ is derived from the Latin word ‘prescripto’ (pre – before; scripto – write).
- A prescription is a written document (order) given by a physician to the dispenser for preparation of required medication as well as instructions about the mode of intake, for a particular patient, at a particular time.
- Superscription – Name of the patient, age and sex with address. The word ‘For’ is
- written before the name of the patient.
- The symbol ‘Rx’- This sign was originally employed as the sign of Jupiter. It is now used as an abbreviation for the Latin word ‘recipe’ – ‘receive’
- Inscription – Name of the remedy, its potency and its quantity. Nature and quantity of various vehicles.
- Subscription – Instructions and directions for the dispenser.
- Signature – Directions to the patient such as mode of intake, route of administration and the time of intake of the medicine, when to report, advice regarding diet and regimen and any other instructions or caution to the patient. Signature of the physician with date and registration number.
Abbreviation commonly used in Prescription.
- a.c – before food
- ad lib. – At pleasure
- ad us. Exter. – For external use
- adhib. – To be administered
- b.d. – Twice daily
- b.i.d – Twice in a day
- capiend. – To be taken
- cochl.ampl. – A Table spoonful
- cochl.med. – A dessert spoonful
- cochl.parv. – A teaspoonful
- collyr. – An eye lotion
- cont.rem. – Continue the medicine
- dieb. Alt. – On alternate days
- dos. – A dose
- freq. – Frequently
- gr. – A grain
- gtt. – A drop
- h.s.s. – To be taken at bed time
- m. – Mix
- mane. – In the morning
- min. – A minim
- mist. – A mixture
- n.m. – Night and morning
- noct. – At night
- o.d. – Every day
- o.h. – Every hour
- omn. Man. – Every morning
- omn. Noct. – Every night
- p.a. – To the affected part
- p.c. – After food.
- q.i.d – Four times a day.
- s.o.s – if necessary.
- t .i. d. – Thrice daily.
- trit. – Triturate.
- Vac. Ven – On empty stomach.
58. Pharmaconomy is the subject that deals with the route of administration of medications.
Various route of administrating drugs are oral route, olfaction, and application to skin (epidermic), Enepidermic (drugs are simply kept in contact with the unbroken skin without friction or rubbing), eye, ear, rectal route, vagina, urethra, placental route and via milk of mother.
59. Placebo is a term used for a pharmacologically and pharmacodynamically inactive substance administered to a patient during the course of therapy when no active drug treatment is indicated. (Placere – to please; Placebo – I shall please).
Second best remedy – placebo.
The label should carry an identity of Placebo like ‘phytum’, rubrum’, ‘nihilinum’, ‘lactopen’, ‘p pills’, ‘S.L., etc
60. Homoeopathic Pharmacodynamics is that branch of homoeopathic pharmacy that helps us to acquire knowledge about the dynamic actions and effects of drugs on healthy organisms and constitutes the fundamental aspects of homoeo-therapeutics
61. Albrecht von Haller advocates the necessity of drug proving before Hahnemann.
62. The three basic components of a drug proving are the Test Substance, the Proving Team, the Methodology.
63 The drug proving team consists of Project Director / Master Prover, Advisor / Expert, Proving Supervisors / Panel of Investigators and provers
Methodology of proving consists the Pre-proving Protocol, the Proving and Post Proving Protocol.
Recording of proving are done in Initial Medical Report Proforma, Prover’s Daybook / Logbook and Response Monitoring Proforma.
Criteria for including symptoms -new symptoms unfamiliar to the prover, usual or current symptoms those are intensified, current symptoms modified or altered, old symptoms that have not occurred for at least one year, present symptoms that have disappeared during the proving. If a symptom is in doubt, it is included in brackets; if another prover experienced the same symptom it could be valid. If not, it is excluded.
Extraction – The observations and experiences of all the provers have to be analyzed compared with their Initial Medical Report Proforma and finally comparison of the control, test and crossover groups is done.
Collation – All the prover’s separate sheets are put together. Symptoms with a common denominator are grouped together under each section.
64. In India, Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 controls quality of homoeopathic medicines.
The Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory (HPL) was established in 1975 under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India as a quality monitoring apex body.
