Category Archives: Organon and Philosophy

Articles on Organon of medicine and Homoeopathy Philosophy

Tubercular Miasm & Its Clinical Application

Dr Ardeshir T Jagose

The word miasm has originated from the Greek word “Miasma” which means a stain, pollution, defilement of an abnoxious atmosphere or infective material. Hahnemann, during his life time discovered that a “noxious agent” was responsible for the persistence of the disease condition which he named as miasm. It was during the evolution of the discovery of chronic disease, he came to the conclusion that the disease condition cannot arise, persist or even grow worse if the miasm is not present. Hence, he named three basic miasms, i.e. Psora, Sycosis and Syphilitic miasm. Futhermore, Dr. Tomas Paschero definition of miasm was : “A miasm is not an infection or an intoxication, but a vibratory alteration of man’s vital energy, determining the biological behaviour and general constitution of the individual.”

If we look into the evolution of the history of miasm, Dr. Hahnemann perceived the miasm on the physical plane based on the clinical observations. It was further extended and given a philosophical touch by Dr. J. T. Kent who raised the miasmatic theory to the state of mind which required deep seated perceiving. Dr. Robert and Dr. Speight made an analytical study of symptomatology of diseases and corelated the miasms with symptoms. Dr. C. M. Boger generalised the symptoms and converted them to pathological generals eg keloid, gangrene, desquamations, etc. He also stressed form, function and structure of any disease condition. He was of the opinion that disease evolves dynamically from Psora to Sycotic to Tubercular to Syphilitic phase. He was the first person to corelate pathology to miasms. Dr. J. H. Allen introduced the tubercular miasm. In his book “The Chronic Miasms” he described psora, pseudopsora and sycosis. He stated that the miasms psora and syphilis gave rise to tubercular miasm and called it pseudopsora. He added that when sycosis is added to tuberculosis, it gives rise to a malignant hue.

In other words, miasm is a concept whereas pathology is a fact operating on the concept. Pathology is reflection of miasm and is evidence to the presence of miasm.

Let us now understand how the knowledge of Tubercular miasm ( or any other miasm) is useful in clinical practice:
1) It helps us in identifying the state of pathology.
2) It helps us to make a fair judgment of the state of susceptibility.
3) It helps us to prognosticate the case in advance.
4) It helps us to judge the further evolution in the state of pathology.
5) It helps us to plan the second prescription.
6) It helps us to recognize suppression.
7) It helps us to find the similimum.
8) It helps us to differentiate between two seemingly similar remedies.
9) It helps us to choose the inter current remedy.
10) It helps us to select the potency.
11) It helps us to for a better understanding about repetition of drug.
12) It helps us to identify the predisposition and disposition of the case.

Now let us focus our attention on the tubercular miasm. We discuss the predisposition, disposition, diathesis, generalities, modalities and pathology.

The predisposition is obtained by the homoeopath from the family and past history of the patient who may have one or more of the following diseases / states suggestive of tubercular miasm viz. tuberculosis of lungs, pleura, meninges, bones, joints, glands, blood vessels, collagen tissue, teeth, GI tract and genito urinary system, etc; one child sterility (secondary sterility), diabetes mellitus, suppuration and recurrent abscess, sinuses, fistula, haemorrhagic diathesis, tendencies and caries, white spots on nails or any relapsing reoccurring state.

Disposition :
The word disposition means “a tendency” or “inclination to”. It may be also coined as “type”, “typology”, “temperatment” or “constitution” of an individual.
It may be defined as “an aggregation or collection of attributes, trials, qualities of an individual on the intellectual, mental & physical plane which is hereditary and also partly acquired through the patients life”.

Disposition may be studied under various headings :
a) Emotions b) Intellect c) Dreames d) Physical factors

a) Emotions :
Heightened, unstable emotions – easily offended, weeps easily, changeable moods, and sensitive to inputs of noise, touch, jar, movement etc.
Anxiety, fear, fright, apprehension (anticipatory & agitational type) grief, craves for sympathy and gives it, desire to be magnetised, very hopeful – optimistic, sentimental, suppressed anger, friendly nature but unpredictable.
All desires of sex, love are heightened giving rise to sexual perversions and very strong attachment to objects and persons, but the performance is poor resulting in impotency and disappointment in love. Poor will, motivation and drive are also seen.

b) Intellect :
Acute perception – ESP, and at the extreme end also present is clairvoyance, clariaudience, where all responses are sharp, quick but erratic, not long lasting but with changeability, alterations and oscillations.
Strong / heightened imagination – artistic and intellectual precocity (cognition)
Strong / heightened perception – acute / altered with illusion, hallucination and delusion

c) Dreams :
Amorous, frightful, violent, prophetic, distressing, gloomy and dreams of shame. Cries out in dreams.

d) Physical factors :
Hypersensitivity is marked to all sensory inputs like touch, light, noise, odour. Also hypersensitive to weather, temperature changes, lightening, thunderstorm, moonlight.
Immune levels are low, hence prone to environmental influences causing diseases.
All discharges are profuse, white or sero-sanguinous in nature with a musty, mouldy odour. Increased appetite, but yet looks emaciated and marasmic. Craving for indigestible things and pica during pregnancy with marked aversion to meat.

Build / Constitution :
The person is tall, thin, lean (body growth is disproportionate to height), fair in colour and the venules can be seen under the skin, with blue sclera, blond hair and long eye lashes. They are emaciated, stooped shouldered with narrow chest and depressed sternum, winged scapula, curved spine with drawn clavicles and a drum belly, yet attractive with blond or red hair, long delicate fingers and fine silky hair especially down the spine with white spots or ridges on nails and posterior cervical glands are enlarged, small and shotty.

Diathesis :
Comptom J. Burnett was the first person to describe this state to homoeopaths. He called it “comsumptiveness” and he wrote a book called “New cures for consumption by it’s own virus”.
The word “Diathesis” can be explained as a borderline state between disposition and expression or it can be defined as a borderline state between normal susceptibility and expression of the disease.
Hence two types of diathesis can be dedcribed :

a) TUBERCULAR DIATHESIS OF TUBERCULINISM : the French called it “elat tuberculinique”. This diathesis is found in offsprings of those who had suffered from tuberculosis. It may also be observed in some individuals who do not respond to anti-tubercular treatment.

b) Scrophulous diathesis : it is similar to tubercular lymphadenitis i.e. there is induration leading to sinuse or fistula formation with subsequent healing by scar formation.

Generalities :
1) A strong predisposition to Koch’s, pleural effusion, Pott’s disease, tubercular glands, tubercular meningitis etc.
2) Increased activity at all levels mental and physical followed by debility at all levels.
3) Erraticity, periodicity, hyperdynamicity, changeability, fears and alteration of emotions, desires and dispotion in time and space is well marked.
4) In the third phase of disease progression, all the responses are fast.
5) Superficial disturbances of circulation are seen – bluish pallor, purple condition of extremities with chilblains and hypotension.
6) Increased catabolism and decreased anabolism with poor assimilation is seen.
7) Emaciation rapid and pronounced ; loss of muscle mass despite eating well. Takes cold easily without knowing how and where.
8) Pains are variable, generally throbbing in affected parts or sore, bruised, aching which are relieved by warmth and movement .
9) Sexual precaucity is marked with lasiviousness, nymphomania etc.
10) Recovery takes along time due to weak system – has not been well since.
11) Where there is a lack of reaction in a given case, when too many medicines have been given or a deep acting medicine acts only for a few weeks.

AILMENTS FROM : Suppressed foot or axillary sweat, suppressed eruptions especially ringworms, dentition troubles, anticipation, loss of vital fluid and exposure to damp weather.

Exposure to cold, sitting in a draft, becoming fatigued, mental excitement or exertion, overeating, overwork, early morning on awakening, from a warm room, from evening till midnight, rest, standing, before and during a thunder storm, weather changes, night, warm damp weather, rainy weather, after sleep, before breakfast, uncovering, scratchine, studing, bathing, seaside, 7 p.m. and 5 p.m., riding in a carriage, 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., high altitude, during menses, cow’s milk, potatoes, meat and sunset.

Open air, fresh air, motion, walking, heat, heat of fire, eating, noose bleed, rest, quiet place, sleep, natural discharges i.e. diarrhoea, sweat, nose bleed etc, though chilly longs for fresh air and open windows.
Pains are ameliorated by hot applications and in the daytime.
Eruptions are better by bathing.

Caseation is present with giant cells in the center surrounded by macrophages (often endothelial cell) which is further surrounded by few collagen strands and lymphocytes.

ON CLINICAL GROUNDS the pathological findings suggestive of tubercular miasm are as follows:
1) CBC : Leucocytosis with lymphocytes and mononuclear cells.
2) BLOOD SUGAR: Increased levels of fasting and / or post prandial blood sugar levels.
3) URINE ROUTINE : Increased specific gravity (1.016 to 1.023) or fixed at 1.010. Presence of urates, sugar, acetone blood and casts.
4) STOOL EXAMINATION: Tarry stools with fresh or occult blood with presence of E.histolytica, Giardia Lambia and other helminthic infestations.
5) SPUTUM EXAMINATION: May show presence of A.F.B.
6) MANTOUX TEST : Induration, redness and erythema seen after 48 to 72 hours-7 to 10 mm or more induration is definitely positive.
7) X-RAY CHEST FINDINGS: It may show caseous hepatization of lungs / military mottling, tenting of diaphragm. Heart shadow is narrow, slender, tubular, with calcified aortic knuckle. Pulmonary artery is relatively wider than the aorta.

Relationship to the homoeopathic materia – medica :
A) Compatable Drugs: Bell, Bry, Calc-carb, Calc-phos, China, Hydrastasis, Kali-sulph, Psor, Puls, Sepia and Sulphur.
B) Drugs That Follow Well : Calc-phos, Calc-carb, Calc-silicata, Baryta-carb and Silicea.
C) Antidotal drugs: Phos, Puls and Sepia. If the drug tuberculinum produces a fearful aggravation, Calc-carb or Calc-phos in low potency may check the effect (Homoeopathic Recorder November 1928.)

Thus, after having perceived the essentials of the tubecular miasm, we can summarise the following points :

  • 1) Onset: incidious.
  • 2) Pace: fast
  • 3) Speed: rapid
  • 4) Intensity: heightened
  • 5) Pattern: erratic
  • 6) Frequency: irregular
  • 7) Sensitivity: increased
  • 8) Reactivity: increased with an erratic and unpredective response
  • 9) Process: chronic
  • 10) Immunity: low
  • 11) Susceptibility: moderate to high
  • 12) Depth: deep due to pathological changes
  • 13) Pathology: chronic inflammations, exudations, suppuration, sinus / fistula formation, discharges acrid thick yellowish green in colour with a musty / mouldy odour.

Thus, in clinical practice the first step is to understand the miasm, to identify the dominant miasm and the fundamental miasm as evident from the presenting complaint, family and past history, respectively.

While treating a case in which the fundamental miasm is tubercular in origin, further management requires proper understanding of the tubercular miasmatic activity during the treatment which alters morbid susceptibility and brings out cure. Very rarely it can occur with a few doses of homoeopathic medication, but it requires total eradication of the miasmatic activity. Thus, after the first prescription one has to observe the frequency and duration of the chief complaint, including the pathology which will gradually decline. The miasmatic activity will come under control only when the patient’s complaint travels from sycotic/ psoric plane while getting cured. In the follow up period the complaints will remain low in intensity, will be less frequent and there will be a change in the type of discharges like that of sycotic / psoric miasm.

Therefore adequate follow up of the case is essential to observe all these changes. An indepth understanding of the tubercular miasm with the help of a homoeopathic physician is essential to effect a gentle and permanent cure which will enable the physician to scale the ladder of success in his clinical practice.


Posology – Hahnemannian Concept

homeo9Dr Jatin N Dhagat  

Basically the word Posology has originated from the Greek word Posos. The meaning of this word is how much [dose]. The word logos suggest study or discourse. So Posology means science of dosage. The terminology of dose originates from the word dose that means the quantity of a drug or other therapeutic agent to be taken or applied. On the basis of this we may say that Posology is the branch of pharmacology and therapeutics concerned with a determination of the doses of remedies; the science of dosage. Or Posology is the scientific study of drug doses.

A homoeopathic concept of Posology necessarily means selection of potency, dispensing and repetition of the dose of the medicine. Homoeopathic Posology is based on the principles of the single remedy, minimum dose and minimum intervention.

Controversy and Confusion:
Since after the death of our master Dr.Hahnemann, Posology remains a topic for controversy and confusion for beginners. After perceiving the concept of Hahnemannian Posology various stalwarts like Dr. Boenninghausen, Dr.Kent, and Dr.Boger etc have tried to express their own perception in a different manner. As a result of our misunderstanding profession has been divided in to different paths. Everyone is directly or indirectly walking on one or another path. Hahnemann had also at one stage proposed to treat all cases with the thirtieth potency.

After trying to understand the concept of stalwarts, as a beginner various confusing question should arise in our mind. They are like: whether to give a single unit dose or repeated doses? If we give one dose than when to repeat it? What will be the frequency of repetition? How far we have to wait and watch? etc. As a result of all such controversial and unsolved questions Homoeopathy is still struggling for its existence in front of modern science in the country like India. If we perceive the actual evolutionary concept of Posology given by Dr.Hahnemann in different editions of Organon of medicine we can satisfy ourselves regarding the concept of Posology. This attempt has been made in this article.

Evolution of homoeopathic Posology:
1) Before The Discovery of Homoeopathic System:
During his earlier period, Hahnemann was using massive doses, as was the practice in those days. But by his keen observation he was able to detect that large doses of medicine were causing undue aggravation. In § 621 in Lesser writings (On the nature and treatment of venereal disease) 1786 (pg 133) he says “… in very sensitive persons I have sometimes not have the occasion to use more than 1 grain of soluble mercury to cure moderate idiopathic venereal symptoms and commencing syphilis yet I have met with cases in which 60 grains were necessary”. He says that he was forced to use such large quantities of medicine, as some circumstances of the patient must have interrupted with the action of medicines. Hahnemann says that in moderately severe syphilis not more than 8 grains were required while for severe and deep-rooted cases about 12 grains were needed. After giving the first dose Hahnemann used to progressively increase the dose until the disease have disappeared. In Lesser Writings he narrates the way of increasing dose in a progressive scale from ¼ to 1/3, ½, 3/4, 11/4 grains then after an interval of 14 days again dose is increased from 11/2 to 2 grains until syphilis disappeared.

Here we can see that Hahnemann inferred that the large quantities of medicine was not the factor which helped in curing disease, but sufficient quantity just needed to excite an reaction was only needed. So Hahnemann reduced large quantities of mercury given for treatment of venereal disease to just sufficient quantity required to bring about mercurial fever. Thus Hahnemann reduced the quantity of mercury needed for the treatment of venereal diseases from 12 grains, 5 grains etc to 11/2 to 2 grains.

2) Period of discovery of homoeopathic system:
In 1790 Hahnemann on translating Cullen’s M.M came upon the fact that the curative power of cinchona was due to its astringent property which he tested upon himself and established that medicines were able to cure owing to its property of producing similar symptoms. Thus in 1796 he laid down the foundation of a new system of medicine viz. Homoeopathy. In the period 1796 – 1801 we don’t find a marked reduction in the dosage for we find him giving 4 grains of Veratrum album for a case of colicodynia, Ipecac 5 grains, Nux vom 4 grains etc.

3) Inception of infinitesimal Posology
But in 1801 in his essay ‘on the cure and prevention of Scarlet fever’, the first indication of infinitesimal Posology took its place and unto now it stands as essential and integral part of homoeopathic system. In cure and prevention of scarlet fever Hahnemann advises 1 part of opium to be taken in 20 parts of weak alcohol and keep it for one day, then one drop of it is taken and dissolved in 500 drops of alcohol and then one drop of this could be given for children and 2 drops for persons above 10 years of age.

Hahnemann says “The smallness of the dose in which the medicines acts upon the whole organism, when it is suitable to the case is incredible; at least it is incredible to my colleagues”. In his essay ‘on the power of small doses of medicine in general and belladonna in particular’ (Lesser Writings ) Hahnemann says a very hard dry pill of extract of belladonna produces no effect in a perfectly healthy man, but it may not be so if he is ill. One drop of belladonna taken in 2000 drops of water and is shaken vigorously and 1 teaspoon is given every two hours will produce violent symptoms in a strong man, if he is ill. Hahnemann says that except him no other physicians have noted this remarkable action and many physicians are ignorant of this dynamic action. Here Hahnemann was able to see that the medicines acted even in minute doses due to its dynamic action.

In Medicine of Experience (1805), which is the precursor to Organon of Medicine, he further elaborates upon his discovery, making it a doctrine and a foundation stone of homoeopathy.
In M.E Hahnemann says “… We have not only selected the right remedy but also hit upon the proper dose (for curative purpose incredible small doses suffice)…”

In the first edition of the Organon, which appeared in 1810, Hahnemann speaks much to the same effect. Here he says, “Scarcely any dose of the homeopathically selected remedy can be so small as not to be stronger than the natural disease and not capable of overcoming it”.

Thus in scarlet fever we find Hahnemann giving betwixt our 2nd and 3rd dilution. In 1814 we find him giving Bryonia and Rhus tox in a dilution equal to 15th and 16th of centesimal scale. Hyoscyamus was prescribed in 8th dilution. In 1819 on the treatment of suicidal mania we find him giving gold in 6th dilution.

In 1827 in his essay ‘How can small doses of such very attenuated medicine in homoeopathy employ still greater power’, Hahnemann says that there are various reasons why a sceptic ridicules these homoeopathic attenuations.

1) He is ignorant that by means of such triturations, the internal medicinal power is wonderfully developed and liberated from its material bonds.

2) Pure arithmetic mind believes that it sees here only an instance of enormous sub division and does not observe in this spiritualization of internal medicinal power.

3) The sceptic has no experience relative to the action of preparations of such exalted medicinal power.

4) Concept of Posology in the Fourth Edition of Organon:
In the fourth edition of Organon Hahnemann introduced the single unit dose consisting of a few poppy seed sized pellets and taught that as long there was improvement, no repetition of the remedy was allowed. Only when a definite relapse of the symptoms occurred could a remedy be repeated. [Aphorism-240, 242] The above aphorisms still are the basic principles for so many homoeopaths for their practice throughout the world. In this wait and watch method the homoeopath is totally committed to the first dose, delaying repetition in order to avoid unnecessary aggravation.

Dr.Kent was well aware of the Fifth Edition of Organon even though he kept the legacy of these aphorisms alive by practicing according to the fourth edition. He was a follower of the philosopher, Emanuel Swedenborg, one of the greatest scientists of that day. According to his theory energy is based on a fourth state of matter called the simple substance. Simple substance has no quantity but only quality in degrees of fineness. So the number of pills used in a dose makes no difference for Dr.Kent. Till today so many modern homoeopaths and followers of Dr.Kent are claiming that it never matters whether the remedy is given in water in spoonful doses or given in a few pellets dry on the tongue.

At this place in the aphorism 275 Dr.Hahnemann says: “A medicine given in too large dose, though completely homeopathic to the case and in itself of a beneficial nature, will still harm the patient by its quantity and unnecessary strong action on the vital force, and through it, because the medicine is homoeopathic on precisely those parts of the organism which are the most sensitive and have already been afflicted most by the natural disease.”

5) Concept of Posology in the Fifth Edition of Organon:
The fifth edition of Organon was published in 1833. This Edition had three major changes.
Initially Hahnemann resisted the use of higher potency for longer period of time. Stapf, Gross, and especially Boenninghausen convinced Hahnemann to conduct his own experiment and to remove the 30ch limit. So the potency limit of 30ch was removed. This was the first change of Fifth Edition.

As a part of second change Dr.Hahnemann introduced to give medicines in watery solution instead of dry doses. He had concluded that the uses of watery solutions were far superior than to give dry doses. We may find such reference in aphorism 286 in Fifth edition: “ For the same reason the effect of a homoeopathic dose of medicine increases, the greater the quantity of fluid in which it is dissolved when administered to the patient, although the actual amount of medicine it contains remains the same. For in this case, when the medicine is taken, it comes in to contact with a much larger surface of sensitive nerves responsive to the medicinal action. Although theorists may image there should be a weakening of the action of a dose of medicine by its dilution with a large quantity of liquid, experience asserts exactly the opposite, at all events when the medicines are employed homoeopathically.”

The third and very surprised suggestion given by Dr.Hahnemann in this edition was related to repetition of the dose even when improvement of the patient had set in. When we take the reference of aphorism 246, he says: “ …. If the disease is somewhat chronic, however a single dose of the appropriately chosen homoeopathic medicine does sometimes complete the good that remedy can according to its nature accomplish in the case, but slowly over a period of 40, 50, 60, or 100 days. Now for one thing, this is very rarely the case and secondly it must be a matter of great importance to the physician and to the patient to reduce this period by half or three quarters or more, if possible, so as to obtain a far more rapid cure. As the most recent and frequently verified experiments have taught me, this can be accomplished very felicitously if the following conditions are fulfilled: firstly, if the medicine is very carefully selected so that it is accurately homoeopathic, secondly, if it is highly potentized, dissolved in water and given in suitably small doses at intervals that experience has shown to be the most appropriate for the speediest possible cure…” This statement was creating a great disappointment for the followers of wait and watch method by giving dry doses in infrequent repetition. [According to Fourth Edition] Here the theme of this Para is: “suitably small doses at intervals”. At this point what was his perception regarding suitable intervals we may not say but one thing is clear that his suggestions were towards repetition for shortening the period of cure though improvement was going on. He called this path as a true middle path.

Later on in the same aphorism he says for this the nature of the different medicinal substances, corporeal constitution of the patient and the magnitude of disease must guide us. This statement guides us to understand his perception regarding repetition. We may say that Dr.Hahnemann considered such factors for the basis of repetition at suitable interval.

Here the question should arise in our mind that whether such repetition at suitable interval will produce aggravation or not? In the fourth edition Dr.Hahnemann had extensively mentioned regarding Aggravation by unnecessary repetition of similar medicine. Here in the Fifth edition he has mentioned his different view related to Aggravation than Fourth edition. In the aphorism 279 he says:” A dose of the homoeopathic selected remedy can never be prepared so small that it shall not be stronger than the natural disease, and shall not be able to overpower, extinguish and cure it, at least in part as long as it is capable of causing some, though but a slight preponderance of its own symptoms over those of the disease resembling it, [slight homoeopathic aggravation] immediately after its ingestion. This makes our understanding clear that we must expect some aggravation after using this split method suggested by Dr.Hahnemann in Fifth Edition. This concept was totally changed after introducing LM potency in the Sixth Edition of Organon.

6) After the invention of Psora theory
After his invention of Psora theory Hahnemann fixes an uniform standard for the dose of all remedies at a globule of the 30th dilution. In his essay ‘On the extreme attenuation of homoeopathic medicine’ he is found to recommend 30th dilution as standard.

Korsakoff’s statement about high Potencies:
Graf von Korsakoff’s says that he has diluted medicines up to 150th, 1000th, 1500th attenuation and he has found them to be still efficacious. Korsakoff’s says that the material division of medicinal substance attains its limit at 3rd and 6th dilution and subsequent attenuation obtain their medicinal properties by a kind of infection or communication of medicinal power after the manner of contagious disease to the non – medical vehicle. He says he communicated medicinal properties to large quantities of unmedicated globules by shaking them up with one dry medicated globule. By diluting medicines highly the primary action of the medicine or its tendency to produce homoeopathic aggravation declines, whilst the curative action of medicine continuously increases.

To this Hahnemann says that we are indebted to Korsakoff’s, who has brought the idea of contagion in communicating the power of medicine to another globule, but the supposition that dry globules, that has been impregnated with a certain degree of development of power can be further dynamized and their medicinal power increased in their bottles by shaking or carrying about in pocket is incredible.

Hahnemann says even though triturations can be carried out to any limit it is advisable in preparing all kinds of medicines not to go higher than the decillionth attenuation and dynamization (x) in order homoeopathic physicians may be able to assume themselves of uniform results in practice.

7) Directions given during the last years of his life:

At Paris, on Dec 1838, Hahnemann states that “Thus we obtain, even in the fiftieth potency (the new wiseacres have hitherto ridiculed the thirtieth potency, and made use of the lower, little developed, more massive medicinal preparations in large doses, whereby, however, they were not able to effect what our system can do), each lower one of which has been dynamized with an equal number of successions, medicines of the most penetrating efficiency, so that each of the minutest globules impregnated with it, dissolved in much water, can be taken in small portions and must be so taken in order not to produce too violent effects in sensitive patients, not to mention that such as mode of preparation develops almost all the properties that lie hid in the essential nature of the medicinal substance, which thereby done can attain any activity.

In the preface to 3rd volume of c/c disease (edition 1837) he says that when we repeat the medicine we should descend from 30th to the 24th dilution and below. In the history of 2 cases collected in lesser writings he gave medicines especially Sulphur and Mercurius in doses greatly below 30th dilution.

In the last years of life he again allowed himself a greater range of dose, chiefly by extending the scale of dilutions upwards as high as 60th, 180th and even 300th dilutions, but also downwards to the 24th and occasionally also much lower. Hahnemann however used almost all potencies from lower to 30th, 60th, 150th and 300th dilution.

8) Concept of Posology in the Sixth Edition of Organon:
History related to Sixth Edition is very interesting. Dr.Hahnemann had completed the Sixth Edition in 1842 but his dream to make aware the world with such new way of selection of dose and potency was not fulfilled because of his death on second July 1843. As a result of this his work was remained unpublished for years and later on with the financial help of Dr. William Boericke the first German edition was published in 1920. During this period there were numbers of followers of Dr.Kent in the world but Sixth Edition was published after the four years of the death of Dr.Kent. So it was very clear that Dr.Kent remained deprived of the hidden treasures of the Sixth Edition. As a result of this so many followers of Dr.Kent had raised their questions regarding the purity of this Edition by saying that Melanie made such changes after the death of Dr.Hahnemann and they were not the original work of Dr.Hahnemann. But truly speaking it was the original work of Dr.Hahnemann and we may confirm it by referring the Dr.Boericke’s translation of Sixth Edition. Overall view of aphorisms makes our concept clear regarding thinking of Dr.Hahnemann.

In the aphorism 246 in the Fifth Edition he had used the sentence “ be repeated at suitable intervals”. Here in the same aphorism he says: “ The degree of every dose deviate somewhat from the preceding and following in order that the vital principle which is to be altered to a similar medicinal disease be not aroused to untoward reactions and revolt as is always the case with unmodified and especially rapidly repeated dose.” In the foot note of this aphorism he further says: “ During the last four or five years however all these difficulties are wholly solved by my new altered but perfect method. The same carefully selected medicine may now be given daily and for months, if necessary in this way, namely after the lower degree of potency has been used for one or two weeks in the treatment of chronic disease, advance is made in the same way to higher degrees.”

In the next aphorism [247] he says: “it is impractical to repeat the same unchanged dose of a remedy once, not to mention its frequent repetition. The vital principle does not accept such unchanged doses without resistance, that is, without other symptoms of the medicine to manifest themselves than those similar to the disease to be cured, because the former dose has already accomplished the expected change in the vital principle and a second dynamically wholly similar, unchanged dose of the same medicine no longer finds, therefore the same conditions of the vital force. The patient may indeed be made sick in another way by receiving other such unchanged doses. But if the succeeding dose is changed slightly every time, namely potentized somewhat higher then the vital principle may be altered without difficulty by the same medicine.”

In the aphorism 248 he says: “ For this purpose we Potentize a new medicinal solution from which we give the patient one or increasingly several teaspoonful doses, in long lasting diseases daily or every second day, in acute diseases every two to six hours and in very urgent cases every hour or oftener. Thus in chronic diseases, every correctly chosen homoeopathic medicine, even those whose action is of long duration, may be repeated daily for months with ever increasing success. If the solution is used up it is necessary to add to the next solution of the same medicine if still indicated one or several pellets of a higher potency with which we continue so long as the patient experiences continued improvement without encountering one or another complaint that he never had before in his life. For if this happens, if the balance of the disease appears in a group of altered symptoms then another, one m ore homeopathically related medicine must be chosen in place of the last and administered in the same repeated doses, mindful, however, of modifying the solution of every dose with thorough vigorous successions, thus changing its degree of potency and increasing it some what.”

In the same aphorism regarding homoeopathic Aggravation he says: “On the other hand should there appear during almost daily repetition of the well indicated homoeopathic remedy, towards the end of the treatment of a chronic disease, so-called [aphorism161] homoeopathic aggravation by which the balance of the morbid symptoms seem to again increase somewhat [the medicinal disease, similar to the original, now alone persistently manifest it self]. This statement is totally creating contradiction of his own statement given in the Fifth Edition where the question of aggravation had been mentioned immediately after administration of homoeopathic medicine. While here homoeopathic aggravation is seen at the end while patient is on the path of cure and it is only due to presence of medicinal symptoms. In Further aphorisms he has also represented the method of preparation of the medicine according to the Lm potency and he has expressed his great trust in his LM potencies. [Aphorism-279]

In the aphorism 284 he has also mentioned the route of administration of medicine, which is also a part of Posology. He says: “Besides tongue, mouth and stomach, which are the most commonly affected by the administration of medicine, the nose and respiratory organs are receptive of the action of medicines in fluid form by means of olfaction and inhalation through the mouth.

In the footnote of the aphorism 285 he has given the proper guideline to give mild Antipsorics treatment especially with Sulphur to the pregnant women in order to protect the posterity [hereditary] in foetus. Such women have given birth to children usually more healthy and stronger.[Here the time ,where she has to take medicine and its dose is not mentioned.]

Factors that led Hahnemann to arrive at the concept of minimum dose:
Dr.Dudgeon in his Lectures and Practice of Homoeopathy says that following factors led Hahnemann to arrive at the concept of minimum dose.

a) Hahnemann observed that medicines exhibited greater strength when given in dilution than in dry state.
b) He observed the greater power of medicine when given in divided dose than given at once.
c) He observed the greater susceptibility of disease organism for the medicine having a specific homoeopathic relation to the affected parts.
d) Hahnemann observed an increasing power of medicine by a thorough admixture of vehicle by means of succession
e) Desire to evade precession of apothecaries who tried legal proceedings against Hahnemann for invading upon their privileges for dispensing medicines.
f) To avoid aggravation of disease when given in large doses.

Exception to infinitesimal dose:
Hahnemann states an exception to infinitesimal dose in §282 fn of Organon of Medicine

“….there is an exception in the treatment of three great miasm while they still efflorescence on the skin i.e. recently erupted itch, the untouched chancre and the fig warts. These not only tolerate but indeed require from the very beginning large doses at their specific remedies of ever higher and higher dynamization daily.

The reasons why we should employ only minimum or infinitesimal dose are
1) When the disease attacks the body, it overcomes the body resistance. Now the body becomes vulnerable to the action of a similarly acting disease producing agent. So this disease-producing agent via the drug need only be applied in a minimum dose just sufficient to produce a cure.

2) Disease has already rendered the parts abnormally sensitive, so if the stimuli applied are large it will produce an aggravation.

3) According to Arnold – Schutz law minimum dose stimulates medium inhibits and maximum destroys.

Stalwarts view regarding Posology: 

Stuart Close
According to Stuart Close there are three necessary requirements for the action of infinitesimal dose.
1) The development of special virtues of medicine by the process of potentisation.
2) The increased susceptibility to medicinal impression produced by the disease.
3) The selection of symptomatically similar remedy.

Gordian Knot of Homoeopathy:
Posology became a subject of much misunderstanding, discussion controversy in the earlier days of homoeopathy. On this subject the profession was divided into two opposing camps. It came to be regarded as a kind of Gordian Knot to be cut by each individual as best as he could with the instrument at his disposal.

Hahnemann at one time in despair of bringing his followers to an agreement proposed that one should treat all the cases with thirtieth potency. Later each person adopted the dosage according to his convictions. The materialistic minded restricted themselves to the crude tinctures and triturations of very low dilution ranging from 1x to 6x. Other ranged from 3 to 30 potency while some other small class inclined to metaphysical ideas, using only the highest potencies ranging from 200 to millioneth. As physicians differed in their ideas this topic came to be regarded as the Gordian Knot to be cut by each individual as best as he could with the instruments at his disposal.

Stuart Close comments that this decision should be open to every practitioner and that each man should be competent, willing and ready to use any potency or preparation of indicated remedy. If he confines himself to one or two potencies, be they low medium or high he is limiting his own usefulness and depriving the patient of valuable means of relief & cure.

According to H.A.Roberts the law of dosage could be summarized to 3 fundamental laws.

1) Law of least action and quantity: The quantity of action necessary to effect any change in nature is least possible. The decisive amount is always the minimum i.e. an infinitesimal.
2) Law of quantity and dose: The quantity of drug required is inverse ratio to its similarity.
3) Law of quality: The quality of action of homoeopathic medicines is determined by its quantity in its inverse ratio.

H.A.Roberts in ‘The Principles and Art of Cure of Homoeopathy’ says that infinitesimal dose is one, which is so small as not to produce too much aggravation of the symptoms already present and never large enough to produce new symptoms.

Carrol Dunham:
In his Science of Therapeutic he says that the most vigorous opposition from old school as well as chief ground of division among the homoeopaths was upon the question of infinitesimal dose. Dunham says that the question of minimum dose is manifestly an open one. He states in favor of infinitesimal dose and concludes that there are many evidences in chronic disease that many medicines have acted in very large doses.

Richard Hughes:
In his Pharmacodynamics Richard Hughes say “My own experience of such dilutions as 6th and 12th and of the 30th is such as to make me join with unquestioning acclamation in their praise. I have no practical knowledge of the 200th, but if I had no other fact before me than their constant use by scientific and successful a physician as Carroll Dunham I should be content to acknowledge their legitimacy. Richard Hughes says that reason has nothing to say in favor of high potencies.

1) We have no evidence that can be brought before us to prove that we actually develop power as we go on attenuating.
2) There is no material particle of the drug beyond 12c
3) Preparation of 1000th and beyond according to Hahnemann’s directions are simple impossibilities, for it will require lot of time, labor and cost.

James Tyler Kent:
In his lesser writings J.T.Kent says that

  1. There is difference in the activities of a given remedy in the 30th and 10M upon the same constitution.
  2. Very high potencies seldom require repetition in c/c disease in severe a/c disease several doses in quick succession needed.
  3. It is better to begin lower and go higher and higher.
  4. Medicines given in series of Octave potencies.
  5. A deep acting chronic remedy should seldom be given in the midst of a paroxysm or exacerbations but at close of it.

General laws applied in Posology.
1) The Law of Dosage:
The law might be stated thus: The curative dose, like the remedy, must be similar in quantity and quality to the dose of the morbific agent, which caused the disease.

2) The Law of Quantity and Dose:
The quantity of the drug required is in inverse ratio to the similarity.

3) The Law of Quantity:
The quantity of action necessary to effect any change in nature is the least possible. The decisive amount is always a minimum, an infinitesimal.

4) The Law of Quality:
The quality of the action of a homoeopathic remedy is determined by its quality, in the inverse ratio.

5) The Law of Use:
The dose and quantity that will thoroughly permeate the organism and make its essential impress upon the vital force is that which will affect the functional sphere of the individual.

6) The Law of Repetition (for proving):
Never repeat the dose while symptoms are manifest from the dose already taken.

7) The Law of Repetition (for cure):
Never repeat your remedy so long as it continues to act.
In medical parlance dose could be defined as the quantity of particular medicine administered to a particular individual at a time.

Types of doses:
1) Physiological dose:
A dose of drug empirically selected of sufficient quantity and strength so as to produce predetermined effect or a group of symptoms. For e.g. physiological dose of belladonna is one which is sufficient to produce dilatation of pupil, dryness of mucus membrane. This is the quantity of medicine, which could be administered with safety.

2) Pathological dose:
Quantity of medicine capable of producing pathological change in the tissues of the organism i.e. bio-chemical changes, biophysical changes.
3) Toxic dose – Dose which produces toxic effects upon the organism.
4) Lethal Dose – Dose which produces deleterious effect upon the organism even death.
5) Therapeutic Dose – Least quantity of medicine required to affect a cure or palliation.
6) Minimum Dose – Minimum dose which is otherwise known as the sub physiological or homoeopathic dose can be defined as the quantity of medicine required to produce a scarcely perceptible homoeopathic aggravation. According to Stuart Close minimum dose is a dose which is not capable or producing symptoms when use therapeutically. Minimum dose is also known as the infinitesimal dose.

Homoeopathic Posology is the study of infinitesimal dose.
It involves
1) Study of the preparation of infinitesimal dose.
2) Application of infinitesimal dose.
3) Study of repetition of the dose.

I) Study of Preparation of Remedies
Study of preparation of remedies is called pharmacoproxy.
Mode of preparation of medicines includes

  • 1) Decimal scale
  • 2) Centesimal scale
  • 3) 50 Millesimal scale
  • 4) Korsakavian method
  • 5) Mixed Hahnemannian & Korsakavian method
  • 6) Jenichen’s potencies
  • 7) Fincke’s method
  • 8) Skiner’s method
  • 9) Q-potency

1) Decimal Scale:
Dr.Herring introduced decimal scale. Here 1 part by weight of crude drug is taken and mixed with 9 part by weight of sugar of milk and is subjected to the process of titration for 1 hour. OR 1 part of drug is succssed with 9 part of alcohol to give the 1st potency.
2) Centesimal Scale:

2) Centesimal Scale was put forward by Hahnemann. Here one part by weight of crude drug is taken with 99 parts by weight of sugar of milk and is triturated for one hour to get the first potency. OR 1 part of drug is succussed with 99 parts of alcohol to give the 1st potency.

3) Millesimal Scale
Hahnemann introduced this scale in his 6th edition of Organon §270.
Triturate up to 3c. Then take 100mg of 3c and add to it 50 ml of a mixture of purified water with alcohol. (1 part of alcohol + 4 parts of purified water). This is the mother solution.
Pour 1 part of mother solution to 100 parts of dispensing alcohol and give 100 successions. This is the first fifty-Millesimal potency denoted as ‘0/1’.

4) Korsakovian Method:
a) Korsakovian method is a single phial system based on the following principle: When one empty a phial there remains one drop of the medicinal solution adhered to the walls of the phial and to this drop adherent to the walls alcohol is again added .Then succussion is carried out, this makes the next potency.

b) One globule, which is medicated when put in a bottle of non-medicated globules, will communicate the medicinal properties to it via a process of infection.

5) Mixed Hahnemannian and Korsakovian method
Begin with Hahnemannian mode of preparation up to 6c or 30c. Then use the single phial method.

6) Jenichen’s potencies:
As much vehicle as required to prepare 30th dilution is taken. Then one drop of mother tincture is put into it, 10 succussion given will raise the potency to 1stdilution. Sufficient succussion is given continuously for a long time until the desired potency is reached.

7) Fincke’s method:
One hundred drops of drug substance is taken in a glass jug and a stream of distilled water is allowed to flow through the same. For every dram of water entering in and coming out of the vessel, Fincke would count it as one potency. Thus for 100 drams of water entering and coming out of the vessel would raise the potency of containing drug substance to 100.

8) Skinner’s Method:
Skinner developed a method of potentisation which was somewhat similar to Fincke’s method.

9) Q- potency:
Q-potency is the term used to designate 50 Millesimal potency.

2. Application of infinitesimal dose:
Application of infinitesimal dose involves the study of:
a) Selection of potency & dose
b) Route of administration of remedy
c) Notion of quantity
d) Notion of quality

a) Selection of Potency & dose:
For determining the potency and dose one should assess the susceptibility of the patient. While assessing susceptibility one should bare in mind the modifying factors like age, habits, environment, pathological conditions, seat character & intensity of disease and previous abuse of medicine.

1) Age:
Susceptibility is greatest in young vigorous persons and in children and it diminishes with age. Children are particularly sensitive during development and most sensitive organs are those, which are being developed. So children respond more to higher potencies.

2) Constitution and Temperament:
High potencies are adapted to nervous, sanguine choleric temperament, to intelligent, intellectual persons, quick to act and react and to zealous and impulsive patients.

Lower potencies and more frequent dose correspond to torpid and phlegmatic individuals, coarse fibred, sluggish individuals of gross habits and to those of great muscular power who require powerful stimuli to excite them.

3) Habit and Environment:
Susceptibility is increased by intellectual occupation, by long sleep and effeminate life. Therefore potencies are required for them. Persons exposed to continuous influence of drugs such as tobacco workers and dealers, distillers, brewers, all connected to liquor and tobacco trade, druggist, perfumes, chemical workers etc. are less susceptible and require low potencies. Idiots, imbeciles, deaf & dumb have low susceptibility hence require low potencies.

4) Pathological Conditions:
In certain terminal conditions the power of organism to react even to indicate homoeopathic remedy is low so material doses will be needed. This may be due to existence of gross pathological lesions, long existent exhausting chronic disease or much previous treatment. If the grade of disease is low, the power of reaction is low; the remedy must be given in low potencies.

5) Seat, character and intensity of disease:
In certain malignant rapidly fatal diseases like Cholera, the susceptibility is low, so it requires material doses or low potencies. Disease characterized by diminished vital activity, torpor, collapse and deficient vital reaction require low potencies and those with increased vital action require high potencies.

6) Previous abuse of medicines:
Due to this we may find that the patient is not al all sensitive even to the indicated remedy. Then all medication has to be ceased for few days. Then carefully regulate the diet and regimen. Hahnemann recommends the administration of opium in one of the lowest potencies every 8th or 12th hour until some signs of reaction are perceptible. By this means susceptibility is increased and new symptoms of disease are brought to light. Carbo Veg, Lauro, Sulph and Thuja are other remedies, which serve to arouse the organism to reaction so that indicated remedies will act.

Types of Potencies:

1. Low Potency: Potencies below 30CH.
2. Medium Potency: 30 CH and 200 Ch are considered to be medium Potencies.
3. Higher Potencies: 1M and above potencies are considered to be higher Potencies.

