Care of babies of 0 – 1000 days age group is very much essential and important for whole entire human life. This is the time period which provides foundation for entire life. Babies in this age group are also called as newborn (1st 4 weeks), infant (1st year) and toddler (1-3 years) respectively. Between birth and age three, babies learn to roll, crawl, stand, walk and run. They learn to talk, joke, rhyme and sing. But the development does not happen in the same way, at the same time for all children. Some children will develop certain skills i.e. walking, talking faster or slower than others (Concept of ‘Individuality’ in Homoeopathy). These differences are very much normal or physiological.
Importance of this age group in early period of life
The first three years of life is a period of incredible growth in all areas of a baby’s development. The mission is to ensure that all babies and toddlers have a strong start, good foundation in life. This is to promote good health, positive early learning experiences for all infants and toddlers, with special emphasis on those who are the most vulnerable to any disease and in need. This is the time period which provides the foundation for entire life.
Growth and development of children
Growth and development of children is a continuous and orderly process. There are specific periods in a child’s life when the rate of growth is steady, accelerates and decelerates. In the early postnatal period the velocity of growth is high, especially in the first few months. Thereafter, there is slower but steady rate of growth during mid-childhood.
Different terms in postnatal period-
- Newborn- 1st 4 weeks after birth
- Infancy- First year
- Toddler- 1- 3 years
- Pre-school child- 3 – 6 years
- School age child- 6 – 12 years
General body growth: The general body growth is rapid during the fetal life, 1st one or two years of postnatal life and also during puberty.
The brain growth: At birth, the head size is about 65 to 70% of the expected head size in adults. It reaches 90% of the adult head size by the age of 2 years. Thus, the fetal phase and the first two years are crucial periods for brain development and thereafter for acquiring neuromotor functions and cognitive ability. By age 3, it has grown dramatically by producing billions of cells and hundreds of trillions of connections, or synapses, between these cells. This is the time to learn about the ways parents and caregivers can help children get off to a good start and establish healthy patterns for life-long learning.
The growth of gonad: Gonadal growth is dominant during childhood and becomes conspicuous during pubescence.
Early childhood mental health– Infant and early childhood mental health includes a full spectrum of social and emotional functioning. This ranges from the ability to form satisfying relationships with others, play, communicate, learn, and express emotions, to the disorders of very early childhood. Here one can find a range of resources for understanding this critical aspect of a young child’s development, and for identifying and treating mental health concerns.
Play – There’s a lot happening during playtime. Little ones are lifting, dropping, looking, pouring, bouncing, hiding, building, knocking down, and more. And while they are having all this fun, they are also learning. They are learning how to solve problems (such as how to get the block tower to stand up) and discovering new concepts. They are experimenting with new roles and language during dress-up time, and figuring out how to use their bodies in new ways on the playground. Play is the true work of childhood.
Temperament & behaviour- Temperament describes how a child approaches and reacts to the world. It is her personal “style.”
It is to remember that development is not a race. What is most important- is tuning into child’s individual path, building on his/her strength and proving him/her with support when needed. Development unfolds within loving relationships; ones in which babies and toddler can explore, learn and grow.
Factors affecting growth after birth
The growth of the child during postnatal life is determined by genetic potential other than internal and external influences. They are as follows-
- Sex: The pubertal growth spurt occurs earlier in girls.
- IUGR: About 20% of growth retarded newborns develop postnatal growth failure and short stature.
- Genetic factors: Both chromosomal disorders and other disorders related to gene mutation can affect growth. Chromosomal defects like Turner syndrome and Down syndrome manifest growth retardation.
- Hormonal influence: Normal development cannot proceed without the right milieu of hormones in the body throughout childhood and adolescence.
- Nutrition: Growth of children suffering from protein energy malnutrition, anaemia and vitamin deficiency states is retarded.
- Infections: Persistent or recurrent diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections are common causes of growth impairment.
- Trauma: Fracture of the end of bone may damage the growing epiphysis and thus hamper the skeletal growth.
- Parasitosis: Intestinal parasites (round worm) hamper growth.
- Other factors: These includes- A) Birth order of child, B) Birth spacing.
Social factors also contribute a major role in the development. Social factors like socioeconomic level, poverty, natural resources, climate, emotional factors, cultural factors, parental education play a vital role in the development of children.