Evaluation of crude, raw products of plant origin is carried out by, organoleptic evaluation, microscopic evaluation, physical evaluation, chemical evaluation and biological evaluation.
Organoleptic evaluation – It refers to evaluation by means of organs of senses such as external morphology (Shape and Size), External colour, external markings, fracture, odour and taste.
Microscopic examination of drugs helps for searching adulterants in powdered drugs and also in the identification of drugs. It consists of histology, microchemistry, micro-sublimation and crystallography.
Physical evaluation consists of Chromatographic study of drugs, Fluorescence test, Solubility, Specific gravity, Melting point, Congealing point, Refractive index, Optical rotation and Water content or loss on drying.
Chemical methods of evaluation cover isolation, identification, purification and characteristic determination of drugs having active principles. Quantitative analysis may be gravimetric, volumetric, gasometric and colorimetric analysis.
The chemical assays include: Color reaction test, Acid value, Iodine value, Saponification value, Ester value, Ash value, Sulphated ash value, Determination of acid insoluble ash and Determination of water soluble ash.
Biological evaluation – The assays on living animals and on their intact or cut-off organs to indicate the strength of the drug or their preparation.
Mother tinctures are subjected to a qualitative and quantitative analysis such as Alcohol content determination, Weight per ml, pH value, Total solids, λ Max , Fluorescence analysis,
Chromatography is a separation process based upon the differential distribution of a mixture between two phases, one of which is percolated through other. There are various methods of chromatography study – paper, thin layer, columnar, gas, HPLC, HPTLC etc.
65. The drugs and cosmetic rules, 1945
The drugs and cosmetics act, 1940 (23 of 1940 – 10th April, 1940)
Import – Part IV
30-AA : Import of New Homoeopathic medicines
32-A : Packing and labelling of Homoeopathic medicine
Sale of Homoeopathic medicines – Part VI A
- 67-C : Forms of licenses to sell drugs
- 67-D : Sale at more than one place
- 67-E : Duration of licenses
- 67-EE : Certificate of renewal
- 67-F : Conditions to be satisfied before a license in Form 20-C or Form 20- D is granted
- 67-G : Conditions of license
- 67-GG : Additional information to be furnished by an applicant for license or a licensee to the licensing authority
- 67-H : Cancellation and suspension of licenses
Manufacture for sale or for distribution of Homoeopathic medicines – Part VII A
- 85-A : Manufacture on more than one set of premises
- 85-B : Application for license to manufacture Homoeopathic medicines
- 85-C : Application to manufacture ‘New Homoeopathic medicines’
- 85-E : Conditions for the grant or renewal of a license in Form 25 – C
- 85-EA : Inspection before grant or renewal of license
- 85-EB : Report by Inspector
- 85-EC : Grant or refusal of license
- 85-ED : Further application after rejection
- 85-EE : Appeal to the State Government
- 85-F : Duration of license
- 85-G : Certificate of renewal
- 85-H : Conditions of license
- 85-HH : Additional information to be furnished by an applicant for license or a licensee to the licensing authority
- 85-I : Cancellation and suspension of licenses
Labelling & packing of homoeopathic medicines – Part IX A
- 106-A : Manner of labelling of Homoeopathic medicines
- 106-B : Prohibition of quantity and percentage
Standards – Part XII
126-A : Standards of ophthalmic preparations including Homoeopathic Ophthalmic preparations
Schedule A : Forms
Schedule FF : Standards for ophthalmic preparations
Schedules M-I : Good manufacturing practices and requirements of premises, plant and equipment
66. The Drugs and Magic Remedies Act (Objectionable advertisement)
(21 of 1954) and the rules (1955)
These act and rules thereunder are intended to protect the consumer and prevent the practice of misleading and extravagant claims made in respect of many medicines and especially those claiming as remedies for many diseases considered at present as incurable.
67. Medicinal and Toilet Preparation (Excise Duties) Act, 1955
(No.16 of 1955)
It provides for the levy and collection of duty of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol, opium, Indian hemp, or other narcotic drugs.
68. Dangerous Drugs Act – 1930 and Rules – 1957
This legislation relates to medicines containing opium, morphine, pethadine etc which are considered addition – forming, dependence – producing drugs and regulates their manufacture, sales, possession etc.