Susceptibility and Remedy selection:
Conditions/personality Susceptibility Remedy and Potency
Crude medicines Low susceptibility Inspired Hahnemann for Potentisation.

Acute disease Immediate response. High Susceptibility High Potency.
Chronic disease Slow response
Moderate/Low Susceptibility Deep acting remedies.

Higher mental level affection Higher susceptibility High Potency.
Reversible Pathological changes Poor Susceptibility Lower Potency and frequent repetition.
Hysterical Persons High Susceptibility Good provers, difficult to cure and requires medium potency.
Irreversible Pathological changes Poor Susceptibility Superficial acting medicines are advisable.
Poor reaction after giving medicines. Poor Susceptibility Remedies like Sulphur, Zinc, Opium etc.
Standstill Position of a case. Poor Susceptibility Nosodes Higher Potency and less frequent repetition.
Too many symptoms may be due to over medication. Moderate Susceptibility Nux. Vomica is a good helper.
Patient is recovering from acute state. High Susceptibility Constitutional medicine.
Allergic patients. High Susceptibility Moderate Potency.

Infant and children High Susceptibility Moderate as well as Higher Potency.
Old age people Low Susceptibility Low Potency.
Addiction Suppress Susceptibility

Partial Similimum medicine Partial meets with Susceptibility Zigzag way of Cure.
Biochemic medicines Prescribed on salt deficiency so advisable to be used in decimal scale.

Time Of Administration Of Medicines:
1. Most Of the remedies are best administered at bed time.
2. Antipsorics medicines are advisable to give in the morning.
3. Medicines should never be administered immediately before and during the time aggravation. But should be given after the aggravation.
4. In diseases characterized by periodicity do not give deep acting medicines before and during the attack of paroxysms but always after the paroxysms are over. It is advisable to give superficial acting
Or Biochemic medicines at that time practically.
5. It is not advisable to give the drugs during menstrual periods. [72 hours after the flow].

b) Route of administration of medicine

Study of the route of administration of remedy is called pharmaconomy. It is written in § 284 of the 6th editions.

Besides the tongues, mouth and stomach, which are most commonly affected by the administration of medicine, the nose and respiratory organs, are receptive of the action of medicines in fluid form by means of olfaction and inhalation through the mouth. But the whole remaining skin of the body clothed with epidermis, is adapted to the action of medicinal solutions, especially if the inunction is connected with simultaneous internal administration. For infants medicines are administered by giving moderate doses to the nursing mother.

External application is not advisable § 197
Simultaneous local application along with the internal employment of the remedy in diseases whose chief symptom is a constant local affection has a great disadvantage for the premature disappearance of the local symptom if occurs.

c) Notion of quantity:
Hahnemann in § 276 says

Every dose that is too large does harm, more harm occurs if the well selected remedy is given in a large dose to a case with greater homoeopathicity and a large dose of a high potency also does more harm.

Hahnemann says about the quantity of medicine in 6th edition § 285 Foot Note:
For this purpose it is most convenient to employ sugar globules of the size of poppy seeds, one of which imbibed with medicine and put into the dispensing vehicle constitutes a medicinal dose, which contains about the three hundredth part of a drop, for three hundred such small globules will be adequately moistened by a drop of alcohol. The dose is vastly diminished by laying one such globule alone upon the tongue and giving nothing to drink. If it were necessary, in the case of a very sensitive patient to employ the smallest possible dose and to bring about most rapid result, one single olfaction will suffix.

For olfaction one globule of high potency is placed in a small dry phial, the physician allows the patient to hold the open mouth of the phial first in one nostril, and in the act of inspiration draw the air out of it then if he wish to give a stronger dose, smell with other nostril also more or less strongly accordingly to the strength it is intended it to be.

d) Notion of quality §272 of the 6th edition:
1) A single globule, crushed with sugar of milk dissolved in good deal of water when stirred well, before every administration will be more powerful. To increase quality medicine should be stirred well before every administration.

2) Quality increase, the greater the quantity of fluid in which it is dissolved. For in this case medicine will come into contact with a much larger surface of sensitive nerves responsive to medicinal action.

3) Quality of medicine is increased when the succeeding doses are changed slightly every time i.e. potentized somewhat higher on every repetition. This is because the former dose has already accomplished the expected change in vital principle and the next dose does not find similar conditions.

4) Quality of the medicine does not reduce in direct proportions to the reduction in the material quantity with every quadratic dimensions of the quantity of medicine; the action on human body will be diminished each time to only about one half. 284 § of the fifth edition.

Effect of 2 drops of M.T is not ¼th the effect of 8 drops.

1. On the basis of this study of Posology we may conclude that it is necessary that each and every homeopath must thoroughly do the comparative study of 4th, 5th, 6th Edition of Organon of Medicine and Chronic disease written by Dr.Hahnemann. It is also desirable that we have to compare the concept of stalwarts with Hahnemannian concept of Posology.

2. After doing an attempt to perceive the understanding of Dr.Hahnemann we may also conclude that he has shown the superiority of LM potency. But he has also warned us regarding its action related to aggravation.

3. IT is a wrong concept that LM potency never aggravates the case. As such the high number of dilutions makes the power of the remedy very high and the remedy quickly penetrates very deeply, to the mental- emotional level. So mechanical repetition of LM without considering the instructions given by Dr.Hahnemann will cause similar aggravations and the production of accessory symptoms.

4. Principles upon which the selection of potencies depends vary according to individuals clinical experiencies.


  1. Cambridge- International Dictionary of English, Cambridge University Press.
  2. Hahnemann S. 2002 Organon of Medicine. Sixth Edition. Translated by W.Boericke. B.Jain Pub.Ltd.
  3. Little David, www.simillimum .com.
  4. Schepper De Luc Achieving and Maintaining the Simillimum B.Jain Pub. Ltd.
  5. Organon of Medicine – Samuel Hahnemann.
  6. Lesser Writing – Dr.Hahnemann
  7. The Genius of Homoeopathy – Stuart Close
  8. The Principles and art of Cure by Homoeopathy – H.A.Roberts
  9. The Science of Therapeutics – Caroll Dunham
  10. Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Homoeopathy – R.E.Dudgeon
  11. A manual of Pharmacodynamics – R.Hughes
  12. The Hidden Treasures of the last Organon – P.Schmidt

 Dr Jatin N Dhagat M.D. [Hom.]
Lecturer Dept. Of Organon, Dr.V.H.Dave Homoeopathic
Medical College, Anand. Email :

Logic in general and its relation to homoeopathy in particular

Dr  [Mrs.] Dhwanika J. Dhagat
Dr Jatin N. Dhagat

Logic is a Greek word, which means Discourse. When we try to understand the word Discourse it suggest that it is a communication of ideas, information etc. The study of logic began in ancient Greece. Whenever man debates, discuss, and argue logic remains in the background. Whenever a man debates a matter in his own mind a silent logic plays role. No man can think without logic. If he will try to break logic will break him. Logic has created deep and long lasting impression on language and culture. Logic is the air, which we breathe. It is a connected thought expressed in words. Discourse with one self is called meditation. From what others have said or from what we ourselves have thought conclusions and inferences are drawn. They are the special concern of logic. Logic trains the mind to draw right conclusion and to avoid wrong. It always deals with serious statement.

Words related to Logic:
1. Logic: Reasonable thinking.
2. Logical: Decision based on thinking.
3. Logically: Think reasonably that there must be this.
4. Logician: Skilled in Logic.

Definition: From Aristotle to Mill several definitions of Logic have been suggested. Each and every definition is unique. They are closely related to each other.

According to oxford dictionary: “Logic is a science of reasoning.”

Discussion of definition: On the basis of above-mentioned definition it is necessary for us to know the relation between science and reasoning. The word reasoning indicates: “The drawing of inferences or conclusions from known or assumed facts.” If we want to represent any of our concept it is necessary that it must be based on sound explanation of Philosophy and it must be verified by scientific experiments. Such Philosophical argument, which is supported by scientific experiments, is nothing but Logic. So we can say that Logic is a beautiful coordination of Science and Philosophy. Unless a person knows science and philosophy deeply he will not able to reason any thing. No doubt he will have that power of doing argument but it will not consider as logical.

Relation between Science and Philosophy
: According to Funk and Wan galls dictionary science in the widest sense includes: exact knowledge of facts, exact knowledge of laws obtained by correlation of facts, exact knowledge of proximate causes.

Philosophy is the general principle, laws, or causes that furnished the rational explanation of anything. Science and Philosophy are not antagonist but they are complementary to each other. Philosophy is a hypothetical interpretation. Science arises in hypothesis and flows in to interpretation. Science is descriptive but it divides one thing in to many sub categories. Like organs, parts of body, diseases, etc. philosophy is the criticism of categories. Science describes philosophy while philosophy teaches us to accept science. Every science begins as philosophy and ends as an art. If we want to develop the art of reasoning we must develop the art of thinking, perceiving, and proper interpreting. Reasoning is the minds eye. If we want to develop the power of reasoning we make the habit of reading in between the lines. Reading enables us to explain the different phenomena critically. It is the intellectual faculty by which conclusions are drawn from premises by connected thoughts. It teaches us how one judgment arrives from other judgment. Any process of inference is based on reasoning. So logic is called science of inference. It provides us light in the dark way of searching truth.

History related to origin of Logic: The demand for logic aroused in ancient Greece from the Sophistic movement. Sophists were pioneers of higher education. As a result there were disputes so they required rules for regulating discussion. Logic supplied the rules. Aristotle was one of the greatest thinkers of all time and he wrote on logic which includes:

Prior analytic. [Formal aspect of Syllogistic reasoning.]

Posterior analytics. [Deeper problems of inference.]

Topic. [Technique of arguments.]

Aristotle was first to see the problems of logic as a whole. Logic is not a royal road. It will not teach you the entire things clearly. But it will help you to acquire and retain knowledge and to detect an argument. It will teach preciseness which is the first fruit of study of logic. When we proposed something to someone discourse begins. So proposition is unit of discourse and terms. This propositions leads towards inference. Connected propositions yield towards Syllogism. All these are base of Aristotelian logic.

In a proposition there are two terms. 1. Subject. 2. Predicate.
Example: Silence is golden.
[Subject] [Predicate]

Concept of various stalwarts related to logic
1. Concept of Aristotle: Aristotle is considering as the founder of true logic because he systematically arranged different methodologies of logic and he is the father of both deductive and inductive logic. The most important logical work of Aristotle was organon. His method of logic was based on “Syllogism”. It is a Greek word. The meaning of this word is reasoning in general. To understand the basic concept of Aristotle’s logic it is necessary for us to understand certain basic principles.

a. Term: I
t is a word or a combination of words, which can stand by it self as the subject. This word was originated from a Latin word “Terminus” a limit or boundary. There is no order for terms in logic. For example in English we put subject first and predicate second. Example: Silence is golden. Here first word is subject and second is predicate. But this is not true according to Aristotle. Here order of term is not important but the meaning of proposition is important. About what are we speaking? That is the first question to ask. Answer to it gives the subject. The second question is what are we saying about subject? Answer is predicate. So in above example

1. What is golden? —– Answer is Subject.
2. What is Silence? —–Answer is Predicate.

Types of Terms helpful to study Logic:
1. Abstract: Abstract means to take away or to omit. It is related to generalities or qualities and related to object, which cannot be seen and touched. Abstract terms are qualities or attributes of persons or things. The aim and use of abstraction is finding out what individual or group have common. Example irritability or anger etc.

2. Concrete: Concrete terms are persons or things, which are visible and tangible. Objects, which define shape, size, etc, are concrete things.

3. SingularTerms: Singular terms are individual. They are subjects of their propositions.
4. Common Terms: They are common to several persons or things. They are used by all so they are also called general terms. For example shoes, king, sheep etc.
5. Collective Terms: They apply groups of persons but not to individual. For example south Indian People.
6. Positive Terms: They are those, which suggest the presence of an attribute.
7. Negative Terms: They deny the presence of an attribute or suggest absence.
8. Probative Terms: They are those, which deny the presence of an attribute or suggest its absence where its presence was to be expected. For example Deaf, Dumb.
9. Infinite Terms: They are class of contradiction. For example this is not my pen. This indicates that as it is not mine it could be of any one.
10. Contradictory Terms: Opposite pairs of terms are contradictory when one is negative of the other it is called contradictory.
11. Denotation: This can be beautifully understood by example. What is house? We can paint any building and say that it is house. So here house denote all those buildings. This is nothing but denotation.
12. Connotation: Any one can say any building to house but no one precisely explains why it is house. It requires experts review. It is nothing but Connotation.
13. Intension: It is what you intend. Your term to mean. It is a statement of attribute.

b. Definition: To define something is a difficult task. To define a term is to state its limits. Connotation gives limits. So definition is the statement of connotation of the term. [Describe Precisely]. Rules for definition:

It must be adequate.
It must be precise and clear.
It must not contain a term equivalent to the term to be defined
It should not have negative attribute.

c. Description: It is a partial statement of the connotation of the term, sufficient to distinguish from other terms. It is an imperfect definition.

d. Division: It is a complementary process to definition. It is much like classification but in division. We start with whole and work down to parts. Where as in classification we usually start with parts and work up to the whole.

e. Propositions: They are important aspect of logic. Propositions propose something about something or something. Each proposition has two terms. 1.Subject and

2. Predicate. This can be beautifully understood by example. Do you like to be married with me? Here marriage is subject. Remaining whole sentence is Predicate. Here predicate is not isolated but it is joined with a word. This is known as “copula”.

Propositions come from the limitless human discourse. We can apply rules for logic at here. We select them from raw materials of sentences and prepare them for the process of logic. All propositions are sentences but all sentences are not propositions. It may be true or false. Prayer, wishes are not propositions. All propositions are not suitable for logical treatment. It they are unclear, deficient in subject, predicate form they are not helpful. There are mainly two criteria for converting propositions in to logical form.

a. Express the quantity of proposition.
b. Express the copula.
Example: All grass is green.

All— Quantity. Is green—- Copula.
Propositions have either affirmative or negative quality. Quantity of proposition is same as that of its subject. There are four types of propositions.

Universal affirmative.
Universal negative.
Particular affirmative.
Particular negative.

1. Singular Propositions: They have singular term for subject. Example: Socrates taught Plato.
2. Enumerative Propositions: These are those propositions, which represent a limited number of class or members of a kind. Example: all red roses look beautiful.
3. Simple Proposition: It is a type of proposition, which is stated without condition.
4. Hypothetical Proposition: It states by supposition. Example: If rain falls I shall go out for wetting. It consists of two predictions: a. Supposition or hypothesis.

b. Consequences.
5. Modal propositions: Here the prediction is qualified by words such as may be, must be, possible, probable, necessary etc. For example: It may be possible that exam will be delayed.

f. Syllogism: Aristotle’s method of logic was based on “ Syllogism”. It is a Greek word. The meaning of this word is reasoning in general. It is a Greek word. The meaning of this word is reasoning in general. In Aristotle phase to syllogize is: “ To put two and two together” in regulated discourse and together from them something other. There are three parts of syllogism:

Data [premises].

They all are related to each other. Here conclusion follows other two.
The good are happy. —– Premises.
The unselfish are good. —– Premises.
Therefore unselfish are happy. —– Conclusion.

There are other ways of reasoning but man does syllogize. Structure of syllogism is neat. It helps the man to seek and find truth. It corrects fallacies, promotes precise treatment. If the conclusion follows from the premises it valid and as a result syllogism is also valid even though it may not true to fact. For example all fish are cold blooded. Whales are fish. Therefore whales are cold blooded. This is valid syllogism but false fact. There are certain criteria to make a syllogism.

1. Total six terms are there and each occurs twice.
2. The subject of conclusion must occur in premises.
3. The predicate of conclusion must occur in other premises.
4. Middle term occurs in both premises but not in conclusion.

Aristotle had a formula to express the principles of syllogistic reasoning. It is:
“What is predicted about any whole is predicted about any part of that whole.” Still there are disputes on it.

g. Categories. It is a Greek word. Categorizing is a process of entering in to minute analysis of any object. He made ten categories.
2. Quantity.
3. Quality.

  •  Relation.
  •  Place.
  •  Time.

 7. Situation.
8. State.
9. Action.
10. Passion.

Such categories answer the question what is this predicate in itself? The word Predicate means what its subject is. The wood “is” has different aspect here. Dictionary meaning indicates [In relation to Logic] to assert (something) about the subject of a proposition. Another meaning of this word is: to affirm as a quality, attribute, or property of a person or thing. This can be beautifully understood by example.

1. The fish is small.
2. The fish is fresh.
3. The fish is in net.
4. The fish is taking food.

All these statements are about one subject but they differ in character. Here the fish is a thing, which has different characteristics. So in technical terms it is a substance. Here substance is the first and most important category. It means that which exist in it. All the other categories may be viewed, as ways in substance exist. According to Aristotle there is nothing that exist cannot be brought under one or another of the ten categories. We cannot go beyond them. Aristotle’s categories are opened for criticism. It helps us to classify predicates, to understand fundamental features of discourse.

h. Predicable: Under predicable predicates are to be considered. Aristotle recognized five heads of predicable.

  1. Definition: Statement of essence of anything.
  2. Genus: Part, which can be predicated also of other thing.
  3. Differentia: Distinguish from other species.
  4. Property: Proper attribute, peculiar to subject not a part of an essence.
  5. Accident: Attribute may or may not belong to subject.

These five heads of predicable can be understood by example of a man. When we classify man under such headings:

  1.  Definition of a man: He is a rational animal. 
  2.  Genus of man: Animal.
  3.  Differentia: Rational.
  4.  Properties: Laughter, Tears, and Speech.
  5.  Accidents: Cooking food, while traveling.

Genus, species, group, family all these words are used in daily practice for individuals. Genus and species have long history. There are certain differences between them. First is between natural class and artificial class. The natural class in more properly called Genus. It is there where we classify mankind or animal kind. Artificial class doesn’t mould the member of class. Animal is genus. Man is species. These two terms are so related with each other that the connotation of the one includes the connotation of others

I. Analogy:
The dictionary meaning of this word is “Similarity”. It is an inference from a resemblance between particular things. It may help us to establish a link between Inductive logic and Deductive Logic. It is distinct from logical inference. It also helps us to enter in the process of Induction. There is uniformity in nature and natural laws. Objects are alike in some point. We also by analogy conclude that they are also alike in other points also. Therefore analogy enters in to process of Induction.
Example: when we lie down to rest on analogy we expect to wake up next morning refreshed and to find the sun arising.

j. Fallacies: It is but natural that every human being does mistakes. Mistakes, which occur in logic, are named and listed. They are called fallacies. It is nothing but the deceptive arguments. To be made aware of them, to know their names, it is a part of discipline of logic. Aristotle distinguished fallacies in speech from other fallacies. He made two corresponding lists. His way of treatment is open for criticism. But his work on fallacies was invaluable during his days.

Characteristics Of Fallacies:

  1. To use the word, which has double meaning, is not advisable. For example the word “Old”, it may be old age or old people or old time or old thing. Here it is necessary that we must use it precisely. Here this syllogism is fallacious.
  2. If there is improper compounding of words or object of thoughts it is called fallacies.
  3. Chances of accidents are there in fallacies. For example: The dog was a father and it was yours therefore he was your father. This is called fallacies of accident.
  4. From something we have to simply say something and we have to say according to something.
  5. For example: Opium is a poison. Physician gives their patients opium. Therefore they give their patients poison.
  6. Instead of attacking the statement we attack man who makes it. When some of those who hear the statement but does arguments not by all there are certain arguments accepted by a group of people and rejected by others. It only becomes fallacy. A person who accepts it knows that others may reject it but he consider as it is universally accepted.
  7. Trying to answer all questions at once is called fallacy of single answer.
  8. There are certain words where there is only a fine difference in the meaning of them so if we are not able to apply the proper meaning at proper place it called fallacy. For example: A king was told that if he will attack on Paris he would destroy a big empire. Here the word empire has two different meaning, which have only line of demarcation.

Thus Aristotle’s logic was based on Inductive syllogism. Here induction means leading. The main business of induction is to lead on from particular to general.

2. Concept of Lord Francis Bacon [1561-1626]:
a. His life: He was associated with royal family of England. He left the Cambridge school by saying that these studies are useless. In 1618 Lord Chancellor arrested for taking bribes but queen pardoned him but he had to abandon public life. He is considering as founder of modern inductive logic and said it is the only method of scientific discovery. He also introduced logical systematization of scientific procedures. His two important major writings are: 1. Advancement of learning. 2. Novum Organum.

b. His ideas:
1. Knowledge is power.
2. Scientific investigations are necessary for achieving mastery over nature.
3. He suggested the basic difference between Philosophy, Theory and Science.
4. He had also introduced the Doctrine of double truth. Which indicates accepting two truths at a time i.e. reason and revelation.
5. According to him syllogism of Aristotle is only helpful for rearranging acquired knowledge but useless for scientific discovery.
6. For scientific inquiry unprejudiced observation is necessary.
7. Before any scientific investigation first investigate oneself. The prejudiced can be corrected only at the individual level by correcting the subjectivity of the individual. Only by introspection and knowledge.
8. He also introduced the various sources of prejudiced. They are:
a. Idols of Tribe: It occurs due to teleological presupposition. [Human mind has imaginations, images and ideas of God].
b. Idols of Den or Cave: It occurs due to social and family influence and peculiarities of individuals, dispositions, likes modes of education, reading habits etc.
c. Idols of Market place: It occurs due to language association of words, Its meaning and interpersonal transactions. [The real feeling and meaning in mind vary often cannot be effectively expressed].
d. Idols of Theatre: It occurs due to false theories of science and philosophy.
c. His Concept: According to Bacon there are two ways of investigating and discovering the truth. 1. Inductive Logic. 2. Deductive Logic.

1. Inductive Logic:

a. Introduction: The Inductive method in science is the application of the principles of inductive logic to scientific research. Lord Bacon originated this method. He set forth in his Novum Organum. John Stuart mill in his great System of Logic further developed it. It has been the inspiration, the basis and the instrument of every modern science.

b. Dictionary Meaning: The word has originated from the word Induce that means to tell someone to do something or to cause something to happen. The word induction suggests:
1. Logical Reasoning.
2. The process of being initiated.

c. Definition: “Inductive method in logic is the scientific method that proceeds by Induction.”
“Induction is a process of drawing universal conclusion from Particular premise.”

d. History related to Inductive Logic: Before lord Bacon’s time logic was used principally as an instrument for argument and disputation. Little or no attention was given to facts. Direct and systemic investigation of nature was unknown or ignored. Opinions, speculations, and theories were used as the material for constructing more opinions and theories. The search for truth ended nowhere.

Lord bacon called upon men to cease speculating and go direct to nature in their for truth. He demolished innumerable false systems and restores logic to its true place as the guide to truth.

According to Bacon [mentioned in Novum organum Axiom 19]: “There are and can exist, but two ways of investigating and discovering the truth. The one hurries on rapidly from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from them as principles and their supposed indisputable truth derives and discovers the intermediate axioms. This is the way now in use. The other constructs its axioms from the senses and particulars by ascending continually and gradually till it finally arrives at the most general axioms, which is the true but unattempted way.”

e. Requirements To understand the Inductive Logic: There are four basic requirements to understand the inductive method of Logic

1. Exact Observation: The word ‘Exact’ indicates: ‘Accurate or correct in all details.’ Another meaning of this word is: ‘Tending to be accurate and careful about minor details’. The word Observation indicates: ‘The action or process of closely observing or monitoring.’ In short this method suggests monitoring minor details.

2. Correct interpretation of observed facts: There are three important words in this and their dictionary meanings are:
a. Correct: Free from error.
b. Interpretation: [Interpret]: Explain the meaning of. Perform in a way that conveys one understands of creator’s idea.
c. Facts: A thing that is indisputably the case. Information used as evidence or as part of report.

In short what ever the information collected should be interpretated in such a way that such information should be free from error. The purpose of this is to understand them in relation to each other and their causes.

3. Rational explanation of facts: There are two important words in this and their dictionary meanings are:
a. Rational: Based on or in accordance with reason or logic. Able to think sensibly or logically. Endowed with the capacity to reason.
b. Explanation: [Explain]: Make clear by describing it in more detail. Excuse or justify one’s motives or conduct.

In short whatever facts we have should be describe in detail on the basis of logic.

4. Scientific Construction: Here the word Construction indicates: The action or process of construction. The original word is to construct which means to build or erect or form from various conceptual elements.

In short we have to represent the facts on the basis of science in such a way that it looks as reality.

According to F and W dictionary the search for the cause of anything may proceed according to any one of four methods:

  1. The method of agreement in which a condition uniformly present is assumed to be probably a cause.
  2. The method of difference in which the happening of an event when a condition is present and its failure when a condition is absent, lead to the assumption of that condition as a cause.
  3. The method of concomitant variations, in which the simultaneous variation in similar degree of condition and event establishes a causal relation.
  4. The method of residues or of residual variations, where after subtracting from a phenomenon the part due to cause already established the remainder is held to be due to some other unascertained cause or to the known remaining causes.

f. Basic Characteristics of Inductive Logic: The way of argument of this logic is rested on principles a posteria. This indicates that in this method principles are derived from our uncontradicated experience. In other words we can say that we accept it without contradiction. On the base of these arguments we never yields a necessary truth. This does not indicate that Inductive Logic is only a wild speculation. But in this method of logic conclusion does not necessarily follow from it premises. This condition is seen in deductive method of logic. Here conclusion is based on a certain degree of probability. Greater the reliability of premises higher the probability of the truth of conclusion.

Here particular conclusion is drawn from particular to general. For example: Tom, Hick, Harry have yellow eyes. They have Jaundice. Therefore those who all have yellow eyes have Jaundice. Here it is noticeable that the transition here is from the part to the whole from the particular to universal from some particular truth we leap to generalized truth.

By inductive reasoning we ascertain what is true of many different things. Our senses tell us what happens around us and by proper reasoning we may discover the laws of nature, in consequence of which they happen.

Every mind conceives intuitively some ideas or judgments which are at once primary and certain otherwise we could have no foundation for inference and to infer one idea or judgment from others would give no certainty. These ideas are called first truths. They are given by the senses, the consciousness and the reason and they are innumerable. For example: “I exist. There is an external world. This body is solid, extended, round, red, warm or cold are first truths.” At first these ideas are particular but afterward the mind unites those which are similar or which agree in some respect in to classes. This is called “Generalization”. To express this we no longer say this or that body but body, not coat, shirt, trousers, but clothes only.

2. Deductive Logic:

a. Introduction: The deductive method in science is the application of the principles of deductive logic to scientific research.
b. Dictionary Meaning: The word has originated from the word deduce that means to
1. Trace the course or derivation of.
2. To infer by logical reasoning.
3. Conclude from known facts or general principles.

The dictionary meaning of the word deduction suggests:
1. A deducting or being deducted; subtraction
2 A sum or amount deducted or allowed to be deducted.

c. Definition: “Deductive method in logic is the scientific method that proceeds by deduction.”

d. Basic Characteristics of Deductive Logic: This method of logic works on certain basic priority principles. This method finally reach to such truths that are justified by pure thoughts or reasoning. The theme of this method is: In a valid argument if premises are true than conclusion from these premises must necessarily be true also. In this method conclusion of a deductive argument never goes beyond what the premises state. In this method conclusion is drawn from general to particular. This can be beautifully understood by example:

1. All doctors are wise. [General]
2. Kent is a doctor. [Particular]

Therefore Kent is also wise. [General To Particular.]
This is a syllogistic argument. It is a process of reasoning from out of two statements having common part. On the basis of this third statement is given. In above-mentioned example ‘Doctor’ is a common part, which is there in both the statements on the basis of this third statement, is given.

In deductive reasoning we do the opposite and infer what will happen in consequence of the laws.
As induction is the antonym of deduction. This is a belief of a common man. But this is an error. They are simply opposite ways of arriving at the same conclusions, two modes of using the same general process, namely: inference or inferring. Reasoning a priori and a posteriori are not different modes of reasoning but arguments differing in the character of one of the premises. It is merely a difference of viewpoint. In one we reason from antecedents, in other from consequents. [Antecedents: any happening or thing prior to another.] [Consequents: following as a result; resulting.]

4. Concept of John Stuart Mill [1806-1873]: J.S.Mill is considered to be a great philosopher. His philosophy is called utilitarianism i.e.
a. Man looks for pleasure. [Basic tendency]
b. All activities to avoid pain and gain pleasure.
c. Present is most important. So live well and die well.

Dr. Hahnemann was not aware of Mill’s philosophy when he framed homoeopathy but he used his principle earlier than Mill.
In short Mill’s theory suggest [Theory of Induction i.e. Principal of association]:

  1. No generalization.
  2. Only association between particular events is sufficient.
  3. Similarity is the basis of association.
  4. Particular to Particular. This similar pattern is called generalization. It is not a general principle; it is a pattern recurring in particular events.

Logic and Homoeopathy: Analysis of Organon of Medicine as well as the history of emergence of Homoeopathy shows clearly that Homoeopathy is a product of Inductive logic applied to the subject of medicine. In fact it is one of the most and first brilliant examples of the application of inductive method to the solution of one greatest problem of humanity, namely treatment and cure of disease. This is the chief contribution to the science by Dr. Hahnemann. He was first to make a comprehensive induction of medical facts and deduce the general law of therapeutic medication upon a sound basis. Now we will try to understand the application of Logic to basic principles of Homoeopathy.

a. Emergence of Homoeopathy
and Law of Similar: Hahnemann was not the first clinician to note that drugs selected on the basis of their similarity to the disease, can cure the similar disease condition. He cites previous experiences of clinicians like Hippocrates, parcelus and Stahl in whose writings he found the most definite statement of the Law of Similar. But none of these proceeded systematically to offer an experimental proof. He also cites instances in which naturally occurring similar disease tend to repel each other as in the celebrated instances of Cow-pox and Small-pox which guided jenner towards vaccination as a method of protection against small-pox. While translating Cullen’s materia Medica from English in to German, he took exception to the explanation Cullen advanced for the undoubted efficacy of Cinchona bark in the treatment of ague. He thought that Cinchona helped cases of ague on account of its capacity to produce a similar state. He proceeded to dose himself with Cinchona and recorded in detail his experiences in the form of symptoms. He found to his great surprise that the troubles he went through resembled closely a mild attack of ague. This convinces him that he was following right path. Gradually he started to prove various drugs on himself, family members and others. In short through the method of proving he tried to apply this principle for all. [Particular to General—-Inductive Logic] on the basis of such rich experience of years finally he came to the conclusion that a drug capable of producing in a healthy person a diseased state exactly similar to that observe in a diseased person, acts as a curative agent if the disease is in a curable stage. This was nothing but the systematic establishment of the law of similar based on Deductive logic. [On the basis of General information to Particular conclusion—- Deductive logic] Up to the year 1810 Dr. Hahnemann used the word Similia Similibus only. There is not a single evidence of using the word ‘Curenter’ or’Curanter’ before 1810. Later on he used the word ‘Curenter’.

b. Holistic Concept of Homoeopathy:
Homoeopathy is based on holistic concept.
The dictionary meaning of the word ‘Holistic’ suggest: “concerned with, or dealing with wholes or integrated systems rather than with their parts.” Again the word ‘Integrate’ suggest; “ make in to a whole”. And further the word ‘whole’ suggest:

“ All of something including all its component elements or parts.” Or “An assemblage of parts that is regarded as single only.” This is the area where Homoeopathy differs from Modern Medicine. They believe that whenever a person is diseased his particular system or an organ or a particular part of the body is diseased and remaining other portion of body becomes free from disease. At this place homoeopathy believes that there is a spirit like dynamic power [Vital force] that animates the human organism and gives the life to it. Whenever such dynamic force is deranged it affects the person as a whole. As a result of this internal derangement a person become a patient and he express this derangement in the form of different out word manifestations, which include mental, emotional, intellectual as well as physiological and pathological manifestations. When we integrate all these data it clearly represent the person as a whole. So this Holistic concept indicates application of the method of Inductive Logic.
[Particular to General—- Inductive Logic.]

c. Concept of Generalization:
Generalization is the process of identification and applies forming general notions or formation of general concepts or conceptualization of facts from particulars by the process of mental abstraction. Generalization becomes valid when it follows deductive and inductive method of logic. It becomes invalid when these methods are not co-ordinated and conclusions drawn are wide than data and does correspond reality.

Definition: Generalization is an act or process of arriving at generals out of particulars.
Capacity of mind to take in objects in wholes, to store these images in memory in complete form and to revive these original images when necessary for evaluation in comparison to new experience is the process of individualization.

Dictionary Meaning: To form general principles or conclusions from detailed facts, experience etc.
Process: Generalization is a process, which is achieved by proceeding from particular to general through:

a. Progressive Generalization. b. Abstraction.
This is the reverse process of individualization. This can be beautifully understand by the process of mind which entirely depends upon:

1. Complete, accurate and unprejudiced observation.
2. Recording of observations with regards to its description, character, number etc. A mind is trained to classify the facts comprising the database and to rearrange them so that interrelationship between them becomes apparent. Facts can be grasped and stored readily for subsequent use.

1.Generalization at the level of Location: When a particular symptom is found at two or more locations it becomes general. A particular lesion at fold of palm, mouth angle or inner canthi will be considered as skin fold.

2. Generalization at the level of Sensation and Pathology: When a particular sensation or pathology is found at two or more place it becomes general. Pricking at fingers, soles or palms will consider as pricking in general.

3. Generalization at the level of Modalities: When a particular modality is found at two or more places it becomes general. Pain in knee joint which is aggravated by motion and pain in shoulder joint aggravated by motion will consider as aggravation by motion in general.

In short the process of Generalization is applied in the field of homoeopathy for the purpose of formation of conceptual image, which is based on basic principles of Inductive logic.

d. Concept of Individualization: The word ‘Individualization’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Invidious’. In means not and dividuous means divisible. The individual is unique, not further classifiable. It is what it is. It is not in the sense that is incapable of being divided in to parts but it cannot be so divided in its nature and remains what it is.

Definition: Individualization means identification of a particular instance in a group of common attributes. It is the highest expression of one’s expression.

Dictionary meaning: Different terminologies connected with Individualization and their dictionary meanings are as under.

  1. Individual: A single person especially when regard as distinct from others.
  2. Individuality: A total character peculiar to and distinguishing an individual from others.
  3. Individualize: To make individual in character.

Process: Individualization is a process, which is achieved by proceeding from general to particular through:

a. Decrease generalization. b. Progressive differentiation.

This is the reverse process of generalization. This technique of individualization forms an integral part of the homoeopathic system of medicine and its concept of health, disease and cure. Each individual has to be kept in mind in relation to health, disease and cure because no two men are alike in this world. The psychosomatic make up of an individual varies widely from other. Not only has that but the successful application of the Law of Similar depended entirely on the concept of individualization, which forms the cornerstone of homoeopathic practice. The concept of individualization takes in to consideration the total response of the organism to the unfavourable stimuli or environment. This response is seen through signs and symptoms of an individual on three planes: Emotional, Intellectual and Physical. The exact similarity in the application of law of similar can be ensured only if the patient is observed through the principle of individualization. So on the basis of patients causation, present history, past history, family history, etc physician has to individualize the patient as a person and it can only possible with an exhaustive knowledge of deductive Logic.

1. Individualization at the level of causation: Common cold and coryza in a cold weather is a common characteristic but if it is in cold, damp basement that Dulcamara will be the choice of remedy.

2. Individualization at the level of Location: For a person who is suffering from renal calculi and especially in the left kidney, we may think of Berberis Vulgaris out of so many drugs.

3. Individualisation at the level of Sensation: Sore, lame and bruise feelings are characteristics sensations, which individualize the patient of Arnica from other similar medicines.

4. Individualization at the level of Modalities: Aggravation between 4.00 to is a characteristic, which suggests the rug Lycopodium and individualize that patient as a person from others.

5. Individualization at the level of Extension: Stitching pain in chest is a feature indicating to a large number of drugs in the Repertory and if it is extended to the liver region it narrows down from many drugs to a single drug Calc. Phos that individualize that patient as a person from others.

On the basis of above discussed matter it is clear that Homoeopathy doesn’t exit without the process of Individualization and for that the exhaustive knowledge of Deductive logic can only help us.

e. Concept of Drug proving
: In the time of Dr.Hahnemann, knowledge of the true properties of drugs hardly existed. The systematic knowledge of Materia medica in those days was not there. Data from poisonings, uncritical clinical observations of drugs applied on the basis of fanciful theories of the origin of disease. Dr. Hahnemann was not satisfied with this method. In such a critical situation he ascertained the true properties of drugs by careful experimentation on healthy human beings and not on animals. Hahnemann thus could be considered as the father of human experimental pharmacology. He insisted that only those drugs whose properties were carefully ascertained by experiments on the healthy human beings and which were prepared according to specific instructions should be employed as remedial agents for cure. In this way all the altered sensations and functions experienced by the provers were recorded in the words of persons and they all were noted in the original language of patient without adding or changing any word. Dr. Hahnemann called it as Materia Medica Pura.

Later on Dr. Hahnemann followed an anatomical schema that is from head to foot, in recording the positive drug effects and under each heading he collected and put all the symptoms from as many provers there were in each case. Then he shifted the symptoms common to each of them from symptoms peculiar to each of them. Finally he put under the heading [For example ‘head’] and put all the common symptoms and peculiar symptoms noted by idividual provers. This shows that how many varieties of head symptoms that drug is capable of producing in various individual.

This clearly indicates that to prove a single drug to know its disease producing power on various healthy provers and on the basis of this available data try to make common as well as peculiar characteristics of that particular drug and consider its disease producing capacity as disease curing capacity requires the application of Inductive method of logic. [Particular to General].

f. Concept of Causation:
History: Hippocrates taught that all diseases aroused from an interdependent constellation of causes rather than any single, isolated etiological factor. This constellation includes the nature of the pathogen, the environmental conditioning factors and the susceptibility of an individual.

Since the beginning of the nineteenth century when the European medicine decided to become a science they had a belief that every event must have a cause and that under similar conditions; the same cause produces the same effect. Concept of causation of disease is different in different schools of medicines. So-called modern medical science believed that multiple factors are responsible for the emergence of disease. In homoeopathy the concept of causation is closer to multifactorial causation theory. Broadly speaking Exciting cause, maintaining cause and Fundamental cause are the responsible for the causation of disease. Apart from this Vital force plays an important vital role in the evolution of disease.

Dictionary meaning: dictionary meanings of the various terminologies related to the word causation are as under.

  1. Cause: Something that brings about an effect or a result.
  2. Causal: Expressing or indicating cause.
  3. Causality: The relation between and its effect.
  4. Causation: The act or process of causing.
  5. Causative: Expressing causation.

Definition: causation or causality is the operation of causal energy.

Concept of modern science regarding characteristics of cause:
1. When cause appears effect follows it: This is a wrong belief of modern medical science. This can be beautifully understood by examples. All pathogenic bacteria are supposed to give rise to lesions. But it is known however that this is not so, as pathogenic bacteria may be found in so called carriers, i.e. in people who do not present any lesion or clinical manifestations.

2. When cause disappear effect disappear: Clinical experience teaches that the disappearance of a certain structure, function or microorganism need not necessarily be followed by the disappearance of the clinical syndrome that was considered to be its effect.

3. When cause varies effect varies: variations in the number of pathogenic bacteria are seldom accompanied by corresponding variations in the lesion. Similarly variations in the percentages of blood calcium are not necessarily reflected by corresponding variations in the clinical picture.

4. Cause always precedes the effect: In so many cases it going to happen that initially on the basis of clinical manifestations the diagnosis of condition is done and later on the causative factor for that condition is find. For example Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium Tuberculin.

Types of Causes: Homoeopathy believes that there are mainly three types of basic causes responsible for emergence of acute as well as chronic disease conditions.

They are:
1. Exciting cause: Exciting causes are those causes, which excites the disease conditions to occur. They are responsible for the production of acute disorders that are rapid in their onset, quick to reach crisis and ends in complications or recovery. Usually exciting factors are Physical, chemical, biological, environmental, social, cultural, economical, or spiritual conditions or factors which activates a latent miasm and brings forth crisis and serious complications. They are responsible for the production of individual, epidemic and sporadic disease conditions as well as acute exacerbation of chronic disease conditions. [Reference apho. No. 5 and 73.] In short what ever may be the particular diagnosed and named acute condition these are the general responsible factors for its emergence. [Particular to General- Role of Inductive Logic.]

2. Maintaining cause
: The dictionary meaning of the word ‘ maintain’ suggest:
‘To continue’. These are those conditions, which maintain the present disease condition. Dr. Hahnemann raises this category of etiology in aphorism no. 7 and 77 of the Organon of medicine and also in the chronic disease. Maintaining cause can be of several types including those conditions which need mechanical or surgical aid and those induced by unhealthy life style, poor living conditions, occupation hazards, continuous telluric and meteoric environmental stress as well psychological strain. These also include diseases maintained by soul through spiritual crisis, mental confusion and emotional turmoil. In the aphorism no. 77 Dr. Hahnemann points out that maintaining cause produce pseudo chronic diseases. If a maintaining cause continues for a number of years it may activates a latent miasm and the constitution will suffer from pathological states. In short all such general maintaining causes are responsible for maintenance of any particular disease condition or conditions. [Particular to General- Role of Inductive Logic.]