Special care of some childhood disorders
- Behavioural disorders-
- Pica- This is defined as eating of non-nutritive substances such as plaster, charcoal, paint and earth for at least 1 month in such a fashion that it is inappropriate to developmental level. It is a common problem in children less than 5 years of age. Children with pica are at an increased risk for lead poisoning, iron-deficiency anaemia and parasitic infestations and should be routinely screened for these.
- Food fussiness- Food fussiness is a common problem faced by parents of young children. However, many times it reflects an excessive need for control on the part of the parents about what the child eats. The best tragedy to improve eating includes establishing regular meal timings, ensuring a pleasant atmosphere, offering a variety of foods and setting an example of enjoying the same food themselves. Offering small servings at a time, reducing between meal caloric intake and not pressurizing or force-feeding the child to finish a pre-decided quantity of food is also useful.
Parents should engage their children in conversation about benefits of healthy and balanced diet and discourage intake of junk food.
- Toilet training: Refusal to defecate in the toilet with development of constipation is a common problem in children. This leads to parental frustration and increased pressure on the child. If toilet training is begun arbitrarily by the parents before the child is developmentally ready to be trained, unnecessary power struggle between the child and the parents sometimes ensues. Toilet training should be started after two years of age when the child has spontaneously started indicating bladder and bowel fullness and is able to follow simple instruction. The general ambience should be conducive to learning and free from pressure. Parents should be advised for temporary cessation of toilet training and making a fresh beginning after some time. Consistently in the parents approach and positive reinforcement by praising and encouraging the child go a long way in producing a positive outcome.
- Temper tantrums: From age of 18 months to 3 years, the child begins to develop autonomy and starts separating from primary caregivers. At this age they also develop negativism, that is, they do things opposite to what has been requested. When they cannot express their autonomy they become frustrated and angry. Some of these children show their frustration, opposition and defiance with physical aggression or resistance, such as biting, crying, kicking, pushing, throwing objects, hitting and head banging. This kind of behaviour reaches its peak during second and third year of life and gradually subsides by the age of 3 to 6 years as the child learns to control his negativism.
- Parents should be asked to list situations where disruptive behaviour are likely to occur and plan strategies to avoid these (for example, ensuring that child is rested and fed before taking him along for a shopping trip). They should be calm, firm and consistent and not allow the child to take advantage for gains from such behaviour. During an attack the child should be protected from injuring himself or others. At an early stage, distracting his attention from the immediate cause and changing the environment can abort the tantrum. “Time out” procedure, i.e. asking the child to stay alone in a safe and quiet place for a few minutes (1 minute for each year of age with a maximum of 5 minutes) may be helpful. This helps the child to self-regulate his out-of-control emotional response. The reason for timeout should be clearly explained to the child. Timeout should be followed by time-in by welcoming him back into the social group with a hug and affectionate words.
- Breath holding spells: Breath holding spells are reflexive events in which typically there is a provocative event that causes anger, frustration or pain and the child starts crying. The crying stops at full expiration when the child becomes apnoeic and cyanotic or pale. In some cases child may lose consciousness and muscle tone and fall. Breath holding spells are rare before 6 months of age, peak at 2 years and abate by 5 years of age. The affected children are often highly pampered by parents or grandparents. All their wishes, reasonable or unreasonable, are fulfilled, but once they are refused something or they are hurt physically or otherwise, they fell angry/ frustrated and exhibit breathe holding.
Both parents as also the grandparents if staying with the child should be counselled together. They should be asked to be consistent in their behaviour with the child.
- Habit disorders-
Include repetitive pattern of movements such as head banging, rocking of body, thumb sucking, twisting of hair and grinding of teeth. Such movements are seen frequently in normally developing children between the age of 6 months and 2 years and are benign and generally self-limited. These movements seem to serve as a means for discharging tension in the children or providing extra self-nurturance.
- Thumb sucking- is normal behaviour in infants and toddlers. It peaks between the ages of 18 – 21 months and most children spontaneously drop the habit by 4 years of age. Before 4 years of age, parents should be reassured and asked to ignore the habit. If it persists beyond the age of 4 – 5 years, the parents should gently motivate the child to stop thumb sucking and praise and encourage him when he tries to actively restrain himself from sucking the thumb. Application of noxious agents over the thumb is useful as an adjunctive second-line treatment in motivated children.
