Therapeutic utility of some indigenous plants used in other systems of medicine

Dr R Sainivas

Southern part of India is rich in medicinal plants that are used in various walks of treatment modalities like siddha, ayurveda and unani. Their therapeutic possibilities have been exploited over last 1000 years and the very fact is strongly supported by literature. Exploring these litrature carefully and including through human pathogenetic trail can be a abundant resource for Homoeopathic Materia Medica.

Homoeopathy, medicinal plants, India, Siddha, ayurveda, unani, Solanum trilobatum, Cissus quadrangularis, Chenopodium album, Abutilon indicum

Homoeopathy is one of the largest systems of medicine practiced all around the world. It contains around 6000 proven medicines and its multitude symptoms are present in Materia Medica. But as the day advances, we come across new diseases, newer symptoms, existing diseases modify and show new symptoms. To solve this, Materia Medica needs to be updated with new medicines and it’s corresponding symptoms.

India is a tropical country which has rich biodiversity of plants. Identification of these plants and it’s medicinal utility is a painstaking process. other systems has done that process and implemented in practice. In that, some plants are commonly available and used as medicines, which are not included in our Materia Medica, is mentioned here. This helps us to identify more medicinal plants and use it according to homoeopathic principle which in turn strengthen our system for the new diseases to come. Indigenous nature of plants also make them easy for availability, manufacturing and more potent due to fresh availability of plants.

Solanum trilobatum


  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Phylum – Tracheophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Solanales
  • Family – Solanaceae
  • Genus – Solanum L.
  • Species – Solanum trilobatum L.[1]


  • English – Climbing Brinjal.
  • Hindi – Kantakaari-lataa.
  • Malayalam – Padarchunda
  • Tamil – Tuduvalai
  • Telugu – Alarkapatramu
  • Kannada – Kakamunji[2]

Throughout India, growing wild.

A slender prickly scrambling shrub, prickles curved, broad-based, yellowish and numerous along the stems, otherwise almost glabrous. Leaves rounded-ovate in outline, obtusely 3-5-lobed, 2-7 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, glabrous or slightly stellate, with a few prickles along the petiole and midrib. Inflorescences extra-axillary, peduncle short, 3-9-flowered; pedicels 1-2 cm long, widely divergent. Calyx 3 mm long, with narrow teeth, sparsely stellate. Corolla 12-16 mm long, deeply lobed, stellate-pubescent outside, purple, reflexed; stamens protruding, anthers 7 mm long, yellow. Fruits globose, c.15 mm diam., scarlet. Seeds compressed, 3 mm diam.[2]

Part used

Whole plant[3,4]

Medicinal properties

  1. trilobatum is reported to cure numerous diseases viz., respiratory problems and bronchial asthma. S. trilobatum was reported to harbour hepatoprotective activity, antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, antidiabetic activity, cytotoxic activity and anticancer activity. The leaves and stem of S. trilobatum are reported to possess antimitotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic properties. The leaf extracts are used to increase male fertility and to cure snake poison. It is used with ghee in siddha for treating tuberculosis, as decoction in case of acute and chronic bronchitis, root and berries for treating cough. The major alkaloids identified in the alcoholic extract from leaves and stem part of S. trilobatum has been shown to possess antimitotic and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Biological screening of the alkaloid mixture of this plant

revealed anticancer activity against certain type of cancer and its effectiveness as an adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy. [5,6]

Cissus quadrangularis


  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Phylum – Tracheophyta
  • Class – Mangoliopsida
  • Order – Vitales
  • Family – Vitaceae
  • Genus – Cisscus L.
  • Species – Cisscus quandrangularis L. [7]


India: Assam, Kerala, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [8]


  • English – Adament creeper, Bone setter, Veldt-grape
  • Hindi – Hadjod
  • Malayalam – Chanamparanda, Changalamparanda, Peranta
  • Tamil – Pirandai
  • Telugu – Nalleru [8]