3. Fundamental cause
: Fundamental causes are the ‘Miasms’, which have the power to disturb the tune of vital force and causing disharmony in the constitution  and temperament. Here the layer of miasm remain dominant over the constitution

and display the symptoms of their syndromes. These fundamental causes are responsible for the emergence of various disease conditions and Dr. Hahnemann broadly classify them in to:

1.Psoric miasmatic disease. [Functional Disturbances]
2.Sycosis miasmatic disease. [Extra growth or formations]
3.Syphilis miasmatic disease. [Destructive changes]

When we refer to the aphorism no.80 in the organon of medicine it clearly indicates that what so ever may the disease condition from a simple bronchitis to cancer psora is the mother of all the disease conditions. This concept of giving general causation for various named and classified disease condition according to modern medical science suggest application of the knowledge of Inductive method of logic.
[Particular to General- Role of Inductive Logic.]

g. Role of Diagnosis in homoeopathy and its relation with logic:

One of the popular misconceptions about homoeopathy is that it has little to do with diagnosis and that a homoeopathic physician does not require the various ancillary facility like X-ray, pathological and Bacteriological investigation, E.C.G. etc. It is very easy for us to understand the basic misconception behind this. The prescription in homoeopathic practice is determined by a detailed study of the symptomatology out side the diagnostic sphere. This gives impression to common people that a homoeopathic physician is not primarily interested in diagnosing his cases. It makes easy to apply the principles of homoeopathy for those persons who do not have medical education of homoeopathy. But actually it is not true.

Dictionary meaning: The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms.

Definition: Diagnosis implies the understanding and detection of the site and nature of lesion in a particular anatomical part of the body.

This concept of diagnosis of modern medicine presupposes two assumptions, which are open for criticism:
1. The material part of the living organism is the sole and fundamental reality and all other phenomena excepting the structural changes of the body are nothing but functions or effects of the altered of the body.

2. The body is looked upon as a machine consisting of an assemblage of different parts and change or damage of any part can take place independently of that of any other or rest of the body. According to this view a disease can be cured by treating the part particularly affected just as a machine is adjusted and set going by repairing the particular damaged part.

But Homoeopathy treats the patient as a whole, which is more than the sum of its parts, which is something over and above them. Homoeopathy aims at individualization of patient and drug. So only nosological diagnosis is not the sole aim of homoeopathic physician but along with this diagnosis of the patient as a person is an important diagnosis every homeopathic physician has to do. That will only solve the fundamental purpose of individualization. Dr. Hahnemann has nicely mentioned this thing in his book organon of medicine in the aphorism no. 3.Acoording to him every homoeopathic physician must know what is to be cured in disease and what is curable in medicine. This will direct throw some light on the importance of diagnosis in the field of Homoeopathy.

Importance of Diagnosis in Homoeopathic Practice:
1. A complete diagnosis offers a full comprehension of the patient’s personality, his constitution and the mechanism of the production of symptoms.

2. It gives an idea of the locations, the pathological changes, the pathogenic agent, the physiological disturbances induced, the psychological accompaniments, and the pathogenesis.

3. Similarly, it will not be possible to give the prognosis with any resemblance of accuracy unless we possess this knowledge of knowledge.

4. The knowledge of diagnostic symptoms helps in determining the individual characteristic symptoms, which form the basis of a prescription in homoeopathic practice according to the concept of the totality of symptoms.

5. Diagnosis also enables the physician to choose his case and to eliminate cases requiring, primarily, surgical or other measures.

6. It aids prescription by giving information about the locations and the nature of pathological changes present [pathological Generals].

7. Diagnosis can help a homoeopathic physician to plan the general treatment and prophylactic measures. It also makes comparative assessment of the therapeutic results possible.

In short by the process of Diagnosis we will only try to emerge a portrait of a person who is patient and try to individualize him on the mental as well as on the physical level [as a whole]. This clearly indicates the predominant role of Deductive method of logic. [General to Particular—Role of Deductive Logic]

Statistics and Logic:
The English word ‘statistics’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘Status” which means, a state. In fact in olden days, statistics was used only to keep the records of the income and expenditure of a state. Later on it became a common term to denote numerical facts related to the state.

Definition: Statistics is a science of statistical method, meaning thereby the study of the methods used in statistics such: Collection of data, classification, and generalization of data, interpretation and analysis of data.

Classification: Statistics ha been classified as:
1. Descriptive Statistics.
2. Inferential Statistics or Inductive Statistics.

Logic has direct relation with Inductive Statistics. Whenever the population is too large, we try to infer about that population on the basis of our study of a sample of that population and that part of Statistics, which deals with such matters, is known as inductive statistics. It deals with concept like reliability, confidence, and probabilities etc. Regarding Inductive Statistics Blalock says: ‘ Statistical inference as the process is called involves much more complex reasoning than does descriptive statistics but when properly understood and used it becomes a very important tool in the development of science. In short on the basis of a selected sample we have to take judgment regarding the whole community on the basis of statistics.

Conclusion: On the basis of above mention discussion it is very clear that each and every basic principle upon which Homoeopathy stands is firmly supported by Logic and this it self prove the scientific basis of Homoeopathy.


  1. Dhawale. M. L., The Principles and Practice of Homoeopathy, ICR Publication, Bombay.
  2. Hahnemann S., Chronic Disease Their Peculiar Nature And Cure, B.Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
  3. Mohanty N, Evolutionary Unfolding Of homeopathic repertories, IBPP, 1st Edition. New Delhi.
  5. Text book on logic. Syllabus of Arts Faculty.
  6. Sarkar B.K.Organon Of Medicine.
  7. Sarkar B.K.,Notes on Homoeopathy.

Dr. [Mrs.] Dhwanika J. Dhagat MD(Hom)
Dr. Jatin N. Dhagat MD(Hom)
Lecturer, Dept. of Organon of medicine and Homoeopathic Philosophy.
Dr.V.H.Dave Homoeopathic Medical College, Anand. Gujarat.
Email :,

The doctrine of signature – A debatable topic

Dr Muhammed Rafeeque

We are familiar with the ancient doctrine of signature right from the beginning of our homeopathic education. Irrespective of our attitude towards this concept, we compare the signature aspects of certain drugs while dealing with Materia medica.  

The doctrine of signature is actually an old concept found in many European civilizations and later on accepted by various schools of medicine. People had altogether different attitudes towards this concept. Initially it was well accepted by the proponents of many schools, but later on discarded by calling it as a kind of coincidence or a fake science. Presently, there are at least a few doctors who accept the ancient doctrine of signature. On the other hand, there is a vast majority including many homeopaths that consider the doctrine of signature as fallacious. Nevertheless, many including the critics of this concept at least mention the signature aspects of certain drug sources while dealing with Materia Medica. Since in the present era it is discussed only in Homoeopathy, many say that now this doctrine is accepted only by homeopaths, and often they exploit this misconception as a weapon to criticize homeopathy.

Before we go in to the pros and cones of this concept, let me shed light on the literal meaning of ‘doctrine of signature’. The word signature is said to be a duplet, which has been derived from two words sign and nature, meaning signs of nature. We know that the doctrine is a belief that is accepted as authoritative by a particular group or school of thought. In simple terms ‘doctrine of signature’ is a belief on various signs of nature.

This doctrine proposed that parts of plants having a resemblance to any part of the human body is having a therapeutic relationship and the same plant or its parts can be used for diseases of the particular organ. They also believed that such relationship also exists between the environment and specific places where plants grew. As per these concepts, God has provided unique healing powers to most of the living and non-living things and left a hint for us to distinguish the sphere of action of each substance. In other words, the unique external feature of a plant or a substance is an indication of the purpose of creation of that particular substance. It often seems funny but this concept has introduced many drugs in to the field of therapeutics of different schools.

Jakob Bohme: The history of doctrine of signature goes back to Jakob Bohme, a master shoemaker in Germany (1575- 1624) who had a profound mystical vision on the relationship between God and his creations. This prophetic vision induced him to write on the signature of things created by God. His philosophical work Signature Rerum (signature of all things) became very popular and later on it was adapted in to the field of medicine. This doctrine states “by observation, one can determine from the color of the flowers or roots, the shapes of leaves, the places of growing, or other signatures what the plant’s purpose was in God plan”. (5)

Paracelsus Von Hohenheim (1493- 1541) a Swiss physician was also a famous proponent of the doctrine of signature and he created an alternative model and generated a mind-body medicine. He introduced treatments of particular illnesses based on his observation and experience. He also advocated the relation between the drug source and drug symptoms. According to him, disease or morbid states should be called by the names of their remedies. The doctrine of signature was given renewed thrust in his writings and continued to be embraced until the 17th century.  His law of signature is an application of medicine on the basis of similarity of anatomical structures, colors and smell between the plants and the human body. Paracelsus also proposed the concepts such as similar cures the similar, scorpion cures scorpion, mercury cures mercury, etc. (5)

William Coles:(1626- 1662)
William Coles, a botanist and herbalist found that walnuts were good for treating head ailments because of its head like shape. Similarly, the little holes in the leaves of hypericum resembles the skin, which is a hint for its use in all sorts injuries affecting the skin. (8) 

Some old examples of doctrine of signatures: Those plants, which agreed the doctrine of signature, still carry the word root “wort” an Anglo-Saxon word (means plant) along with their modern name.

Some examples are:

  • Mandrake plant (similar to a child): Hence useful for sterility.
  • Spleen wort (similar to spleen): Hence useful for disorders of spleen
  • Louse wort (similar to lice): Hence useful in repelling lice.
  • Tooth wort (similar to teeth): Hence useful for tooth complaints.
  • Liver wort: (similar to liver): Hence useful for liver disorders. 

Influence of doctrine of signature on Homoeopathy:
The influence of the doctrine of signature on Homoeopathy is a debatable topic since some skeptics consider it as a forerunner of the Similia principle. It has been claimed that the library where Hahnmann was employed at Hermannstadt contained historical works, including those of Paracelsus, and few people say that, it was those works of Paracelsus, which planted the seed of Homoeopathy in Hahnemann’s mind. But to support this speculation, so far, no one has given any kind of solid evidences (5). However, this point was utilized maximum by Hahnemanns’ opponents in those days. They went even up to the extent by saying that Hahnemann took the whole Homoeopathy from Paracelsus. (Hahnemanns letter to Boenninhhausen)

Some people still consider Paracelsus and Halle (Swedish physician) as forerunners of Hahnemann as they also did experiments to discover the nature of certain remedies. However, their attempts were not coordinated and could make little impression upon the medical world. Later, it was Hahnemann who discovered the fundamental cause behind the diseases and the most suitable way to eradicate the disease using a dynamic form of medicine selected on the basis of similarity. But the similarity proposed by Hahnemann was totally different from that of Paracelsus. Unlike Paracelsus and others, Hahnemann followed pure experimentation, exact observation, correct interpretation and finally the scientific construction, which resulted in the discovery of Homoeopathy. The cardinal principles of Homoeopathy can be proved even today by proper administration of medicines.

Some examples of doctrine of signatures among Homoeopathic drugs: 

  • Pulsatilla– Movement of flowers–Changability of pulsatilla patient.
  • Lachesis– Snake is restless suspicious & protrude tongue– Patient is also same.
  • Chelidinium– Yellow juice– Useful for jaundice.
  • Calcarea carb– Hard shell to protect the soft body– Patient is soft and needs  protection.
  • Sanguinaria– Red color– Useful for bleeding.
  • Cockroach– Lives in cracks, crevices, damp places– Useful for asthma of people  living in damp basements and cellars.
  • Digitalis– Blood colored dots on petals– Given for disorders of blood vessels.
  • Euphrasia– Black spot in corolla looks like a pupil– Useful for eye complaints.
  • Belladonna– Grows in soil rich in calcium carbonate– Hence calc carb is  complimentary to belladonna. 
  • Tarentula hispania– Spiders comes out when drums are beaten– Given for   patients who are sensitive to music.
  • Hypericum– Has red juice– Used in hemorrhages. 
  • Bryonia– Root is fleshy, yellowish white, rough with a bitter taste– Patient is also fleshy with yellow white colored tongue, rough irritating temperament and has bitter taste. 

Pioneers on doctrine of signature:
Hahnemann- (1745- 1843)
Hahnemann was strongly against this concept because of his aversion to all sorts of speculations. In the 110th aphorism he denounced the doctrine of signature and mixture prescription. He had an intension that in future people should not liberally speculate on this basis. In the 110th aphorism he says.

“……….and that the only possible way to ascertain their medicinal  powers is to  observe those changes  of  health medicines are capable of producing in the  healthy organism; for the pure, peculiar powers of medicines available for the cure of disease  are  to be learned neither  by any  ingenious a priori speculations, nor by the smell, taste or appearance of the drugs, nor  by  their chemical analysis, nor yet by  the employment of several of  them at one time in a mixture  (prescription)  in diseases;….” (4)

C M Boger:
(1861- 1935) He says in his work Philosophy of healing, “The doctrine of signatures has been derided and said to rest upon pure fancy; but I know of no accidents in nature and everything has an adequate cause, hence we should not be too ready to attribute such things to mere coincidence. Such correspondences are too numerous as well as much too striking to be lightly passed over.  It seems rather a case of not knowing just what they mean or what the real connection is”. (2)

H A Robert:
H A Robert says in his work on Homoeopathic philosophy

“Various doctrines of healing sprang up through the years; perhaps the most interesting of these was the doctrine of signatures, founded on the belief that each member of the vegetable kingdom carried within itself the likeness of some organ or part of the human economy, as a sign that this particular plant   was applicable to disturbances of that organ. That was probably the most consistent method among all the very ancient systems of applying drugs”. (1)

J C Burnett: (1840-1901)
Dr J C Burnett had a supporting attitude towards this doctrine. He writes in his work on diseases of liver “The interaction of the human organism with its environment has generally been recognized in every age according to the views current at the time, the relations of the microcosm to the macrocosm used to be a big chapter in medical doctrine. The old doctrine of signatures is laughed   at   by almost all physicians, inclusive   of   the homoeopaths, and yet it is not without considerable foundation in fact; and, indeed, facts in great numbers may be drawn from homoeopathic literature in support of its real practical value. It has often helped me and I have long since ceased to ridicule it.  Of course, it can easily be turned upside down and made to look silly, but still there it is and in the long run will most certainly be justified by science. I am very certain Hahnemann believed in it for it is manifest that he drew very numerous indications from it for his remedies. That Constantine Hering also believed in it seems pretty certain, and Hering knew his Hohenheim, of whose works he made a splendid collection.  Von Grauvogl, too, shows that he was   not uninfluenced by it.

Rademacher ever made merry over it, and yet many of his remedies came into use through it, Chelidonium to wit. Von Grauvogl years ago recommended Pulmones vulpecularum in asthma and I have followed his recommendation with advantage, he was laughed at a good deal at the time, but now science comes along and puts a stop to the ridicule so long cast upon Paracelsic organ feeding”. (3)

There are number of critical reviews against doctrine of signature. Some note worthy points are mentioned here.

1.The body of oyster is soft and needs protection from the hard shell. As per the doctrine of signature, the same mentality of Calc carb patient is expressed here. In Homoeopathy, the medicine is prepared from the middle layer of hard shell; hence patient should be hard instead of soft. If the medicine was prepared from the soft body then the comparison as per doctrine of signature would be appropriate.

2.“Chelidonium is good for jaundice because of its yellow juice”, what about other plants that are having yellow juice, why they don’t act on liver? (7)

3. “Lachesis snake protrudes tongue frequently which is an indication for its use in protrusion of tongue in a patient”. Drugs for snake like protrusion of tongue are: – absin, crot.h, cupr, cupr.act, elaps, lach, lyc, merc, sanic, vip. Here, we can find a signature relationship only with drugs belonging to Ophidia group. What about other drugs indicated for the same condition?

4.“Pulsatilla flowers yield to wind, hence patient also having yielding disposition”, what about other flowers that yield to wind?

5.Those who support this doctrine highlight only few relations that are suited to their concept, but the features that are not matching are not expressed. (10)

Without any doubt we can conclude that it will be a waste of time to search medicines on the line of signatures, since each and every feature of a plant would not be matching with their medicinal properties. Above all, the scientific way of ascertaining the medicinal properties of any substance is drug proving by which we get the total drug picture and it can be applied to a diseased individual on the basis of similarity. The similarity in homeopathy is totally different from that of the doctrine of signature as the former can be proved and re-proved even today.

Instead of coming to a final conclusion whether there is any scientific backing behind the doctrine of signature or is it just a superstitious belief, better we assess how it was helpful and how it can be helpful in future. Undoubtedly, we can say that this concept helped us to introduce many drug substances in to the field of therapeutics. Apart from that, it helps to study Materia medica in a literal style and to compare and remember some symptoms thereby making the subject more interesting. It is now clear that the doctrine of signature helps us for the study of materia medica and not for the practical application of materia medica. As we know that there is no short cut in medicine, drugs selected on the basis of similarity with the totality of the case is the only way to cure.

Dr Muhammed Rafeeque
Family homoeopathic clinic
N. Paravur  Kerala  India- 683520  


  1. Principle an art of cure by homeopathy: H A Robert. (B Jain, new Delhi)
  2. Studies in the philosophy of healing: C M Boger (B Jain, new Delhi)
  3. Diseases of liver: J C Burnett (B Jain, New Delhi)
  4. Organon of medicine: Hahnemann (B Jain, New Delhi)
  5. Homoeo times, chennai.

Relationship of Homeopathy Remedies & its relevance

Dr Jatin N Dhagat

The subject of the relationship of remedies is one of the most fascinating in homoeopathy and many aspects of it have not been developed in the literature. Long before Hahnemann, Paracelsus wrote much on the doctrine of signatures and the old herbalists determined the uses of their remedies partly from those suggested signs.

A vast amount of work on the relationship of remedies to each other, rather than to symptoms, has been done by various stalwarts like Boenninghausen, Hering, Clarke, Gibson Miller, Kent, Guernsey, and Lippe. Most of this work has been done after considering one main line that of Complementary remedies, in other words those remedies which carry on or complete most successfully the action of other given remedies.

Dictionary Meaning:
The dictionary meaning of the word “Relationship” indicates: The way in which two or more things are connected, or the state of being connected. It also indicates a particular instance of being related. The dictionary meaning of the word Remedy indicates: a medicine or Treatment for a disease or injury. In short it is a connection or relation between two or more medicine. Though Hahnemann has given the indirect concept of relationship of remedies in his books Organon of Medicine and Chronic Disease Their Nature and Cure but Boenninghausen has represented it in a systemic way. So he is considered to be a pioneer of this concept. Later on various stalwarts have tried to explain the same relationship according to their perception.

Need of Remedy Relationship:
Materia Medica is a systemic collection of various numbers of symptoms and in order to study relationship of this chaos of Materia Medica it will be necessary to adopt some plan of study. What is that plan, is asked by every student, one teacher answers in one way, another in another way. We have to adopt some method and follow it up to the end. This creates a need to study this topic from different angles. An attempt has been done in this work to understand the concept of stalwarts regarding Remedy Relationship.

Evolution Of The Concept:
Boenninghausen was having a master piece mind of a lawyer. He had given more weightage on comparative values of remedies in relation to particular symptom groups, evolved through years of experience. Each remedy had some of the qualities of the attributes of every other remedy to some extent. It would hardly be possible to select two remedies so different from each other that they would not touch at some point. They were having some symptoms which were common and some were differentiating feachers. This gave rise to comparison of two remedies in relation to symptom groups. Similarity at some points implies dissimilarity at some other points. Thus the whole concept of relationship of Remedy in the form of comparative study of Materia Medica was evolved.

Hahnemannian Concept Of Remedy Relationship:
Hahnemann has directly or indirectly given the relationship of remedies in his book Organon of Medicine as well as in chronic disease. He has tried to explain complementary relationship with the help of layers of miasms. He says that he has shown cases of threefold complication of the three chronic miasm, the fig wart disease with the venereal chancre miasm and at the same time a developed Psora. They were cured according to the same method that is Psora was treated first then one of the other two chronic miasma, the symptoms of which were at the time the most prominent and then the last one. The remaining Psora symptoms had then still to be combated with suitable remedies.

Regarding antidotes Hahnemann says that there can never be any case in the practice of well trained, scrupulously careful physician in which he would have to give an antidote, if he starts as he should do with the smallest possible dose of his well chosen medicines, because an equally small dose of a better chosen medicine would correct any mistake he might make.

Regarding the relation of Acute Intercurrent in the treatment of chronic disease he has give more than one references in his book chronic disease their peculiar nature and cure. He says that during the treatment of chronic disease by antipsoric remedies we often need the other non antipsoric store of medicines in cases where epidemic diseases or intermediate diseases arising usually from meteoric and telluric causes attack our chronic patients. In reference to the same statement he has given a list of such medicines in the aphorism 221 and they are: Aconite, Belladonna, Stramonium, Hyosymus, Merc. etc. According to him it is also advisable to give such medicines in highly potentized subtle homoeopathic doses.

Hahnemann himself observed that occasionally constitutional treatment might need to be complemented by the administration of an intercurrent remedy, which is intended to treat miasmatic obstructions and suppressions and thus remove obstructions to the cure. This concept throws the lights towards the use of Nosodes as a block remover.

Boenninghausen’s concept of remedy Relationship:
Boenninghausen had introduced the concept of remedy relationship through the seven and the last section of his therapeutic pocket book under the rubric ‘concordance’. The dictionary meaning of the word concordance suggest that it is an alphabetical list of the chief words used in a book or by a writer, with the passages in which they occur identified or cited. When we try to understand the same word in relation to medicine, dictionary suggests that it is the inheritance by two related individuals of the same genetic characteristic.

In his original preface of the book he says; “This seven and the last section presents the results of the comparative action of the various remedies mentioned in the work; firstly in regard to the preceding sections noted with corresponding numbers and finally under the figure VII according to each particular remedy, everywhere with reference to their value in rank, indicated in the same manner as in the preceding sections. This laborious and time taking work which indeed has broadened and rectified my knowledge of the Materia Medica Pura will supply the place of the “Relationships’ which were published in 1836 and which were acknowledge to be very imperfect, yet my critic, contradicting himself, acknowledged their utility by coping them literally in his handbook of homoeopathic Materia Medica, with all their faults and errors and with a few, for the most part faulty, additions without giving the source from which he had obtained them. I therefore hope that no one will consider this section useless and superfluous in this improved and as far as possible, corrected form.”

“According to Boenninghausen this chapter has been of the extreme importance , not only for the recognition of the genius of the remedy but also for testing and making sure of its choice and for judging of the sequence of the various remedies especially in chronic diseases. For a beginner the study of this section will make him acquaintance with all the points covered by medicine because it covers majority of polychrest remedies. It will be easier for him to use such drugs.”

Gibson Miller’s concept Of Remedy Relationship:
Gibson Miller is considered to be a pioneer to introduce the concept of remedy relationship in a tabular form. Along with Boenninghausen’s concept of side of the body he has divided remedy relationship of drugs in to Remedy, Complements, Remedies that Follow well, Inimical, Antidotes and Duration of action of remedies.

John Henry Clarke’s Concept Of Remedy Relationship:
In 1904 on the basis of the excellent table published by Dr.Gibson Miller; J.H. Clarke had published the compilation of Remedy Relationship. He made a two fold division of the relationship—the natural relationship and the clinical relationship. Regarding natural relationship he called it as known relationship because there is nothing in nature really unrelated to anything else. Medicines are interrelated in various ways in point of therapeutic action. According to him knowledge of these relations is all important to those who aim at accurate prescribing.

His compilation of natural relationships showed at glance how a remedy stood in its mineral, vegetable or animal relationship to other remedies. Many books on Materia Medica which are now a days available are based on this.

The second section of clinical relationship has been given in tabular form and it represents the chief clinical relations of all remedies of the Materia Medica so far as they have been noted. These relationship are included under heading; “Complementary Remedies”, [The remedies which complete the action of first prescription] “Remedies follows well’, “Remedy is followed well by’, “Compatible Remedies”, [Remedies compatible with others without further qualifications] ‘Incompatible Remedies”, [Remedies that do not follow each other] “Remedy antidotes,” [counteracting the poisonous effect] “Remedy is Antidoted by”. The duration of action of remedies have been also added in it. [Clinical Repertory]

C.M.Boger’s Concept Of remedy Relationship:
In his book ‘Synoptic Key Of the Materia Medica’ Boger has given the Relationship Of Remedies in following way: 1.Follow.2.complementary.3.Related and 4.Antidotes. In the third portion of the same book he has given following Relationships.1. Complementary Remedies 2.Antagonist Remedies—Equivalent to inimical remedies. The hints given by Boger are having great practical value.

E.A. Farrington’s Concept of remedy Relationship:
Dr. Farrington has tries to understand a drug according to schema. He called it as genius of a drug. This schema includes the effect of drug on blood, blood vessels, lymph, lymph vessels, systems of body etc. He has also tried to compare one drug to others in the similar pattern. He has also explained the drugs which antidote each other. He further says that there are some remedies which although bear a strong resemblances to each other, seem as though they ought to be concordant remedies yet they are inimical. According to him drugs hold certain relations to each other and they are family relation- derived from their similarity in origin, complement relation-one drugs complete the cure which the other begins, antidote relation and relation of enmity that he has not explained.

Garth Boericke’s Concept of remedy Relationship:
Garth Boericke has explained Remedy relationship as practical importance in the application of Materia Medica. Different relationships given by him are similarity of origin or family relations which indicate a group of drugs belongs to the same botanical family or chemical group. Antidotal relationship- Homoeopathic remedies works as a antidote and destroy the existing action of a remedy in the body. Concordant or compatible relationship- certain remedies act better if given in series. Complementary relationship- work done by one remedy is completed by another. This relationship is especially useful in organic diseases where the person is under medication for a long time. Inimical relation-lack of harmony between drugs though they have similar disease producing power.

Kent’s concept Of Remedy Relationship:
Kent has given more specialized class of complementary remedies and that is the acute complements of chronic remedies. He says that a chronic patient may be suffering from an acute disease and the physician on being called may think that it is necessary to take the totality of the symptoms but if he should do that in an acute disease, mixing both chronic and acute symptoms toge6ther. The two things must be separated here. The group of symptoms that constitutes the image and appearance of the acute miasm must now be prescribed for.

Another type of complementary remedies described by Kent is one on which the least work has been done. Most of the data are being sprinkled around in Kent’s Materia Medica and it is remedies in series. For instance, Calc,-Lyc.-Sulph, Ign.-Nat. mur.-Sepia, Puls.-Sil.-Fluor. ac., Ars.-Thuja-Tarant., All.cep.-Phos.-Sulp., It will be noted that all three of these are chronic remedies. They must be used in this order and not the opposite one.

P.Sankarn’s Concept Of Remedy Relationship:
For convenience of reference the remedy relationships are given in tabular form in this book. Different seven columns are name of Remedy, complementary to the Remedy, Follow well to the remedy, Incompatible to the Remedy, Antidotal to the remedy, collateral remedies and Duration of action of remedies. In all cases of difference among authors he has given Clarke as final authority.

S.M.Gunavnate’s Concept of Remedy Relationship:
In the book ‘introduction To Homoeopathic prescribing” he says that the pioneers of Homoeopathy have founded in the course of their practice that remedies are related to one another in different ways and these relationships either help forward or hinder or undo the action of the remedies which preceded them. When one remedy has to be followed by another and then by some other, their mutual relationship acquires significance. He Has also explained Remedy relationship on the basis of Antidote, Intercurrent Remedies, Complementary Relationship and Inimical relationship.

Conclusion: On the basis of the concept of stalwarts we may conclude that

1. The whole subject of remedy relationship has grown out of clinical experience so there is always some difference of opinion in the practical application of it.

2. In the practical application of this concept Boenninghausen stands supreme as an unfailing guide.

3.The study of Remedy relationship create the internal relationship of the massive data and facts collected in the form of Materia Medica and in this way it has provided an opportunity of study an isolated drug to the level of comparative Materia Medica.


  1. Boger C.M, synoptic Key of The Materia Medica, B.jain Pub. New Delhi.
  2. Cambridge- International Dictionary of English, Cambridge University Press.
  3. Farrington. E.A., Clincical Materia Medica, B.jain Pub. New Delhi.
  4. Gunvante S.M, Introduction To Homoeopathic Prescribing, Fourth Edition, B.jain Pub. Ltd.
  5. Hahnemann S. 2002 Organon of Medicine. Sixth Edition. Translated by W.Boericke. B.Jain Pub. Ltd.
  6. Hahnemann S., Chronic Disease Their Peculiar Nature and Cure, B.Jain Pub. Ltd.
  7. Kent J.T, Lectures On homoeopathic Philosophy, B.jain Pub. New Delhi.
  8. Sankaran P, The clinical relationship of homoeopathic Medicines.
  9. Schepper De Luc Achieving and Maintaining the Simillimum B.Jain Pub. Ltd.
  10. Symposium council, I.C.R. Publication, Bombay.

Relationship of Homeopathy Remedies
Dr Jatin N Dhagat
M.D. [Hom.]
Lecturer Dept. Of Organon,
Dr.V.H.Dave Homoeopathic Medical College, Anand.
Email :


Philosophical Aspect of Acute Prescribing Based on Organon

headacheDr Ardeshir T Jagose  

In order to prescribe successfully we have to understand the philosophy behind acute prescribing. Most of the times prescriptions are made without actually following the guide lines given by our great master Dr S. Hahnemann but still at times results are obtained! Are we justified by practicing like this? Can we call it the rational method of prescribing?

Dear friends take a look at your own conscious and ask you’re self whether what you are doing is right or wrong. Are you justifying the safe and sound method of treatment or are you making a mockery of the same? It is high time that all my fellow colleagues rectify their mistakes if any and follow the instructions given in the Bible of Homoeopathy namely Organon.

Now in order to understand the depth behind the philosophy let me start of with the basic reference in the Organon text aphorism 72-82. Acute disease are rapid, morbid processes of the abnormally deranged vital force, which have a tendency to finish their course more or less quickly, but always in a moderate time, resulting in recovery in the course of time or in death, if the vital force is overwhelmed. These are transient explosions of latent psora, which spontaneously return to its dormant state if the acute diseases are not of too violent character and are soon quelled.

In acute diseases, the constitutional symptoms of the patient are thrown into the background, and the vital force under the impact of the environmental force brings the acute symptomatology to the forefront. Hence identifying the phase of disease is absolutely essential for a false interpretation will give rise to dubious results. Hence during the acute phase of the disease phenomenon an appropriate acute remedy has to be selected. When there are communication blocks as in cases of infants, children and comatose patients the objective data assumes the greatest importance for prescribing.

The Prescribing Totality which consists of the chief complaint(s) and the concomitants symptoms often guides the physician to an accurate prescription.

The concomitant symptoms if obtained in a case are of immense value in prescribing a thought which is often overlooked by Homoeopaths. It is rightly said by Frank Bodman that in a mental case the physical symptoms are important and vice versa while prescribing.

Another important aspect of acute prescribing will be in a case of acute exacerbations of chronic diseases. For this two approaches can be used. Firstly the prescription based on the presenting totality can be made especially in cases of a relapsing, intermittent or periodic nature interspersed with acute attacks.They are otherwise totally or partially asymptomatic during the intervals (e.g. bronchial asthma, intermittent fevers etc)

For this the constitutional drug has to be administered after the acute phase is over.

Secondly constitutional prescribing as in chronic diseases.

At times in acute diseases we may not get the clear cut symptoms though a rare occurrence we have to keep in mind the best way of prescribing. The nosodes prove to be of help based on the other aspects of the case e.g. Secale cor in acute hemorrhages, House dust mite in dust allergy etc.  Many a times organ remedies having special affinity towards the particular system, organ, part etc are useful e.g.Crategus for heart, Berberis vulgaris for renal stones etc.

In acute diseases the  speed, depth, intensity of symptoms and miasmatic activity have to be taken into consideration. This will reflect the type of activity in a given case as seen by the speed and the type of actions. The change in the activity during an acute episode suggests a change in the constitutional state which may be temporary. The activity in a case may be increased , decreased or no change may occur.  Increased activity may be seen in physical restlessness, mental restlessness and verbal commands like singing, loquacity etc. Decreased activity may be seen in overpowering sleep, when asked question, answers, and goes back to sleep again and in lassitude and weariness. Mental states like ailments from and change in behaviour are also equally important.

At times a homoeopath is called to handle acute cases and the homoeopath finds it difficult to tackle such a situation as there are only disease symptoms which are common on nature, the original history is masked, patient is un co-operative for long history, time is short and the patient is in distress and more over quick results are the essence of the moment.

Thus the homoeopath in a given situation is in a dilemma for many questions come into his mind e.g. shall I use a specific, should I prescribe on disease symptoms? or only on acute symptoms? or on mental symptoms? or physical symptoms? or only on emotions ? or on PQRS symptoms? Shall I give mixtures? Repeated doses? Etc.

The answer to all the above queries will become clear if only the homoeopathic doctor will sincerely and honestly follow the directions given in the Organon text and makes it a habit to reason out logically in his mind how, why and where what has gone wrong.

Thus my friends Homoeopathy is a beautiful science just try to work hard and the results will speak for themselves.

 Dr. Ardeshir T. Jagose M.D. (Hom
Meherzin CHS Pvt Ltd, C/43&44, 109-A, Colaba, Mumbai 400005
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Thought about nature of Psoric miasm

Dr Georgios Loukas  

The word “psora” can be found in Latin and Greek. One view suggests that it derives from the Hebrew “Tsorat” which means stretch mark, mistake, ditch, contamination, stigma; it was often attributed to outbreaks of leprosy and severe plagues.

Hahnemann’s use of the word “psora” had a special connotation. By this term he meant an original unhealthy condition, whereby after the internal infection of the whole organism is completed, there appears a peculiar skin exanthema. He argued that, “Psora is the oldest, the most universal, the most devastating and most little known miasmatic disease, which has disfigured and tormented nations for thousands of years”. Haehl states that, “For Hahnemann, psora is a disease or the susceptibility to a disease which has been passed from generation to generation for thousands of years. It is the breeding ground for every sickly condition and it is at the same time the most contagious and infectious disease of all”.

It is difficult to understand how psora is transmitted. We read in classical writings that a simple touch is enough for one to catch psora. A baby is infected as it passes through the mother’s genital tube. Alternatively the baby gets infected from the hands of the midwife who has in turn been infected by another woman giving birth, or perhaps even before that. After the psoric miasma comes into contact with the skin, it is transmitted through the nerves to the rest of the body. A few days later, after it has fully developed internally, the disease will manifest itself externally.

We are, therefore, faced with the following question: Does psora derive from without? If it does not begin in our brain, which is the seat of our psyche, then how did it first appear, when it did, thousands of years ago? It is of course very difficult to answer this question. We are faced with the dilemma of either accepting that the disease first appeared in mankind as a result of external factors or as a result of an internal process. However, before we attempt to give an answer, we ought to describe the characteristics of psora in the human organism, that is its symptomatology.

Amongst the symptoms of psora there are two common characteristics: hypersensitivity and lack. Lack is stressed in some books and hypersensitivity in others. We can understand the concept of hypersensitivity with a simple example: If we stimulate externally two different individuals they will react differently. The psoric individual reacts more strongly than the supposedly “normal individual”. That is to say there is an excessive reaction. This hypersensitivity is present in all aspects of the psoric’s life. He is very observant and aware of his immediate environment. He is sensitive. He also gets angry easily. After he has expressed his anger and has had a good sleep he is not bitter or hateful. He also cries easily. After crying he feels better. He is temperamental due to the hypersensitivity. He is very rich in the expressions of his feelings. The psoric can be a scientist or an artist. He is hypersensitive to light, sound and smell. The most typical expression of the hypersensitivity in the body is itching. An external or internal itching, like tickling for example, is a sign of psora. The suppression of the external bodily manifestations of psora, because of the wrong medical treatment, results in the appearance of an internal or psychic itching, which is even more troublesome to the individual. Such suppressions led Hahnemann to the discovery of the psoric miasma and its description.

The other main characteristic of psoric miasma is lack.
This lack is expressed as a feeling of inadequacy. There is a deep feeling of inferiority. It can be seen in the successful businessman who is intelligent and hard-working but who always wants to rely on somebody else. He is always looking for a partner. His partner, if he is a crook, can easily take advantage of him. He always needs support; he always seeks protection. This feeling of inferiority can also be seen in the scientist, who continuously asks for the support of his teacher or his colleagues despite the fact that he knows his subject well. He is anxious and fearful and gets scared easily.

This sense of inadequacy forces him to live in a world of fantasy. However, this world is not the autistic world of a schizophrenic. It is simply the feeling of inadequacy that stops him from fulfilling his dreams and so his rich inner world has to be expressed through fantasy. This can be seen in the individual who goes to a lecture and instead of paying attention, he spends most of his time day-dreaming. There are two reasons as to why he loses contact. Firstly, because of his deep emotions due to his hypersensitivity. Secondly, because he does not express these emotions due to his feeling of inadequacy.

Thus, psorics are people with a rich inner world, which is not expressed, because they lack boldness. Because of their feeling of inferiority they become stagnant, immobile and reserved. If this feeling of inferiority was absent they would be much happier people and would offer more to society. The awareness of their “helplessness” causes them sadness. When they feel sad they look far into the future and see happier days ahead. The words of a popular Greek song express very well the psoric sadness: “Be patient and the sky will become bluer …”. There is hope in them; it has not been lost.

The psoric is particularly concerned with what others think of him. He respects society’s customs and traditions and he feels guilty if he does not abide by the rules. He is scared of rejection because of this feeling of inadequacy. It is this feeling of inadequacy that makes him always seek support from someone else. He creates relationships of support, bonds of support and he does not want them to break because he will be left alone without them. A lot of people are sociable because they need this support from the group.

These needs of his, coupled with his sense of duty, continuously inhibit his desires. “I must” is stronger than “I want”. Before the psoric acts he asks himself if it is socially acceptable. If it is not, he usually does not act. He is very generous with his relatives. He is easily hurt by the remarks of others. It takes him time to express his anger but once he has expressed it the incident is forgotten.

The psoric individual has a tendency towards platonic love. Let’s say that a psoric man likes a woman. He thinks: “What a beautiful woman … What an amiable person … I wonder if she likes me. Well, so many men are after her, I doubt that she wants me … What if she rejects me?” Here also there is an inhibition. An inhibition caused by his sense of inadequacy on one hand and on the other his fear that his behaviour could be rejected by society. This makes him experience love through fantasy. He is a person who has fallen in love many times but who has very rarely fulfilled his fantasies. He is also emotional, he gets worried easily and he gets hurt easily. His love fantasies are heterosexual. He is pure in his feelings. He falls in love with the whole person not with a breast or a thigh. He sees the personality, he does not see his partner as a sex object.

The psoric is also religiously inclined. He is religious in a broad sense. His faith is of a philosophising nature, born from a need to search, to comprehend the agony of existence, to cope with the feeling of being alone and inadequate in a vast universe.

Lack is manifested in the body in a variety of ways. Insufficient feeding is an example of that. He eats continuously but the body cannot digest the food. So there is lack. It is possible to make a connection between lack of vitamins and trace elements in the body with psoric miasma. For example the lack of vitamin A causes dryness. Dryness is one of the basic symptoms of psoric miasma. When Hahnemann wrote about psoric miasma he did not know of the existance of vitamin A. This lack of elements can be seen in delayed osteoporosis or late teething. The lack of trace elements causes weakness, fatigue and sluggishness.

Therefore, we can see that there is hypersensitivity on one hand and lack on the other. Lack and hypersensitivity coexist in the psoric miasma. It is difficult to say which one precedes the other.

Let us ask ourselves once more: “What is psoric miasma? What is the foundation on which human disease has been built?” I could not find a satisfactory explanation in all the homeopathic literature known to me. So I tried to find a solution within ancient Greek philosophy and literature, psychoanalysis and religious systems. Perhaps these areas would provide a clue to the genesis of disease. A comparative study would help me understand psoric miasma.

Let us first study the psychoanalytic views on the development of symptoms. It is not of course possible to give a detailed account of the psychoanalytic views. Whoever is interested can have a better look in the writings mentioned in the bibliography. It is necessary to refer to the “structural” model of the personality developed by Freud. The personality of an individual, that is the sum total of his particular and fixed character traits (his views, his ideas, his values, his emotional reactions, his actions and his adaptive behaviour) is divided into three parts.

The Pre-ego, or “That”, or “It”, or Id is the part of the personality that includes all the instinctive impulses. It follows the pleasure principle.

The Ego is the most “systematized area” of the personality. It is the part that primarily serves the psychosocial adaptation. It is a mediator between the inner impulses and the restrictions. It also preserves the contact and the control of the external reality. The Ego is governed by the reality principle.

The Superego includes the moral values imposed upon the individual by his family upbringing during the first years of the development of his personality. It includes the prohibitions and the ideals of the individual.

Health according to the psychoanalytic theory is achieved when there is a balance amongst these three parts of the personality. Apart from the structural model, Freud has also described the topographical model, which includes the following: the Conscious, the Subconscious and the Unconscious.

In the unconscious there are experiences that one is not aware of. In the subconscious there are experiences and processes that one can become conscious of more easily.

Any instinctive desire goes through the “cencorship” of the Superego, where it can be examined as to whether it is possible for it to be satisfied without ridiculing the individual. If it is considered prohibited, a conflict between the Id and the Superego is created which leads to a dead-end. The Ego tries to reach a compromise by delaying the gratification of the desire by using the repression mechanism. Repression is the primary defence mechanism. It does not allow unacceptable desires, tendencies, thoughts etc. to come to the conscious and “pushes” the conflict into the unconscious. Although all this takes place on an unconscious level, the Ego has a sense of danger in that if the unconscious and “prohibited” desires are expressed, it will be carried away into unacceptable conduct. The feeling of this threat is the unconscious or primary anxiety, which acts as an “alarm signal” and urges the Ego to confine the instinctive desires and the whole conflict to the unconscious, so that the threat is not realised by the conscious mind.

This means that there is a constant dynamic process. The instinctive desires on the one hand and their repression caused by the Ego on the other. When the instinctive impulses intensify, the conflict rises to the subconscious and now there is a real danger that it will reach the conscious. At this point the symptom of anxiety is clearly felt by the individual. As this is uncomfortable, various defence mechanisms are mobilized and act subconsciously. These defence mechanisms, apart from the repression that has already been mentioned, are the following: Identification, compensation, substitution, sublimation, rationalization, regression, displacement, intellectualization, undoing, reaction formation, dissociation, conversion, symbolism, projection, introjection, incorporation, denial, postponement, expectation (for more details please, read the “Psychoanalytic Psychopathology” by H. Hierodiaconou).