- Learning delay and disorders of communication-
- Stuttering- It is a defect in speech characterized by hesitation or spasmodic repetition of some syllables with pauses. There is difficulty in pronouncing the initial consonants caused by spasm of lingual and palatal muscles. It is a common problem affecting up to 5% of children between 2 – 5 years of age. Parents of young child should be assured that stuttering during the phase of non-fluent speech between 2 – 5 years usually resolves on its own.
- Major psychopathological disorders-
- Autistic disorder- These children group are diagnosable by 18 months of age by their poor eye contact, inability to engage socially or emotionally with caregivers, delayed speech, stereotypical body movements, marked need for sameness and preference for solitary play. As primary management, intensive behavioural therapy should be started.
General care at birth
- Prevention of infection- In every step of newborn care and for every person who comes in contact with neonates, the importance of maintaining cleanliness and asepsis cannot be overemphasized. A few simple and inexpensive ways to ensure this are-
- Clean environment- One should follow the ‘5 cleans’ of birthing process, including clean hands, clean delivery surface, clean cord cut, clean cord tie and clean cord stump.
- Hand washing for care-givers
- Strict asepsis
- No sharing
- Parental education
- Drying and temperature maintenance- Immediately following delivery, if the mother and baby’s condition allow it, baby can be put on the mother’s abdomen in direct skin to skin contact and then dried as the cord is being cut. Alternately, baby can be carried to a preheated area or under the radiant warmer. One of the first steps after birth is through drying of body and especially the head, which constitutes a large part of the neonatal surface area. The vernix, the cheesy material stuck on newborn skin made of dead skin, hair and secretions, serves to conserve heat and protect the delicate newborn skin from environmental stress; no attempt is made to remove this. After examination, baby is wrapped in clothes including a cap, and given to mother to allow first breast feed and gain heat from mother’s proximity.
- Cord care- The umbilical cord is clamped soon after delivery without any undue haste or delay. One should not apply anything on the cord and avoid touching it.
- Eye care- Eyes are cleaned with sterile normal saline-soaked cloth, using separate edges or pieces for the two eyes.
- Vitamin K prophylaxis- Vitamin K is produced in the human body from bacteria colonizing the gut. In babies the relative absence of such microorganisms and the deficiency of vitamin k in breast milk predispose the baby to its deficiency, which may manifest as vitamin K deficiency bleeding with formation of subcutaneous hematomas, echymosis, mucosal bleeding and life threatening intracranial bleed. In order to prevent this, vitamin K should be given intramuscularly at birth in a dose of 1 mg to all babies 1 kg or more and 0.5 mg to those <1 kg.
- Nutrition- Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for infants until 6 months of age. Information regarding breastfeeding and its technique need to be discussed with the mother, both during antenatal and postnatal period, not just once but in every visit so that its importance is reinforced and all maternal concerns are addressed.
Common concerns during neonatal care
- Weight loss in 1st week– normally babies loss 8 – 10% of birth weight in the 1st week of life which is regained by 7 – 10 days age. Subsequently, there should be a gain of 20 to 40 gram per day.
- Crying during micturition– The sensation of a full bladder is uncomfortable to many babies who cry before passing urine and stop as soon as micturition starts. Crying during passage of urine as opposed to before, it should alert clinician to the possibility of urinary tract infection.
- Bathing- During the first week, till cord falls off, only sponging is recommended which can be given after the first 24 hrs of life. Later, bathing every 2 – 3 days is quite sufficient. One should ensure that the baby doesn’t get cold during bathing.
- Cosmetics- Babies have a sensitive skin and use of cosmetics should be minimized. Any oil except mustard oil can be used; massaging babies increases human touch and contact with baby and is beneficial.
- Redness around umbilicus- Umbilical cord normally falls off in 7 – 10 days and the wound heals in about 15 days. It should be kept dry, without any application or bandaging. Any redness or induration around the umbilicus or pus drainage from it should alert the clinician to omphalitis. Omphalitis starts as a local infection of the umbilicus, usually from unclean handling or application of unclean substances to the cord. It can spread to cause life-threatening systemic sepsis.
- Regurgitation- Babies commonly regurgitate small amount of curdled milk soon after feeding. This behaviour is normal and as long as the baby gains weight and passes urine 6 – 8 times a day it does not require any treatment other than reassurance.