Rambling, succulent, glabrous, deciduous shrubs; stem 4-angular, winged or ridged at angles, constricted at nodes; tendril simple. Leaves simple, entire or 3-lobed, 2-5 x 2-5 cm, ovate-suborbicular or subreniform, base truncate, margin distantly spinulose-crenate, apex obtuse, thick-coriaceous; petiole to 1 cm long. Flowers in leaf-opposed, peduncled, umbellate cymes. Calyx-tube obscurely 4-lobed, c. 2 mm long, reddish. Petals c. 2.5 mm long, ovate, acute, greenish-yellow, recurved. Stamens 4; filaments to 2 cm long; anthers yellow. Disk 4-lobed, yellow. Ovary c. 1mm long, 2-celled; ovules 2 per cell. Berry c. 7 mm across, subglobose. Seeds black, smooth. [8]

Parts used

Medicinal properties
The stout, fleshy quadrangular stem is traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis, bone fractures, skin infections, constipations, eye diseases, piles, anaemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, burns and wounds. Powder is administered in treatment of haemorrhoids and certain bowl infections. The juice of stem is useful in scurvy and in irregular menstruation whereas the stem paste boiled in lime water is given in asthma. It is also used as a powerful stomache. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. has potent fracture healing property and antimicrobial, antiulcer, antioxidative, antiosteoporotic, gastroprotective, cholinergic activity as well as beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. [9]

It has been investigated that methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis possesses antiulcer and cytoprotective property in induced gastric mucosal injury. The aqueous extract also shows acetylcholine like activity on isolated ileum of rabbit and uterus of rat. The action on dog blood pressure is analogous to muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine. Ethyl acetate fractions of both fresh and dry stem extracts show antioxidant activity. The ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract of both fresh and dry stem further exhibit antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. [10,11,12]

Chenopodium album


  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Phylum – Tracheophyta
  • Class – Equisetopsida C. Agardh
  • Order – Caryophyllales
  • Family -Amaranthaceae
  • Genus – Chenopodium L.
  • Species – Chenopodium album L. [13]


India: Assam, Bihar, Kashmir, Gujarat, Maharastra, Manipur, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh; America, Australia, Malaysia, Africa, Europe [13]


  • English – Lamb’s quarter, Lambs Quarters, Pig weed, White goosefoot, Wild spinach
  • Hindi – Bathua
  • Kannada – Kaduoma
  • Telugu – Pappukura
  • Tamil – Paruppukkirai
  • Malayalam – Vastuccira [13]

Parts used


Medicinal properties
Chenopodium album has some medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, contraceptive, laxative, odontalgic, etc. it is utilized for the treatment of rheumatism, bug bites, sunstroke, urinary problems, skin problems, etc. It is also known to have sedative and cooling properties, and leaves have been used to treat the burns. [14]

The studies reported that the aqueous and methanolic extract of the C. album leaves was effective on the tested pathogens by using the paper disc diffusion method. While the aqueous extract has been found to have excellent antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, the methanolic leaf extract has been reported to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [15,16] Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Chenopodium album (aerial parts) showed hepato-protective activity. The aqueous extract reported to be more potent as compared to Silymarin. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of C. album has also been found to have significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol. [17] Chenopodium album Linn showed the anthelmintic activity against trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep by causing the mortality of worms and the prevention of egg hatching. [18]

Abutilon indicum


  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Phylum – Tracheophyte
  • Order – Malvales
  • Family – Malvaceae
  • Genus – Abutilon Mill.
  • Species – Abutilon Indicum [19]


  • English – Country mallow, Indian mallows
  • Hindi – Kanghi, Kakahi
  • Tamil -Tutti, Paniara, Hutti
  • Telugu -Tutturubenda [19]


Asia: Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.

Africa: Madagascar, Mauritius.


In India, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.[19]

Parts used

Leaves, root, seed

The leaves are ovate, acuminate, toothed, rarely subtrilobate and 1.9-2.5 cm long. The flowers are yellow in color, peduncle jointed above the middle. The petioles 3.8-7.5 cm long; stipules 9 mm long; pedicels often 2.5-5 mm long, axillary solitary, jointed very near the top; calyx 12.8 mm long, divided in to middle, lobes ovate, apiculate and corolla 2.5 cm diameter, yellow, opening in the evening. The fruits are capsule, densely pubescent, with conspicuous and horizontally spreading beaks. The stems are stout, branched, 1-2 m tall, pubescent. The seeds are 3-5 mm, reniform, tubercled or minutely stellate-hairy, black or dark brown. [19]