A part of the psychic conflict is discharged in the body and in this way physical symptoms develop.

The similarity between homeopathy and the psychoanalytic school on what is disease is evident. From the psychoanalytic school of thought we can use the following points in order to clarify the riddle of psoric miasma: a) The concept of the psychic conflict and b) the concept of repression. In theory, if we did not repress, there would be no primary anxiety and symptoms. The necessary condition not to repress is constant awareness.

Reference to the creation of disease can be found in the Old Testament, in the myth of Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve lived happily in Paradise. They had everything. There was only one thing they were not allowed to do. They were not to eat from the tree of “Knowledge of good and evil”. One day Eve was tempted by the evil spirit, the devil, who appeared before her in the form of a snake. He told her that if they ate the fruit they too would become Gods. She ate from the forbidden fruit, persuading Adam to do the same. After the deed they began to feel ashamed and they covered themselves so they would not see their nakedness. God was very angry with them and sent them away from Paradise with the following curse: “Eve, with pain you will give birth to children. Adam, by the sweat of your brow you will eat your food”. After the fall from Paradise people started getting ill and dying.

In this myth we can see the following: a) There is desire and there is the law, b) Adam and Eve have a feeling of inferiority in the face of God. The eating of the fruit symbolizes the violation of the laws of nature, c) after their disobedience they feel remorse, d) after the violation of the law people start getting ill and dying.

Two questions are raised at this point: If this had not happened would man never have experienced death? Did man perhaps then start being afraid of death?

The myth of Prometheus Bound is also of interest to us. Prometheus was punished by Zeus and was chained on Mount Caucasus by Hephaestus with the help of State and Force. An eagle ate from Prometheus’s liver every day, and every night Prometheus was reborn.

However, why did Zeus punish him? In Aeschylus’s play “Prometheus Bound” Prometheus himself gives the answer in the following dialogue:

Prometheus symbolizes the human race. He was deprived of his freedom by Hephaestus, who is the God of invention, the God of technology, by State, who is the God of authority and by Force, who is the Goddess of arbitrary and unjust power. But why was he deprived of his freedom? Because “he tried with a remedy to free himself from the fear of death …”

Volumes of books have been written and more may well be written on this subject. It is not my intention to expand on this issue here. I may deal with this in a future lecture. I would only like to highlight some aspects that I believe are relevant to psoric miasma. The first aspect is that the cause of Prometheus’s suffering is the “false” freedom from the fear of death. This freedom is associated with the gift of fire. Our civilization is the result of the knowledge of “fire”, in its metaphorical sense. What drove man towards science? Was it perhaps the fear of death? Does science solve man’s deepest problems or does it simply deceive him “by putting in his heart false hopes?” Is our civilization a source of happiness or a source of unhappiness for us?

The second aspect is the one associated with the three deities, who chained Prometheus on Mount Caucasus. The technology of every era (Hephaestus) “bewitches” people. It does not matter if it is the space satellite of the 20th century or the best made chariot of ancient times. The technology of every era is what marks that era. Its achievements constitute the dream of many people. However, at the same time it binds people to a certain way of life. Our social image and our acceptance by society is influenced by the technological achievements. A good car raises our social status. An individual who cannot acquire a car feels ashamed because he considers himself not well established socially.

The law (State) is another factor that influences us. The average person does not want to oppose the law even when it is unjust. Imprisonment makes us feel ashamed, despite the fact that a lot of heroes or important historical figures have been imprisoned by their opponents.

The average person is also afraid of arbitrary and unjust power (Force) in the hands of people who are in positions of authority. The average person makes sure he minds his own business and does not oppose these powerful people so that he does not get himself into trouble.

The symbolism of the eagle, that eats Prometheus’s liver, is also interesting. The eagle is a symbol of power. The liver is an organ, which in antiquity was connected with the function of man’s will (like the brain with the intellect and the heart with feelings). Thus, the eating of the liver is related to man’s eroded will, to his contraction caused by his fantasized opposition to Hephaestus, to State and to Force. Of course it is not accidental that all this happens in daylight, because during the day “nothing stays hidden under the sun’s light”.

For Plato the battle against ignorance through the appropriate education and the emancipation of the individual from anger and desire is of great importance. In The Republic, Plato states that desire accompanied by intense emotional movement (hypersensitivity) can disturb the individual’s inner harmony and his ability to function in society. He also believed that when death approaches nobody wants to die.

The Stoic philosophers taught that the equilibrium of the individual cannot be affected by external factors. No threat or punishment to the body can be powerful enough to change the individual’s deepest sense of freedom or alter his value system. In a psychotherapeutic way they tried to help the individual focus on the fundamental human values and free him from the opinions of society. In this way the individual freed himself from the agony and the anxiety of being accepted by society and considered society rather than himself responsible for accepting him.

For the Stoics it was also important that man overcame his fear of death. To do this the individual was helped to focus on the idea of death, cultivating at the same time his self-control and to accept that it is not death itself that is fearful but rather the fear of death.

They accepted, however, that death, life, pleasure and pain were primary states of being for man. However, these primary states of being are “indifferent” and “involuntary” for man. Thus, the Stoics recognised that the concept of death had a serious affect on the human psyche but man had to consider death as “indifferent” and “involuntary”, as a final attempt to preserve his inner unity and inner peace. These views are important because they show that the concept of the unconscious was not unknown to the ancient Greeks.

Lucritius, was a Roman poet, who lived around 95 to 55 BC. He wrote a philosophical epic called “On the nature of things”, which for many is an account of Epicure’s theory of the cosmos. Following his own psychotherapeutic method Lucritius believed that the main cause of psychic inertia is the fear of death. This fear immobilizes the individual’s mind and soul and inhibits all the incentives and hopes for inner growth. He believed that if the individual came to terms with death and was freed from the anxiety and the fear, then the return of hope and the expectation of a more fulfilling and happier inner life would re-establish his suppressed creativity as well as his inner peace and harmony.

Oedipus, in Sophocles’s “Oedipus Rex” is also interesting. The myth goes as follows:

Laius, the king of Thebes, married Jocasta, the daughter of Menoeceus and sister of Creon. Since they could not have children they consulted the Delphic Oracle. They were told that their child would kill its father. Afraid of the oracle, Laius decided to have the baby put to death as soon as it was born. He had the infant’s ankles pierced and riveted together and he ordered a shepherd to abandon it on Mount Cithaeron. The shepherd feeling sorry for the infant, did not abandon it on the mountain but gave it instead to the childless king and queen of Corinth, Polybus and Meropy. They called him Oedipus (swollen foot) and raised him as their own child.

When Oedipus grew up, because it was suggested to him by many that he was illegitimate, he went to Delphi to discover his true origin. It was not revealed to him who his real parents were, but he was told that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus, believing that his parents were the king and queen of Corinth and in order to prevent the prophecy from coming true, does not return to Corinth but instead goes to Phocis. On the way he meets Laius, the king of Thebes, his real father, who was on his way to Delphi. There was an argument between Oedipus and Laius’s charioteer and unknowingly Oedipus kills his father, Laius, and his attendants except one who informs the people of Thebes about the incident. Creon, his real mother’s brother, becomes the king of Thebes.

At that time a great evil falls upon the people of Thebes. The Sphinx, a human-like monster, who sat on Mount Phicio, forced travellers to answer a riddle and killed the ones that could not do so. King Creon announced that whoever freed the country from the monster would become the king of Thebes and marry his sister, Jocasta. This was the riddle:

“Four legs in the morning, two at noon
Three legs again in the evening
Walks on land and doesn’t sink in sea
Strongest with two legs, weakest with four-
What is it?”

Oedipus solves the riddle of the Sphinx by replying that the answer is man and therefore he frees Thebes form this monster. As a reward Creon gives him the throne and his sister, Jocasta, as his wife. Oedipus marries her without knowing that he is her son. They have four children. A few prosperous years go by. The Gods, however, have not forgotten Oedipus’s sinful deeds even though he has committed them unwillingly and unknowingly. In order to punish him Thebes is struck by a plague.

Oedipus sends Creon to consult the Oracle on how the city could be saved. The answer was that the one who had killed Laius should be killed or exiled.

Oedipus goes to the blind prophet Teiresias who hints at Oedipus’s errors and foretells his future misfortunes.

In the end after a series of adventures and efforts by Oedipus the truth is revealed. Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus blinds himself.

The riddle of the Sphinx is of course related to the ages of man from birth to old age and death. Laius’s murder symbolizes the beginning of lack of awareness, the marriage with Jocasta desire.

Finally, it is not accidental that in our religion Passion Week is always in spring when Christ an through him the whole of Humanity relives every year the intense eroticism of Spring and at the same time the drama of the Calvary.

We can now reach some useful conclusions.

  • Psoric miasma is not an external but rather an internal disease.
  • It is related to desire and to the primary anxiety of death. The primary anxiety of death exists in every being form the moment of birth.
  • Desire and the primary anxiety of death are triggered by any external stimulus. So, for example, when we see somebody being ill or when somebody we like touches us, psora is triggered within us.
  • The primary anxiety of death is due to a limited awareness of the function of the universe.
  • Repression is the defence mechanism that is directly related to psora. Psoric miasma was born from the moment man started to use repression as a defence mechanism.
  • Lack and hypersensitivity express the nature of psoric miasma.

Weeb :

Adulthood crisis and response of various temperaments

Dr. Kathika Chattopadhyay

Adulthood– the most constructive and the longest part of human life; covers the age from 20 to 60 yrs and divided in to three phases:
1.EARLY (20 To 35yrs)
2.MIDDLE (35 To 50yrs)
3.MATURED (50 to 60yrs)

After crossing infancy, childhood and adolescence; when a person enters in the early adulthood, feels to change his/her life; finds self identity, security, stability to fulfill the basic needs. Generally for females priority of this phase is given in marriage to settle the life and in male it is obvious the first importance is well established career making and next enjoying married life.

When they plan and enter in the new world of adulthood with the colorful dreams in eyes, hopes in heart and spirit in mind; often the events of new life are very much tragic or not normal to that particular person in respect to his/her attitude, culture, way of thinking and values of life, what he/she has obtained from the very childhood.

Phases of early adulthood
Young adults are usually very much sensitive to various stressors coming from their surrounding environment (various unnatural or negative behaviors like harassment, cheating, humiliation, crisis etc.). When they receive those feelings from their close relationship or from working field or after entering in new life through marriage, they suffer in frustration and react in different ways.

Temperament is a peculiar physical character and mental cast of an individual, which starts when the parent cells unite to form a zygote, the very beginning of new life. The type of temperament that an individual acquires, depends not only on his/her ancestors’ temperaments and hereditary stigma; but also depends on the state of mind of both the partners during the period of conception; the psychic state of mother during gestational period and perhaps even after birth, when the new born is connected with mother for fulfilling it’s physical need during the phase of lactation (as it’s an experimental truth that the emotion of mother affects offspring during breast milk feeding, eg. if mother feeds her breast milk after getting anger baby may suffer in convulsive seizures.)

A human organism either acquires single temperament or inherits more than one temperament by birth. Once the cast is formed, it can not be changed by medication. However, when he/she is exposed in prolonged environmental non familial influence, his life harmony is affected and there is occurrence of another set of behavioral pattern due to appearance of a different temperament or layer formation due to prolonged exposure in unfavorable circumstances . While the Homoeopathic remedial approach can cure the particular layer, as well as the set of mental disorganization with physical complaints caused on account of the influence of the acquired temperament, but the basic cast can never be changed.

According To Dr. H.A.Rorerts:  Temperaments are to a very large extent physiological, but besides the strature of the patient the matter of temperaments implies colouring, functional tendencies of circulation, elimination, respiration & so on; and at the same time mental and emotional tendencies in reaction to environment and circumstances.”   

The common crisis of early adulthood:

A) The common problems in intimate relationship
The early adulthood is the time of a crisis feeling and a feeling of tension between isolation and intimacy. The desire for heterosexual relationship, which is started from adolescence, touches the highest pick in the age of 20 to 35 usually. If that particularly desirable relationship is socially sanctioned; it helps to built positive approach of life of two persons who love each other and want to get maturity of their love by the social recognition through marriage.

When both life partners’ expectations and preferences are synchronous, the satisfaction comes in married life.
After getting married by love-affair or by negotiation, it is often observed one or both the couple does not maintain an unselfish, faithful and caring approach to other.

Sometimes it seems a serious problem in marital relationship like:
Somebody creates unusual domination, which hurts self respect of the opposite one; makes partnership by untruthful means causes a trauma for partner who has been suffered; physical incapacity to make happy conjugal life, polygamy or debauchery habits; mistrustfulness; indifference to give security and support; or over all when there is a scarcity to understand each other in each and every aspects in conjugal life- causes hopelessness in married relationship.

The victim firstly tries to rule out the reason behind unnatural behavior, next finds the way out or tries to cope it up, but when he/she has to suffer monotonously in the same sort of situation without any solution for a long, inner spirit wants freedom but due to social non-acceptance in maximum cases he/she has to accept the unhealthy environment to live and has to pretend of leading a happy marital relationship. That’s why his/her inner spirit is deviated from healthy state, is failed to compensate any more.

b) Common disturbances coming from working field
If the potentiality of the person is higher and in comparison to that the quality of job he is doing is less valuable; if the earning is not satisfactory; working environment is not favorable; if the person has to go through various types of ill experiences in working field like deprivation, partiality, humiliation, badly accused (when he/she is not involved); after giving sincere labor credit goes to other; boss is short tempered, hard to pleases in nature or complex minded; colleagues are non co-operative or fault finder; in business recurrent failures leads hopelessness; creative persons when going through a sort of job where no scope of creativity or have not enough independency to do work in own way etc. are the common causes produce frustration and immense dissatisfaction in working field.

Career changing tendency:

    • When the person is nervous, there is a tendency to change often his/her occupation to get more satisfaction.
    • Who can fix their destiny, having self controlling power and risk taking tendencies; they can shift often for achieving the target in career.
    • Situational factors like dissatisfaction in present job, painful events in personal life (divorce, mal adjustment in family or the death of a loved one) may lead to shift life’s goal by changing the occupation.

Phases of middle adulthood:

  1. Generative
  2. Stagnation

The middle adulthood is the time to concentrate to fulfill the basic needs to maintain the familial status, concentration and care to family and children and performing job with much more responsibility in each and every sphere of various sectors of life. A new process of growth starts.

The person who have completed his/her early adulthood phase by close, stable and unselfish relationships or without facing much trouble; usually he/she is creative and is involved in preparing the next generation for life within the culture and they are generative and feel satisfaction in their career as well as in family life. But who have failed to be generative or productive in this way, undergoes through the stunting of personal growth or in The Stagnation in life.

When a person suffers in Mid-life Crisis, the whole life becomes miserable by negative emotion of unhappiness and sadness. He turns to be confused. His/her unhealthy situation comes to own self in the form of big question- “Why with me?”, “What to do now?”, “Where do I go from here?”, “Is it the fate for rest life?”, “How did I failed after giving honest effort?”.

These are the common pain, which breaks the healthy harmony and surely this is the time for a turn over or to need a change in life for those unlucky persons to avoid the suffocative situation.

The reactions of different temperaments in this phase:
The reaction is different according to the prevailing temperament of the person suffering in adulthood crisis.

People, who are having Sanguine temperament, want definitely a change over in career or try to find out a fresh familial relationship to live a healthy life. Naturally they can cope up the previous traumatic experience if the new one is better in quality. Some people of Sanguine group instead of divorce and remarriage maintain extramarital affair or concentrating in various enjoyable involvements becomes Playful, Euphoric and gives less importance to family.

In the same way Cholerics give much concentration in other sphere of life. Make own selves much more Workaholic and turn to Industrious with an Egotism or Superiority complex.

Some people like Phlegmatic and Melancholic temperaments mostly accept the odd situations of life and welcome a slow and steady decay of their health.

Melancholics are the extra ordinary sensitive and emotional people don’t want to hurt or to be hurt. They withdraw themselves silently from the factual World. They may divert their failure by concentrating own in religious or any other creative work, but due to continuous suppression of the inner feelings they may turned to Hypochondriac, Maniacal or Schizophrenic. 

Who are having Phlegmatic temperament can hardly accumulate enough strength to come out from their problematic environment. They are not at all courageous to face the new situation. They accept their hopeless condition and turn to Indifferent, non-reactive and usually are affected by various addictions to compensate the vacuum of life.

Within whom Nervous temperament prevail, due to the lack of decision making capacity they try to come out and get rid off their problems, want to breathe in a fresh air for a while but again return to known stuffy previous circumstances due to apprehension, confusion and guilty feeling . When long continued failure persists in familial or career sector, they loose their confidence, that’s why achieving afresh and stable change to them becomes impossible. Feels confused moves here and there to get satisfaction, turns to Paranoid personality or produces various nervous disorders like irritability, restlessness, tremor or hyperhydrosis, loquacious, hypochondriac etc. with various types of addictions.

People who are affected by Adulthood Crisis and do not get satisfaction in real sense in furthermore but continuously trying to coping up his bad situation or suppressing the emotions; often outwardly their look is very healthy. They are continuously trying to compensate their life’s failures by growing their personality up in various ways; but the compelling ways to cope up the failures, cause deviation in mental and emotional states steadily. Thus by getting trauma, then forceful compensation, again failure-is collapsing the life animating spirit progressively- the disposition, behavior, attitude, self-esteem and even the liking-disliking in the physical level of the person alter and form a new layer.

Human emotion is connected with the activity and function of the body. All thoughts and sensations are transmitted to the consciousness over and through the cerebrospinal system, but emotions are conducted to the consciousness over the sympathetic nervous system and nature of the emotion determines what would be its effect to the human health- constructive or destructive. As positive emotions like love, faith, happiness, kindness, good will etc. are constructive and have a beneficial influence upon the harmonious functional activity of every cell, tissue and structure of the body; in the same manner negative emotions e.g. fear, worry, resentment, criticism, envy, anger, jealousy, hatred etc. are destructive and interfere with the normal functional activity and produce ill health and disease. 

[Although divorce leaves a scar as after effect in the life of an individual and children are mostly affected by this. But staying in the situation where parents are unhappy in their interpersonal relationship, there children suffer in a different way and often they are simply unattended.

When this child enters in the adulthood’s social or working sphere, in most cases they are not at all well adjusted. In severe cases there may be abrupt emotional deviation like frustration, self abuse by taking various measures of addiction to self destruction. There may be Schizophrenia like psychic disorders also. In these cases of adulthood crisis the responsibility goes to that unhealthy environment of childhood where the person has brought up.] 

By facing long continued uneven circumstances the ‘emotional climate’ or Temperament may be changed. So environmental factors can add or alter the temperament of the person. A jovial person with Sanguine temperament may turned to Melancholic or Melancholic may changed to Choleric for survive and adjust own. As an example, Phophorus personality by continuous humiliation may be turned to Natrum muriaticum and after continuous heartbreak that person may turned to Sepia. 

Although according to Dr. Kent’s view, Temperaments are not caused by proving, and are not changed in any manner by homoeopathic prescribing, it means Temperament can not be twisted by any how. But the temperament which is appeared in a man in his/her life time by layer formation due to receiving many buffets from life, that must be rectified by giving homeopathic medicine; which eradicates the forming layers as well as if there is any newly appeared temperament that should be rectified at the same time.  

Ultimate fate in matured or late adulthood:
If the person is untreated, the terminal part of life is miserable, he/she may be affected by mental abnormalities and immense aversion to life, with appearance of various bodily disorders.

Curing by Homoeopathy:
Continuous stress may be overcome in real aspect if there is any ideal substitution of the need or any hopeful achievement comes in life. Otherwise Layer construction affects the whole organism in Middle Adulthood and it may be corrected instantaneously by giving proper layer removing remedy according to presenting symptoms totality; along with counseling to the patient and other persons of family to enhance the confidence, vitality and desire to live a life happily and purposefully.

After clearing the layer the anti miasmatic treatment should be given in normal course, otherwise in the late phase of adulthood normal Psycho-Somatic controlling system may be broken and in favorable environment all the miasms may flares up due to incomplete treatment. Destruction may start in Physique, Emotion and Spirit if the suitable antimiasmatics are not administered sequentially according to the predominance of responsible miasm.

When the miasmatic states are cleared by treating the patient with antimiasmatic remedies thoroughly, the treatment should be concluded by giving a Constitutional remedy depending upon the innate constitution of the person. It minimizes the weakness of the person to be affected emotionally by future odd circumstances and for bringing out the best quality of the constitution and strengthening him/her vitality like “polishing the diamond.”


  1. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition (chapter 12: development during adolescence, adulthood and old age;) by Morgan, King, Weisz and Schopler.
  2. The principles and art of cure; by homoeopathy by H.A.Roberts (chapter: Temperaments)
  3. Hahnemannian textbook of Classical Homoeopathy; by Luc De Schepper) 

Dr Kathika Chattopadhyay B.H.M.S.(Cal.Univ.), M.D.(Hom)
Faculty, Organon of Medicine
Bakson Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital.,Greater Noida, U.P.
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Importance and application of Organon in Clinical Practice

patients1Dr Krutik Shah

Unfortunately it is a fact that most homoeopaths are but poorly acquainted with Hahnemann’s Organon. Yet, there is no doubt that this is the single most important work on the subject, providing the very basis upon which a truly in-depth study of its single foundation principle (Similia) and its application must begin. The Organon remains largely unstudied and even ignored reveals the real agony of our institutions and teachers charged with training future generations of homoeopaths.

It is expected from the article to encourage those who still feel the flame of conviction for orthodox Homoeopathy, to revisit its most basic source, to make it their serious and continued study, and to thereby realize its full relevance and unmatched genius. Hahnemann himself was annoyed at those who were too lazy to carefully read his directions in Organon.

Hahneamnn writes:
“Many persons of my acquaintance but half converted to homoeopathy have repeatedly begged me to publish still more exact directions as to how this doctrine may be actually applied in practice, and how we are to proceed. I am astonished that after the very particular directions contained in the Organon of Medicine more especial instructions can be wished for.”

“I am also asked, ‘How are we to examine the disease in each particular case?’ As if special enough directions were not to be found in the book just mentioned.”

CMF Von Bonninghausen, Hahnemann’s most respected and trusted student and colleague, stated the following with regard to the general neglect of Organon:

“It seems actually at present to be a rarity and an exception when any homoeopath again consults the “Organon of Healing,” and I know several individuals who do not even possess, and have never read, this book and yet it is indisputably the basis of the homoeopathic healing art, and besides so many valuable grains of gold are enclosed within it that at every repetition of the reading of this remarkable book, especially when read by the older practicing and experienced homoeopathic physicians, ever new and important instruction and intelligence may be gained, so that its neglect cannot be too sharply reproved.”  

DR. J. T. KENT himself gives the following comments on the Organon:

To learn the Materia Medica, one must master Hahnemann’s Organon, after which the symptomatology, and a full repertory must be the constant reference books, if careful homoeopathic prescribing is to be attained and maintained.

THE GREAT ADOLPH LIPPE made it a rule to read Organon once a year and he said that every time he discovered something that he had not observed before. Those sections which describe the examination of patients should be more especially studied, for your Repertories and Materia Medicas will avail you little if you do not examine your patients as Hahnemann teaches.” A thorough understanding of the Organon of medicine is indeed essential to its most effective application in each and every case of illness.

DR. J. N. KANJILAL, who taught himself Homoeopathy (after his allopathic medical training), since it provides interesting guidelines for those of us in a similar position where (at the present time at least) a proper, comprehensive, high-level institutional training in Homoeopathy is mostly unavailable.

Dr.Kanjilal has very well stated the method which he himself utilized in his self-education in Homoeopathy. He has advised three steps relating to the study of Organon:

  1. “In the first reading every word of every aphorism together with its footnotes must be read very carefully with meticulous attention to the commas, semicolons etc., as well as the parentheses. Never be satisfied until the whole meaning of the aphorism with its logic and connotation becomes quite clear. In this reading, of course, the whole book, beginning from its name to the last line of the Appendix must be read thoroughly.”
  1. “In the second reading each aphorism should be read in the context of the whole Organon including the Appendix as given in the 5th Edition, translated by Dudgeon. Before starting the second reading a thorough perusal of the “Contents” of the same book, as given just after the preface to the Fifth Edition should be given. This will help greatly in forming an idea of the arrangements of the different topics taught in the book.
  1. After that, while reading any aphorism, other aphorisms dealing with the same point should be reperoused. For example: The phrase accessory circumstances occur in aphorisms 5, 7 and 94; an accessory symptom of the remedy occurs in 163, 167, 180 and 181; an accessory symptom of the disease occurs in 5, 7 and 95; and so on. All these groups of aphorisms should be read together, so that the whole sense of the theme becomes quite clear.”

“After these two thorough personal readings, this book should most advantageously be read in a study circle of friends and colleagues who has already done minimum two readings of the book. Each member of the study circle should try to explain his grasp on each of the aphorisms according to his understanding and sense of logic. In this way by mutual debate, all the points will become more and more clear and more deeply comprehended.”

DR. B.  K. SARKAR says Hahnemann’s Organon is not just a small book on homoeopathic philosophy, but a treatise on the application of scientific reasoning to the practice of medicine.

“Hahnemann’s Organon is a critique of medical philosophy underlying the art of medicine. Analytical studies of Organon as well as that of the history of Homoeopathy and the life-story of its founder show clearly that Homoeopathy is a product of inductive logic applied to the subject of Medicine. It is in fact the first as well as one of the most brilliant examples of the application of the inductive method of reasoning to the solution of one of the great problems of humanity viz., the treatment and cure of disease.”

From the very beginning of my own acquaintance with Homoeopathy (1998), I made Organon the subject of my focus, since, as I could understand it, Hahnemann’s views could most accurately be ascertained from Hahnemann himself, even allowing for difficulties of translation. Through my teachings with Organon, I have heard students lament the difficulties of its language, and I of course assured them that its study becomes easier and easier the more often it is consulted and read carefully.

Let it not be assumed that Organon is merely a theoretical treatise – indeed it is the distillation of Hahnemann’s constant thoughts and significant experiences in the practice of medicine, into a highly condensed expression of a methodical and practical application of his discovery of a single and general therapeutic principle (similars) to the clinical situation for the specific purpose of healing the sick, in the simplest, most gentle and reliable manner.

Boenninghausen clearly understood this, and through its constant study, gained such mastery of the art, and Hahnemann’s confidence to such a degree, that Hahnemann made the following declaration:

“…Baron von Bonninghausen of Munster has studied and grasped my homoeopathic system of treatment so thoroughly that as a homoeopath he deserves to be fully trusted, and if I should fall ill and be unable to help myself I would not entrust myself to any other physician.”

Lastly, I would recommend this work to the study of all homoeopaths, both student and teacher, and suggest it is never too late to return to it’s pages, to study and examine each aphorism carefully, and in context with what Hahnemann had written earlier (HLW); remember, Bönninghausen was 43 years of age when he undertook its study, and look how much he accomplished!

A patient comes to you with any disease e.g. Eczema or Migraine or Depression; we should put in Hahnemann’s Classification of the disease and I always go through relevant aphorism as per the case presentation. This will help us to decide our line of treatment, posology, do & don’t to prescribing for a particular case etc. It will solve many doubts from our mind. Totality of the symptoms is the best way to prescribe but handling & maintaing the simillimum can only be judge if we understand the reaction of the vital force following the administration of 1st prescription.

What we need to do is not to mug up the aphorism but check its applicability in each case, case per case & I am sure you will come to know its trustworthiness.

Dr.Krutik Shah MD(Hom), D.IACH (Greece)
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Approach & Methodology in Drug Dependant Asthma

Dr Subrata K  Banerjea 

Approach – a: contaminated drug dependent cases: cases without clarity of symptoms:
i) In drug dependent asthma cases, when the patient is on an inhaler and/or steroids; in such cases it is very difficult to get a clear picture of the case. The artificial chronic disease is superimposed on the original natural disease (Aphorsim 91), therefore symptoms are contaminated or suppressed and the patient cannot give a clear picture e.g., modalities, etc. In such cases, homoeopathic bronchodilators e.g., Aralia Racemosa, Blatta Orientalis, Aspidosperma, Cassia Sophera, Eriodictyon, Pothos Foetidus etc., can be prescribed on the basis of few available symptoms (according to §173–§178, Ref. Organon of Medicine) and gradually the conventional allopathic bronchodilator is withdrawn [Subrata asks the patient to sip the homoeopathic bronchodilator medicine prescribed on the basis of few available symptoms in those drug-dependant asthma cases, therefore considering the partial symptomatic similarity in accordance with §173–§178. So when the patient is out of breath and in need of conventional bronchodilator, patient takes the homoeopathic medicine and tries to defer the conventional medicine as much as s/he can. In this way, a steroid dependent patient who used to take steroid/inhaler 8 hourly; can, with the help of homoeopathic medicine now defer the steroids to 12 hourly, then 24 hourly and so on. In this way the conventional medication/inhaler etc is gradually weaned off].

In the same way, for pain killer dependent Migraine cases, the artificial chronic disease is superimposed on the original natural disease, therefore symptoms are contaminated or suppressed and the patient cannot give a clear picture for a constitutional medicine as well as the modalities of the pain are masked. Therefore, the following medicines can be selected on the basis of few available symptoms, e.g., Acetanilidum, Anagyris, Bromium, Chionanthus Virginica, Epiphegus, Ferrum Pyro-Phosphoricum, Indium, Iris Versicolor, Kalmia Latifolia, Lac Defloratum, Melilotus, Menispernum, Menynanthes, Oleum Animale, Onosmodium, Saponin, Usnea Barbata, Yucca Filamentosa. Accordingly the conventional allopathic pain killer is gradually withdrawn and after approximately 50% weaning off of the conventional medicine, suppressed symptoms surface and now the patient can give much clearer modalities. This will lead to making a change in the plan of treatment and on the basis of `MTEK’ a constitutional prescription can now be made.

Similar example for Drug Dependent Hypertensive cases where the following medicines (Allium Sativa, Crataegus Oxyacantha, Eel Serum, Ergotinum, Lycopus Virginicus, Rauwolfia Serpentina, Spartium Scoparium, Strophanthus Hispidus) are capable of gradually weaning off the conventional medication.

ii) Generally experience shows after approximately 50% weaning off of the conventional medicine, suppressed symptoms surface and now the patient can give much clearer modalities. This will lead to making a change in the plan of treatment and on the basis of `MTEK’ a constitutional prescription can now be made. Through this approach, not only does the patient gain immediate confidence that homoeopathy works, but can also wean off the conventional medication to certain extent.

Therefore in this way the conventional medicine is gradually  weaned-off and I give full control in the hand of the patient (as the patient is also aware of the side effects of the chemicals of the conventional medicine and wants to wean-off them). Giving the “weaning off power” in the hand of the patient, makes him/her feel that s/he is taking control of what s/he is taking and therefore patients will power of weaning-off the conventional medicine work as well towards raising of patient’s energy level. I do not advice exactly how much to wean-off because that should be guided by the G.P. But as I give the control in the hand of the patient, therefore, get a disclaimer sign by the patient, as below:

(Homoeopathic Consultation with Dr. Subrata K. Banerjea)
I understand that Homoeopathy is a safe complementary system of medicine and it works gently to stimulate the body’s own healing power.

I understand that there is no recommendation by the Homoeopath to stop, vary, reduce or change any medication prescribed by my G.P. and/or Consultant and if I intend to do so, that will be at my own choice and my concerned Homoeopath will not be liable for any consequences thereof.

Eight homoeopathic broncho-dialators: to wean-off conventional medication

1)   AMYL. NITROSUM: (i) Asthmatic dyspnoea with angina.

(ii) Chest:- (a) Oppression,(b) Fullness, (c) Suffocation.

(iii) Anxiety : must have fresh air.

(iv) Cough:-(a) Spasmodic, (b) Suffocative, (c) Paroxysmal.

(v) Constriction:- (a) Throat, (b) Chest, (c) Larynx.

(vi) Manifestation:- (a) Pulsation, (b) Oppression, (c) Constriction.

Miasmatics: Psora (++)-Sycotic(+)- Syphilis (+)- Tubercular (+)     Potency of Choice: Q, 6 C.

A  = Asthma with wheezing.               R  = Right lung : affected

A  = Agg. at 2 A.M.                                L  = Lying agg.

I   = Inspiration is difficult                    A  = A f.b. (foreign-body) sensation.

(i) Wheezing in throat. Constriction in chest and throat with a sensation of foreign body in the throat. (ii) Inspiration is difficult than expiration. (iii) Cough < after lying, < 2 A.M.      (iv) Expecto­ration is salty and hot.

Miasmatics: Psora (++)-Sycotic(++)- Syphilis (+)- Tubercular (++)  Potency of Choice: Q, 6 C; 1M.

3) ASPIDOSPERMA: (i) Want of breath during exertion is the guiding symptom. (ii) Useful in Cardiac asthma. (iii) It is the Digitalis of the lungs : broncho-dilatation.

Miasmatics: Psoric (++)- Syco(++).   Potency of Choice: Q, 30 C ;1M.

4) BLATTA ORIENTALIS: (i) Doctrine of Signature: Cockroach lives in cracks and crevices; in damp shady places, therefore it is a wonderful medicine for Asthma for people who lives or works in damp basements, cellars, etc. damp dwelling. Aggravation from damp and rainy weather. (ii) Asthma with bronchitis, especially indicated after Arsenic when this is insufficient. (iii) Acts best, in stout, or corpulent persons.Seem to act on patients who have a tendency to obesity. (iv) Much pus like mucus. (v) After the spasm. for the remaining cough use higher, stop with improvement.

Miasmatics: Psora (++)-Sycotic(+++).    Potency of Choice: Q, 30 C ; 1M.

5) CASSIA SOPHERA: (i) Skin diseases (like dandruff, eczema, itching, ringworm etc.) are associated with bronchial troubles. (ii) More the cough (in asthmatic patients) and more it is a painful and distressing cough, better it is indicated. (iii) Asthmatic symptoms with rattling of mucus in the throat but not much expulsion. (iv) Aggravates during rainy and winter season, (v) < later part of the evening and past mid-night, towards early  morning, better by sitting up. Note:- Cassia sophera is antidoted by smoking or chewing tobacco, so patients, should avoid them during medication.

Miasmatics: Psora (++) -Syco(+++) – Syphilitic,       Potency of Choice: Q, 30 C;1M.

6) ERIODICTYON GLUTINOSUM: (i) Bronchitis followed by tubercular cough. (ii) Profuse nocturnal sweat and spasm > by expectoration. (iii) Cough after influenza.

Miasmatics: Psora (++)-Sycotic(++)- Syphilis (+)- Tubercular (+++),       Potency of Choice: Q, 30 C. 

7) POTHOS FOETIDUS: (i) For asthmatic complaints, which is caused and are made worse from inhaling any dust. (ii) Difficult, troublesome respiration; oppression with perspira­tion. Anguish with oppression. (iii) Asthmatic symptoms are better by passing stool. (iv) Deep acting Syco-Psoric remedy

Miasmatics: Psora (++)-Sycotic(++)- Tubercular (+),   Potency of Choice: Q, 30 C ; 1M ( For Allergic Broncho-spasm).

(i) Periodical asthma with nightly dysuria. (ii) 15 dps doses promotes expectoration in bronchitis and bronchial asthma, in old people. (iii) Expectoration:- (a) Profuse, (b) Blood stinged.

Miasmatics: Psora (++)-Sycotic(++)- Syphilis (+)- Tubercular (+++).

Potency of Choice: Q, 30 C.                       

Dispensing of the dose of Homoeopathic broncho-dialators:When the patient is out of breath and in need of conventional bronchodilator, patient can take any of the above homoeopathic medicine (or any other medicine, in accordance with the few symptomatic similarity) and tries to defer the conventional medicine as much as s/he can. In this way, a steroid dependent patient who used to take steroid/inhaler 8 hourly; can, with the help of homoeopathic medicine now defer the steroids to 12 hourly, then 24 hourly and so on. In this way the conventional medication/inhaler etc is gradually weaned off].

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Tools available to unprejudice Homoeopaths

laptopDr S K Vashisht

Let  me refresh  a young  Homoeopath  and show him the tools  made available  to him, for treating his patient., and share my experience.

Homoeopathic medicines are usually recognized   by round Pills, commonly known as Globules,— PELLETS, these – are vehicle which delivers the medicine-in the shortest, most reliable, and most harmless way– they are  manufactured from cane sugar  though it needs to be manufactured from PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE sugar, there is wrong belief by some that its prepared with LACTOSE , Today  GRADED sugar is available which can give better shape to globules , the production time could be reduced– Globules quality is judged by its shape, color and most important by its absorbent  capacity which usually is overlooked and ignored. Because of this absorbent power of the globules we usually advise our patient not to touch them by hand.

GLOBULES are available  in  various sizes ie no 5-10-20-25-30-35-40,even 50 & 60, the size is measured by the space occupied by 10 globules on a scale measured in Millimeters.

These Globules/Pellets  Are Being Used In The Manufacturing Of Even Allopathic –Medicines ,  prepared from  cane sugar and also from Pharmaceutical grade sugar–,its commonly used in preparation of  sustained release drugs . they are exported from our country ,to developed countries Doctor has choice to select the size of the globule , size.Nos 5– 10 could be used for children below 2 yrs, though no 5 is usually used for making 50 millesmal potency  ,Nos. 20-25 for children  between 5-10 yrs , and globules above 25 to 40 for adults,

Homoeopathic  Medicines
Homoeopathic medicine (DILUTION)  are   manufactured  in a base of 60% absolute alcohol having 92% vv, in case percentage is lower, the globules medicated with it turns brownish in color, since few years few manufacturers are rightly  using  Extra Neutral Alcohol . We have a range of more than 4000 different medicines , and its gradually increasing with on going research .

The Quality of the medicine and its effectiveness mostly depends on the sincerity  of the manufacturer, and this in  turn  depends on the BACK POTENCY.

This unit (BONDED LAB)  is the place where in the sincerity, Quality, Genuineness  of the manufacturer  JUDGED, and its the place where in he could be most undependable too.

Homoeopathic  mother tinctures
Mother Tinctures Majority of the Pharmaceuticals rightly  have started using   extra neutral alcohol,, in place of  absolute alcohol   Extra neutral alcohol guarantees that homoeopathic dilutions and tinctures are free from impurities The mother tinctures are  basically manufactured under two process 1.Maceration 2. Percolation. Lot of work has been done to standardized  the process, but much need to be done, especially in procuring of Raw materials.

More than 200  Mother Tinctures  are available in the market, they are manufactured from vegetable kingdom, Animal kingdom, Chemical s, there is vast treasure available  and Homeopaths can explore this treasure  for the use of their patient.

 A year back few leading Pharmaceuticals have introduced  Mother Tinctures in Tablet form, these have advantage  , can be easily carried and conveniently  used  even by children, the dosage can be standardized Above all loss by evaporation is avoided,  quality and medicinal properties  could easily be maintained  and retained.

Homoepathic tricturatons
Homoeopathic Tricturation, the insoluble crude ingredients are converted into medicinal substances through the process of trituration . The medicinal vehicle in this case is saccharum lactis (Lactose). Homoeopathic triturated medicine increases the therapeutic potentialities & greater curative value than their crude form. A medicinal substance in potentised form possesses greater healing power than its crude form.

Homoeopathic tricturations are  manufactured mostly  in following potencies  1x-3x-6x  12x- 30x- 200x,  guide lines have been given by Homoeopathic Pharmocoepia of India , were in few medicines are not to be used or dispensed below 3x as they are harmful and dangerous in lower potencies.

Mother Tinctures And Homoeopathic Tricturation  are yet to find their due place  with Homoeopaths lack of literature, and exposure of its usage needs attention, with right raw material  therapeutically effective medicines can  occupy medicinal chest of Homoeopaths.

External mother tinctures are being manufactured as per Homoeopathic Pharmacoepia of India as the name speaks are to be used for external applications only, usually the Alcohol percentage is lower, hence its shelf life is shorter and care should be taken before using.

Biochemic tissue salts                                                                                                                   .

The Biochemic Theory a naturally safe Therapy
Watch your newly born baby the treasure of your affection and see how gradually he grows from his tiny body into a beautiful figure. YOU will surprise how from his helplessness he begins to roll, then how he tries to sit and crawl. After some days you see him tottering behind u and by his act you feel immense happiness. As years pass your joy finds no bounds when you see the same little helpless body has taken a shape having the same resemblance of his blessed parents. All this wonderful phenomenon about which your wondering is due to the act of certain Organic and Inorganic salts which the body cells use for their growth, repair wear and tear.

Dr Hahnemann was the first to investigate the pathogenic effects, and therapeutic uses of some of these important salts and though it was announced in 1832 in Stapf’s Archiv. It was Dr Schuessler, M.D of Germany in 1873 who invented a new method of treatment of diseases by administering one or more of these salts in dynamited doses to which he named” BIOCHEMIC METHOD OF TREATMENT”. He says  The dynamised or potentised Inorganic substance are sufficient to re-establish the deranged molecular movement of the same in the diseased condition of the body and are sufficient to heal all diseases which are curable at all. After years of clinical and chemical research he founded that the following minerals in correct proportion are very much essential to maintain GOOD HEALTH.


These minerals enter in our blood through the food we take, they act as body catalysts, they control physiological alkaline environment of the body cells and help Bio-current flow smoothly through them. They also control the blood alkanity and counteract the base acids thus formed by eating excess of acid forming foods. These Inorganic minerals are essential for proper growth, assimilation of the organic substances and development of every part of the body, should a deficiency occur in one or more of these substances some abnormal or diseased condition will arise Every disease which effects humanity reveals lack of one or more of these.