- Frequent stools- During the first few days of life, the stool colour in breastfed neonates changes from green meconium to yellow seedy stools by the end of the week. In between, the stools appear loose and may cause unnecessary anxiety to the family. The stool frequency can increase to several times per day, and is attributed to the enhanced gastro colic reflex in neonates which results in the passage of small stools just after feeding. If the bay remains well hydrated, has no signs of sepsis, feeds well, passes urine 6 – 8 times per day and gains weight, there is no cause for concern. The parents should be reassured accordingly to allay their anxiety.
- Breast discharge- Under the effect of transplacentally transmitted hormones, the breasts of both boys and girls may get hypertrophied and may even secrete milk like fluid from the enlarged breast bud. Squeezing it, causes pain and may harm the baby, hence it must be avoided. It resolves spontaneously in a few days and should cause no worry.
- Rashes and skin feeling- Papular lesions on an erythematous base can be seen in many babies; dispersed over the trunk and face; these are commonly seen on day two or three of life. These lesions called erythema toxicum.
- Physiological jaundice- Almost 60% of normal newborn babies develop clinically detectable jaundice (>5mg/dl). Onset is usually on day 2 – 3 of life, reaching a peak on day 3 – 4 and subsiding spontaneously within 7 – 10 days. However, some babies this level can reach high enough to cause brain damage.
- Oral thrush- White patchy lesions on the oral mucosa and tongue that are difficult to wipe off and leave haemorrhagic points when removed suggest candidiasis. Neonatal period is the only time when candidiasis occurs in otherwise healthy babies.
- Diaper rash- Two types of diaper rash are seen, namely, ammoniacal and candidal. In ammoniacal diaper rash, skin creases are spread, red areas with or without blisters and painful. Whereas in candidal diaper rash, skin creases are primarily affected, red lesions with edges showing satellite lesions. In these cases, lesions should leave open and diapers has to be changed frequently along with application of zinc oxide for soothing effect.
- Eye discharge- Eye discharge is a common problem among neonates.
Few important steps towards care of baby after birth
- Absolute breast feeding- Breast feeding is an ideal food for a normal neonate. It is the best gift that a mother can give to her baby. It contains all the nutrients for normal growth and development of a baby from the time of birth to the first six months of life. Ensuring exclusive breast feeding for six months has a potential to reduce under-5 mortality rate by 13%, by far the most effective intervention that are known to reduce newborn and child deaths. To accrue the maximum benefits, the breastfeeding must be exclusive, initiated within half an hour of birth, and continued through first six months after birth.
Benefits of breast milk
Nutritional superiority- Breast milk contains all the nutrients a baby needs for normal growth and development, in an optimum proportion and in a form that is easily digested and absorbed.
Carbohydrates– Lactose is in a high concentration in breast milk. Lactose helps in absorption of calcium and enhances the growth of lactobacilli in the intestine.
Proteins- The protein content of breast milk is low as the baby cannot effectively metabolize a high protein load. Most of the protein is lactalbumin and lactoglobulin (60%), which is easily digested. Human milk contains amino acids like taurine and cysteine which are necessary for neurotransmission and neuromodulation. These are lacking in lacking in cow’s milk and formula.
Fats- Breast milk is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, necessary for the myelination of the nervous system.
Vitamins & minerals- The quantity and bioavailability of vitamins and minerals are sufficient for the needs of the baby in the first 6 months of age.
Water & electrolyte- Breast milk has a water content of 88% hence a breastfeed baby does not require any additional water in the first few months of life even in summer months. The osmolality of breast milk is low, presenting a low solute load to the neonatal kidney.
Immunological superiority- Breast milk contains a number of protective factors which include immunoglobulin, mainly secretary IgA, macrophages, lymphocytes, lactoferrin, lysozyme, bifidus factor, interferin and other protective substances.
Other benefits- Breast milk contains a number of growth factor, enzymes, hormones etc.
Protections against other illness- Breastfed babies have a lower risk of allergy, ear infections and orthodontic problems. They have a lower risk of diabetes, heart disease and lymphoma in later life.
Mental growth- Babies who are breastfed are better bonded to their mothers.