69. Name of Drug Synonyms Family
- Aconite napellus Monk’s hood Ranunculaceae
- Aesculus hippocastanum Horse chestnut Sapindaceae
- Aethusa cynapium Garden hemlock/Fool’s Umbelliferae
- Cicuta virosa Water hemlock Umbelliferae
- Cina Worm seed Compositeae
- Conium maculatum Poison hemlock Umbelliferae
- Agaricus muscarius Toad stool Agaricaceae
- Andrographis paniculata Kalmegh Acanthaceae
- Arnica montana Leopard’s bane Compositae
- Asafaetida Devil’s dung Umbelliferae
- Baptisia tintora Wild indigo Leguminosae
- Belladonna Deadly night shade Solanaceae
- Phytolacca decandra American night shade Phytolaccaceae
- Bovista Puff ball Lycoperdaceae
- Actea racemosa Black cohosh Ranunculaceae
- Caulophyllum Blue cohosh Beriberidaceae
- Cinchona Peruvian bark Rubiaceae
- Colocynthis Bitter gourd Cucurbitaceae
- Convallaria majalis Lilly of valley Liliaceae
- Crocus sativus Saffron Iridaceae
- Drosera Sundew Drosceraceae
- Helleborus niger Black hellebore Ranunculaceae
- Holarrhena antidysentrica Kurchi Apocynaceae
- Hypericum perfoliatum St.John’s wort Hypericaceae
- Ignatia amara St. Ignatius bean Loganniaceae
- Lycopodium Club moss /wolf foot Lycopodiaceae
- Millifolium Yarrow Compositae
- Nux moschata Nut – meg Myristicaceae
- Podophyllum May apple Beriberidaceae
- Psoralea corylifolia Babchi Leguminosae
- Rhus tox Poison ivy Anacardiaceae
- Sanguinaria canadensis Blood root Papaveraceaea
- Stramonium Thorn apple Solanaceae
- Thuja Arbor vitae Cupressaceae
- Veratrum album White hellebore Liliaceae
- Withania somnifera Ashvagandha Solanaceae
70. Pharmacognosy – It is the science which deals with the history, source, cultivation, collection, preparation, distribution, identification, composition, purity, preservation and commerce of crude drugs of vegetable and animal origin.
71. Drug strength is the power or strength of drug in proportion to its solvent.
72. Drug is a therapeutic agent, prepared pharmaceutically from standardised drug substance according to the rules and regulations of pharmacopoeia, which is sufficiently capable of affecting the sensations and functions, even the structural change and may cause of death, if continued for a sufficient time and dose.
The word ‘drug’ is derived from the French word ‘drogue’ means ‘a dry herb’.
73.Medicine – when a drug has been potentised homoeopathically and proved on healthy human beings – in both sexes, all ages and in different constitutions, producing abnormal signs and symptoms ( both subjective & objective) is called medicine.
74. Remedy – when a particular medicine is prescribed for a particular diseased condition, according to symptom similarity and when the diseased condition is cured totally, the medicine is called a remedy.
75. Doctrine of Signature – The relation between the drug source and drug symptoms. (advocated by Paracelsus).
- Belladonna grows in a soil rich in calcium carbonate. Hence, Calcarea carb is complementary to Belladonna.
- Tarantula hispanica is a spider that comes out when drums are beaten. Tarantula patient is sensitive to music.
- Digitalis may be of use in blood diseases, as its flowers are adorned to with blood colored dots.
- Euphrasia is a good remedy for eyes, as it had a black spot in corolla that looked like a pupil.
- Hypericum having red juice maybe of use in hemorrhages.
- Rhus tox plants are collected in damp weather, rainy season, in evening, as it possesses more medicinal properties. These are also its modalities.
- Bryonia is prepared from root, which is fleshy, yellowish white in color, rough with acidic and bitter taste. Bryonia patient is also fleshy, with yellowish white coated tongue, rough irritating temperament and possessing bitter taste in mouth.
76. Important Families and Drugs –
Arnica, Chamomilla, Cina, Artemisia vulgaris, Absinthium, Millifolium, Eup.perf, Taraxacum.
Aconite, Helloborous, Clematis, Paeonia, Pulsatilla, Hydrastis, Staphysagria, Actea recemosa, Ranunculus bulbosa.
Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe socotrina, Colchicum, Convallaria, Sabadilla, Veratrum album.
Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, Dulcamera.
Gelsemium, Nux vomica, Ignatia, Curare, Spigelia.
Colocynthis, Bryonia, Mamordica.
Anacardium, Rhus tox.
Abis nigra, Sabina, Thuja, Terebinthina.
Cinchona, Ipecacuanha, Coffea.
Conium, Cicuta, Phellandrium, Petroselinum.
77. Gulta – purcha bottles is used for the preservation of Acid flour.
78. 1 grain powder is equal to 65mg.
79. 1 ml equal to 17 drops (appro – 17 minims).
80. Solubility – means how much of a substance dissolves in a given solvent.
Descriptive Terms. Relative quantities of solvent for 1part of solute.
- Very soluble Less than 1 part.
- Freely soluble From 1 to 10 parts
- Soluble From 10 to 30 parts
- Sparingly soluble From 30 to 100 parts
- Slightly soluble From 100 to 1000 parts
- Very slightly soluble From 1000 to 10000 parts
- Practically insoluble More than 10000
81. The degree of coarseness or fineness of a powder is differentiated and expressed by the size of the mesh of sieve through which the powder is able to pass.
Coarse powder (10/44) – a powder which all the particles pass through a no.10 sieve and not more than 40% through a no.44 sieve.
Moderately coarse powder (22/60) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no.22 sieve and more than 40% through a no.60 sieve.
Moderately fine powder (44/85) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no.44 sieve and more than 40% through a no.85 sieve.
Fine powder (85) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no 85 sieve.
Very fine powder – a powder of which all the particles pass through a silk sieve in which not less than 120 meshes are included in a length of 2.54 cm in each transverse direction parallel to the threads.
Recognised Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeias
- Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeias recognised by Drugs and Cosmetics Act:
- lHomoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India (HPI)
- lBritish Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (BHP)
- lHomoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of United States (HPUS)
- lGerman Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP)
- French homoeopathic pharmacopoeia is not recognised, but it has valuable information on nosodes and organotherapies (sarcodes)
Standardisation is a process to fix certain confirmity to acceptable standards.
To minimise variation due to individual, group or commercial houses influence, the government or other statutory bodies notify the acceptable standards.
As a result the pharmacopoeia that is followed have details like:
- Genera & species
- Synonym & common names
- Description & data about percentage of active ingredient / TLC / chemical identification tests
- Macroscopic and microscopic details
- Methods of preparation / formulation / 2x & higher methods
- Minimum potency permitted for prescribing in case of toxic substances
- Storage condition
- Supplementary but essential standards
- Ash values
- Extractive values
- Saponification values
- Reaction (pH) of known strength solution
- Foreign matters
- Moulds, fungus, bacterial, pesticide residue TLC Rf values
- Tincture, odour, taste, colour & dry residue
Sources of homoeopathic drugs
Nosodes – methods of preparation
N1 for the lysate of bacteria producing endotoxins (e.g.. Typhoid, paratyphoid, e.coli)
N2 for bacteria producing exotoxins (e.g.. dphtheria)
N3 for pure organisms (e.g. tuberculinum pure culture)
N4 for preparations from tissues (e.g. psorinum, bacillinum)
Homoeopathic drug proving (HPI Volume 1)
- Controlled experiment
- On relatively healthy volunteers
- Substances should be prepared as per general methodology mentioned in the pharmacopoeia
- Experiments should be in varying doses to produce the data called ‘proving’
- On the scheme and pattern to constitute Materia Medica Provings are the basis of Materia Medica
- Experiments should be carried only to extent of causing gross temporary reversible alterations and sense perceptible objective signs.
- Unique characteristics of homoeopathic drug standards
- The raw material should be same as used in the proving.
- Method of preparation should be one adopted by the prover.
This in turn means:
- Go for the correct species, adopt microscopic / histopathological studies.
- Fix the percentage of active & limits for inactive constituents and aducterants.
- Process has a bearing on the quality
- Trituration – particle size 10 micron at 1x level
- Tincture – fresh or dry plant
– size of cut or fineness of the powdered material percolator packing
– percentage of extraction solvent rate of percolation time of maceration
Triturations / tablets
Insoluble basic drug materials (1:10 or 1:100) with lactose
Triturated by hand or machine. Particle size of the basic drug material in the final decimal or centesimal dilution has to be below 10 µm for 80%; no drug particle should be more than 50 µm.