LACTOSE’ is milk based  product  mostly imported from Holland , USA, Canada, It has a shelf life of 3 years- since few years its being manufactured  in India  too its to the IP standard and has a shelf life of 5 years, Mainly used  in the manufacturing of BIOCHEMIC TISSUE SALTS,  and for  dispensing medicines  to infants,, but you should take care that you use standard  branded lactose, only there is a possibility of developing  digestive disorders by using sub standard lactose

Biochemical Tissue salts have been loosing the effectiveness  since few years , One reason is  quality/ Purity  of lactose being used and more because  of process of its manufacturing , only few follow the process as prescribed in The Homoeopathic Pharmocoepia of India. Few  manufacturer spray  the medicine wrongly  instead of Triturating them. First  potency  in  Dilution  form prepared from trituration is 8x, lack of proper quality check and PROPER  TRITURATION PROCESS has  made all the difference to these organic cell salts.

Health and strength can be maintained only so long as the system is properly supplied with these BIOCHEMIC TISSUE SALTS

Biochemic  Tissue salts are available in powder– Trituration, and Tablet form they are available in, the market    / 1Gr —- 5gr/  size.

The medicines  are available in various potencies  Decimal ( 3x-6x—12x—30x—200x),cent decimal,(6c-12c-30-200—1m—10m—50m–)  &  50 millesmal ( 0/1—0/30) and all of them should  carry  on the Label  Composition/ Batch no/Date of Mfr/ Expiry date/ and recently  printing CUSTOMER HELPLINE /care  telephone No and address has been made mandatory, by the Government. of India.

BOWEL NOSODES : Originally were introduced to the medical field by Dr Edward Bach M.B.B.S like Dr Hahnemann he saw the truth that the personality of the individual was of more importance than the body in the treatment of his disease; the patient’s outlook on life , his emotions, his feeling ,were all points of first importance in the treatment of all the ills that human flesh is heir to.

It is a curious coincidence that Dr.Bach was unconsciously following  in the foot steps of Dr Hahnemann , both in his theory and practice of medicine, in the year 1919 he accepted the post of Pathologist and Bacteriologist at the London Homoeopathic Hospital and it happened that a copy of Hahnemann ‘s Organon fell into his hands ,he was surprised  to find what a close  parallelism  of thought he had with Dr Hahnemann , with regard to fundamental ideas about diseases and mode of administrating remedies in the simple, minimum doses given at in frequent intervals. Dr Bach died in 1930 and his mantle fell on Dr J.Paterson , after 20 years of work combining clinical and laboratory observation he confirmed  1. observing the clinical symptoms present when a particular organism was identified in the bowel and 2. observing the clinical symptoms which were ameliorated after the administration of the bowel nosode he was able to give some tentative indications of pathogenesis of certain types.

One thing  noted   by Dr Sarkar  is that none of these bowel nosodes have yet been proved in the strict Hahnemannian sense, it remains for the present Homoeopaths to take up this job, Bowel nosodes  have stood up to the clinical test as demonstrated by Dr Bach , Wheeler and Dr Paterson

Bach Flower Remedies DR . Edward Bach (1886 – 1936)
The discoverer of the celebrated flower remedies, Abandoned Orthodox Medicine to become a pioneer medical revolutionary. Dr. Bach believed that physical ill health was a result of an imbalance in the mind. Treat the patient according to the mood, character and individuality with simplicity. All 39 remedies are described as mood, remedies. He used flowers as vaccines to treat his patients. He formulated a chart which showed that which flowers are to be prepared by which method along with when to prepare. All the plants to be used except for Olive, Vine and Cerato were wild grown.

ID# Name Class Indications
1 Bach Flower-1 Agrimony Conceals his internal mental torture behind the facade of a care-free and cheerful face
10 Bach Flower-10 Crab Wants to throw away unpleasant sensation, anything which is unclean, undesirable.
11 Bach Flower-11 Elm Overwhelmed by responsibility. Feel exhausted, Feeling of inadequacy assails them
12 Bach Flower-12 Gentian Discouragement, Depression, Lack of faith, Always looks at the dark side of the case
13 Bach Flower-13 Gorse Hopelessness, A patient who is fed-up with a long treatment of a chronic disease
14 Bach Flower-14 Heather Self centred, Always concerned with his own problems. Has no time listen to others
15 Bach Flower-15 Holly Hatred, Envy, Jealousy, The very antithesis of love. Distress and unhappy
16 Bach Flower-16 Honeysuckle Lives in the past and make no efforts to solve the present difficulties escapes to the past
17 Bach Flower-17 Hornbeam Monday morning feeling, Feel tired and exhausted even before he has started the work
18 Bach Flower-18 Impatiens Impatience in all walks of life in thoughts, in action, in temper, in deciding, in eating
19 Bach Flower-19 Larch Lack of confidence. Sure of his failure, therefore, dose not attempt to try
2 Bach Flower-2 Aspen Unknown fears, Apprehensions, unfounded fears, Fear without any reason at any time
20 Bach Flower-20 Mimulus Fear of known things. Nervousness Fear of dogs, snakes and cancer
21 Bach Flower-21 Mustard Deep gloom, A sudden depression. Fit of depression without reason
22 Bach Flower-22 Oak Exhausted but struggles on, Never gives up hope and continues to work against all odds
23 Bach Flower-23 Olive Lack of energy. Tired physically. Complete exhaustion of body and mind
24 Bach Flower-24 Pine Self reproch, self condemnation. Blames Himself even for faults of others
25 Bach Flower-25 Red Chestnut Over concern for others. Fear and over-anxiety for others.
26 Bach Flower-26 Rock Rose Terror, Extreme fear, Panic, It is not the fear which is limited to one human mind
27 Bach Flower-27 Rock Water Self repression, self denial. Very rigid. Inflexible views. Extreme self-discipline.
28 Bach Flower-28 Scleranthus Indecision. Uncertain, Always in ‘two minds’
29 Bach Flower-29 Star of Bethlehem After effects of shock. Physical or mental
3 Bach Flower-3 Beech Intolerance. Unsympathetic, Lack of humility, Criticizes and condemns
30 Bach Flower-30 Sweet Chestnut Extreme mental torture, hopeless despair,
31 Bach Flower-31 Vervain

PLACEBO  are available in powder form/Tablets commonly known as Diskets, they are manufactured from cane sugar/Blank Tablets they are  Lactose based available in various sizes 1gr, 2gr, 3 gr  5gr and also in food grade colors of Green red and yellow besides white.

The number of ways and means a Homeopathic medicines can be dispensed  is a specialization of the Homeopathic system of medicine it can be Tailor made to the need of  each individual  patient.

There is  a confusion created or a lobby which states Mother tincture is not Homeopathy, Biochemical Tissue salt should not be used, No external application, give only 4 pills of simillimum and wait-  the thing which matter  a Homoeopath is  ,  should  know    where is he  leading his patient too,    12 observations of Kent  and  Second prescription  should only be your  guide.

In the past 30 years I am convinced about the efficiency of Mother Tinctures , Biochemic Tissue salts, Bowel nosodes, external application of Homeopathic medicines, when to use ,how to use .

The thing I am not convinced is use of  multiple dosage, multiple  remedies, but I don’t say they are wrong , let them convince  us ,, the  way I can do for single dose single remedy.

Several Homoeopaths erroneously believe  that Dr S.Hahnemann  advocated the treatment of all diseases only by a single drug– at a time. Dr Hahnemann only proved the drugs singly on healthy individuals  to know the full potentiality of the drug it self . If a particular drug covered all the principal symptoms of a sick patient , an additional drug was not necessary. But when an additional drug was found necessary , Dr Hahnemann did not hesitate to use it  as—DRUG RELATIONS — -Compliment-Inimical- Antidote- Follows well-Alternate  needs our attention,   less had been thought ,  exchanged , we have  to give a serious  thought on to it.

There are Doctors who are prejudice  on usage of potency some say lower potency is safe, 3x, 6x,12x,, few start with 200 ,some start with only 1m, many like me start with  200 when we are not sure of a remedy start  with a PLACEBO  of course to gain some more time to study the case –Many Homoeopaths give Single dose comprising of  only 1-8 globules, nowadays another trend of putting  few drops of medicine directly on the tongue– Friends lets take  ALL  these as TOOLS and use them  scientifically, Lets  each  put our observation, and findings of  all these Tools  across the table in our seminars,  Clinical Meetings  and exchange our observations  and a  time would  than come  when we all would  have unbiased /unprejudiced knowledge of  putting these tools to use for betterment of our patients.

There are many  Homoeopaths who only give Biochemic Tissue salts and occasionally Homoeopathic medicine, there are some who occasionally give Biochemic , there are some who take a bottle of globules and add a drop or two of all medicine they feel are indicated, into one bottle so ????.Let all these  procedure be cleansed in our Seminars., Conferences, workshops, our Clinical Meetings.

Leading us to become UNPREJUDICE  OBSERVERS  and make the Dreams True of Dr S.Hahnemann.

Dr SK Vashisht.
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Phenomenological viewpoint and homoeopathy

Dr Sreekumar A

Phenomenon is an observed or apparent object or fact or occurence.There is a basic wholeness in a phenomenon.

Phenomenology is a study of that which exhibits or displays itself or it is the descriptive point of view obtained by viewing the thing as a whole.

Medicine needs to be studied as a whole and also in minute particulars but over emphasis on minute particulars will interrupt the understanding of organism as a whole.

As our knowledge is expanding, the vastness of concepts information, beliefs etc are to be integrated in to a meaningful whole for the better understanding and for this, a phenomenological outlook is necessary.

Homoeopathy is enjoying a phenomenological view point as it deals with the primary, morbid alterations taking place in the vitality of human being which will be exhibited or manifested as signs and symptoms which has a wholistic concept about diseases. Homoeopathy is considering the broader outlines of the whole, but it should be based on the logic that the minute particulars should come as a part or should correspond adequately with the general phenomenological outlook.

The study of minute details is necessary but it may reach a dead end on the questions why and how and here one will have to go back to the more general wholistic existence of the human being.

The force within a human being is differentiating the individual from others, at the same time unifying the individual with Nature. There is a basic uniqueness in the universe, out of which all animate and inanimate forms have been derived. A human being will show a response towards some environmental situation and the response will be shown by almost all human beings under similar environmental situations (exceptions for this are the idiosyncrasies).Other organisms may also show similar responses.

This is basis of the quality known as adaptation.
Though there is a basic unity in animate as well as inanimate beings, there is a differentiating factor also and we can conveniently call that factor as the susceptibility which differentiates lifeness from lifelessness.

The various life processes such as health and disease are subjected to the statistical laws whereas the quality of life itself is subjected to the universal laws. So whenever we are dealing with life and various life processes, there should be a balance between our statistical laws and the universal should not contradict the other.

H.A.Roberts is arguing that if homoeopathy is based on the natural laws, then the results of the homoeopathic drugs, both in diseases as well as in provings, should be uniform. But there is a variation in the remedial action which we are unable to understand. there can be such variations as the individual qualities of the sick individuals well as the provers may be different. Versatility is a characteristic of human beings. But H.A.Roberts is not favoring these individual variations and he is declaring that beyond all these individual and circumstantial variation, there are reasons for the variation in remedial actions, which we can not understand. He is observing that our incapability in the complete understanding of the dynamic laws and our overdependence on the statistical laws are the causes of these troubles.

The basic problem is that there is no determinable level of health. Our senses are imperfect and incapable of a total understanding of a symptom or the mechanism of production of symptom. We can not perceive symptoms in their full meaning. The phenomena of health and disease are very difficult to put into material explanations as our senses are too imperfect and incapable of understanding and interpreting these phenomena.

While talking about the phenomenological viewpoint in homoeopathy, H.A.Roberts is saying that an atom can offer the solution to universal physics and that the universe itself offers aid in understanding our specific problems and we can put it in another way as homoeopathy is a therapeutic method, considering the general as well as particular aspects of health and disease, the particulars giving ideas about the generals and the generals giving ideas about the particulars.

The hypothesis of an energy release   in dilutions
H.A.Roberts is trying to correlate the process of radioactivity and the energy release with the dilutions!

There is a concept that when diluting, the potential energy of the drug particles is getting released. He is thinking that in dynamisation an energy release is taking place and he is suggesting that during trituration or sucussions,the atomic structure of the drug element is getting altered or even there can be a splitting up of the atom with an energy release .But this is not a convincing argument. In order to split an atom, a huge amount of energy is required and this will result in the release of a very huge amount of energy which we have not however observed during dynamisation.

Even today, what is happening in potentisation is not understood. Whether there is any definite energy release when diluting the element, whether any chemico-physical changes are happening, is a special subject for a biophysicist.

An absolute understanding of the health and disease qualities is almost impossible, but in order to interpret these processes, not merely a study of the pathology but, a phenomenological, holistic approach, keeping in mind, the universal energy and its changes, is required.

The word ‘phenomenology’ has come, in modern times, to be associated with Edmund Husserl .

Historically, it was Hegel who had first used the word in his work The “phenomenology of spirit. In Hegel’s work phenomenology was understood to be an ascent of consciousness from the conscious stage to absolute knowledge through various forms of self consciousness. As phenomenology etymologically means science or phenomena of appearances. But Hegel understands them to the appearances of the absolute which constitute the different stages of the universal cosncimored. So Hegel’s interest was mainly ontological, but Hasseral was mainly interested in the epistemological problems to him ‘phenomena’ stand for ‘appearances’ through which a thing is presented to us, such as in perception.

These appearances are fundamentally different from Hegelian appearances. Husseral understands phenomenology as the study of phenomena or appearances in a systematic way to explain the possibility of our valid knowledge in different fields such as science, mathematics, philosophy etc. He does not accept phenomenology as a metaphysical or ontology, rather to him, it is philosophical method which will help us to go to the foundation of sciences and other branches of knowledge.

Husserl defined phenomenology as the description of subjective processes and there by made phenomenology co-extensive with psychology. But the two sciences differ mainly in that psychology seeks to explain phenomena in causal and genetic terms, where as phenomenology merely analysis and describes phenomena as they are presented. Phenomenology as the descriptive analysis of subjective phenomena, independently of any philosophical or epistemological presuppositions or commitments, is advocated by Hasserl as an indispensable preliminary to all other sciences.

Phenomenology is subjectivist in that its investigations are initially directed toward the ego and its presentations. However it is not subjectivist in a psychological sense for Husserl is against “psychologism” prevalent among his contemporaries. He insists on the autonomy of rational enquiry into the ideal rational factors in experience. Phenomenology is philosophical science prior to and independent of psychology.

An essential feature of the phenomenological method is the technique of “bracketing” or elimination of the factual dimension of our experience, in order to focus attention on its essential, ideal aspect, the proper subject matter of philosophical enquiry. The phenomenologist is not concerned with particular facts as such, but with ideal essences which shine them particulars.

Husserl uses the expression ‘Epoch’ (suspension of judgment) to refer to the purification of experience of its factuality. This method involutes an initial suspension of judgment regarding the existence of the presentations of consciousness. The method of bracketing of existence must be preserved throughout to investigate the essential constitution of experience.

Phenomenological analysis is conversant with the ideal entities with which we are confronted after we have bracketed or eliminated factiality.But Husserl differs himself from platonic realism. These ideal objects of phenomenological enquiry are not platonic universals. Husserl invokes the theory of ‘intentional reference’ in his interpretation of the objects of phenomenological study. Intentionality is an intrinsic saint of the subjective processes of consciousness whom by they refer to subjects- the objects of phenomenological–enquiry are intentional objects.

The phenomenologist is not committed —to these subjects any ontological states beyond the main fact that they are emisages. In phenomenology the important thing is not the status of ideal objects but the fact that such objects may  be investigated in their interrelations, and that the results of such descriptive analysis are conceive and communicable. They then possess the only kind of objectivity which is necessary for the purpose of genuine knowledge.

Concomitant Symptom – A Critical Study

Dr N Harihar Iyer

Concomitant symptoms are the symptoms that always accompany the main symptom but have no pathological relation to the chief ailment’.  This is the customary view on concomitant symptom mainly sketched by Dr. H. A. Roberts.  But on closely scrutinizing the article by Dr. Boenninghausen ‘A contribution to the judgment concerning the characteristic value  of symptoms’ in his lesser writings, we can perceive wider dimensions and clarity on these auxiliiary symptoms. We all  know the parameters set by Boenninghausen for identifying characteristic symptoms in a case  as well as in a drug.

They being The individuality of the patient, Disease individualization, Seat of disease, Prima causa morbi, Concomitance, Modality and Time modality.  Out of this prime importance was given to Quibus Auxiliis – refers to accompanying symptoms. He openly admits that the above parameters originally owned to the hexameter of theologic scholastic dates back in the twelfth century, which was used at that time to judge the peculiarity and grievousness of moral disease.

He was fully aware of the fact that accompanying symptoms has got only  a diagnostic value as they are the common symptoms of the disease.  But Boennighausen’s inquisitive mind intelligently converted it into symptoms of high significance – concomitant symptom – by setting three prescribed qualifications.  But unfortunately only one qualification has got prominence and is frequently used by the practitioners.  The group of concomitance has a significant role in the construction of totality. That is why H.A Roberts said ‘what concomitance to the totality is modality to a single symptom’ It simply means the differentiating factor of  totality is concomitant symptom and that of a single symptom is modality.

Here it will be better to discuss the concept of totality of symptoms of Dr. Hahnemann and Dr. Boennighausen.    In aphorism 6 and 25 of Organon we can see that Hahnemann is talking about the number of symptoms or numerical totality and is aph 153, in the practical part Hahnemann deals with characteristic totality. In the foot note to aphorism 153 Hahnemann praise Boenninghausen for his meritorious work on setting criteria’s for characteristic symptoms and hence can be amply relied.

Boenninghausen reiterates that concomitant symptoms are just coexisting symptoms of a disease under consideration but distinguished by a rare peculiarity and can be elevated to the rank of a characteristic symptom.  The three standards are :

1. Rarely appear in connection with the leading disease, and are, therefore, also found rarely among the provings.

If in a case of fever the patient prefers to drink only in the stage of chilliness, it in a rare peculiarity and Apis comes in the scene.  The other being symmetrical distribution of eruption of Arnica, Prosopalgia associated with nasal discharge of same side of Spigelia, Diarrhea without prostration of Acid phos etc.

2. Those which belongs  to another sphere of the disease than the chief ailment.

This criteria was usually highlighted by many and elaborated with the prefix that there should be no pathological relation to the chief ailment.

The common examples are Headache > by profuse urination of Gelsemium, Coryza associated with polyurea of Cal carb, Pain with chilliness of puls, Prolapse and uterine affection which is > ted by crossing legs but with empty all gone sinking feeling in abdomen and less sexual desire of Sepia etc.

3. ‘Those which have  more  or less of a characteristic signs of one of the medicines, even in case they have not before been noticed in the present juxtaposition’.

In a case of erysipelas with vesicles, the patient complains of the characteristic  burning during micturition, tenesmus and with bloody urine points towards cantharis or is a case of uterine prolapse with a desire to give hard pressure on the parts and increased sexual desire will make one think of Lit. tig are the instances satisfying the above qualification though urinary symptoms and increased sexual desire are not the usual accompaniments of the former and latter diseases respectively.

Dr. Kent says symptoms which make you hesitate and force you to ask why are the characteristic symptoms.

So in short the symptoms which exists together with the main symptoms and shows some striking peculiarity have a prominent place and the totality of these (not a single symptom but a totality) unreasonable attendants chiefly though not exclusively helps in the selection of similar remedy. The remark is that concomitant symptoms gives more certainty and surety and build confidence to the physician in clinical practice.

On the basis of the qualifications made by Boenninghausen I made a simple attempt to study some remedies which acts specifically on heart.

We know that the, common symptoms of heart complaints are Cyanosis, Vertigo/syncope, Dyspnoea orthopnoea, Oedema, Palpitation Weakness, General < by  excertion etc.  In homoeopathic proving  also all most all drugs have some symptoms in common. They are sadness, anxiety about heart, dry cough especially at night, dreams of falling, hot upper part and cold lower part, < lying down especially on left side.

In case of CACTUS the main causa morbi is either the suppression of rheumatism or natural progress of rheumatism to heart. So there will be a past history of rheumatic complaints. The drug will be characterized by  peculiar pain  as if heart is constricted with an iron hand. Concomitant symptom is vertigo on taking deep breath or holding breath. The characteristic modality is breathing possible only by lying down with shoulders elevated. Oedema is more on upper extremity of left side.  When heart disease progress kidney will be affected first.  Anal fistula and palpitation are associated.

In DIGITALIS, an awful deathly sinking feeling in the abdomen especially in the epigastric region is associated with the characteristic slow, weak, intermittent pulse.  On standing, liver will be affected with pale white stool, and jaundice. There is marked Cyanosis.

NAJA along with the characteristic nature of pain as if a hot iron  is pressed on heart, there is chocking in throat and larynx with hoarseness in heart affection.  One organ affected with heart is ovary as if  heart and ovary are drawn together.  Cardiac cough will be associated with sweat of palms. Cardiac asthma starts with Coryza and > ted by sneezing and lying on right side.

Hypertrophy of heart in young persons who exposed to strenuous manual labor before the age of puberty and in gymnastic persons is the key aetiology in CRETAEGUS.  They are more irritable and the accompanying symptom is flurred feeling with rapid irregular pulse due to rapid action of heart.

LAUROCERASUS is a known remedy for want of animal heat, but external heat in intolerable. The associated symptom with vertigo and dyspnoea, with an intense desire to sleep and sleep and lying down will relieve this complaints which is usually a contradictory modality. Associated with this there is retention of urine.   Along with the suffocative spells there is diarrhea of green mucus.

Dr N Harihar Iyer
Dept. of Organon, Dr. Padiar Memorial Homoeopathic Medical College, Ernakulam.


Renaissance Period of Medicine

lab10The renaissance period started in northern Italy during the 14th century and spread to Europe in the late 15th century. It starts from the date of discovery of America by Columbus .The renaissance period of new thinking changed the culture of the English people. Famous people during the renaissance period, both men and women, achieved prominence in the fields of arts, literature, science, exploration and philosophy. Poets and philosophers, painters and musicians , mathematicians and scientists appeared in numbers and swept off age long superstitions and dogmas from the minds of the people and pointed to an age of reasoning and rational approach to the problems of humanity. The Renaissance was a period in European history during which there was a revival in the ideas of ancient Rome and Greece. Culture art and science and medicine were studied by aristocrats and scholars who prized themselves on their education. Although very few people could read and write, Ideas flourished and the newly invented printing press was a revolution in information technology which resulted in spread of ideas and knowledge around Europe never before.

The development of  the scientific spirit
Medicine practiced prior to renaissance period was more an art than a science . Though some jewels of real scientific lusture are witnessed in the writings of Galen and Hippocrates, their followers could not develop the real scientific attitude of mind . The practice of medicine degenerated into a medley of some positive scientific facts and multitude of fads and fancies unwarranted assumptions, imperfect and biased observations, hasty generalizations, false conclusions and most absurd and often torturesome therapeutic practices. Reason came to be overshadowed by strange traditional beliefs and superstitions; authority claimed a superior and often implicit allegiance from the medical profession. But a new spirit was awakened in the European mind during the renaissance period- which goes by the name of the scientific spirit – which had its repercussions in every field of human knowledge.  This period is rightly called the age of reasons and medicine also came under its way.

The scientific spirit means a certain attitude of mind with the following characteristics:-a. It is the spirit of inquiry

All the established beliefs which encounter belong to two categories.

1. The priceless results of generations of experience.

2. Heirloom rubbish

Towards the whole body of belief the scientific attitude of mind is one of unprejudiced is not the spirit of intolerance but the evidence of a mind whose every avenue is open to the approach from every direction.

b. The scientific spirit demands a real connection between an effect and its claimed causes.

c. The scientific spirit keeps one close to facts.

Science implies a mental attitude of intellectual morality characterized by open –mindedness, freedom from prejudice and fairness.

Science and philosophy
Before the renaissance period the Reason of European mind manifested itself through Philosophy but as the reason was not purely developed philosophy was solely speculative ; and it combined best fruits of intuitive reason with the errors of intellectual reason in the form of many unwarranted assumptions, arbitrary conceptions, imperfect observations, hasty generalizations and fallacious conclusions. At first physical sciences were considered a part of philosophy and known as natural philosophy  .with the introduction of  Baconian method of research the physical  sciences developed much more rapidly than the progress of European mind in Philosphy.

Medical research
Medicine remained dominated by the teachings of the church but physicians began to learn more about the human body. They read books translated from Arabic medical texts and began to study anatomy in scientific and systematic way. AndreasVesalius and Leonardo Da Vinci dissected human bodies and made the first anatomical drawings. These helped in understanding the organs and systems of the human body. The church did not permit the dissection of ‘God fearing bodies’ so it was often the bodies of criminals or ‘sinners’ that were used. Doctors learned about anatomy from watching these dissections. Sometimes the criminal was alive at the start of proceedings as part of their punishment.During the Renaissance, the human body was regarded as a creation of God and the ancient Greek view of the four humors prevailed.

Sickness was due to an imbalance in these humors and treatments, such as bleeding the patient or inducing vomiting, were aimed at restoring the balance of these four humors. In 1628, William Harvey published his new theory that the heart acts as a muscular pump which circulates blood around the body in the blood vessels. Discoveries during the Renaissance laid the foundations for a change in thinking leading to the view that the body is made up of specialised systems that work together; the basis of medical knowledge that we still see today.

Renaissance medicine
As the understanding of the body increased, so did the development of new medicines. Building on knowledge of herbs and minerals taken from Arabic writings, Renaissance pharmacists (or apothecaries) experimented with new plants brought from distant lands by explorers like Christopher Columbus. The bark of the Quina tree contained an ingredient called quinine which is still used in the treatment of malaria. The leaves of the tobacco plant were thought to have medicinal properties, although we now know it is responsible for an enormous number of deaths. Laudanum, an opium-based painkiller, was prescribed for many disorders and remained in use up until Victorian times.

However, progress was slow and many medicines remained little more than superstitious potions containing ingredients like worm’s livers and tongue of newt. As new continents were explored, and trade between different parts of the world increased, it allowed the global spread of disease. This often had devastating effects as whole populations were exposed to pathogens against which they had no natural immunity. Bubonic plague moved along trade routes from China and killed more than a third of Europe’s population. When the Spanish colonised South America, they brought smallpox which killed many native Aztecs and Incas.

Diseases can spread rapidly when a pathogen enters a new population that has never been exposed to it. This is because none of the population has any natural immunity to the disease.

Hospitals and healthcare
The majority of people were too poor to be treated by trained doctors. Major cities had hospitals. For example, the Santa Maria Nuova in Florence, treated wealthy patients. These hospitals were amongst the first medical schools in Europe to start teaching medicine. Surgery improved and techniques such as tying wounds to stop bleeding began to be used.Previously, bleeding was stopped by cauterizing, or burning, the wound with red hot metal.Surgical instruments remained basic. A surgeon would perform operations with the most basic set of instruments: a drill, a saw, forceps and pliers for removing teeth. If a trained surgeon was not available,it was usually the local barber who performed operations and removed teeth.

The renaissance and restoration of a european medical tradition
During and after the 12th century A.D., European scholars translated medical texts of Avicenna and other Islamic physicians from Arabic into Latin. In the 13th century, after almost one thousand years of neglect, physicians resumed studies of anatomy. Invention of  gunpower and appreciation and discovery of practical anatomy drew the surgery in renaissance movement However, the emphasis of anatomy and physiology and a focus on physical causes of illness led to the neglect of the Hippocratic philosophy in medicine and an emphasis on the use of drastic remedies to deal with these presumed causes. Physicians tended to ignore the numerous side-effects resulting from such drastic remedies Physicians tended to ignore the numerous side-effects resulting from such drastic remedies. Hippocrates’ philosophy of human ecology was but a faint memory in the minds of physicians, and in the 16th century, Philippus A. Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (known to commoners as Paracelsus) decisively rejected the ideas of Hippocrates and attempted to derive a new philosophy of medicine based on Christian dogma, Neoplatonic philosophy, and the correspondences between the microcosm and the macrocosm; this herculean task may have humbled Mr. von Hohenheim sufficiently to guide him toward observations of nature for ideas. Unfortunately, he placed emphasis on astrology and alchemy, rather than upon empirical observation. He believed that man functioned chemically and that illness could only be treated chemically, and he focused his theories on unseen chemical phenomena, rather than upon observable symptoms and clinical signs. While chemistry plays an undeniable role in human health, emphasis of the unseen over the immediately observable has blinded medicine to this day. During the Renaissance period, numerous theories of health and medicine arose to attempt to remedy the failings of contemporary medical practice. Nicholas Culpeper compiled an eclectic variety of information on many herbs, incorporating a liberal dose of astrology, yet he ignored and deleted references to the “hot and cold” nature of remedies.

Numerous creative physicians attempted to restore the logical foundation and philosophical vantage points lost during the disintegration of the Roman Empire, but most of these attempts suffered from an excess of religious speculation and philosophical theorizing, and a deficiency of attention to symptoms, clinical signs, and other empirical phenomena.

Important  personalities in the field of medicine during renaissance period

Leonardo Da Vinci(1452-1592)
He was originally a god gifted artist. His appreciation of naturalism &deep insight made him to contribute remarkable drawing of human anatomical pictures.he was first to demonstrate the ventricles of brain by wax injection and to depict correctly the foetus and its membrane within the uterus. Originally he engaged to study the bones muscles in relation to art &persued his investigation to study the deeper parts of the body, viscera, brain blood vessels and more specially the heart.

Andreas Vasalius
He belonged to medical family. He was a professor of anatomy at Padua in 1537.he secretly collected a skeleton of a criminal from a gallows outside the city wall.It helped him in his studies.Defying the Galen’s authority, he published large plates of anatomical drawings known as ‘TABULA ANATOMICAE.

Many figures represented body in action.vasalius corrected  in showing  that the lower jaw consisted of a single bone and the sternum was composed only of three parts not seven.he observed valves of vein and each artery supplying a viscus is accompained by a vein.In the first edition of his book he admitted the existance of minute pores in the interventricular septum but  in 1555 ultimately admitted that there was no pores.Vasalius was succeeded by Realdus Columbus(1510-1599) who succeeded in demonstrating Pulmonary was published in his book DERE ANATOMICA in 1557.

‘In the 16th  century the most disputed person of the time was PARACELSUS. While still a youth Paracelsus became aware of many of the conflicting currents of his age. His father was a physician in Einsiedeln and he practiced in a number of mining towns. The boy surely learned some practical medicine at home through observing his father. It is likely that he learned some folk medicine as well. He also picked up some alchemy from his father who had an interest in the subject. And in mining towns he would have observed metallurgical practices as well as the diseases that afflicted the men who worked the mines.

Traditionally it has been said that Paracelsus was taught by several bishops and the occultist abbot of Sponheim, Johannes Trithemius. At the age of fourteen the boy left home to begin a long period of wandering. He apparently visited a number of universities, but there is no proof that he ever took a medical degree. As an adult, however, he picked up practical medical knowledge by working as a surgeon in a number of the mercenary armies that ravaged Europe in the seemingly endless wars of the period. He wrote that he visited most of the countries of Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe.

It is only in the final fifteen years of his life that the records of his travels become clearer. In 1527 he was called to Basel to treat a leg ailment of the famed publisher of humanist classics, Johannes Frobenius. In Basel Paracelsus also gave medical advice to the Dutch scholar Erasmus and came in contact with some of the more prominent scholars of the religious Reformation. He was appointed city physician and professor of medicine. But although he was permitted to lecture at the University of Basel, he had no official appointment with the medical faculty there.He was a voluminious writer and himself predicted that his writing may be understood 20 years after his death.

Almost immediately Paracelsus became a figure of contention. He heaped scorn on the conservative physicians of the University, and, at the St. John’s Day bonfire, threw Avicenna’s revered Canon of medicine to the blaze. Then, his patient, Frobenius, died. This was followed by a disastrous lawsuit and he left Basel in haste, even leaving behind his manuscripts.

The final years of his life find Paracelsus moving from town to town, and again, he often left his manuscripts behind as he had in Basel. He comes across as an angry man who antagonized many of those he met — even those who tried to help him. In the end he was called to Salzburg to treat the suffragan bishop, Ernest of Wittelsbach. There he died at the early age of forty-eight.

Paracelsus was a advocater of chemical view of life .in his principle work which he called as PARAMIRUM,SULPHUR,MERCURY,SALT.sulphur burns, mercury becomes smoke& salt becomes ash. All diseases depend upon the maladjustment of the three.

Among many  others still  remembered.Ambroise Pare  for his surgical attempts.

Pierre Franco was first person to perform a subpubic lithotomy.wrote an article on hernia. He had great success on operation on cataract. Free Jacques&Frere Jean who practised surgery.Amongthe many anatomist two names Gabriel Fallopius (1526-62) for his discovery of AQUEDUCT and tubes which bear his name Bartolomeus Eustachius who was head of the Department of Anatomy at Rome is remembered for accurate illustration of THORACIC DUCT , CILLARY MUSCLES , details of FASCIAL MUSCLES, LARNYX, KIDNEY.Thomas Vicary was the first master of the united company of Barber’s Surgeon and rapidly became the chief to the king Henry VIII.his book is titled as ‘A TREASURE FOR ENGLISH MEN’, containing the anatomic of man’s body.

Correlation of Pathology and Theory of Miasm

Dr Jatin N Dhagat MD(Hom)
Lecturer,Dr.V.H.Dave Homoeopathic Medical College, Anand. Gujarat.
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Mobile: +91 9426512506

Hahnemann the father of homoeopathy lived in an age when the science of pathology was still in its primitive stage. It was since about two decades after the death of Hahnemann that the science of pathology started to progress by various scientists. Today we find pathology with facts and daily enriching itself with new ones. Many persisting old terms have mostly changed. The keen and logical observer Hahnemann observed and deduced many facts and conditions for expressing which the modern terms were not available with him so he had no way other than to use some descriptive phrases or to use the various terms in current parlance of his time for denoting his observed or deduced facts and conditions. In this article an attempt has been done to co-relate the homoeopathic concept of disease with modern concept of medicine.

The Greek theory of suffering Pathos and Ponos:
The classical Greek naturalists believed that the life force within all living thing was a manifestation of the fiery ethereal pneuma, the most subtile form of energy in the universe. In their view it was this subtle fire that provided the heat witnessed in all living creatures and the coldness of death was related with its absence. The ancients felt that health was the dynamic balance of the mind, the vital breath and the organism within an environment that was in constant movement and change. When this harmony is disrupted by a psychological or physical stressor it is the reaction of the vital energy that produces the signs and symptoms we normally call disease. The great patriarch Hippocrates taught 2400 years ago that disease was not only pathos, the symptoms of suffering, but also Ponos, the toil involved in the fight to restore the state of health.

The ancient Greek word for disease was “pathos” which means the experience of suffering in all its aspects. The theory of pathos is not limited only to the cellular tissue changes as it also includes the pathogen [cause of disease], the pathology [entire disease process] and the Ponos [the constitutional fight to recover]. Thus is Greek theory of disease, pathos is a manifestation of three factors.

1] First of all disease involves a pathogen, the negative dynamic influence which disrupts the state of health. A pathogen may be a disturbing physical, environmental or psychological influence that affects any of the three levels of being. It includes the exciting causes of acute diseases as well as the fundamental cause of chronic diseases.

2] We have the disease process which is a combination of specific nature the pathogen and the general reaction of the vital force against it. This includes the progression of a disease through its natural stages and cycles. This is normally called pathology, which includes signs and symptoms.

3] Thirdly a disease includes Ponos, the Greek word for toil. This is the strain that the pathological process places on the constitution and its energy reserves as it fights to restore the state of health. The general were and tear on the organism due to continuous adaptive and defensive reactions of the vital force against pathogenic influence also produces concomitant symptoms in the organism. If a disruption of normal homeostasis remains unresolved it leads to disorders of the mind and all systems of the organism.

Stalwarts view’s on Pathology and its relation to Homoeopathy:
further concludes that it is to be remembered that Hahnemann never slighted any symptoms of a case in making a prescription. He had the genius of giving each symptom its true place in the picture without destroying totality. While it is inconceivable that Hahnemann ever did keynote prescribing. It is also beyond our knowledge of Hahnemann’s thorough mind that he eliminated the chief complaint in building up the symptom image. If we can find a remedy that has the more striking, particular, unusual and in addition covers the chief complaint for which there is clear pathological foundation, we may consider ourselves as having a sound basis for the prescription of the simillimum.

Richard Hughes who dominated homoeopathy in England was practicing on pathological approach and accepted all the principal tents of Hahnemann says that the similarity which he will seek to establish between the drug action and disease would be in the main pathologically.

E.A.Farrington in his book says physician have at times when unable to fit the totality, have chosen the remedy that suits those characteristics upon which the entire disease seems to depend. In this manner we have to learn to employ chelidonium for many diseases when a congestion of the lower bowels with piles is obtained. Functional changes precede pathological structural tissue changes in the human organism. If we do not tackle the problem in functional stage, we have to face with structural disorders when patient would not recollect individualizing characteristic symptoms. For many such complaints like ulcer, hernia, the patients will go to take help other system of medicine. At this stage the pathological approach could be used.

Co-relation of Pathology and Homoeopathy: 
There are always controversies regarding the importance of the knowledge of pathology among homoeopaths. When we administer a drug to a healthy individual it produces certain symptoms, which cannot be seen, cannot be smelt, can not be touched, but can only be described by patient. These are called subjective symptoms. Besides these certain other systemic changes are produced which can be determined by physical examinations. These are nothing but pathological changes because they are the results of deviation from normal- the out come of the deranged vital force. We cannot have the totality of the effect of a drug on the system until we know the pathological changes produced therein, otherwise we would be mere symptomatologist.

Symptom is the reaction of an organism to an irritant. If the irritation has progressed sufficiently far a definite abnormality in all structure and function results, which is termed as pathology. This includes various mechanisms involved in the production of symptoms. They may be either due to drug action or to disease. These mechanisms may be of many kinds. They usually consist of process of stimulation or depression acting directly upon a given organ or through its nerve supply. They may also be due to an inflammatory state terminating in real tissue change, definite pathological conditions. These mechanisms may be excited or called in to action by absorbed drugs circulating in the blood stream, by toxins of disease, by anaphylactic antigens, psychic influences or by idiopathic factors.

With the help of drug proving we can get a vast amount of information regarding drugs and their effects or symptoms. But our information concerning many of other drugs are still incomplete. There are two factors of a correct and scientific homoeopathic prescription. One of them is symptom similarity and other is pathological similarity. The later one is most neglected. The word pathology has been used in its narrow sense. The prescription should include within its pathogenesis, the symptoms of disease and the pathology. When we are prescribing for a disease, which presents symptoms due to a pathological change in our broadest term, cure can and ought to be accomplished.

It is not incompatible with the Hahnemannian theory to consider “Pathology” in our prescribing. Hahnemann tells us in the Organon that the complete expression of every symptom is that of sensation, location, and modality. Location of symptom is an element in pathology and many times it is the sole element. Pathology is one of the symptoms of the disease, as well as any other of its manifestations and if we do not consider it we are not prescribing in accord with the totality of symptoms. We also do not individualize the case if we do not properly consider pathology. Remedies prescribed for the disease when there is present only one of the important elements of the prescription, namely a symptomatic similarity or a pathological similarity, cannot cure and all that can be expected of them is to relieve temporarily or to palliate.

When we come across any disease condition as a Homoeopathic physician, two basic pathological conditions will be observed and they are Reversible pathology and Irreversible pathology. These pathological changes are further classified in to Inflammation, Proliferation and Degeneration. The detail understanding of nature and characteristics of each of them canbe correlated with miasmatic diseases.

Inflammatory changes and Theory of Miasm:
The dictionary meaning of the word Inflammation suggest:  A localized physical condition with heat, swelling, redness, and pain, esp. as a reaction to injury or infection. The inflammation is further classified in to Acute. Subacute or Chronic.

a. In acute inflammation the onset is sudden and the course is short. Clinically classical signs of inflammation are present associated with constitutional changes. Microscopically it is characterised by vascular changes, exudation of fibrinous fluid and presence of large number of neutrophils. Acute stage may be subside or may proceed to subacute or chronic stage.  When we try to correlate the acute inflammation with acute disease [Homoeopathic aspect], which is having sudden onset due to sudden explosion of latent Psora, fast progress and ends in to death or revovery. Such changes are commonly observe in to all the acute inflammatory diseases. The nosological terminology varies but the basic  cellular changes remind the same. The examples are acute tonsilitis, pharyngitis, salpengitis etc. So we can say the all the acute disease conditions where acute inflammatory changes are observed are broadly classified under Psoric origin. The acute inflammatioon is further classified in to  catarrhal inflammation [upper respiratory tract, urinary tract], fibrinous inflammation [pleura, pericardium and peritonium], serofribinous inflammation and suppurative inflammation [cellulitis or localozed abcess]. The spread of acute inflammation leads to cellulits, lymphangitis or pyaemia or septicaemia. The death usually occurs due to toxaemia or involvement of vital organ. So all symptom syndrome where septicemia or toxemia are present having Psora in the background.

b. In subacute inflammation it lasts for 1 to 6 weeks or more. It is less explosive and last longer as compared to acute inflammation. Microscopically vascular exudative  as well as proliferate changes are present in it.

Proliferate changes and Theory of Miasm:
The dictionary meaning of the word Proliferation suggest: Reproduce; increase rapidly in numbers; grow by multiplication, produce (cells etc.) rapidly. These increase in number of cells or grow by multiplication suggest extra or excess than normal so all such subacute inflammatory changes have psoric origin and  end pathological changes are classified under sycosis miasmatic disease. This type of inflammation is usually observe in  inflamed appendix or fallopian tubes.

c.The chronic inflammation lasts for months or years as the injurious substance continues to produce irritation. Chronic inflammation may follow acute inflammation either due to persisting inciating stimulus or due to interference in the normal healing process. Another way of chronic inflammation is very smoldering and creeping infection of which the host is completely unaware of it.