Benefits to mother- Breastfeeding soon after birth, helps uterine involution and reduces the chances of postpartum haemorrhage. It provides protection against pregnancy due to lactational amenorrhoea. Breastfeeding is most convenient and time saving. It reduces the risk of cancer of breast and ovary. Breastfeeding is the most effective way of shedding extra weight that mother has put on during pregnancy.
|Age||National Immunization Programme||Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP) recommended|
|0 (at birth)||BCG, OPV0||BCG, OPV0, Hep B1|
|6 weeks||DPTw1, OPV1 (and BCG, if not given at birth)||DPTw1/DPTa1, OPV1, Hep B2, Hib1|
|10 weeks||DPTw2, OPV2||DPTw2/DPTa2, OPV2, Hib2|
|14 weeks||DPTw3, OPV3||DPTw3/DPTa3, OPV3, Hep B3, Hib3|
|15-18 months||DPTw B1/DPTa B1, OPV4, Hib B1, MMR1|
|18-24 months||DPTw B1, OPV B1|
|5 years||DT B2||DPTw B2/DPTa B2, OPV5, MMR2|
|Pregnant women||2 doses of TT 1 month apart||2 doses of TT|
Homoeopathy for new born babies
Homoeopathy is a reasonable alternative mode of treatment for the new born babies as well as for whole childhood period. Here common problems of children are highlighted altogether rather than focusing only on diseases of children up to 3 years. Various infectious diseases (bacterial, viral), parasitic infestations, nutritional disorders and other systemic disorders are effectively managed by homoeopathy. Homoeopathy can also bring about favourable results in various behavioural disorders, which affect children – e.g. Nocturnal enuresis, phobias, hyperactive & sleep disorders etc.
Homoeopathy based on the Law of Similar and the successful application depends entirely on-
- The concepts of Individualization- To consider the total response of the organism to the unfavourable environment, expressed through Signs and Symptoms on three planes: Emotional, Intellectual and Physical.
While assessing total response fundamental importance given to the causative factors and to the peculiar characteristics of the ailment and patient, especially the mental aspects.
- Susceptible constitutions- To consider the hereditary influences and predispositions that play an important role in the genesis of illness.
- Has own exacting methodology of Case Taking.
- Has its own exacting method of preparation of drugs.
Periodic, regular health supervision for children is required to promote:
- Intellectual growth and development.
Homoeopathy welcomes surgical measures when directed towards the removal of congenital malformations / structural defects producing mechanical impediments to the cure. Use of replacement therapy stands accepted as and when required for treatment.
Reasons why homoeopathy should be adopted for children
- Safe medicine
- Effective & quick in action
- Scientific & natural medicine
- Builds body resistance
- Child friendly
- Preventive for many diseases
Homeopathic treatment for children can be separated into two categories- (1) For acute conditions and (2) For chronic conditions. Homeopathy is successful in both categories. Single remedies achieve the best results. The treatment involves a through case recording and the prescription of a constitutional homeopathic medicine based on totality. The prescription may be a single dose of a high potency or a daily dose of lower or LM potency. Today, there are many paediatricians preferring homoeopathic treatment for the children and patients in various paediatric conditions due to its effectiveness and non-toxic actions.
Homoeopathy for various diseases of children
Homoeopathic medicines can effectively cure the diseases occurring due to infection, allergy, mental disorders and psychological aberrations, nutritional. It is also effective mode of treatment to avoid surgery, developmental disorders etc.
- Common Newborn Problems-
Colic, fever, diaper rashes, sneezing & stuffy nose, thrush, common infections, jaundice, fever, constipation, watery eyes, vomiting, congenital anomalies etc.
- Common Infant Problems-
Colic, fever, diaper rashes, stuffy nose, skin rashes, thrush, common infections, vomiting, diarrhoea & dysentery, colic, constipation, eye problems, spitting up, congenital anomalies etc.
- Common Toddler Problems-
Asthma, acute trachea bronchitis, allergies, eczema, constipation, diaper rash, ear infections, head lice, skin rashes, toilet training problems, UTI, warts, colic, phobia, anaemia, bowlegs, flat foot, sleep problem, sibling-rivalry etc.
- Common paediatric diseases that may require paediatric surgery include-
Cystic hygroma, esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, intestinal atresia, necrotizing enterocolitis, hirschsprung’s disease, imperforate anus, undescended testes, omphalocele, hernias, chest wall deformities, neuroblastoma, wilms’ tumor, liver tumors, teratomas, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD) etc.