Medicinal properties
It is useful in gout, tuberculosis, ulcers, bleed ing disorders, and worms. It can be used as Digestive, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, astringent, analgesic, anti inflammatory, anthelmintic, demulcent and aphrodisiac. Decoction used in toothache and tender gums. Demulcents of leaves are locally applied to boils and ulcers. Roots are prescribed in fever, chest affection and urethritis. [20] The seed oil of Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum showed broad spectrum activity as they were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A clinical study with this compound has confirmed that administration of the compound to neonates resulted in increase in antibody levels such as IgG, IgM and IgA after three and six months of administration. [21]

After careful survey of literatures of various system of medicines and research articles, the untapped potential of these medicinal plants is unveiled. The plants mentioned above not only proved its worth in Indian system of medicine, but also getting recognised globally in the field of medicine. Including these medicinal plants in Materia Medica after proper drug proving can strengthen our system as mentioned above. Medicine from indigenous plants are taken using the


  1. SOLANUM TRILOBATUM L. In-text: (Solanum trilobatum L., 2022) Your Bibliography: 2022. Solanum trilobatum L.. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 31 May 2022].
  2. SOLANUM TRILOBATUM L. | SPECIES In-text: (1) Your Bibliography: 1. Solanum trilobatum L. | Species [Internet]. India Biodiversity Portal. 2022 [cited 31 May 2022]. Available from:
  3. Kirthikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants, International Book Distributors, Dehradun, 2005.
  4. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. 2006; 230.
  5. Kumar SRS, Priya LC, Rao KVB. Pharmacologyonline.2011; 3:1336–1341.
  6. Swathy B, Lakshmi SM, Kumar AS. Int. J .Bio. Pharma.Res. 2010; 1(1):7–12.
  7. CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. In-text: (2) Your Bibliography: 2. Cissus quadrangularis L. [Internet]. 2022 [cited 31 May 2022]. Available from:
  8. CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. | SPECIES In-text: (3) Your Bibliography: 3. Cissus quadrangularis L. | Species [Internet]. India Biodiversity Portal. 2022 [cited 31 May 2022]. Available from:
  9. 9. Jainu M., Devi CS., Potent Antiulcerogenic activity of Cissus quadrangularis on Aspirin induced gastric ulcer by its antioxidative mechanism. Journal of Clinical Biochemical Nutrition, 2003, 34, 43-47.
  10. Jainu, M., Devi, C.S.S., Potent antiulcerogenic activity of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis by antioxidative mechanism. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2003, 34, 43–47.
  11. Enechi OC., Odonwodo I., An assessment of the Phytochemical and Nutrient composition of the pulverized root of Cissus quadrangularis. BioResearch, 2003, 1(1), 63-68
  12. Mehta M., Kaur N., Bhutani KK., Determination of Marker Constituents from Cissus quadrangularis and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC. Phytochemical Analysis, 2001, 12(2), 91-5.
  13. CHENOPODIUM ALBUM L. | SPECIES In-text: (4) Your Bibliography: 4. Chenopodium album L. | Species [Internet]. India Biodiversity Portal. 2022 [cited 31 May 2022]. Available from:
  14. Choudhary V. Medicinal uses of Chenopodium album (Lambsquarters) Bathua..
  15. .Singh KP, Dwevedi AK, Dhakre G. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of chenopodium album L.
  1. Amjad L, Alizad Z. Antibacterial Activity of the Chennopodium album leaves and flowers extract. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 2012 Jan 20;61:903-6.
  2. Pal A, Banerjee B, Banerjee T, Masih M, Pal K. Hepatoprotective activity of Chenopodium album Linn. Plant against paracetamol induced hepatic injury in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011;3(3):55-7.
  3. Jabbar A, Zaman MA, Iqbal Z, Yaseen M, Shamim A. Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium album (L.) and Caesalpinia crista (L.) against trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007 Oct 8;114(1):86-91.
  1. ABUTILON INDICUM (L.) SWEET | SPECIES In-text: (5) Your Bibliography: 5. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet | Species [Internet]. India Biodiversity Portal. 2022[cited 31 May 2022]. Available from:
  2. Rajeshwari S, Sevarkodiyone SP. Medicinal properties of Abutilon indicum. Open Journal of Plant Science. 2018 Jul 5;3(1):026-33.
  3. Sharma SK, Naveen G. Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacognostic profile of Abutilon indicum Linn. Root. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2010;2(5):308-15.

Dr R Sainivas
Father Muller Homoeopathic Medical College, Mangaluru

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