Microscopically the changes are characterised by proliferation of connective tissue and blood vessels. Pus is also present in chronic sappurative inflammation In many cases of chronic inflammation necrosis of small areas may be present along with the process of repair marked by fibrosis. Miasmatically such inflamative process will not only comes under one miasmatic changes but it  begins with sycosis and ends in to Syphilis. [Proliferation to Degeneration]

Degenerative changes and Theory of Miasm:
The dictionary meaning of the word Degeneration suggest: Having lost the qualities that are normal and desirable or proper to its kind; fallen from former excellence. This indicates pathological changes which occur in the cell or tissue in the process of sickness due to non fatal injuries or adverse influences. These injuries have two effects upon the cells and they are a. Direct toxic action upon the components of the cells and b. secondary changes resulting from deranged intracellular metabolism characterised by accumulation of substances. The main causes of degeneration are trauma, excess of heat or cold, arsenic, bacteria etc. Different grades of degeneration are cloudy swelling, fatty degeneration, necrosis and other degenerative changes.

Cloudy swelling is the commonest and mildest form of detectable illness of cell. It affects the protein constituent of the cell and the change is easily reversible to bring the cell to normal state of health if the noxious substance is withheld. It is seen in any acute infection, fever, toxic condition or anoxia of variable degrees.  Microscopically the cells are swollen, granular and eosinophilic. Parenchyma cells of the liver, kidney or sometimes heart are affected. As the changes are  observed in acute infection and  are reversible, they belong to Psoric miasmatic disease.

Pathological fatty changes causing reversible nonfatal injurious derangements in cell metabolism is included under various morphological changes. It is an early stage of fatty infiltration and in both conditions fat is brought to the cell by plasma. The cytoplasmic protein is converted in to numerous fat droplets which do not displace the nucleus. Fat accumulates in a sick cell and fat droplets occupy less space, nucleus is never displaced and quantity of fat is much less in the form of small droplets. Such changes may observe in Liver, Kidney and Heart.  As there is excess fat accumulation it belongs to Sycosis miasmatic disease.

Necrosis means microscopic death of a cell in the living body due to disease, toxin or injury and indicates the most serious irreversible effect on the cell. The  responsible causes are loss of blood supply, bacteria and allied infecting agents and physical and chemical agents. Cellular changes in necrosis are characterized by swelling and loss of the details of the cell with cytoplasmic and nuclear changes. Cytoplasm is dense, opaque, homogeneous or coarsely granular with loss of fine granularity. The cellular outline is obliterated. The nucleus is shrunken and condensed in to a small deeply stained  chromatin mass. The nuclear detail are lost. All such cellular changes indicate destruction in the background along wih the loss of normal structure and loss of normal functions which indicated syphilis miasmatic disease.

Conclusion: on the basis of above discussion we conclude that

1. Pathology indicates pathogen, disease process and response of individual towards this process.

2. Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis are chronic miasmatic diseases.

3. Only nosological terminology is not sufficient to correlate the the hahnemannian concept of Miasm with pathology. The origin, development, stage of disease and clinical manifestations are to be considered while correlating the concept of miasm with pathology.


  • Dey, Text book of Pathology, New Delhi.
  • Ortega, Notes on Miasm, B jain Publication, New Delhi.
  • Symposium Volumes, ICR Publications.
  • www.

Dr Jatin N Dhagat MD(Hom)
Lecturer,Dr.V.H.Dave Homoeopathic Medical College, Anand. Gujarat.
Email :
Mobile: +91 9426512506

Susceptibility In Homeopathy

The paragraphs §30 §31 §32 have a bearing upon degree or intensity (which is potentization), upon the repetition of the dose, and upon susceptibility, things which must be known by the homoeopathic physician in order that he may be a good prescriber.

By susceptibility we mean the general quality or capability of the living organism of receiving impressions; the power to react to stimuli. Susceptibility is one of the fundamental attributes of life. Upon it depends all functioning, all vital processes, physiological and pathological. Digestion, assimilation, nutrition, repair, secretion, excretion, metabolism and catabolism, as well as all disease processes arising from infection or contagion depend upon the power of the organism to react to specific stimuli.

We may define susceptibility primarily as the reaction of the organism to external and internal influences. Everything that has life is more or less influenced by circumstances and environment. This is true in the natural growth and development of the vegetable kingdom. Certain flora develop fully only in certain altitudes and when swept by the constant moisture of the ocean; they will take on an entirely different form under other circumstances and environment. The trees in the open show the constant effect of pressure from prevailing winds. Years ago Connecticut horticulturists raised quantities of peaches; then suddenly all the peach trees died, and for about fifty years no peaches were grown in the state. Then Mr. J. H. Hale discovered that peaches throve only in soil rich in potash. Returning to Connecticut, he analyzed the soil where peaches had failed, and found there was very little or no potash in that soil. If potash is supplied, luscious peaches will grow abundantly.

The same susceptibility to influences is true in the animal kingdom. Animals from certain parts of the earth’s surface develop peculiarities of their own which are entirely different from their close relatives elsewhere. They can withstand certain influences and hold their own under adverse conditions, which would be fatal to another of the same species, developed under differing circumstances. In other words, they develop a protective immunity against their environmental conditions. The polar bear is immune to the rigors of the Arctic, but is susceptible and soon succumbs to the influence of warm climates. The Bengal tiger thrives in the humidity of the Indian jungles; other members of the tiger family have adapted themselves to the altitude and rarefied atmosphere of the slopes of the Himalayas and the searching winds of those heights; either is susceptible to the ravages incident to a change of temperature.

While we may point out striking illustrations of susceptibility in the vegetable kingdom or among the lower animals, the best illustrations are to be found among those human beings with whom we come in contact. We see very frequently the susceptibility to climatic conditions, as well as all other phrases of environment. One person will thrive in a rigorous climate where another will become seriously ill; one will thrive in dampness to which another would succumb. Altitude affects some individuals kindly and some adversely. The seashore improves one man’s condition while it makes another man ill. The power of assimilation and nutrition is one of the phases of susceptibility. One easily assimilates a certain kind of food while another finds the same food indigestible. “One man’s meat is another man’s poison.”

Human beings are susceptible to infection and contagion in varying degrees. One man will become infected in contact with diseased individuals while another will experience no ill effects whatever. One person is made ill by noxious plants while another man can handle them with impunity. Certain people are capable of making a wonderful proving of a drug, whereas other will show no reaction whatever.

All these reactions have to do with susceptibility. Disease causes, existing as they do as immaterial substances, flow into man in spite of him; he can neither control nor resist them, and they make him sick. But certain changes occur and man ceases to be susceptible, and there is no longer an inflowing of cause into his economy Disease causes flow only in the direction of least resistance and so when resistance appears to this influx, the cause no longer flows in. When susceptibility is satisfied, there is a cessation of cause, and when cause ceases to flow into ultimates, not only do the ultimates cease but cause itself has already ceased.

In analyzing susceptibility, we find it is very largely an expression of a vacuum in the individual. This is illustrated by the desire for food. The vacuum attracts and pulls for the things most needed, that are on the same plane of vibration as the want in the body. The cure and alleviation of diseases depend upon the same power of the organism to react to the impression of the curative remedy.

When we give a drug to a healthy person for the purpose of making a homœopathic “proving” or test, the train of symptoms, which follows, represents the reaction of the susceptible organism to the specific irritant or stimulus administered.

When a homœopathically selected medicine is administered to a sick person, the disappearance of the symptoms and restoration of the patient to health represents the reaction of the susceptible organism to the impression of he curative remedy.

The homœopathic aggravation,” or slight intensification of the symptoms which sometimes follows We administration of the curative remedy, is merely the reaction of the organism, previously perhaps inactive or acting improperly because of lowered susceptibility, as it responds to the gently stimulating action of the medicine. As a piece of machinery in which the bearings have become dry or rusty from disuse, creaks and groans when it is again started up into action, so the diseased, congested, sluggish organs of the body sometimes squeak and groan when they begin to respond to the action of the curative remedy. All this, and much more is included in the Hahnemann doctrine of Vitality, under the Newtonian principle of Mutual Action, (“Action and reaction are equal and opposite”) restated in medical terms by Hahnemann as “Similia Similibus Curantur,” and employed by him as the law of therapeutic medication.

It is understood that action and reaction in the medical and physiological sense takes place only in the living organism, and that it depends upon that fundamental quality and attribute of life which we call susceptibility.

We shall see that the kind and degree of reaction to medicines depends upon the degree of susceptibility of the patient, and that the kind and degree of susceptibility, in any particular case or patient, depends largely upon how the case is handled by the physician; for it is in his power to modify susceptibility. Indeed, this power to modify susceptibility is the basis of the art of the physician.

Contagious diseases thrive in childhood because of the extreme susceptibility of the miasmatic influence; this susceptibility has an attractive force which draws to itself the disease which is on the same plane of vibration and which tends to correct this miasmatic deficiency. After having drawn to itself this order disease manifestation, the child becomes immune to further onslaughts of the same condition; his system has become somewhat cleared by this attraction of what Hahnemann calls a “similar disease” condition.

We see that when a natural disease is taken it runs its period, and tends to decline, and the patient will not be susceptible until another change of state has arrived. It is not true that man will go out of one state of susceptibility to a disease, and in a few days go into another state of susceptibility to that same disease. There must be a change, a cycle, which means a certain length of time.

Susceptibility varies in degree in different patients, and at different times in the same patient. Because of these varying degrees of susceptibility some are protected from disease cause and some are made sick; the one who is made sick is susceptible to the disease cause in accordance with the plane he is in and the degree of attenuation that happens to be present at the time of contagion. The degree of the disease cause fits his susceptibility at the moment he is made sick. But it is not so with medicines.

Homœopathic application of a remedy is an illustration of meeting the susceptibility and filling the vacuum that is present in the sick individual. In other words, the vibrations of the sick individual call aloud for something to meet the need. The proving of the remedy on a healthy individual gives us the basis of similarity of remedies to sick individuals because in a proving the remedy produces an artificial susceptibility similar to the susceptibility of the sick individual. The application of the homœopathic remedy in sickness satisfies this natural susceptibility. No matter how little reaction of the remedy develops in the proving on a healthy individual, the susceptibility is greatly accentuated in sickness.  The sick organism being so much more susceptible to the similar medicine than the well organism, it follows that the size or quantity of the dose depends also upon the degree of susceptibility of the patient. A dose that would produce no perceptible effect upon a well person may cause a dangerous or distressing aggravation in a sick person, just as a single ray of light will cause excruciating pain in an inflamed retina, which in its healthy condition would welcome the full light of day.

It is a well-known fact that the living organism is much more susceptible to homogeneous or similar stimuli than to heterogeneous or dissimilar stimuli. Throughout the entire vegetable and animal kingdom we find the law of development and growth to be like appropriating like. Organism and organs select elements most similar to their own elements. The same law holds good in excretion, each organ excreting or throwing off elements analogous to those of its, own basis structure. A patient may be susceptibility to a number of remedies, but the greatest susceptibility is manifest in the most similar; in order words, the simillimum. They would be influenced some-what, however, by the nearly similar. Hence, a given patient may be cured of his disease homœopathically by either of two methods; by giving several more or less similar medicines in succession, or by giving one exactly similar medicine–the similimum or equal. It depends upon whether he is being treated by a bungler or an expert. The bungler may “zig zag” his patient along through a protracted illness and finally get him well, where an expert would cure him by the straight route with a single remedy in half the time.

When the symptoms that indicated change, then it is no longer indicated.If it is given at all after this change, it operates upon a different plane from what it did in its homoeopathicity, and if it acts at all it does not act curatively but depressingly. Any more than just enough to supply the susceptibility is a surplus and is dangerous. The very susceptible ones are terribly damaged by the repetition of the dose.

If the physician knows how to modify susceptibility in such a way as to satisfy the requirements of the sick organism and bring about a true cure, then is he a physician indeed; since cure consists simply in satisfying the morbid susceptibility of the organism and putting an end to the influx of disease-producing causes. To accomplish this he must know that susceptibility implies and includes affinity, attraction, desire, hunger, need; that these all exist and express themselves normally as states and conditions in every living being; but that they may become morbid and perverted and so cause disease, suffering and death. He knows also that susceptibility implies the existence of the wherewithal to satisfy susceptibility; to supply need, hunger, desire, affinity, attraction, and he knows how and where to find the necessary modifying agents. Man has all the degrees of potentization, and by these he can make changes and thereby fit the medicine to the varying susceptibility of man in varying qualities or degrees.

Susceptibility as a state may be increased, diminished or destroyed. Either of these is a morbid state which must be considered therapeutically from the standpoint of the individual patient. Morbid susceptibility may be regarded as a negative or minus condition a state of lowered resistance.

J. J. Garth Wilkinson (Epidemic Man and His Visitations) says: “One man catches scarlet fever from another man, but catches it because he is vis minor to the disease, which to him alone is vis major. His neighbor does not catch it; his strength passes it by as no concern of his. It is the first man’s foible that is the prime reason of his taking the complaint. He is a vacuum for its pressure. The cause why he succumbed was in him long before the infector appeared. Susceptibility to a disease is. sure in the individual or his race to be (come) that disease in time. For the air is full of diseases waiting to be employed.

“Susceptibility in organism, mental or bodily, is equivalent to state. State involves the attitude of organizations to internal causes and to external circumstances. It is all the resource of defense or the way of yielding. The taking on of states is be history of human life. Pathology is the account of the taking on of diseased states, or of definite forms of disease, mental or bodily. “In health we live and act and resist without knowing it. In disease we live but suffer; and know ourself in conscious or unconscious exaggeration.”

We must also predicate a state of normal susceptibility to remedial as well as toxic agencies, which it is the duty of the physician to conserve and utilize. No agent or procedure should be used as a therapeutic measure which has the power to, diminish, break down or destroy the normal susceptibility or reactibility of the organism, because that is one of the most valuable medical assets we possess. Without it all our efforts to cure are in vain. To use agents in such a manner or in such a form or quantity as to diminish, impair or destroy the power of the organism to react to stimuli is to align ourselves with the forces of death and disintegration. Conservation of the power of the organism to react defensively to a toxin, a contagion, or an infection is as important as it is to conserve the power to react constructively to food and drink, or curatively to the homœopathic remedy. It is as normal and necessary for the organism to react pathogenetically to a poison, in proportion to the size and power of the dose, as it is to react physiologically to a good dinner.

The problem is one of adjustment to conditions. The point to be kept in mind is to recognize and conserve normal susceptibility in all our dealings with the sick and to do nothing to impair it. Every remedy or expedient proposed for treatment of the sick should be submitted to this test. Does it respond to the demand of the suffering organism as expressed by similar symptoms? Does it supply the organic need? Does it satisfy the susceptibility without injury or impairment of function? In short, does it cure? Unquestionably many remedies, methods and processes more or less popular even to-day, in this ultra-scientific age, do not and cannot conform to this standard.

Many substances are used medically in such form, in such doses, by such methods and upon such principles as to be distinctly depressive or destructive of normal reactivity. They are forced upon or into the suffering organism empirically without regard to nature’s laws. So far as their effect upon disease is concerned they are in no wise curative, but only palliative or suppressive and the ultimate result, if it be not death, is to leave the patient in a worse state than he was before. Existing disease symptoms are transformed into the symptoms of an artificial drug disease. The organism is overwhelmed by a more powerful enemy which invades its territory, takes violent possession and sets up its own kingdom. Such victories over disease are a hollow mockery from the standpoint of a true therapeutics.

We do not have to seek far for illustrative examples: Professor James Ewing, of Cornell University Medical College, in a lecture upon Immunity (1909), called the problem of the endotoxins “The stone wall of Serum Therapy.” He said: “The effort to produce passive immunity against the various infections by means of sera may fail in spite of the destruction of all the bacteria present in the body, by reason of the endotoxins thrown out in the process of bacteriolysis resulting from the serum injections.

“The action of endotoxins of all kinds is similar: there is a reduction of temperature but an active degeneration of the organs –a status infectiosus. Thus sterile death is produced where cultures from the organs and tissues show that the bacteria in question have all been destroyed; but the animal dies. This problem of the endotoxins is at present the stone wall of Serum Therapy.”

Prof. Ewing cited the case of a patient who received injections of millions of killed gonococci for gonococcic septicæmia; the temperature came down to normal, but the patient died. He continues: “An animal whose serum is normally bacteriolytic may, on immunization, lose this power; the bacteria living in the serum, but not producing symptoms.Thus, a rabbit’s serum is normally bacteriolytic to the typhoid bacillus, but the rabbit is susceptible to infection. If, however, the rabbit is highly immunized the serum is no longer bactericidal, the typhoid bacilli living in the serum, but the animal not being susceptible of infection. The animal dies.”

“It seems therefore that the effort must be made in the future to enable the tissue and the bacteria to live together in peace rather than to produce a state where the serum is destructive to the bacteria.”

These are strong and significant words from the highest authority on pathology in America. In the cases cited by Prof. Ewing we see the destruction, partial or complete, of susceptibility-of the normal power of the organism to react to the stimulus of either the sera or the bacilli.

In the case of total destruction of the susceptibility death followed. The condition of the patients in whom destruction was only partial may be better imagined than described. A rabbit or a man, whose fluids and tissues are in such a depraved or vitiated :state that typhoid or other virulent organisms live and thrive in them without producing symptoms, and who will no longer react to a powerful serum, is not in a state of health to say the least.

The use of antiseptics in the treatment of disease, or surgically (in the field of operation), is another means of impairing or destroying normal susceptibility. Articles have appeared in leading medical journals of the dominant school (Boston Surgical journal, and the Therapeutic Gazette), in which it was pointed out that the use of antiseptics in the treatment of tonsillitis increased the inflammation, prolonged the disease and retarded convalescence. It was explained that by diminishing the number of bacteria in the crypts, which were generating toxin, the period required for the formation of the requisite amount of antibodies was unduly prolonged. They had just waked up to the fact that the living organism, even if diseased, has some means of self -protection and that, other things being equal, the automatic formation of the antitoxins and antibodies in the organism goes on at about an equal pace with the generation of toxins.

The destructive action of the antiseptics upon the living tissue cells and phagocytic leucocytes of the host-otherwise the patient -was also pointed out as contraindicating their use by these discerning authorities. In destroying these bodies we are destroying the physical basis of life itself. We slay our best friends. They further showed that the depression of vitality thus caused resulted later in increase of fever and cervical adenitis, due to the increased absorption of toxins. What they failed to see and explain, however, was that the increased fever and inflammation were in reality the manifestation of that vital reaction or resistance on the part of the organism, which is the means by which the real, natural curative antibodies and antitoxins are produced, and that this should never be interfered with.

Inflammation and fever are not evils per se. They are merely the signs of normal reaction and resistance to an irritant or poison by which nature protects herself. They are not enemies to be resisted, but friends and allies to be co-operated with in the destruction of a common enemy. Inflammation and fever mean simply greater vital activity, more rapid circulation, respiration and oxygenation, more rapid and thorough elimination of waste or toxic substances, and the concurrent formation of natural antitoxins and antibodies by means of which recovery is brought about.

Pain, inflammation and fever are not the real disease nor the real object of treatment. To view them as such leads logically and inevitably to mere palliation or suppression of symptoms, than which there are no greater medical evils. It is based upon a false and illogical interpretation of the phenomena of disease which mistakes results for causes.

Stimulants and Depressants.-Prof. James C. Wood, veteran surgeon and author -of Cleveland, Ohio, in a letter to the writer, dated February 20, 1922, following the publication of this article in the Homœopathic Recorder, wrote as follows:

“There is one remedy you have omitted in your discussion of shock, namely, strychnia or nux vomica. Crile in his experimental work on shock has shown that it is almost impossible to differentiate true shock from strychnia poisoning. As a result of his experimentation surgeons have pretty largely discarded strychnia in the treatment of shock, Crile proving that they are killing more than they are curing by full doses of strychnia in dealing with the same. On the other hand, I am using it in small doses with the, greatest possible advantage, showing conclusively, I think, its homœopathicity in shock.”

It seems to be pretty well established that alcohol, the typical and perhaps most commonly used stimulant, adds nothing to the physiological forces of the body. It takes of what might be called the “reserve fund” of organic force and uses it up a little faster than nature would otherwise permit. It acts like the whip to the tired horse, not like rest, water and food, which nourish, strengthen, repair and replace worn-out tissues. Its action on the brain and nerves is well known. Many have seen, on the dissecting table, the characteristic watery, contracted brain of the chronic alcoholic. We know the power of alcohol to harden and shrivel and devitalize organic tissues. Its power to paralyze the vaso-motor system is seen in the flushed face, congested capillaries and ruby nose of the inebriate. We are aware of its inhibiting effect upon the sensory nerves, by which it makes its victim insensible to the impressions of heat, cold and pain, so that, in extreme intoxication, he falls on a red-hot stove and is burned to death, or staggers into a show bank and freezes to death without knowing it. All these things define the nature and measure of power of alcohol to decrease or destroy normal susceptibility.

Less only in proportion to the amount used is its influence to lessen susceptibility when used as a stimulant in disease. Here, as in all other realms, the law holds good: “Action and reaction are equal and opposite.” Stimulation and depression are equal and opposite. Whip the exhausted horse and he will go on a little ways and then drop. No amount of whipping will start him up. again. He soon reaches a point where his susceptibility to, that kind of a stimulant is exhausted. Overstimulate the weakened or exhausted patient and the same thing will happen.

This is not to say that there is no place for physiological drug stimulants in the healing art, but only to point out that the place which they legitimately fill is an exceedingly small one and rarely met. Certain rare cases of typhoid fever, diphtheria, and perhaps a few other similar conditions, may be benefited by very small doses of pure brandy and tided over a crisis by that means when they might otherwise die. But the amount of stimulant necessary to accomplish that end is extremely small. More than the necessary amount will assuredly hasten death, because the margin of strength is so small the least waste by overuse may prove fatal.

The proper use of stimulants in the type of cases referred to was once illustrated by Dr. P. P. Wells. In a critical case of typhoid fever which he saw in consultation, the patient had suffered a severe hemorrhage from the bowels, was very weak, nearly unconscious and bad a soft compressible pulse. Dr. Wells directed that six drops of brandy be put into six teaspoonfuls of milk and the whole given in three doses of two teaspoonfuls each, at intervals of two hours; to be repeated if reaction did not follow. The effect was surprising. Reaction quickly followed and the patient made a rapid recovery.

We may smile at the size of the dose until we recall how many patients in a similar condition have died under tablespoonful doses of brandy, or hypodermics of strychnia and whiskey. Dr. Wells knew how to correctly measure a patient’s susceptibility and he knew how to conserve the last, feeble, flickering remnant of vitality in such cases and make the best of it. He knew better than to waste it by violent measures, as is so often done in cases of shock when hypodermics of brandy and strychnine and other powerful stimulants are used.

The idea held by many that large and powerful doses and strenuous measures are necessary in such cases is entirely wrong. The conception of disease and the interpretation of symptoms is wrong. The resultant treatment is wrong. The imaginary Idea of violence, of the malignity and rapidity of the disease, is forced to the front and dwelt upon until it seems rational to believe that the treatment must also be violent, active, “heroic.” This is practicing homœopathy with a vengeance!

Such an error arises naturally from considering the disease to the exclusion of the patient. Look at the patient who is suffering from shock. He is pale, his, features are sunken, his skin and muscles relaxed, he is covered with a cold, clammy sweat. His respiration is feeble, his pulse almost or quite extinct, he is perhaps almost or quite unconscious. Everything indicates that life and strength are at lowest ebb. The store of vital energy is almost exhausted. The margin left to work upon is very narrow. There is but a step between him and death. The slightest false move, the least violence, is likely to force him across the line, which marks the boundary between life and death.

If there is any condition which would seem to demand the use of mild, of the very mildest and most delicate, means, this is one. Reaction, as an expression of susceptibility in such cases, is like the love of fair women-something to be wooed delicately; not brutally and fiercely as among barbarians. The condition of shock, or of extreme exhaustion, is no occasion for heroic doses or strenuous measure, but rather for the greatest gentleness and most refined doses. Let the patient inhale camphor, or vinegar, or ammonia (very carefully) if only these domestic remedies are at hand; or give him two or three-drop doses of brandy in a teaspoonful of water; if that is at hand. Teaspoonful doses of hot black coffee may be useful. But as soon as possible, give our potentiated Arnica, Arsenicum, Nux vomica, Veratrum or Carbo veg. Or whatever other remedy may be indicated by the etiology and symptoms of the case. The results will be infinitely better than the results of the strenuous method.

“Never,” said Dr. Wells, “give brandy or any other stimulant with a hard and wiry pulse.”

Deficient reaction or diminished susceptibility may exist in a case or appear during treatment and constitute a condition requiring special treatment. This is especially true in the treatment of chronic diseases, where improvement ceases and well selected remedies do not seem to act. Under such circumstances it may sometimes be necessary to give a due of what is called an “intercurrent remedy.” Bœnninghausen mentions as appropriate in such cases: Carbo veg., Lauroc., Mosch., Op., Sulph. To these may be added the typical nosodes: Medorr., Psor., Pyrog., Tuberc., Syphil.,. and also Thuja. The choice of any particular one of these remedies must be governed by the history and symptoms.

Excessive reaction, or irritability, is a condition sometimes met where the patient seems to suffer an aggravation from every remedy, without corresponding improvement. There is a state of general hypersensitiveness. For such a state, Bœnninghausen recommends Asar., Cham., Coff., China, Ign., Nux v., Puls., Teuc. and Valer.. Aggravation after Mercury requires Hep. or Nit. ac.

Therapeutic suggestion is of use in all such cases, to calm, and soothe terrified or excited patients. But in these, as in all other cases, the case and remedy must be carefully individualized.

We see, therefore, that the cure or successful treatment of disease depends not only upon conserving and utilizing the natural susceptibility of the living organism, but on properly adjusting both remedy and dose to the needs of the organism so that susceptibility shall be satisfied, normal reaction induced and equilibrium or health restored. The “Law of the Least Plus” should never be forgotten:-“The quantity of action necessary to effect any change in nature is the least possible.”

Immunity which is obtained at the cost of the integrity and purity of the vital organism and its fluids is too dearly purchased. Inoculation of crude, pathological products like animal sera and vaccines confers only a spurious immunity through impairment or destruction of normal susceptibility. It results in the contamination or poisoning of the entire organism, sets up a morbid condition instead of a healthy one and leads to physical degeneration.

The homœopathic remedy, correctly chosen upon indications afforded by the anamnesis and symptoms of the disease as manifested in the individual and the community, and administered in infinitesimal doses, per oram, satisfies the morbid susceptibility, supplies the need of the organism and confers a true immunity by promoting health, which is the true object to be gained.

The human economy has inherited many tendencies from the accumulations of its ancestral heritage. These tendencies show themselves in child life in the great number of so-called children’s diseases, which are nothing more nor less than an inward turmoil of bringing to the surface and expelling certain conditions; again, these eruptions are a lack of ability on the part of the patient to create a similar state within his own economy to satisfy the susceptibility. In other words, by the lack of the applied similar remedy, the susceptibility is not met; therefore Nature steps in with the laws of susceptibility and an influence is attracted which blooms forth as an infectious or contagious disease, so as to most fully satisfy this susceptibility. When the susceptibility of this particular state has once been satisfied by an expression of the similar condition, a partial cure has taken place and they can no more develop the reaction to a similar infection.

This tendency of human economies is brought out still further by the susceptibilities of whole families toward certain types of diseases. This is often seen when whole families succumb to certain types of diseases that leave their neighbors untouched. This again is governed by the law of susceptibility, which attracts unto itself and has particular affinity for certain diseased conditions because they are similar to the constitutional condition. Just as certain traits of susceptibility are manifest in family groups, so we find the tendency predominates in certain racial groups one race being particularly susceptible to certain diseases which touch another race but lightly. It is because the similar condition has remained unsupplied through generations, and the laws of attraction and susceptibility and reaction are basic.

Thus we see that susceptibility and reaction are basic principles, and are very closely allied to the problems of immunization. A proper concept of these principles is something that the homœopathic physician must seriously consider; the interplay of these principles must become as second nature to him, if he wishes to use well the forces of nature in healing the sick. THE SIMILAR REMEDY, OR THE SIMILAR DISEASE, SATISFIES SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ESTABLISHES IMMUNITY.

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Real Tribute to Hahnemann – thinking in different perspective

postage stamp (2)Dr Rajat Chattopadhyay

The month of April is something special in the life of every homoeopathic physician. It conveys a peculiar feeling which inspire us to do lots of thing for the Homoeopathic profession. The celebration of 10th April, the Birthday of our great Master Dr Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, should also make us aware about the responsibility of us to the homoeopathic profession. The celebration should not be confined to the garlanding, worshipping and taking 5star lunch/dinner. It is the day of self-criticism and introspection.

We should evaluate ourselves that how much we did for this great scientific system of medicine and what we can do in the near future? Since this date the seed of the Homoeopathic system initiated and from this date we can start our walking more systematically in a definite pattern so that we can reach to the desired goal. There is different perspective of thinking and it is obvious that the students, practitioners, academicians, homoeopathic related official personalities etc. will think separately, maintaining their individuality. Assuming the different thought process some ideas  can be thought of, so that the path of the reaching to the target becomes smooth one.

What will be the aim of the Homoeopathic students?
Conventional (excluding the exceptions)

  • To pass the examinations by hook & crook.
  • To get the job or service is the first choice of option.
  • To take entry in the stipendiary PG course (for the financial benefit of 3yrs).
  •  To make sound knowledge of the allied subjects in comparison to the Homoeopathic subjects.

Ideal thinking

  • In the student tenure, problem based learning will be preferred in relation to examination oriented learning. The object of passing the examination should not suppress the inquiry of knowing the subject in depth.
  • First, you should remember that the satisfaction of one physician is best found in the practice and you will observe it in your latter life. Nothing to be annoyed and worried if any one fails to get the permanent service. All of our stalwarts of earlier days were practitioners.
  • To bring out the maximum benefit of the PG course through learning. It is another option to prepare you for the future. Most of the time of BHMS period abused to avoid the supplementary examinations. You can go to the depth of the Homoeopathic subjects through library works, Internet surfing and under the proper guidance of the able guide. You can increase your ability by taking active participation in the seminar, symposium, group discussions, taking class in UG level in regular basis and observing multiple patients in OPD and IPD you can enhance your clinical knowledge as well as the knowledge of the application of the Homoeopathic remedy.

As  a practitioner
Conventional (excluding the exception)

  • Confusion about the Hom. Philosophy and the principles
  • Dilemma in single/poly pharmacy prescription
  • To earn money in any form, even sacrificing the very basics and fundamentals of Homoeopathy.
  • Lack of professionalism.
  • Insecurity and inferiority feelings.
  • Lack of self-confidence and education.
  • Lack of reorientation in the profession.
  • Lack of “zeal and enthusiasm” to go to the depth of every case.
  • A peculiar laziness to share the knowledge among the profession.
  • No desire to document the cases for future evidence and references and to write down the cases , experiences etc. in the journals, bulletins etc.
  • Failure to take the advantages of the computer and Homoeopathic software in the clinical field in regular basis.
  • Unsuccessful to include them actively in the different Health activities, National Health Policy as a part of the integrated health care for the suffering humanity.

Ideal thinking

  • There should be no confusion if any one go through the Homoeopathic principles and philosophy in detail and apply it in the clinical field. The problem lies with the superficial knowledge of the Homoeopathic philosophy and lack of confidence to apply it in the daily practice. You will be astonished to observe the superiority of our philosophy in relation to the rationality and scientificity.
  • Homoeopathy is based on some principles and single remedy prescription is one of it. So it is useless to stay in dilemma regarding the single and poly pharmacy prescription. The poly pharmacy prescriber should documented their cases for showing their affectivity in large form and those cases will be judged by the reason of prescribing by the senior professionals. A large clinical trial in different form in different places under the guidance of able authority in govt. or private level can make the solution of this dilemma.
  • In no form the fundamentals of Homoeopathy can be ignored or overlooked because that will weaken the very existence of it.
  • Professional attitude, self confidence, regular education, taking active participation in the reorientation program, interchanging and sharing the views, taking maximum benefit of the IT sector, to make it habit to proper documentation of every cases, to develop writing ability to present the papers in the journals, to be the active member of all of the programmes of the health care system – can make the scenario in a large scale.
  • Modern society has accepted the holistic conception and the contemporary field of science is very slowly progressing to the new thinking which is very similar to our philosophy and the day will come when the scientific attitude of the society merge with  the concept of the Homoeopathy. So it is the time of being enthusiastic and feeling proud of being a Homoeopathic Physician.

As an Academician what will be the aim?

  • In the academic field the scarcity of the teacher who can inspire the students is observed.
  • To maintain the mechanical schedule in the college in the both govt. and private sectors are noted.
  • Lack of education to make the academic part up to date.
  • The tradition of teaching procedure remain the same which in  reality became monotonous today.
  •  The lack of sharing their views in the medical field, lack of active participation in any academic session in any stage.
  • Political gain and loss in relation to the academic field will destroy the real aim of the academician.
  • The pessimistic attitude of the academicians in the both sector may cause harm for the future profession.

My humble suggestions:
I can quote from Organon of Medicine that we should avoid the “love of ease”. Another basic quality is “untiring zeal” which should be in every Homoeopathic physician. Education and learning is the only way for an academician to make them competent enough in the clinical field. It is the academic personalities who can co relate the knowledge of Homoeopathic philosophy with the knowledge of medicine.

The implementation of their knowledge in the academic field should be with more innovative thinking. The presentations should not be monotonous; the use of the audio visual methods, internets (e-learning) will increase the standard of the teaching. First of all you should love the subject which you want to teach and it is the skill of you by which you can present your lecture in the most scientific and modern way. Impression of the teaching should cause impact in the mind of every student – this should be the aim looked for. The role of the academician is to create interest in the subject and to give the proper guide line in the way of learning. Your optimisms should affect and influence the student and then only one can be successful in the teaching.

 Dr Rajat Chattopadhyay MD(Hom)
Reader & H.O.D., Practice of Medicine
Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital
(Government of West Bengal)
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Relationship between Pathology & Homoeopathic Philosophy

Dr G Srinivasulu

From inability to let well alone; from too much zeal for the new and contempt for what is old;   from putting knowledge before wisdom, science before art, and cleverness before common sense; from treating patients as cases; and from making the cure of the disease more grievous than the endurance of the same, Good Lord, deliver us. – SIR ROBERT HUTCHISON M.D.FRCP (1871-1960)

MAN is the most precious creature in the entire universe. Ever since his origin he has been constantly and continuously striving to understand his nature and purpose. His greatest desire is to be free from pain and suffering. All the efforts have been centered on the nature of MAN, and the interrelationship of MAN, MALADY and MEDICINE. Right from the Stone Age to the space age, every era is replete with the efforts of Man to understand and unravel the mysterious nature of Maladies.  Man has set his foot on Moon and is on the way to reach Mars. Several inventions and discoveries in science, medicine and technology made man’s life more comfortable and luxurious. Several age old mysteries have been shattered and unfolded.  But Alas! Man is yet to fully understand the true nature of diseases, which are always one step ahead of man’s efforts.

Man declared war against diseases ever since he experienced discomfort, pain and suffering, which have robbed him of his pleasure and joy of life.  In order to fight against these evil forces he devised various ways and means with the help of different combative agents.  At the same time he tried to understand the nature of diseases with the existing and contemporary knowledge.

In his journey of understanding the causes of diseases the primitive man originally thought that the evil forces are responsible for diseases. So he employed Magic and witchcraft to combat these diseases, subsequently through the trial and error method, derived that materia peccans is responsible for diseases.  Medical men were happy to find out the material causes of diseases and readily proclaimed tolle causam!  For centuries, medical men were obsessed with the material concept of diseases and employed leeching, cupping, venesection etc., to remove the material cause. But causes of diseases were ever elusive. Realizing his folly he went further in search of the real causes of diseases.  These efforts led him to the germ theory. Eureka! Medical men were jubilant over this new discovery and proclaimed their victory over diseases by introducing new drugs.  ‘Kill the Germ and cure the disease’ became the watchword or mantra of medical men at the beginning of twentieth’s century. Curative drugs ‘PENICILLIN IS THE PANACEA FOR ALL ILLS OF MANKIND’ proclaimed Alexander Fleming.

Theories on Causes and Hypothetical Prescriptions:
But the all (other) wise and wicked Maladies started surfacing with myriad manifestations to the astonishment of medical scientists. While on one end of the spectrum the infectious and communicable diseases started downward trend, at the other end of spectrum metabolic, malignant, auto immune diseases started showing an upward trend. This was a startling revelation. Surprised medical men started searching for the other factors of disease. They realized the shortcomings of the ‘Theory of Germs’.  In the search of mysterious nature of Man and Maladies he stumbled upon the “Theory of Mind”, which lead to the genesis of ‘Psycho somatic medicine’. Scientists started demonstrating the relationship of Mind and Matter and their interdependency in health, disease and cure. A few diseases started yielding to certain measures/agents based on this new revelation.

With the rapid developments in basic sciences and especially in, Genetics and Molecular biology, scientists all over the world agreed on the “THEORY OF GENES” and unanimously stated that “GENES ARE JUDGES OF HEALTH and DISEASE” and came out with ‘HUMAN GENOME PROJECT’ which seems to promise complete understanding and conquering of diseases, a greatest discovery at the beginning of twenty first century.

Journey from Magic to Miasms through Microbes: Vague theories:
Thus the journey of searching the causes of diseases started with the ‘Theory of Magic’ followed by Theory of Materia peccans, Theory of Microbes, Theory of Mind and lastly Theory of Memory (Genes) with their appropriate combative/curative agents. With the latest discovery of genetic concept of diseases and Gene Therapy or replacement, medical men are quite optimistic of overcoming the sufferings of mankind due to diseases and promising disease free society. It is not new that every century has witnessed a breakthrough in medicine and failed to fulfill the expectations.   So is the case with the new brainchild of medical scientist’s i.e., theory of Genes.

It is said that “today’s science is tomorrow’s nonsense or nonscience.” The initial euphoria over various theories and their net applicability and utility has been witnessed by and large by mankind and enjoyed the benefits and losses caused to their health. On the positive side, the life expectancy seems to have increased, various diseases mortality rates have declined and certain deadly communicable diseases are claimed to have been eradicated and efforts are on to say good bye to several other diseases.  But on the negative side man’s nightmare are AIDS and there is a resurgence of Malaria, Plague, Tuberculosis and increasing incidence of malignant diseases, metabolic disorders like diabetes.  This is the present health scenario at the beginning of 21st century.  Medical scientists are analyzing the cumulative knowledge of diseases and their therapeutic agents and planning to expand their horizons of knowledge of diseases and devising ways and means of adopting a holistic view of nature of MAN, MALADIES AND MEDICINE.  At this juncture it is quite pertinent to view some other theories promulgated by other systems of medicine, to understand their relevance and utility in the preventive, promotive and curative health care programmes.

The need of the hour is to have an unprejudiced approach towards understanding of the principles and philosophy of Homoeopathy, its artistic way of prescribing medicines for maladies. Homeopathy system of medicine introduced by Samuel Hahnemann, a German Physician in 1796. He promulgated the implication and application of principle of ‘SIMILIA SIMILIBUS CURANTUR’ which means agents which are endowed with the power of causing diseases are also capable  of curing diseases, a concept which was conceived by Hahnemann and carried forward by his disciples, with greater success from since then.

 His other theories on infinitesimals, vital force and chronic diseases have stood the test of time of two centuries. And have a tremendous potential and application in the fields of preventive, promotive and curative health care. These theories were conceptualized by Hahnemann and put to rigorous tests by experimentation. This confirmed their applications on understanding the nature of diseases and simultaneously their ability to cure diseases in toto as well. His life time ambition was to provide health by simple methods. He stated that the three miasms viz., PSORA, SYCOSIS and SYPHILIS, with their permutations and combinations are fundamental causes of all diseases, be it acute or chronic, which have to be removed through respective anti-miasmatic remedies, for an effective cure.  

Know Miasms Know Prescription techniques:No miasmatic knowledge no prescriptive skills:
Hahnemann exhorted the medical profession to understand the dynamic concept of causes of diseases and to apply his principles to realize its potential in the alleviation of suffering. However the ‘Theory of chronic Diseases’ of Hahnemann was not unanimously accepted by his contemporaries and followers for want of accuracy, adequacy and analogy of concepts. Though his other theories were accepted by followers, there were several questions which remained unanswered for want of clarity in the evolution of thought of  Hahnemann, influence of the then existing sciences dogmatic influence, social curbs etc.,  beclouded its comprehension, interpretation, analysis, relevance and utility  in the medical fraternity in general and homoeopathy in particular. This new theory opened a Pandora’s Box and divided homoeopaths into two categories viz., homoeopaths and Hahnemannians each one claiming the superiority of their Homoeopathic treatment over others.

But the spirit behind the age-old question of   causes of diseases has not been appreciated by many.  It is worth reexamining the accuracy, genuineness, authenticity and veracity of Hahnemann’s observations in the 18th century on   fundamental causes of diseases for the present times in the light of various other contemporary theories and the recent advances in related subjects like immunology, genetics and molecular biology at the beginning of the 21st century.

Hence the need for a  reorientation of our minds with a systematic study of the contemporary theories on causes of diseases and theory of chronic diseases postulated by Hahnemann. Keeping in view of the gravity of the situation and ever increasing quantity of life at the expense of quality, disability and morbidity of diseases, there is a great need to understand the relevance and utility of the principles of Homoeopathy in general and concept of Miasm in particular and their relevance and utility in the present day clinical practice. If we understand miasms very well it is easier for making an effective prescription.