Homoeopathic therapeutics of some common paediatric diseases (whereas totality of symptoms should not be ignored while making final choice of medicine)
- Common Paediatric Skin Rashes-
- Hives (Urticaria) and Angioedema- Antim Crude, Dulcamara, Apis Mel, Natrum Mur, Belledonna, Sulphur, Rhus Tox,Fragaria, Astacus Fluviatilis, Calcaria Carb
- Atopic dermatitis- C, Hep., Merc., Puls., Rhus-t., Sil., Staph., Sulph.
- Molluscum Contagiosum- Calcarea Silicata, Sulphur, Natrum Mur, Calcarea Carb, Psorinum, Tuberculinum, Silicea etc.
- Diaper Rashes- Sulp, Arsenic, Rhus tox, Merc Sol, Hep Sulph, Psorinum, Graph, etc
- Scabies- Asr, Sulp, Psorinum, Merc Sol, Rhus Vein, Rhus Tox etc.
- Common Respiratory conditions-
- Allergic rhinitis / Sneezing and Stuffy Noses / Nasal Congestion / Cold, Flu and Seasonal allergies for children- Aconite, Belledonna, Bryonia, Heper – Sulph, Arsenic, Dulcamara, Allium Cepa, Sabadilla, Sangunaria, phosphorous etc.
- Bronchial Asthma- Arsenic Alb, Antim Ars, Antim Tart, Blatta, Sambucus, Ipecac, Adrenalin, Nat Sulph, Heper Sulph, Cassia Sof, Sulphur, Natrum Mur, Calcarea Carb, Bacillinum, Psorinum, Tuberculinum, Silicea etc.
- Common problems of the G.I.T.:
- Food Allergy of children (Vomiting and Diarrhea)- Nux V, Carbo Veg, Arsenic Alb, China, Podo, Kurchi, Atista Indica, Ipecac, Bryonia, Camphor, Veratrum Alb, Puls, Nat Sulph, Croton Tig etc.
- Milk intolerance- Aethu, Cina, Jal, Nat. C, Sil.
- Pain Abdomen- A, Bell., Cham., Chel., Cupr., Dios., Mag-p., Nux-v., Plb., Puls., Stann., Stry., Verat.
- Common eye problems:
- Conjunctivitis- Gonococcal- Aconite, Bryo, Bell, Apis, Puls, Nar Mur, Hep, Euph, Rhus T, Merc, etc.
- Diseases of the Kidney:
- Nephritis and Nephrotic syndrome- Apis, Apoc., Aran., Cortiso., Merc.
- Anxiety Disorders- Constitutional treatment with psychotherapy and behavioural therapy is required.
- Diseases due to poor nutrition:
- Rickety child- Calc-p., Ph-ac., , Psor., Puls., Rhus-t., Sil., Staph., Sulph etc.
- Oral thrush- Borax, Heper, Merc, Phos, BB, Calc P, Condurango etc.
- Developmental disorders:
- Bow leg- Calc. phos (Child slow in learning to walk, It is mainly due to defective bone mellowness)
- Diseases due to Chromosomal abnormalities like Mongolism / Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome need constitutional treatment.
- Boericke W. New manual of homoeopathic materia medica & repertory. Augmented ed. New Delhi: B Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2000.
- Dutta DC. Text book of obstetrics. 6th Kolkata: New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd; 2004.
- Ghai OP, Paul VK, Bagga A, editors. Essential paediatrics. 7th ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd: 2009.
- Hahnemann S. Organon of medicine. 5th New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2010.
- Internet searches at: zerotothree.org visited on 05/07/2013 at 15:30 hrs.
- Kent JT. Repertory of the homoeopathic materia medica. Indian ed. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2006.
- Park K. Textbook of preventive and social medicine. 17th Jabalpur: M/s Banarsidas Bhanot; 2003.
- Schroyens F. Repertorium homoeopathicum syntheticum. 8.1 version. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2001.
- Williams NS, Bulstrode CJK, O’Connel PR, editors. Bailey & Love’s short practice of surgery. 25th London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd; 2008.
*Address for correspondence:
Dr. Abhijit Chakma, MD (Hom)
Senior Research Fellow (H), Clinical Research Unit for Homoeopathy,
¼ Main Road, Colonel Chowmuhani, Krishnanagar, Agartala, Tripura, India
Pin code- 799001