Trituration time: Minimum 1 hour.
One third of the lactose is given into the mortar, then the basic material is added; finally the remaining vehicle in two equal portions is added and triturated.
Triturations / tablets contd…
For tabletting permitted excipients are only starch – concentrated up to 10 percent and magnesium stearate in concentrations up to 2 percent
- Granulation if necessary has to be done with saturated lactose solution, starch paste or ethanol.
- Tablets are single doses containing 250 mg of the trituration. The weight of excipients goes additional
- Lowest potencies – legal limits of prescription
- Lowest potencies – legal limits of prescription
- All arsenic, barium, mercury and lead – not below 3x
- All nosodes – not below 6x (3rd potency) for trading, not below 6th potency in practice
- All snake, viper, spider, toad and insect poisons – not below 3x (exceptions in India – Blatta orientalis Q)
- Phytochemicals (HCN glyc.) etc. – not below 6x
- Special storage conditions (up to 3x)
- Acidum aceticum, nitricum, picrinicum and sulphuricum
- lApis mellifica
- lSecale cor.
- lZincum aceticum
Stringent storage condition (up to 3x)
- Acid fluric (hydrofluric)
- Atropine sulph
- Chininum ars.
- Merc. Iod. Flv.
- Merc. Iod. Rub.
Level of testing in homoeopathic drugs
- Biochemic drugs – up to 6x; up to 12x by plasma
- Triturations – up to 6x; up to 12x by plasma
- Mother tinctures – up to 4x; up to 6x by HPLC
- Mother tinctures – up to 2x in combinations
- Combination drugs – up to 2x
- Ointments, hair oils, eye drops, etc.
- Dilutions – up to 6x
Level of testing in homoeopathic drugs
- Molecules are present at best up to level 12C or 24x
- But clinical response is visible even above 24x in
- •human being
lBiological response can be demonstrated on polygraph and other sensitive equipments used in experimental pharmacology
No. of homoeopathic drugs covered by different materia medica & other literature – large number is a problem for pharmacopoeia
No. of homoeopathic drugs covered by different materia medica & other literature
Simplification has been done: Hahnemannian classification of mother tincture preparation
Quotation from HPI Vol II
“The old Hanemannian method of preparation has been discarded in favour of a new uniform method with specific drug strength which takes in to consideration the moisture content of the drug, thus eliminating the variation in standards. This method (the new uniform method of preparation of tincture as mentioned in the General Instructions for preparation in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia) is applicable to most* of the drugs and has been accepted by the committee
*A few exceptions have been taken care in the individual monograph”
On uniform drug strength…
Materia Medica Pura Vol II pg 30 or Chronic Diseases pg 182
“In order to make alcoholic medicinal substances of uniform strength and to obtain from them determinable dilution follow….”
BHP part I pg 11 & 12
“In every substance the dry crude substance is to be taken as starting point for calculation of strength.”
German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia
Changing face of German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia
German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia contd…
German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia contd…
French Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia
Gemmotherapie (extraction in glycerine) – 56
Organotherapie (parts of the body – similar to sarcodes) – 261
Lithotherapie (from crude minerals) – 43
In many homoeopathic texts the words “potency” and “potentisation”, “dilution” or “solution” are synonymous with the terms “attenuation” or “trituration” the later terms, by decision of the Pharmacopoeia Convention, have become the official designations, i.e., “attenuation” for liquids and “trituration” for solids. In plant products, plant moisture was equated to purified water. Most of the mother tinctures were simplified to drug strength 1/10, exception those not soluble like Iodine or those poisonous in nature like Arsenic where 1/100 is used.
Guidelines in evaluating the merit of a drug for inclusion in pharmacopoeia
- lIt should be a published data
- lIt should be a proved drug
- lThe raw material should be commercially available of identifiable characters and of definite composition
- lIt should have a demand to establish professional recognition
- Other facts which are considered
- lAbsence of abnormal toxicity
- lNon addict forming in the dosage form
- lStability of the product during production and storage
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