Pathology Vs Philosophy: Views on Illness and wellness:
These two branches of learning are diametrically opposite to each other in their views and concepts. Pathology believes in gross and visible evidences for the presence or absence of disease where as Philosophy believes in the metaphysical and dynamic changes in the body as evidences for illness or wellness. However in the light of developments in the new fields viz., Immunology, and Genetics, the dynamic concept of disease is steadily gaining ground.

Pathology: The science of Genesis of disease: Contemporary views:
The concept of disease is as old as life itself. Since the beginning of mankind, there has been desire as well as need to know more about the causes and mechanisms of disease. The answers to these questions have evolved over the centuries from supernatural beliefs to the present state of our knowledge of modern pathology. However Pathology is not separable from other multiple disciplines of medicine and owes its development to interaction and interdependence on advances in diverse neighboring branches of science and strides made in medical technology. Rudolf Virchow and other pathologists defined Pathology as: “ The foundation of medical science and practice. Without pathology, the practice of medicine would be reduced to myths and folklore”. “Pathology is defined as the study of structural and functional abnormalities that are expressed as diseases of organs and systems. Pathology is “Scientific study of disease”. Study of structural and functional changes in disease.

 You need to have a basic knowledge of normal Anatomy (structure) and Physiology (function) to understand Pathology.

  • It is scientific study of structure and function of the body in disease.
  • Study of disease, its causes, and consequences.

“WHAT” of disease:

 Irrespective of the line of treatment every medical practitioner has to answer the patient for certain questions.

  • What is wrong? Diagnosis
  • What is going to happen? Prognosis
  • What can be done about it? Treatment
  • What should be done to avoid complications and spread? Prevention

“WHY “: Causes: Etiology

  • How: Pathogenesis: Mechanism
  • Symptoms: The functional implications of the lesion felt by the patient
  • Physical Signs: Lesions discovered by the clinician


  • Probable diagnosis
  • Patho physiology
  • Prognosis
  • Plan of treatment & Management
  • Prophylaxis -prevention 

Conventional Material Pathology: It deals with the study of disease, its causes, and consequences. According to it there are vast numbers of etiologic agents of disease viz.,

  1. Infectious (e.g. bacterial, fungal, viral , parasitic)
  2. Immunologic
  3. Genetic (inherited and acquired)
  4. Physical (e.g. traumatic, thermal, electrical, barometric, radiation)
  5. Chemical (e.g. hypoxic/anoxic, nutritional, toxic {exogenous and metabolic},  carcinogenic, teratogenic) 

Metaphysical (dynamic) Pathology:
Homoeopathy enunciates the metaphysical concept of disease cause and cure by emphasizing the dynamic nature of diseases and drugs. The concept of Miasms can be better explained and understood in the present century with the help of medicine and pathology in general and Genetics & Human Genome Project findings in particular. Metaschematism of diseases, Metamorphosis of clinical expressions of diseases, Metastatic nature of deadly diseases, Mutations in genes and multiplication of maladies are all living examples of myriad manifestations of Homoeopathic concept of Miasms. As the human traits are carried over to their offspring through mysterious memory (Genes) so are disease traits are carried forward to the next generation through miasmatic influence. The acceptance of Genetic theory of diseases tantamount to acceptance of Miasmatic theory of genesis of diseases.

Rising Graph of diseases:
Increased incidence of mortality and morbidity of non communicable diseases viz., Hypertension, diabetes, Cancer and Cardiovascular diseases indicates the afflictions of deep seated organs and Polymiasmatic disease manifestations. Increasing genetic evidence to several diseases and promising gene therapy or gene transplantation are some of the new promises of medicine. This seems to be quite near but yet so far for a common man. Geneticists are challenging the nature with cloning. But alas! They can never substitute Cure with any other method. Because life, health and disease are dynamic in nature and they are beyond the reach and scope of Modern Magical Medical Man.  

Suppressions starting point of diseases:
Behind every incurable and mind boggling, mysterious medical condition there lies suppression. Each suppression of either acute or chronic expression through oppressive non-homoeopathic methods driving the disease inside and transforming them from curability to incurability. This metamorphosis of maladies in the space-time interval are increasing by leaps and bounds resulting in annual or bi-annual publication of books on pathology and medicine with innumerable X, Y and Z syndromes.

Recurrence & Resistance:
Increased resistance to the so-called antimicrobials and retroviral drugs based on the Germ theory of diseases indicates the irrelevance of the concept of Germs/Microbes in the causation of diseases. Kill the microbe and cure the disease is easier said than done in the present scenario. The dictum in homoeopathy is “Prick the host and Pluck the disease – a patient friendly therapeutic tool. The Germs are surviving and with each generation of powerful drugs they are emerging with renewed resistance to them. This trend indicates that our attitudes towards them need a new approach. One cannot terminate them but one should learn to tame them and allow them to have a peaceful coexistence with man. So a Germ free society is a big myth in the present century. All our efforts should be Man-oriented rather than Microbe-centered. The homoeopathic philosophy affirms that treat the man not the microbe. The mission of the medical man is to restore the sickness to health, to cure on easily practicable principles. This sublime approach towards sickness will pay rich dividends in long run rather than resorting to hostile approach towards host (man) and pest (microbe).

The raising graph of Hypertension, Peptic Ulcer, Autoimmune disorders reveal a connecting link between Mind and Body. Emergence of Psychosomatic medicine, a branch that deals exclusively with the influence of Mind and body. This field of medicine reflects the concept of miasms in general and the role of mind in particular. The age-old adage of Mind over Matter can be better understood and appreciated in Homoeopathy.

Resurgence of Plague, Malaria and Tuberculosis and unholy alliance of AIDS with Tuberculosis indicates their either increased resistance to various drugs or decreased resistance of the human organism due to repeated suppressions.  The homoeopathic concept of Complex diseases formation under strong medication where two dissimilar diseases meet together will result in choosing their best sites for survival and after the cessation of oppression the old diseases reappear is known to all of us. This mechanism of hide and seek nature of diseases are evidently seen in the present situation.

Recurrence of so called acute diseases viz., Measles, Chicken Pox. Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis, which are said to be self-limiting, are periodically appearing either in epidemic or endemic proportions. These deadly and devastating diseases are no longer acute. These are only acute exacerbations of a chronic underlying state. This trend indicates the existence of miasms in the background and causing them to reappear periodically. These disguised presentations of acute diseases have to be looked from a different angle. A patchy type of prophylactic measures will be short lived and they continue to lurk in the body and emerge in a different form as and when a congenial atmosphere arises.

Psychiatric disorders viz., Schizophrenia, Manic-depressive psychosis, Suicide, Depression, Behavioral disorders are steadily increasing in the society. This trend indicates the complexities of miasms and their manifestations on the mind. Indiscipline, intolerance and impatience are some of the hallmarks of the present century. With increased technology there came increased insanity and idiocy. Till last century somatic diseases had an upper hand and now the Psychic disorders are showing their supremacy. We find a Paradigm shift of diseases on this Psychic front.

Vaccination is it a boon or bane?
These bullets to win battles with Microbes are seriously debated all over the world. On the one hand the success story of eradication of small pox and poliomyelitis in the offing is strongly in favor of vaccination. On the other hand the short term and long-term effects viz., Encephalopathy, post encephalitic syndrome, neuro allergic reactions, autism and brain damage are directly linked to the vaccine abuse. Prof.J.S.Bajaj, a super specialist in modern medicine says that, “The allopathic medicine provided the two “magic bullets” of Vaccination and Antibiotics to fight communicable diseases. But the epidemiological evolution leading us to non communicable diseases related to life style social pathology and decreased resistance to various diseases for which there are no magic bullets yet.” To be or not to be vaccinated is mind-boggling and a million-dollar question. The concept of Vaccination from the womb to the tomb is worth reexamining in the light of emergence of queer, rare and uncommon medical problems in this century. The Indian council of Medical research findings on the futility of B.C.G. vaccination should be an eye opener to the protagonists of vaccination.

Prophylactics in Homoeopathy :  Japanese Encephalitis prevention :A case study:
The homoeopathic viable and sustainable alternative for wide-ranging or broad-spectrum prevention strategy i.e., B.C.T.  a concept introduced by Dr.G.L.N.Sastry a pioneer in homoeopathic public health strategy specialist, is worth implementing. The drugs viz., Belladonna, Calcarea Carb and Tuberculinum  ( B.C.T.) given in specified and standardized schedule will certainly save our human race from man made and nature’s maladies. This technique based on dynamic concept of diseases and drugs and miasmatic interpretation for recurrence of certain epidemics has given gratifying results. The dreaded epidemic of Japanese Encephalitis was effectively controlled through homoeopathy. Between 1993 and 1999 the recorded J.E. cases were 5308 and 1511 children died from Japanese Encephalitis. Homoeopathic Prophylactic drugs viz., belladonna 200 on 1,2,3, days one dose each time, Calacarea Carb 200 on 10th day one dose and Tuberculinum 10 M one dose on 21st day were administered in a phased manner from 1999 to 2005 every year with the cooperation and collaboration of allopathic department in A.P.  After its implementation the mortality and morbidity of J.E. drastically came down within one year.

 342 cases were reported in 2000 with 72 deaths, in 2001 only 30 cases with 4 deaths were recorded and in 2002 18 cases were recorded without any deaths. In 2003 and 2004 no cases were reported. The Govt. of A.P. had officially published the statistics and acknowledged the efficacy of homoeopathy. This is the first major involvement of Homooepathy in the field of epidemics prevention in our country. The neighbouring states which have not administered these homoeopathic prophylactics continued to show higher incidences of J.E. cases and deaths. Endemics and epidemics are outbreaks of miasms. They should be studied and prevented through miasmatic prescription. The definition and scope of Genus Epidemicus has to be viewed holistically. But in this capitalistic world the watchword is economics of medicine (Mediconomics), where Man, Malady and Medicine are viewed from the point of Money.

Metamorphosis of Maladies: Emergence of new forms of H.I.V. and A.I.D.S. may be the classical example of metamorphosis of syphilis, which was suppressed by all kinds of drugs but is reemerging in the disguised form with more virulence, morbidity and mortality. 

Homoeopathy, a multifaceted medical science has been proving its efficacy in diverse clinical conditions ever since Dr.Samuel Hahnemann introduced it two centuries ago. The success and failures in our clinical practice depends upon our confidence in the principles and patience in observing the action of medicine. It is often noticed that for want of these qualities we loose our cases and ultimately blame homoeopathy. In spite of several hurdles, homoeopathy has been demonstrating its efficacy not only in chronic diseases but also in serious acute conditions, epidemics and terminally ill patients too. In the present world of medicine, strong laboratory and clinical evidences are needed to demonstrate the authenticity of any medical technique or method. This is an Evidence Based Era. The British Homoeopathic Journal has appealed to the medical doctors to document their cases both by print and visual media for further validation of our system of medicine.

The strength of Homoeopathy is its clinical cures (evidences) and its weak spot is statistical significance. The so-called scientists refuse to look at what is present in homoeopathy instead they highlight its weak spot. In fact, statistics have a dubious role in biological and medical sciences. Because no two human beings are genetically similar. Homoeopaths who base their prescriptions on individualistic features are much ahead of their medical contemporaries in producing qualitative results. Claude Bernard said, “When an observed fact does not correspond to an official theory, it must be accepted and the theory rejected. Theory must be changed to be adapted to nature and it is not nature, which must be adapted to theory.” May Homoeopathy grow from strength to strength in the new millennium?    Aude Sapere. The science of Pathology and the and art of Philosophy has to be blended to achieve the highest mission of a physician i,.e., as envisaged the master hahnemann.

May Homoeopathy grow from strength to strength and flourish in its pristine purity.


  • Samuel Hahnemann, Organon of Medicine,
  • Sastry G.L.N., Tuberculinum a broad spectrum Prophylactic
  • B.K.Sarkar Essays on Homoeopathy,
  • Samuel Hahnemann, Chronic Diseases
  • Kent J.T., Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy,
  • Kent, J.T. Minor Writings, Edited by Gypser,
  • Gunavanthe, Genius of  Homoeopathic Remedies
  • Alexis Carrel, Man the Unknown
  • Athalye V.V. Principles of Medicine and Homoeopathy
  • Edward Whitmont, Psyche and Substance
  • Elizabeth Wright  , A Brief Study course in Homoeopathy
  • Todd Rowe – Homeopathic Methodology
  • Gerhard Koehler- Hand Book of Principles and Practice of    Homoeopathy
  • Diwan Harish Chand,  A Compendium of Lectures on     Homoeopathy(1950- 1995), National  Homoeopathic Pharmacy, New Delhi
  • Lele R.D.- The Clinical Approach, Oxford university Press, 2000
  • Dorothy Shepherd – Magic of the Minimum Dose, Health Science Press, Devon
  • Gadugu Srinivasulu, Proceedings of 60th International Homoeopathic Congress, Germany, 2005
  • Gadugu Srinivasulu, Proceedings of 61st International Homoeopathic Congress, Switzerland 

Dr.G.Srinivasulu, M.B.S. M.D.(Hom.)
12-8-402, Alugadda Bavi, Mettuguda,


Hahnemann’s concept of mental diseases

smileHippocrates was the first to identify and name the phenomenon as a disorder of the mind with its seat in the brain.

Samuel Hahnemann has also paid a lot of attention towards the understanding of mental illness. In fact he was one of the first physicians to see the mentally ill patients as “sick individuals” requiring empathy and proper medical care (Haehl, 1995). According to him, the mind and body are not two absolutely separate entities but they form an indivisible whole inseparable in fact but distinguishable by mind for easy understanding. In natural diseases the physical disturbances are often found associated with their mental counterparts. Illness is the result of biological as well as of physiological events.

Certain stresses set up discharge themselves along the various peripheral nerves leading to development of somatic symptoms or certainly in the mind leading to changes in the personality. In some cases one outlet is chocked as it were and main outbursts takes place through the other outlet. Thus in extreme cases we find either purely physical diseases or purely psychological disturbance without any concomitant physical changes. To understand such mental diseases, one should try to get the full picture of disease comprising physical and mental symptoms through careful past history and case taking.

There was a middle period where the demonic concept of the mental illnesses again dominated but this was soon replaced by the modern concept of disease during the period of Renaissance, which has been gradually modified according to newer concepts and understanding to the present day concept. With the formation of medical societies and the standardization of diagnostic criteria a somewhat logical pattern has determined the classification of Mental Disorders. Although it is standardized, the classification is changing with the changing criteria of diagnosis. The earlier classification was based on the concept of Psychodynamic disturbances i.e. Psychotic and Neurotic; on the basis of causes, i.e. Endogenous and Exogenous; Primary and Secondary; etc. It is now being gradually replaced by the understanding of the “Clinical Syndromes” consisting of group of symptoms that are the hallmark of each specific type of mental illness. This change is very clearly evident in the changes seen through the editions of the DSM classification (DSM II to DSM IV). (Ballis, 1978; DSM IV, 1991)

Systematization of any branch of human knowledge presupposes classification. Classification is a mental grouping of facts and phenomenon according to their resemblances and differences, so as best to serve some purpose.

Classification is extremely important and will help in the understanding of the phenomena and guide in developing specific therapeutic measures to deal with the specific conditions.As a Homoeopath, understanding the nature of these illnesses helps us to plan our therapeutic measures and gauge the need for the use of different forces – medicinal and non-medicinal.

Hahnemann (1996) has classified mental illnesses in a rather different way. Though the Hahnemannian classification seems to be archaic, its application to the cases has remained crucial in determining a successful outcome. Hence a study of the relationship between the Hahnemannian classification and the modern one becomes important to our daily functioning. We need to explore the application of the principles of management of the mental illnesses as stated by Hahnemann in the Organon of Medicine.

In the Organon of Medicine, he has given a detailed classification about the four types of mental illnesses.

§     First one is where the Mental and Emotional disease begins as a corporeal disease. In due course of time the bodily symptoms disappear and the mental symptoms dominate. This is called the true one-sided illness.(sec.215)

E.g. A case of chronic colilitis becomes eventually transformed into hypochondriasis.

§ Where a life threatening illness suddenly transforms into mental illness (insanity or melancholia) and the threat to life no longer looms large is classified under the second type.(sec 216) He gives clear instructions regarding the management of these different types of mental illnesses as regards the use of acute/phasic or deep acting anti-psoric (anti- miasmatic) remedies. This group of the disorders finds a separate place in the classification of disease proposed by him.

§ Some times Insanity or Mania comes in the form of an acute onset syndrome which may be caused by sudden fright, vexation or drug abuse. (sec 221).

§  The mental illnesses that originate in the mind and not as a result of corporeal illness create inroads into the body and significantly affect it so as to cause bodily disease.

They are maintained by psychical factors viz. continued anxiety, worry, vexation, wrong and frequent occurrences of great fear and fright. If these remain for a long time, they destroy the body to a great extent (§ 225). These illnesses are in their early stages i.e. when they have not affected the body to a great extent, are amiable to any kind of friendly advice or changes in diet and regimen. They can revert to normal with these measures but still require an anti-psoric (deep acting) remedy to prevent a relapse as they are invariably of  psoric origin.

Thus we need to bring together the two very different concepts-one rooted in modern syndrome analysis and the other based on a philosophical approach. We should try to derive the practical implications of this understanding.

A)If mental affection proceeds from one or more factors belonging to psychological conditions, that will be improved by “sensible friendly exhortations, consolatory arguments, serious representations and sensible advice”.(sec 224)

B) If the mental affection depends on a bodily disease it will be aggravated by the same measures.

Management of mental diseases
During Hahnemann’s time mental cases were reckoned as cursed cases often suppressed to be possessed by evil spirits ; and so all the oppressive methods were applied to the patients in the lunatic asylum. The credit of adopting humane methods in the management of insane persons certainly goes to Hahnemann. Hahnemann with his phenomenal genius and clear intuition anticipated the broad principles of psychotherapeutic methods necessary in some cases and also differentiated those cases which called for judicious combination of psychotherapeutic and anti-psoric drug therapy.

A) In mental diseases resulting from bodily diseases and later transformed into one sided diseases  — treatment consist of a judicial combination of anti-psoric drug-treatment and psychotherapy with carefully regulated mode of life and an appropriate psychical behavior towards the patient on the part of physician and attendants of the patient.(Sec 228)

Eg. Raving madness should be met by calm fearlessness and firm resolution.
Loquacity should be listened to in silence, its some degree of attention.

B)  In mental diseases originating predominantly from psychogenic causes and if they are of recent origin – psycho-therapy should be taken recourse to. The physician to the patient should not only be his prescriber, but also his friend, philosopher and guide to keep the patient to resolve his complexes and revert to healthy growth and development of his personality.

C) The third type of mental diseases are to be treated exactly in the same line to what is followed in the treatment of acute diseases, attacking the individually, which are generally only a transient explosion of latent psora. These conditions should be treated by superficial (acute) remedies and not by Anti-psoric (deep acting, constitutional) remedies, in order to subdue it so far that psora shall for the time revert to its former latent state. The latter should be instituted when the acute episode has been adequately dealt with by the acute remedy to prevent a relapse (§ 221, 222, 223 )


Lesser Writings of Hahnemann – Book review

books4The lesser writings of Hahnemann include articles during his period of an allopathic physician also. A copy of lesser writing were handed over to Hahnemann himself by Stapf (1829) published by Arnold on the eve of Jubilee Celebrations of Doctorate of Hahnemann. But some more articles appears in this lesser writings collected and translated by Dr. R.E. Dudgeon. The works related with the chemistry and translations are included in the preface itself. The major among this are:

  • (i)  Directions for curing old sores & indolent ulcers.
  • (ii) Exact mode of preparation of soluble mercury.
  • (iii) Pharmaceutical Lexicon  (German name  of drugs Are used)
  • (iv) Fragmenta deviribus medica  mentorum positives  Sive in sano carpore humano observatis. 


  • Thesaurum medicaminum
  • Materia medica of Albretch Von Haller.
  • Hahnemann’s handwriting was also included in the preface. 

Major Works in Lesser Writings

Instructions for surgeons for respecting Veneral diseases together with a New Mercurial preparation (1789).
This article has a preface on introductory part and two divisions and then a postscript. Out of the two divisions, there is a Part I & Part II writings. In Part I Hahnemann talks about Gonorrhoea, primary Gonorrhoea and the regular. In II class Hahnemann talks about Chanere. In part II Hahnemann deals with Syphilis proper with the new preparation of soluble mercury. 

Friend of Health (1792)
 In this essay Hahnemann says  in the preface itself that his words to be reckoned as the voice of a warm friend of his fellow creatures. The essays are:


  • (i)  Bite of mad dogs:
  • (ii) Visitors of the side:- Hahnemann says visiting patients of contagious disease has to be taken precautions and should not sit near the patients.
  • (iii) Protection against infection:-  Here talks about the contagious disease. Only way to prevent the spread is to keep the patient in well ventilated room; good atmospheric conditions etc. Visiting patients mind and body should be in good equilibrium. Fumigation vinegar has no effect.
  • (iv) Things that spoil the air.
  • (v)  Dietetic conversations. 


  • (i) Socrates and Physon
  • (ii) Prevention of epidemics in town:- Sanitation, hygiene, living conditions proper building of houses etc are discussed.
  • (iii)  A nursery.
  • (iv) On the choice of family Physician. 

Description of Klockenbring (1796)
Deals with the treatment of insanity to Klockenbring. He was suffering from ill humour , hypochondriasis melancholy and insanity. He was cured by the treatment of Hahnemann. Duke of Georgenthal gave all the help to Hahnemann for the treatment of Klockenbring.

Essay on New Principles for ascertaining the curative powers of drugs.

It is mainly about methodical human proving that Hahnemann talks in this lesson. He touches the contribution of chemistry to medicine especially in antipathic mode of treatment, then the folly of animal proving, doctrine of signature, botanical affinity of plants, accidental proving etc. He narrates specific medicine and individualization in this essay. Primary action and secondary action of drugs are also mentioned. So in short this essay stands closed to the details in the aphorism 105 to 145 i.e., about drug proving in the 5th edition of Organon.

  • A case of  rapidly cured colicodynea
  • Narrates a case of abdominal pain cured with Veratrum album.
  • Are the obstacles to certainty and simplicity in practical medicine is insurmountable.
  • It gives a detailed description about the Dietary advises to be given to the patient along with the change of habits in diet. Making a mention of mixed prescription and Poly pharmacy.
  • Antidote to some heroic medicine
  • He says that during his time vinegar was considered as a universal antidote. Emitics were used to antidot poisons. 

Natural Antidots

  • Camphor             x                 Opium
  • Opium                 x                 Camphor
  • Cantharides         x                 Camphor
  • Squilla                 x                 Camphor
  • Cocculus             x                 Camphor
  • Mezerium            x                 Camphor
  • Arnica                 x                 Vinegar
  • Stramonium        x                 Vinegar
  • Ignatia                 x                 Vinegar
  • Veratrum alb       x                 Coffee 
  • View of professional liberty at the commencement of 19th    century.
  • Cure and prevention of Scarlet fever.
  • On the effects of Coffee from original observation.
  • Aesculapius in the balance (1805).
  • Medicine of experience (1805).
  • Observations on Scarlet fever.
  • On the value of Speculative system of medicine (1808).
  • Observation on three current methods of treatment.
  • To a candidate for the degree of M.D.
  • Medical historical dissertation on Helleborism of the ancients.
  • Spirit of Homoeopathic Doctrine of Medicine (1813).
  • Treatment of Typhus fever or hospital fever at present prevailing (1814).
  • On the treatment of burns.
  • On veneral disease and its ordinary improper treatment.
  • Examination of common Materia Medica.
  • Preparation and dispensing of medicine by the Homoeopathic physician.
  • Contrast to old and new system of medicine.
  • Medical observer
  • How can small dose of such very attenuated medicine as Homoeopathy employs still possess great power.
  • A word of warning to all sick persons.
  • Cause and Prevention of Asciatic Cholera.
  • An appeal to the thinking philanthropist respecting the mode of propagation of Asciatic Cholera (1831).
  • Case illustrative of Homoeopathic practice. 

Materia Medica Pura (Reine Arzneimi Hellehre)

First Edition

  • Six volumes of the first edition were published between 1811-1821.
  • Sixty one medicines were present in this edition besides magnet. 

Second Edition.
Published between 1822-1827 – 6Vols, 64 medicines.

Third Edition.

  • Only first two volumes of  the 3rd edition is published in the year 1830 & 1833.
  • Hahnemann himself verified the earlier editions. Name of 35 provers are available besides Hahnemann. 


English Translation.

  • Dr. Frederick Foster Hervey Quin, only first volume was printed.
  • Dr. Charles Julius Hempel.
  • Dr. R.E. Dudgeon.
  • Now available translation in two volumes. Dr. Richard Hughes helped Dudgeon who also corrected the proof. 

Chronic  Disease (Die Chronischen Krankheiten)
First edition was published in 4 volumes between 1820-1830 by Arnold of Dresden. Theoretical part and Materia Medica part. It contains 22 medicines. Five of these appear in Materia Medica pura.

Second Edition
J.H.G Jahr completed the second edition. It was published in 5 parts between 1835 to 1839. Second edition contains 25 new medicines plus 22 medicines in the first edition. Out of these 25 new medicines, 13 were new and 12 appeared in Materia Medica pure. Total 30 medicines are newly proved appeared in chronic disease. Translated from German to English by Dr. Charles J. Hempel and later by Dr. Louis.H. Tafel (1835).

Contents of theoretical part.

  • Merit of Homoeopathy in the treatment of acute diseases.
  • Failure in chronic diseases.
  • Beginning was promising continuation less favorable out come hopeless.
  • Psora theory.
  • Psora most ancient, most contagious or infectious, most misapprehended, universal mother of all chronic diseases.
  • Symptoms of Latent Psora. 

Cure Part

  • Cure of Psora.
  • Sulphur alone is necessary but in inverterate cases antipsoric remedies in succession.
  • Diet and Regimen.
  • Cure of Sycosis
  • Thuja alternated with nitric acid invertrate cases of warts – thuja- external application.
  • Cure of Syphilis miasm    

Three stages

  • Chancre and bubo
  • Chancre and bubo absent with out complication with other miasm.
  • Complicated with other miasm. 

Medicine is best mercurial preparation. Cure is confirmed by absence of scar in chancre area with the disappearance of the colour changes. The skin of healed chancre area will acquire the natural colour of skin.

In complicated cases first treat psoric miasm and then later, the other miasm

Life and living environment

Life is the invisible, substantial, intelligent, individual, co-ordinating power and cause directing and controlling the forces involved in the production and activity of any organism possessing individuality.

The Genius of Homeopathy Lectures and Essays on Homeopathic Philosophy
by Dr Stuart M. Close

Life is a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms, being manifested by growth through metabolism, reproduction, and the power of adaptation to environment through changes originating internally. A diverse array of living organisms can be found in the biosphere on Earth. Properties common to these organisms – plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea and bacteria – are a carbon and water-based cellular form with complex organization and genetic information. They undergo metabolism, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations.

Conventional definition: Often scientists say that life is a characteristic of organisms that exhibit the following phenomena:

1. Homeostasis: Regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state; for example, sweating to reduce temperature.

2. Organization: Being composed of one or more cells, which are the basic units of life.

3. Metabolism: Consumption of energy by converting nonliving material into cellular components (anabolism) and decomposing organic matter (catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life.

4. Growth: Maintenance of a higher rate of synthesis than catalysis. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter. The particular species begins to multiply and expand as the evolution continues to flourish.

5. Adaptation: The ability to change over a period of time in response to the environment. This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the organism’s heredity as well as the composition of metabolized substances, and external factors present.

6. Response to stimuli: A response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism when touched to complex reactions involving all the senses of higher animals. A response is often expressed by motion, for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun or an animal chasing its prey.

7.  Reproduction: The ability to produce new organisms. Reproduction can be the division of one cell to form two new cells. Usually the term is applied to the production of a new individual (either asexually, from a single parent organism, or sexually, from at least two differing parent organisms), although strictly speaking it also describes the production of new cells in the process of growth.

When organic vitality is exhausted, or is withdrawn, his transient material organism dies, yields to chemical laws and is dissolved into its elements, while his substantial, spiritual organism continues its existence in a higher realm.

Health is that balanced condition of the living organism in which the integral, harmonious performance of the vital functions tends to the preservation of the organism and the normal development of the individual.

In health the vital force rules supreme, unhampered by any morbific influence. It harmonizes the vital processes, feeling and function is normal, there is a feeling of well   being, the mind looks out, the senses are alert, the sense perceptions are clear and normal.

Disease is an abnormal vital process, a changed condition of life, which is inimical to the true development of the individual and tends to organic dissolution.

Vital phenomena in health and disease are caused by the reaction of the vital substantial power or principle of the organism to various external stimuli. So long as a healthy man lives normally in a favorable environment he moves, feels, thinks, acts and reacts in an orderly manner. If he violates the laws of life, or becomes the victim of an unfavorable environment, disorder takes the place of order, disease destroys ease, he suffers and his body deteriorates.

Agents, material or immaterial, which modify health or cause disease, act solely by virtue of their own substantial, entitative existence and the co-existence of the vital substance, which reacts in the living organism to every impression made from within or without. The dead body reacts only to physical and chemical agents, under the action of which it is reduced to its chemical elements and dissipated as a material organism.

All reactions to stimuli by which the functions and activities; of the living body are carried on, originate in the primitive life substance at the point where it becomes materialized as cells and protoplasmic substance.

Agents from without which affect the living body to produce changes and modifications of its functions and sensations, act upon the protoplasm through the medium of the brain and nervous system. Food, drink, heat, light, air, electricity and drugs, as well as mental stimuli, all act primarily upon the living substance as materialized in the cells of the central nervous system, calling forth the reactions which are represented by functions and sensations.

“Power resides at the center, and from the center of power, force flows.”

The phenomena of life, as manifested in growth, nutrition, repair, secretion, excretion, self-recognition, self-preservation and reproduction, all take their direction from an originating center. From the lowest cell to the highest and most complex organism, this principle holds true. Cell wall and protoplasmic contents develop from the central nucleus, and that from the centrosome, which is regarded as the “center of force” in the cell. All fluids.. tissues and organs develop from the cell from within outwards, from center to circumference.

Organic control is from the center. In the completely developed human organism. vital action is controlled from the central nervous system. The activities of the cell are controlled from, the centrosome, which may be called the brain of the cell.

The central nervous system may be compared to a dynamo. As a dynamo is a machine, driven by steam or some other force, which, through the agency of electro-magnetic induction from a surrounding magnetic field, converts into electrical energy in the form. of current the -mechanical energy expended upon it, so the central nervous system is a machine driven by chemical force derived from food which, through the agency of electro-vital induction from a surrounding vital field, converts into vital energy, in the form of nerve current or impulses, the chemico-physical energy expended upon it.

As an electrical transportation system depends for its working force upon the dynamo located in its central power station, so the human body depends for the force necessary to carry on its operations upon the central power station, located in the central nervous system.

Any disturbance of conditions at the central power station is immediately manifested externally at some point in the system; and any injury to or break in the external system is immediately reflected back to the central station.

In health and disease it is the same, both being essentially merely conditions of life in the living organism, convertible each into the other. In each condition the modifying agent or factor acts primarily upon the internal life principle, which is the living substance of the organism. This reacts and produces external phenomena through the medium of the brain and nervous system which, extends to every part of the body. Food or poison, toxins or antitoxins, therapeutic agents or pathogenic micro-organisms, all act upon and by virtue of Be existence of the reacting life principle or living substance of the organism.

The living environment
Living organisms are made of the same components as all other matter, involve the same kind of transformations of energy, and move using the same basic kinds of forces. The Physical Setting, apply to life as well as to stars, raindrops, and television sets. But living organisms also have characteristics that can be understood best through the application of other principles.

Diversity of life
There are millions of different types of individual organisms that inhabit the earth at any one time—some very similar to each other, some very different. Biologists classify organisms into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups on the basis of similarities and differences in their structure and behavior. One of the most general distinctions among organisms is between plants, which get their energy directly from sunlight, and animals, which consume the energy-rich foods initially synthesized by plants. But not all organisms are clearly one or the other. For example, there are single-celled organisms without organized nuclei (bacteria) that are classified as a distinct group.

Animals and plants have a great variety of body plans, with different overall structures and arrangements of internal parts to perform the basic operations of making or finding food, deriving energy and materials from it, synthesizing new materials, and reproducing. When scientists classify organisms, they consider details of anatomy to be more relevant than behavior or general appearance. For example, because of such features as milk-producing glands and brain structure, whales and bats are classified as being more nearly alike than are whales and fish or bats and birds. At different degrees of relatedness, dogs are classified with fish as having backbones, with cows as having hair, and with cats as being meat-eaters.

For sexually reproducing organisms, a species comprises all organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring. The definition of species is not precise, however; at the boundaries it may be difficult to decide on the exact classification of a particular organism. Indeed, classification systems are not part of nature. Rather, they are frameworks created by biologists for describing the vast diversity of organisms, suggesting relationships among living things, and framing research questions.

The variety of the earth’s life forms is apparent not only from the study of anatomical and behavioral similarities and differences among organisms but also from the study of similarities and differences among their molecules. The most complex molecules built up in living organisms are chains of smaller molecules. The various kinds of small molecules are much the same in all life forms, but the specific sequences of components that make up the very complex molecules are characteristic of a given species. For example, DNA molecules are long chains linking just four kinds of smaller molecules, whose precise sequence encodes genetic information. The closeness or remoteness of the relationship between organisms can be inferred from the extent to which their DNA sequences are similar. The relatedness of organisms inferred from similarity in their molecular structure closely matches the classification based on anatomical similarities.

The preservation of a diversity of species is important to human beings. We depend on two food webs to obtain the energy and materials necessary for life. One starts with microscopic ocean plants and seaweed and includes animals that feed on them and animals that feed on those animals. The other one begins with land plants and includes animals that feed on them, and so forth. The elaborate interdependencies among species serve to stabilize these food webs. Minor disruptions in a particular location tend to lead to changes that eventually restore the system. But large disturbances of living populations or their environments may result in irreversible changes in the food webs. Maintaining diversity increases the likelihood that some varieties will have characteristics suitable to survival under changed conditions.

One long-familiar observation is that offspring are very much like their parents but still show some variation: Offspring differ somewhat from their parents and from one another. Over many generations, these differences can accumulate, so organisms can be very different in appearance and behavior from their distant ancestors. For example, people have bred their domestic animals and plants to select desirable characteristics; the results are modern varieties of dogs, cats, cattle, fowl, fruits, and grains that are perceptibly different from their forebears. Changes have also been observed—in grains, for example—that are extensive enough to produce new species. In fact, some branches of descendants of the same parent species are so different from others that they can no longer breed with one another.

Instructions for development are passed from parents to offspring in thousands of discrete genes, each of which is now known to be a segment of a molecule of DNA. Offspring of asexual organisms (clones) inherit all of the parent’s genes. In sexual reproduction of plants and animals, a specialized cell from a female fuses with a specialized cell from a male. Each of these sex cells contains an unpredictable half of the parent’s genetic information. When a particular male cell fuses with a particular female cell during fertilization, they form a cell with one complete set of paired genetic information, a combination of one half-set from each parent. As the fertilized cell multiplies to form an embryo, and eventually a seed or mature individual, the combined sets are replicated in each new cell.

The sorting and combination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of gene combinations in the offspring of two parents. There are millions of different possible combinations of genes in the half apportioned into each separate sex cell, and there are also millions of possible combinations of each of those particular female and male sex cells.

However, new mixes of genes are not the only source of variation in the characteristics of organisms. Although genetic instructions may be passed down virtually unchanged for many thousands of generations, occasionally some of the information in a cell’s DNA is altered. Deletions, insertions, or substitutions of DNA segments may occur spontaneously through random errors in copying, or may be induced by chemicals or radiation. If a mutated gene is in an organism’s sex cell, copies of it may be passed down to offspring, becoming part of all their cells and perhaps giving the offspring new or modified characteristics. Some of these changed characteristics may turn out to increase the ability of the organisms that have it to thrive and reproduce, some may reduce that ability, and some may have no appreciable effect.

All self-replicating life forms are composed of cells—from single-celled bacteria to elephants, with their trillions of cells. Although a few giant cells, such as hens’ eggs, can be seen with the naked eye, most cells are microscopic. It is at the cell level that many of the basic functions of organisms are carried out: protein synthesis, extraction of energy from nutrients, replication, and so forth.

All living cells have similar types of complex molecules that are involved in these basic activities of life. These molecules interact in a soup, about 2/3 water, surrounded by a membrane that controls what can enter and leave. In more complex cells, some of the common types of molecules are organized into structures that perform the same basic functions more efficiently. In particular, a nucleus encloses the DNA and a protein skeleton helps to organize operations. In addition to the basic cellular functions common to all cells, most cells in multicelled organisms perform some special functions that others do not. For example, gland cells secrete hormones, muscle cells contract, and nerve cells conduct electrical signals.

Cell molecules are composed of atoms of a small number of elements—mainly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Carbon atoms, because of their small size and four available bonding electrons, can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules. Most of the molecular interactions in cells occur in water solution and require a fairly narrow range of temperature and acidity. At low temperatures the reactions go too slowly, whereas high temperatures or extremes of acidity can irreversibly damage the structure of protein molecules. Even small changes in acidity can alter the molecules and how they interact. Both single cells and multicellular organisms have molecules that help to keep the cells’ acidity within the necessary range.

The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acid molecules. The function of each protein depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and the shape the chain takes as a consequence of attractions between the chain’s parts. Some of the assembled molecules assist in replicating genetic information, repairing cell structures, helping other molecules to get in or out of the cell, and generally in catalyzing and regulating molecular interactions. In specialized cells, other protein molecules may carry oxygen, effect contraction, respond to outside stimuli, or provide material for hair, nails, and other body structures. In still other cells, assembled molecules may be exported to serve as hormones, antibodies, or digestive enzymes.

The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. This code is virtually the same for all life forms. Thus, for example, if a gene from a human cell is placed in a bacterium, the chemical machinery of the bacterium will follow the gene’s instructions and produce the same protein that would be produced in human cells. A change in even a single atom in the DNA molecule, which may be induced by chemicals or radiation, can therefore change the protein that is produced. Such a mutation of a DNA segment may not make much difference, may fatally disrupt the operation of the cell, or may change the successful operation of the cell in a significant way (for example, it may foster uncontrolled replication, as in cancer).

All the cells of an organism are descendants of the single fertilized egg cell and have the same DNA information. As successive generations of cells form by division, small differences in their immediate environments cause them to develop slightly differently, by activating or inactivating different parts of the DNA information. Later generations of cells differ still further and eventually mature into cells as different as gland, muscle, and nerve cells.

Complex interactions among the myriad kinds of molecules in the cell may give rise to distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Control of cell processes comes also from without: Cell behavior may be influenced by molecules from other parts of the organism or from other organisms (for example, hormones and neurotransmitters) that attach to or pass through the cell membrane and affect the rates of reaction among cell constituents.

Interdependence of life
Every species is linked, directly or indirectly, with a multitude of others in an ecosystem. Plants provide food, shelter, and nesting sites for other organisms. For their part, many plants depend upon animals for help in reproduction (bees pollinate flowers, for instance) and for certain nutrients (such as minerals in animal waste products). All animals are part of food webs that include plants and animals of other species (and sometimes the same species). The predator/prey relationship is common, with its offensive tools for predators—teeth, beaks, claws, venom, etc.—and its defensive tools for prey—camouflage to hide, speed to escape, shields or spines to ward off, irritating substances to repel. Some species come to depend very closely on others (for instance, pandas or koalas can eat only certain species of trees). Some species have become so adapted to each other that neither could survive without the other (for example, the wasps that nest only in figs and are the only insect that can pollinate them).

There are also other relationships between organisms. Parasites get nourishment from their host organisms, sometimes with bad consequences for the hosts. Scavengers and decomposers feed only on dead animals and plants. And some organisms have mutually beneficial relationships—for example, the bees that sip nectar from flowers and incidentally carry pollen from one flower to the next, or the bacteria that live in our intestines and incidentally synthesize some vitamins and protect the intestinal lining from germs.

But the interaction of living organisms does not take place on a passive environmental stage. Ecosystems are shaped by the nonliving environment of land and water—solar radiation, rainfall, mineral concentrations, temperature, and topography. The world contains a wide diversity of physical conditions, which creates a wide variety of environments: freshwater and oceanic, forest, desert, grassland, tundra, mountain, and many others. In all these environments, organisms use vital earth resources, each seeking its share in specific ways that are limited by other organisms. In every part of the habitable environment, different organisms vie for food, space, light, heat, water, air, and shelter. The linked and fluctuating interactions of life forms and environment compose a total ecosystem; understanding any one part of it well requires knowledge of how that part interacts with the others.

The interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem often results in approximate stability over hundreds or thousands of years. As one species proliferates, it is held in check by one or more environmental factors: depletion of food or nesting sites, increased loss to predators, or invasion by parasites. If a natural disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in a succession of stages that eventually results in a system similar to the original one.

Like many complex systems, ecosystems tend to show cyclic fluctuations around a state of approximate equilibrium. In the long run, however, ecosystems inevitably change when climate changes or when very different new species appear as a result of migration or evolution (or are introduced deliberately or inadvertently by humans).

Flow of matter and energy
However complex the workings of living organisms, they share with all other natural systems the same physical principles of the conservation and transformation of matter and energy. Over long spans of time, matter and energy are transformed among living things, and between them and the physical environment. In these grand-scale cycles, the total amount of matter and energy remains constant, even though their form and location undergo continual change.

Almost all life on earth is ultimately maintained by transformations of energy from the sun. Plants capture the sun’s energy and use it to synthesize complex, energy-rich molecules (chiefly sugars) from molecules of carbon dioxide and water. These synthesized molecules then serve, directly or indirectly, as the source of energy for the plants themselves and ultimately for all animals and decomposer organisms (such as bacteria and fungi). This is the food web: The organisms that consume the plants derive energy and materials from breaking down the plant molecules, use them to synthesize their own structures, and then are themselves consumed by other organisms. At each stage in the food web, some energy is stored in newly synthesized structures and some is dissipated into the environment as heat produced by the energy-releasing chemical processes in cells. A similar energy cycle begins in the oceans with the capture of the sun’s energy by tiny, plant-like organisms. Each successive stage in a food web captures only a small fraction of the energy content of organisms it feeds on.

The elements that make up the molecules of living things are continually recycled. Chief among these elements are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, and iron. These and other elements, mostly occurring in energy-rich molecules, are passed along the food web and eventually are recycled by decomposers back to mineral nutrients usable by plants. Although there often may be local excesses and deficits, the situation over the whole earth is that organisms are dying and decaying at about the same rate as that at which new life is being synthesized. That is, the total living biomass stays roughly constant, there is a cyclic flow of materials from old to new life, and there is an irreversible flow of energy from captured sunlight into dissipated heat.

An important interruption in the usual flow of energy apparently occurred millions of years ago when the growth of land plants and marine organisms exceeded the ability of decomposers to recycle them. The accumulating layers of energy-rich organic material were gradually turned into coal and oil by the pressure of the overlying earth. The energy stored in their molecular structure we can now release by burning, and our modern civilization depends on immense amounts of energy from such fossil fuels recovered from the earth. By burning fossil fuels, we are finally passing most of the stored energy on to the environment as heat. We are also passing back to the atmosphere—in a relatively very short time—large amounts of carbon dioxide that had been removed from it slowly over millions of years.

The amount of life any environment can sustain is limited by its most basic resources: the inflow of energy, minerals, and water. Sustained productivity of an ecosystem requires sufficient energy for new products that are synthesized (such as trees and crops) and also for recycling completely the residue of the old (dead leaves, human sewage, etc.). When human technology intrudes, materials may accumulate as waste that is not recycled. When the inflow of resources is insufficient, there is accelerated soil leaching, desertification, or depletion of mineral reserves.

Evolution of life
The earth’s present-day life forms appear to have evolved from common ancestors reaching back to the simplest one-cell organisms almost four billion years ago. Modern ideas of evolution provide a scientific explanation for three main sets of observable facts about life on earth: the enormous number of different life forms we see about us, the systematic similarities in anatomy and molecular chemistry we see within that diversity, and the sequence of changes in fossils found in successive layers of rock that have been formed over more than a billion years.

Since the beginning of the fossil record, many new life forms have appeared, and most old forms have disappeared. The many traceable sequences of changing anatomical forms, inferred from ages of rock layers, convince scientists that the accumulation of differences from one generation to the next has led eventually to species as different from one another as bacteria are from elephants. The molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence from fossils and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.

Although details of the history of life on earth are still being pieced together from the combined geological, anatomical, and molecular evidence, the main features of that history are generally agreed upon. At the very beginning, simple molecules may have formed complex molecules that eventually formed into cells capable of self-replication. Life on earth has existed for three billion years. Prior to that, simple molecules may have formed complex organic molecules that eventually formed into cells capable of self-replication. During the first two billion years of life, only microorganisms existed—some of them apparently quite similar to bacteria and algae that exist today. With the development of cells with nuclei about a billion years ago, there was a great increase in the rate of evolution of increasingly complex, multicelled organisms. The rate of evolution of new species has been uneven since then, perhaps reflecting the varying rates of change in the physical environment.

A central concept of the theory of evolution is natural selection, which arises from three well-established observations: (1) There is some variation in heritable characteristics within every species of organism, (2) some of these characteristics will give individuals an advantage over others in surviving to maturity and reproducing, and (3) those individuals will be likely to have more offspring, which will themselves be more likely than others to survive and reproduce. The likely result is that over successive generations, the proportion of individuals that have inherited advantage-giving characteristics will tend to increase.

Selectable characteristics can include details of biochemistry, such as the molecular structure of hormones or digestive enzymes, and anatomical features that are ultimately produced in the development of the organism, such as bone size or fur length. They can also include more subtle features determined by anatomy, such as acuity of vision or pumping efficiency of the heart. By biochemical or anatomical means, selectable characteristics may also influence behavior, such as weaving a certain shape of web, preferring certain characteristics in a mate, or being disposed to care for offspring.

New heritable characteristics can result from new combinations of parents’ genes or from mutations of them. Except for mutation of the DNA in an organism’s sex cells, the characteristics that result from occurrences during the organism’s lifetime cannot be biologically passed on to the next generation. Thus, for example, changes in an individual caused by use or disuse of a structure or function, or by changes in its environment, cannot be promulgated by natural selection.

By its very nature, natural selection is likely to lead to organisms with characteristics that are well adapted to survival in particular environments. Yet chance alone, especially in small populations, can result in the spread of inherited characteristics that have no inherent survival or reproductive advantage or disadvantage. Moreover, when an environment changes (in this sense, other organisms are also part of the environment), the advantage or disadvantage of characteristics can change. So natural selection does not necessarily result in long-term progress in a set direction. Evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety that already exists, the more there can be.

The continuing operation of natural selection on new characteristics and in changing environments, over and over again for millions of years, has produced a succession of diverse new species. Evolution is not a ladder in which the lower forms are all replaced by superior forms, with humans finally emerging at the top as the most advanced species. Rather, it is like a bush: Many branches emerged long ago; some of those branches have died out; some have survived with apparently little or no change over time; and some have repeatedly branched, sometimes giving rise to more complex organisms.

The modern concept of evolution provides a unifying principle for understanding the history of life on earth, relationships among all living things, and the dependence of life on the physical environment. While it is still far from clear how evolution works in every detail, the concept is so well established that it provides a framework for organizing most of biological knowledge into a coherent picture.

Biotic vs. Abiotic
Organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources, including food, space, water, air, and shelter. In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions including light intensity, temperature range, mineral availability, soil type, and pH.   Physical or non-living factors such as these which influence living things are called abiotic factors.   Living factors which influence living things are called biotic factors.   Some examples of biotic factors include disease and predation.

Energy Flow
Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, typically from the Sun, through photosynthetic organisms or producers, to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.   The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much energy is lost into the environment as heat. Continual input of energy from sunlight is required to keep this process going.   Energy pyramids are often used to show the flow of energy in ecosystems.

Material Cycles
The atoms and molecules on the Earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere. Carbon dioxide and water molecules used in photosynthesis to form energy-rich organic compounds are returned to the environment when the energy in these compounds is eventually released by cells through the processes of cell respiration and other life activities.   The number of organisms any environment can support is called its carrying capacity.  The carrying capacity of an environment is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the remains of dead organisms through the activities of bacteria and fungi.  Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of unlimited size, but available resources in their environments are finite. This restricts the growth of populations and produces competition between organisms.

Organism Relationships
Organisms interactions may be competitive or beneficial.  Organisms may interact with one another in several ways.  Some of these relationships include producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationships. Other organisms interactions include those in which one organism may cause disease in, scavenge, or decompose another.

Due to evolution, there is a great number of different organisms which fill many different roles in ecosystems.  The number of different organisms in an ecosystem is called biodiversity.  Increased biodiversity increases the stability of the ecosystem.   Biodiversity also ensures the availability of diverse genetic material that may lead to future discoveries with significant value to humans.  As diversity is lost, potential sources of these materials for these discoveries may be lost with it.  A great diversity of species provides for variations which increase the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.

Ecological Succession
The environment may be changed greatly through the activities of organisms, including humans, or when climate changes. Although sometimes these changes occur quickly, in most cases species gradually replace others, resulting in long term changes in ecosystems.    These changes in an ecosystem over time are called ecological succession.   Ecosystems may reach a point of stability that can last for hundreds or thousands of years.  If a disaster occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages that eventually result in a stable system similar to the original one. 

Biochemical Processes
Almost all life on Earth ultimately depends upon the Sun for its energy.   The process of photosynthesis converts the Sun’s energy to sugars which living things may use as an energy source.   These sugars are converted to a form living things can use by a process called respiration.

Thousands of chemical reactions occur in living things.   These reactions are aided by compounds called enzymes.   Enzymes and some other kinds of molecules have specific shapes which allow them to function.

Homeostasis in an organism is constantly threatened.  Failure to respond effectively can result in disease or death.  Disease is a disturbance of homeostasis or steady state within an organism.   Many organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites may cause disease.   Disease also results from factors which are not living organisms.

The immune response is the defensive reaction of the body to foreign substances or organisms.  The immune system also protects against some cancer cells which may arise in the body.

Feedback Mechanisms
Dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis results from the ability of organisms to detect and respond to stimuli.   Feedback mechanisms are specific ways which have evolved in different living things to respond to internal or external environmental changes and maintain homeostasis.   A feedback mechanism is a process where the level of one substance or activity of an organ or structure influences another substance or structure in some manner. 

Living VS. Non-Living
Complex organisms, such as humans, require many systems for their life processes.   Less complex living things may lack the complex systems of more complex organisms, but they still carry on the basic life activities.   While non-living things may carry on some of these life processes, they do not carry on all of them, or these activities do not interact in a manner allowing the non-living thing to reproduce itself.

The components of living things in humans and other organisms, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. This balanced internal environment is called dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis.  To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess many control mechanisms that detect internal changes and correct them to restore the internal balance of the organism.   If an organism fails to maintain homeostasis, this may result in disease or death.   Non-living things possess few control mechanisms to maintain homeostasis.

Population Diversity
The greater the diversity, or number of different species of organisms in an ecosystem, the ecosystem is more stable and likely to last.  These ecosystems contain many different kinds of organisms carrying on a variety of different nutritional modes.  Organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem. Each species in an ecosystem has a role for which it is best suited. In general, no two species have the same role in an ecosystem.  This allows different species to coexist successfully and helps maintain the stability of the ecosystem.   Ecosystems are stable due to the interactions among the many different populations. These interactions contribute to the overall maintenance and continued existence of the ecosystem.

Organizational Levels
Important levels of organization for structure and function of living things include cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms. The organs and systems of the body help to provide all the cells with their basic needs to carry on the life functions. The cells of the body are of different kinds and are grouped in ways that help their function.

All living things are composed of one or more cells, each capable of carrying out the life functions.   The organelles present in single-celled organisms often act in the same manner as the tissues and systems found in many celled organisms.  Single-celled organisms perform all of the life processes needed to maintain homeostasis, by using specialized cell organelles.

Cell Structure
Cells have particular structures or organelles that perform specific jobs. These structures perform the life activities within the cell. Just as body systems are coordinated and work together in complex organisms, the cells making up those systems must also be coordinated and organized in a cooperative manner so they can function efficiently together.

Inside the cell a variety of cell organelles, formed from many different molecules, carry out the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, and information storage. Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important functions for the cell as well.

Life Functions
Humans and many other organisms require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity. The systems collectively perform the life processes.

Once nutrients enter a cell, the cell will use those raw materials for energy or as building blocks in the synthesis of compounds necessary for life.  The energy we initially obtain must must be changed into a form cells can use. A type of protein called an enzyme allows for these changes to occur within the cell.

Cellular Communication
Neurotransmitters and hormones allow communication between nerve cells and other body cells as well.  If nerve or hormone signals are changed, this disrupts communication between cells and will adversely effect organism homeostasis.   Additionally, the DNA molecule contains the instructions that direct the cell’s behavior through the synthesis of proteins.


History of Medicine – a brief study

davinchiDr Achamma Lenu Thomas

Pre historic era
History of medicine is related with the beginning of the mankind. Nothing documentary writing and evidences in respect of medical thoughts can be produced from storage of man, except certain drawings and specimens that have survived from stone age. In those ages medical professional personal were known as “Magicians”. A drawing on the wall of the trois freres cave in pyrenees is the portrait probably of an oldest medical man.

Every culture occurred in the world had developed a system of medicine. Numerous stones and tools probably of 15,000 B.C. have been employed as surgical instruments. Disease were viewed as a result of malevolent influences exercised by god or super natural being or another human being alive or dead. The method of primitive healing was not concentrated on logic and scientific data but on belief and crude methods of transference of evil sprits and using certain methods like herbs or animal extracts which was monopoly of certain group of people. It may be said that it is a mere exploitation than real healing and occasionally it occurred some natural process of healing and which was claimed as their credits or hereditary monopoly.

Study of folk medicines reveals many curious believes and creeds,a very important part of medical history. The use of remedies was not only internal but used to be carried as charms and talismans, as a part of treatment. The skin of snake, patella, of sheep, the nail of coffin etc. were used as charms. Another important aspect is put up coloured hangings in the sick room to prevent small-pox, red flannel used to prevent sore throat and to wear red thread with nine knots to prevent nose bleeding.

The problem of death was thought as a punishment for man’s disobedience. The basic things to the whole subject of folk medicine was full of superstitious and believes. But it will not be wise to under mine all their knowledge because specimen of trephining of skull evidently proves for their knowledge artisan skill which we have gathered from excavation.

Egyptian Medicine
Egypt had one of the oldest civlizations about 2000 BC. History of Egyptian medicine can be traced back to 2900BC. Main sources of Egyptian medicine are the “MEDICAL PAPYRI”, “CLAY TABLETS” and excavated materials like small knives. Archeological excavations, old paintings and engravings in the doors of tombs of the burial grounds have revealed many lights.

Egyptians invented the method of pictorial writings on papyrus and the best known medical manuscript was EBERS PAPYRUS. There are mainly six types of papyrus.

1. The first papyrus derived from KOHUN, it is the earliest recorded medical treatise , it was written by IMHOTEP. It deals with
a) Vaginal and uterine disorders.
b) Identification of pregnancy.
c) Determining sex of child in utero.
2. George Ebers Papyrus- It contains description about 800 remedies prepared from 700 drugs.
3. EDWIN SMITH PAPYRUS- This deales with peculiar class of surgery called traumatic surgery particularly of fractures, operations amputations and war wounds.
4. Herst Papyrus- This deals with incantation(magical formula)
5. Berlin Papyrus – treatise on paediatrics.
6. London Papyrus- Deals with preservations of bodies.

In Egyptian times the art of medicine was mingled with religion.
Egyptian physicians were co-equals of priests. Egyptian medicine reached its peak in the days of IMHOTEP(2800 BC) who was famous as statesman architect and physician. IMHOTEP was considered both a doctor and divinity (god of medicine), on whose name temples are erected. Egyptian physicians were trained in those temples. HORUS was considered as the god of health and he lost one of his eyes in fight with SET,the demon of evil. This was restored miraculously and was formed a design of Rx which was used as sign of danger and in the prescription of physician. There were no practical demonstration in anatomy, for Egyptian religion enjoined strict preservation of the human anatomy.

Egyptian considered that diseases were due to absorption of some harmful substance from the intestine which gave rise to putrefaction of blood leading to formation of pus. Diseases were treated with cathartics enema, blood letting and a wide range of drugs. They believed that pulse was the “speech of heart”

In the field of public health, Egyptians exelled others. They built planned cities, public baths and under ground drains(which even the modern might envy). Hygiene was very important in this civilization ie both social personal. There were also specialization like eye, ear and tooth doctors.

There is a strange custom of preserving the human body after death by injecting cedar wood oil. Then putting the body in salt water, took out brain matter and emptied the abdominal cavity and filled with cassia and other spices. These cadavers were bandaged and soaked in heated resin. These were called as mummies and were kept in temples or tombs.
Egyptian system of medicine was dominant in the ancient world for so many years, until it was replaced by Greek medicine.

Mesopotomian medicine
Contemporary with ancient Egyptian civilization, there existed another civilization in the land of which lies between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

In ancient Mesopotomia basic concept of medicine were religious, and taught and practiced as, herb doctors, knife doctors, spell doctors—classification that roughly parallels our own internist, surgeons, and psychiatrists. Mesopotomia was cradle of magic and necromacy. Medical students were busy in classifying “demons”, the causes of disease. Geomacy, the interpretation of dreams and hepatoscopic divinity (the liver was considered seat of life) are the characteristics of Mesopotomian medicine. They were authors of medical astrology. Prescriptions were written on tablets, in cuneform writing.
Hamurabi, one of the earliest king of Babylon drew up code of medical ethics. In the ethics it was stated that if a doctor treat a gentle man and open his abscess with knife and may preserve the eye of the patient the doctor will get ten silver shekels and in the case of slave the master will have to pay two silver shekels. On the reverse, if doctor kills the patients or destroys the eyes his hands may be taken off in case of a gentle man and in case of a slave the doctor will have to replace the slave
At that time the nucleus of every thing in the medical thoughts was relating to some sorts of god or super natural power and their influences.

Greek Medicine
The Greek enjoyed the reputation – the civlizers of the ancient world and considered as pioneers of advanced medicine. They taught men to think in terms of why and how. They laid to the foundation of fundamental science of medicine ie. Anatomy, physiology and pathology.

AECULAPIUS of BC1200 was considered the leader greek medicine. He was considered as the grand son of ZEUS. He had two daughters—Hygea and Panacea. Hygea worshiped as the goddess of (preventive medicine) and Panacea as the goddess of medicine (curative medicine). They give rise to two system of medicine ie preventive medicine and curative medicine. These two first developed in Greek medicine. Staff of AECULAPIUS ie. Two serpents entangled on a rod was worshipped in the temples of AECULAPIUS. This is used as symbol of medical profession.

Important personalities of Greek medicine
The greatest physician in Greek medicine was HIPPOCRATES, who is often called the “father of medicine”. He was born about 460BC in the island of COS close to Asia minor. His contribution are He rejected the supernatural theory of diseases, challenged the tradition of magic in medicine. He attributed disease to disturbances of four humors—BLOOD,PHLEGM,YELLOW BILE AND BLACK BILE. He initiated a radically new approach to medicine ie. application of clinical methods in medicine. He knew little about anatomy and physiology. He had not the clinical thermometer nor the stethoscope, yet he practiced auscultation by placing ear to the chest and able to describe the friction sound of the pleurisy as creaking of leather. He tried to find out real causes of epilepsy and fever. He was able to forecast prognosis from the study of natural history of diseases.

The position of the patient, nature of respiration, appearance of sputum were stressed by him for prognosis. The classical term Hippocratic facies come from the description of the face of an impending death ie. “ sharp nose, hollow eyes sunken temples ears cold with lobes turn outward, the skin of the face parched and tense, the colour yellow or very dusky”. He observed the changes of finger nails of cardio vascular patients. He was first to recognize the role of environment in causation and maintenance of diseases. He did not confine his practice to medicine. He was a good surgeon. He drained pus, set fractures, reduced dislocation(using special bench or table and even trephined skull as he clearly describes in the work on wounds in the head. His use of tar for wounds was a surprising forerunner of the antiseptic method. He was first man to separate medicine from philosophy and set up high standards of ethics in the form of aphorisms in his collection of work (Corpus Hippocraticum). He formulated the code of conduct to physician which is called the Hippocratic oath. But unfortunately he made little use of drugs for the treatment and depended mainly oo nature(VIS MEDICATRICS NATURE) for cure.

(384-322 BC)was born in Athens and was a student of Plato. He was a profound philosopher, great biologist and scholar in medicine. He laid the foundation of comparative anatomy and embryology. He dissected fishes and molluscus and gave description of entire living world and its classification.

Theophratus :  He was a botanist and explained the use of plants for therapeutics. He was a follower of Aristotle. His famous work “Historia plantarum” comprised morphology, natural history and their therapeutic use.

Aesclepiades : He is called “PRINCE OF PHYSCICANS”(124BC). He was the follower of Hippocratus, but denied to depend wholly on vis medicatrx naturae. According to him physician has an active role. He originated the idea that disease should be treated speedily,safely and agreeably (CITU, TUTO,ET JECUNDO). This theory of methodism was later replaced by BROUSSAIS as theory of irritation and by BROWN as brunonian theory of STHENIC and ASTHENIC states.

Dioscrides (
AD 60) was the surgeon to the emperor, NERO. He compiled books on materia medica and explained the use of lead, copper and 600 plants

Roman medicine
By the first century BC the centre of civilization shifted to Rome. They borrowed medicine largely from the Greeks whom they have conquered. Roman medicine also was very important by the 1st century BC. They were more practical minded than the Greeks. The religion of early Rome consisted mainly in the worship of Mars. Mars was an agricultural divinity but later become god of war and of health. The lives of people and their medicine dominated by these religious beliefs. Apollo and Mars, among many others, were the ancient protectors of health to the Romans. The Greek god of health, Aesculapius, assumed a similar role for the Roman people. They gave much importance to sanitation, provided water supply to all cities, built sewage systems ,and established hospitals for sick.

The important personalities during this period are:
– he is regarded as the “founder of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. He described the signs for telling the maturity of the foetus, to be the first to bathe the eyes of new born, to empty the bladder with a catheter before delivery of the child, to develop measures for the protection of perineum during labour and to give rules for weaning and for contraception.

Celses [25BC – 60AD] explained cardinal principles of inflammation (rubour, et tumor cum calore et dolore, i.e. redness and with heat and pain). His book De re medica” contains description of diseases according to anatomical basis. He has been called “cicero of medicine”.he divided therapy in to dietetic, pharmaceutic and surgical.

Galen [ 130 – 205 AD ] He was considered as the “Dictator of medicine”. He accepted the concept of Humours. Recognized he predisposing and exiting factors ofdiseases. Conduct of dissection was considered as illegal and his explanations are based on dissection on Apes and Pigs. He described the bones and suture of of skull, named optic and olfactory nerves. Galen physiology followed his predecessors in the theory of pneuma as the essence of life, consisted of animal spirits, vital spirits and natural spirits.the heart was considered be the centre for the movement of heart and heat regulation. The liver was considered to be the center for nutrition and metabolism and the brain for sensation and movement. He assumed that there was communication between two ventricles of the heart by means of invisible pores. Thus, he had the animal spirit originating in the brain, the vital spirits mixing with the blood and the heart, and the natural spirits being developed from the blood via liver. Galen belived that pneuma breathed by man returned to its source of origin at his death becoming a universal pneuma.

Classified Diseasesas:
1.Affecting simple tissues & organs hin
3.diseaes due to general & humoral dyscrasia.

Herophilus [:BC 300]- Anatomist, who conducted practical dissection and named DEUDINUM&COUNTED PULSE.

Erasistratus [ BC 300 –Founder of physiology, distinguished. CEREBRUM & CEREBELLUM, SENSORY MOTOR NEURONE. He believed that air enters into the LUNGS and from the to HEART and there it is changed into VITAL SPIRIT, then carried to different parts of body

Indian medicine
The term Indian medicine usually refers to  Ayurvedic medicine. The Ayur Veda literally “Knowledge life,” is the name of the works that included the body of literature which gradually developed on subject of medicine in India. Hence Ayur veda is the science of longevity or preservation and prolongation of life. Its origin can be traced back to 1500BC where the treatment of diseases was mainly by spells and incantations derived from Rigveda.

According to Vedas DHANWATHRI, the Hindu god of medicine is said to have been born as a result of churning of oceans during a tug of war between gods and demons.

Susrtha was probably the outstanding medical personality in Hindu medicine. He was active between 400BC and not later than 300 B.C., possibly shortly after Hippocratus. His work includes medicine, pathology, anatomy, midwifery, biology, ophthalmology, hygiene and psychology of medical practice(currently known as the art of medicine). Important contribution was (Susrutha samhitha) collection of Susrutha. The collection of Susrutha was mainly surgical. It described more than a hundred surgical instruments. He treated fractures with bamboo splints and conducted caesarean sections, excision of tumours, Rhinoplasty, and is also considered as the pioneer of plastic surgery. Susrutha rearded as the father of Indian surgery.

Susrutha was aware of the soporific effects of hyosyamus and cannabis which he employed as surgical anesthesia. He also wrote that malaria is caused by mosquito and plague followed when many dead rats were seen, and promoted environmental sanitation. In the book he mentioned about 760 medicinal plants, ointments, sneezing powders and inhalations which were used as external applications

Charaka, the court physician to buddhist king Kanishka compiled the ‘Charaka samhitha based on the teachings of his master Atreya. Atreya is acknowledged as the first great Indian physician and teacher. He lived in the university of Takshashila. Charaka samhitha contains a description of more than 200 diseases and 500 drugs.

Hygiene was given an important place in ancient Indian medicine. The laws of Manu were a code of personal hygiene. The salient feature of Ayurveda is the tridosha theory or theory of three humors. It stimulates the four humor theory of the Greeks.

The three humors are VATHA(wind) PITHA(bile) and KAPHA(phlegm) and disease is an imbalance of these three doshas.
Health is defined as;
“Sama dosha; sama agnecha; sama dathu; mala kriya; prasanna atma; mana indreyi swastha; eva ithyadi”
The principles of treatment are:
Vridhy samana: sarvesham: [vridhy=increase]
Vipareetham: Vipareetha:
This means that an increase in similar increases all doshas, while opposites, will have opposite effect.

There are two methods of treatment
1. Vipareetha Chikitsa-
Hethu vipareetha
Vyadhi vipareetha
Hethu- vyadhi vipareetha

2. Tadhartheekari Chikitsa
Hethu- tadhartheekari
vyadhi tadhartheekari
Hethu vyadhi tadhartheekari
King Ashoka patronized Ayurveda as state medicine and established schools of medicine and public hospitals. The golden age of Indian medicine was between 800 BC and 600AD. Ayurveda declined during the Mughal period due to lack of state support.

Chinese medicine
Chinese medicine is said to have originated with three legendary Chinese emperors Fu-Hsi, Shen-Nung and Huag-Ti.
Fu-Hsi created the philosophy of the Yang and Yin in nature in about 2900 BC. Yang was considered to be the masculine elements, representing all positive qualities, the heaven, sun, light, force, hardness, heat, dryness, the eyes, the left side and the dominant quality. Yin was considered to be the feminine element, representing all negative qualities, the earth, moon dark ness, weakness, moisture, cold, ears, passive elements and right side of the body. The principles of Chinese medicine was based on these two opposing factors. Health was considered the harmonious balance between these two factors. Medicines were prescribed to excite the Yang.

In Fu-Hsi’s philosophy the number five was considered to have great important. Man and everything else in the world consisted of five elements (wood, fire, earth, metal, water). These five elements in turn corresponds with five senses, five viscera, five tastes etc.

Shen-Nung called as father of Chinese medicine. He wrote book PEN-TSOAS which contained description of 1000 drugs. His other contributions include (i) cultivation of plants and use of Agricultural tools.(ii)Compilation of herbals.(iii)Introduction of Accupunture.

Huang-Ti was the author of one of the most ancient as well as one of the greatest medical works called the Nei Ching[Book of medicine]
The other famous medical personalities there Chang-chung-king was called Chinese Hippocratus because of his observatory facts in the treatment of fever.
HAUTU was a famous surgeon who used Cannabis Indica as anaesthetic before operating patients. He described 200 varities of pulse and said that disease may be diagnosed by pulse.
The first Chinese to study medicine abroad was WON- FOOn who graduated from Edinburgh. His work was a foundation hospitals and medical school.
Chinese medical men are pioneers of immunization and practiced variolisation against small pox. They developed accupunture system and bare foot doctor system. Chinese medicine gave importance to hygiene, dietectics, hydrotherapy massage and drugs therapeutics which is relevant today.

Medicne Of The 17th Century

The seventeenth century was fundamentally the most creative of the three periods of periods of renaissance, seventeenth century and eighteenth century. It had no distinctive name as did the fifteenth and sixteenth( the renaissance ) and the eighteenth century( the age of enlightment). From the view point of world history, the greatest achievement in the world history seventeenth century was development of modern science. The seventeenth century was also an age of religion.

During the seventeenth century the different schools like Idealism, Materialism and Substaritialism continued to speculate and interpret their observations in their own methods. Advancements in physical science provided the materialism with an upper hand over the other schools and as the quantitatives such as mass, height were already separated(once again) from the qualitatives such as form, odour colour e.t.c. by Gallileo in the latter part of the seventeenth century, the materialistic interpretations dominated not only the more exact sciences like physics, chemistry but also the more inexact sciences(inexact because their phenomena can not be completely explained by the laws of physics, chemistry or mathematics)this lead to the ‘confusion of categories. Biology began to branch off from philosophy and it too wandered in the notion that matter is the pricipal element of the Universe. It depended too much on physics and chemistry.The qualitative came to be neglected.

The two philosophers profoundly influenced the seventeenth century and also had its effect on the medicine were Bacon and Descartes.

Francis Bacon(1561 – 1626)
He is considered as the father of objective and realistic tradition ii modern philosophy developed a methodology depending on the inductive logic which gave a positive direction to that age. He indicated the method of achieving real successes in any sphere of human activity and discussed the obstacles which stand in the way of mans realizing the truth and nothing but truth. He stressed on the importance of learning in general. Bacon taught men to take reason directly from the pages of nature. He emphasized that “truth is the daughter of time, not of authority” .According to Bacon man using his “art’ could do nothing but bringing things nearer to one another and the rest is performed by Nature, the ways of Nature being quite unknown. Thus art can give only certain powers a particular direction and medicine is the art by which such a particular direction is given to certain powers of natures to enable them to check disease, alleviate pain or prolong life. All therapeutics are only giving certain powers of nature a particular direction .He believed in free experimentations pointed out the necessity of specific medicines for the cure of well ascertained diseases He favoured experiment as opposed to argument. To him truth was derived from experience. He brought out the faults of the Aristotelian system of syllogism ( reasoning from the general to particular – deductive reasoning). He lead no new school of philosophy he simply revived the platonic method of reasoning in his book “NOVUM ORGANUM”. He developed inductive reasoning which is reasoning from the part to the whole, from individual to the universal.

Rene Descartes(1596 – 1650)
He devoted his entire life to scholarship in the field of mathematics and philosophy. He invented analytical geometry and the statement of geometrical relation in algebraic terms. He was major contributor to the modern theory of momentum, an explorer in the optics of vision, the proposer of an understandable dynamic theory of mechanism of mind( soul) and the inventor, in rough way , of reflex action. He taught that all things in nature, animals and man are machines which are composed of substances in movement. Descartes believed that an intelligent soul was located in the pineal gland of the brain and that soul caused movement in the body by stirring up the brain thus generating animal spirits in the cerebral ventricles with the spread of these spirits to cause movement of blood. His ‘tractatus de homine’ was published in 1662 and has been described as the father of the subjective and idealistic tradition in modern philosophy.

The important personalities in the field of medicine in se century are
1. Athanasius Kircher (1602 – 1680)
2. Robert Hooke (1635 – 1702)
3. Marcello Malpighi(1628 –1694)
4. Anton Von Leevonhoek(1633 – 1723)
5. William Harvey(1578 – 1657)
6. Robert Boyle
7. Christopher Wren(1632 – 1723)
8. Richard Lower(1631– 1691)
9. John Mayow(1643 – 1679)
10. Francis Glisson(1597 – 1677)
11. Thomas Willis(1621 – 1675)
12. Thomas Sydenham(1624 – 1689)
13. Richard Wiseman(1622 – 1689)
14. Jacob Bontius(1592 – 1631)
15. Renier de Graaf(1641 – 1673)
16. Theophile Bonet (1620 –1689)

Athanasius Kircher (1602 – 1680)
He published a work in 1646 which included a chapter on the wonderful structure of things in nature, investigated by the microscope. He published physico-medical scrutiny of contagious pestilence in 1658. This was certainly the first clear statement on the ‘germ theory’ of contagious diseases based upon microscopical studies

Robert Hooke (1635 – 1702)
Published ‘micrographia’ in 1665 and showed the histology of vegetable structures. He was apparently the first writer to employ the term cell. He was noted for his biological drawings.

Marcello Malpighi(1628 –1694)
His anatomical observations on the lungs in 1661 showed that the lungs are made up of numerous air vesicles in which the bronchioles end, and that a capillary anastomosis exists between the small arteries and veins. Malpighi’s ‘De formatione pulli in ovo’was published in 1666. he has been called the father of embryology. He also published on plant morphology.

Anton Von Leevonhoek(1633 – 1723)
He described large number of bacteria and protozoa. He has been described as the father of protozoology and bacteriology.

William Harvey(1578 – 1657)
He published the demonstration of circulation of blood in his ‘De Motu cardis’ which in 1628. Harvey’s work introduced experimental physiology to his own and succeeding generations.

Robert Boyle
He published his first book in 1660. this volume contained his law, at a stated temperature a given mass varies inversely proportional to the pressure. He studied respiration, combustion, the chemical nature of blood and urine, magnetism, electricity and almost every thing exept for astronomy. He was considerably influenced by Lord Bacon. He asked the physicians to dismiss prejudice and blind authority.He wanted the physicians to concentrate more on the “uncertainities’ of diseases than the ‘certainities” because he visualised diseases as phenomena and he believed that restoration of the sick and relief of sufferings depend on the uncertain aspects of diseases. He was against mixture prescription.He criticized the blind methods of Galen and also Hippocrates’ imitation of Nature, in their therapeutics. He asked the physicians to find out substances which exercise a directly curative power-a power of neutralising the causes of diseases, without producing any disturbing effects on the body. He considered such medicines as and he wanted the employment of medicines singly and in smaller doses, smaller doses because their must be ternatural1y energetic upon a part preternaturally sensitive. He criticized the futility of the search for the imaginary causes of diseases such as acidity of blood etc.

Christopher Wren(1632 – 1723)
He experimented with infusions in 1656. he injected wine, opium, ale and other substances into dogs intravenously and led the way for blood transfusions.

Richard Lower(1631– 1691)
He successfully transfused the blood of one animal to another in 1665 and transfused a poor and debauched man with blood of a sheep without complication in 1667. he published his ‘Tractatus De corde’ in 1669. it contains anatomy of heart and physiology of the heart and respiration and his method of transfusion.

John Mayow(1643 – 1679)
He believed that nitro – aerial particle (later named oxygen by Lavosier) were necessary for life.

Francis Glisson(1597 – 1677)
Introduced a fundamental concept in development of physiology in 1654, that of irritability as a property of living tissue. His monograph published on rickets in 1654 and contained best account of the anatomy of the liver. He described the sheath around the portal vein hepatic artery and duct. This is now known as Glisson’s capsule.

Thomas Willis(1621 – 1675)
He was the elder member of the oxford group. He originated neurology, the term for this speciality of medicine. He also wrote the doctrine of brain. He published his “Cerebri Anatome” in 1664 and blood vessels at the base of brain and their connections. These vessels are now known as the ‘circle of Willis’. He was the first physician in Europe to note the sweet taste of diabetic urine. He made descriptions of influenza, typhus and typhoid fevers and noted constriction of bronchioles in asthma.

Thomas Sydenham(1624 – 1689)
He has been referred to as the “English Hippocratus”. He opposed iatro-physical an iatro-chemial view, instead suggested observation and recording of clinical phenomena. He preferred simple remedies. He opposed treatment of fever-by cooling method, anaemia by iron, syphilis by and malaria by cinchona. He advised specific for disease conditions and to observe and to follow nature. He tried to place the whole living man in front of a physician trying to cure the sick. He went back to the Hippocratic method of recording the sick phenomenon.. He put two alternatives before the medical profession – either to follow Hippocrates and imitate the methods of nature, or to attack the maladies directly with specifics. Sydenham maintained that as different diseases have relative affinities for particular parts of the body and which cannot be explained different remedies have particular affinities for particular parts, tissues or organs of the body for some mysterious reasons. He opined that the art of healing would attain full maturity only when specific medicines for all the prevalent diseases are discovered. He could not live up to his ideals due to the ‘shortage’ of such specifics.

Richard Wiseman(1622 – 1689)
His ‘severall chirugicall treatises’ was published in 1676 and represented a land mark in the history of British surgery.

Jacob Bontius(1592 – 1631)
He produced the first authoritative work on tropical diseases and the first description of beri-beri in the European literature.

Renier de Graaf(1641 – 1673)
He published treatise on pancreatic juice in 1664. He described an illustrated method of collecting the juice through the cannula. He obtained blie from the bile duct and saliva from the parotid gland by same method. He published a volume containing three treatises in 1668 on the anatomy of the male and organs of regeneration. The follicles of ovary were described and have been called graffian follicles. This work also described clysters and discussed this popular therapy, the method of injection and medicines used and his syringe.

Theophile Bonet (1620 –1689
He produced sixteen medical books. His first publication was the ‘sepulchretum’ in 1679. this ranks few medical books of importance and gave impentus to study of pathological anatomy.this was an encyclopedia which contained a record of each recognizable disease from ancient times to that date.

Anatomical Discoveries of Physiological Importance
Seventeenth century also brought many anatomical discoveries which had physiological importance they were.
Described by Year
1 Lacteal vessels          Gaspero Aselli 1622
2 lymphatic duct           Pecquet 1651
3 Pancreatic duct         Wirsung 1642
3 Maxillary antrum        Highmore 1651
4 Submaxillary duct      Wharton 1656
5 Haversian canal         Havers 1691
6 Cowper’s gland         Cowper 1694
7 Pacchionian bodies   Pacchioni 1697
8 Conjunctival glands   Meibom 1666
9 Duodenal glands       Brunner 1682
10 Graafian follicles     Graaf 1672
11 Parotid duct           Stensen 1672
12 Lymphoid follicles in the inestine   Peyer 1662

Important epidemics of plague and typhus continued through seventeenth century.

During the seventeenth century, the advances made in medicine and in sciences during the renaissance were consolidated. Philosophy anscience were able to reestablish close relation between man and nature. The demonstration of the circulation of the blood by William Harvey was the outstanding scientific achievement of this century.

Dr Achamma Lenu Thomas. BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Dept. of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala


Different Editions of Organon of Medicine

Organon7Dr Achamma Lenu Thomas

The content of the Organon may be arranged under four divisions though they do not occur in the order in which they are given here. But if one goes through the whole of Organon then, he finds that the subject consists of –
1. Discoveries – experimental propositions or the result of actual experiment.
2. Directions or Instructions.
3. Theoretical and Philosophical illustrations.
4. Defenses and accusations.

1. Discoveries & Propositions
In “Organon” experience is not referred for the purpose of lauding any individual remedy, far more, it has relation to an entire method of cure. Every doctrine is evolved on the basis of experience to make this science complete. Homoeopathy is a science – a science that treats of the effect of a diversity of substances upon the human frame.

Many discoveries and propositions like Classification of diseases, Drug proving treatment and cure of chronic diseases, one sided diseases, Mental diseases, Intermittent diseases, Drug dynamizations etc. are mentioned in Organon, which are the result of experiments and observations. It is worth noting that the fact that most of these discoveries and propositions have modified which speaks for itself. Alterations and modifications hay been incorporated wherever the necessity was felt or where never observations an inferences demanded.

The Doctrine that dilutions or potencies are capable of curing diseases according to the law, “Similia Similibus Curantur”, is a proposition which belongs to biology, and then finds its confirmation, it likewise or only be investigated by experiment, and cannot be estimated without it.

2. Directions or Instructions
Under this heading can be enumerated directions for examination of the sick, for the preparation of medicines for trying then on the healthy subject, for the selection of the remedies, dietetics and directions for the psychical treatment.

3. Illustrations
Hahnemann has appended certain theories to the laws of nature discovered by him by which these laws are illustrated and brought into unison with other laws already acknowledged, or with other theories received as true. Hahnemann has supported his Lay and Doctrines with many illustrations drawn from nature and from various journals and books. He quotes extensively, from ancient as well as his contemporary medical mythological and other authors in support of his views. He proceeds further to elaborate the system in details and the principles of treatment as well as the remedies to cure the natural diseases. It is one of the best and most logical approaches to make one’s statement more comprehensive and acceptable.

4. Defenses & Accusations
The storm of anger and opposition that broke over Hahnemann and Homoeopathy was the very worst atmosphere for the calm and dispassionate enquiry, which he eagerly desired. In such situations Hahnemann has defended himself and Homoeopathy at various places in Organon and has also criticized and accused the wrongful methods used at that time for treatment. Out, the entire polemical part may be stricken out, without in the slight degree changing the principal matters or without having any influence either to ratify invalidate the doctrine itself.

In first four editions, Hahnemann had in several places spoken rather slightingly of the vital force and its influences on the production and cure of disease, but the expressions are greatly modified in the fifth edition. In last two editions “Vital Force’— “Vital Principle” occupies quite a different and a much more important position in regard to disease, its causes and cure. The doctrine of drug-dynamization of medicines by processes peculiar to homoeopathy, which had only been hinted at in previous editions, is in the fifth edition distinctly stated. The directions for repetitions of doses are also different from those in previous editions.

Medicines were to be administered o healthy individuals & a record should be maintained of the symptoms, which they produced. A given substance was then to be cured to treat the patient whose symptoms were identical with the symptom-pattern developed in the proving of this substance. This interpretation of the traditional Empirical principle of “cure through similars” was called by Hahnemann the “Law of similars” and was thenceforth the basis of Homoeopathic practice.

The Therapeutic Law of Nature as stated in Aphorism 26 (in the 5 and 6 edition) can be traced back to 1796, when in his ‘Essay on a New Principle “ Hahmnemann stated-“We should imitate the nature which sometimes cures a chronic disease by super adding another and, employ in the (especially chronic) disease we wish to cure, that medicine which is able to produce another very similar artificial disease and the former will. be cured.”

This also shows how the idea of Modus Operandi of Homoeopathic cure developed in his later works. In the same ‘Essay…” we can see the birth of this conception of Primary and Secondary Actions of Medicine. He says- “Most medicine has more than one action – the first a direct action which gradually changes into the second (which I called the indirect secondary action). The latter in generally a state exactly the opposite of the former. It may be almost considered an axiom that the symptom of the secondary action are the exact opposite of those of the direct action.”

Hahnemann’s object in attenuating medicines was not the same in the early and middle part of his life as it was in his declining years. In the later year, he had in view, the transference of the properties of medicine from the medicinal substance to the alcohol, or the sugar of milk, the separation of the quantities of matter from the substance in which they inhered, or, to use his own words, “The spiritualization of the dynamic properties”, the unveiling and vivifying of the medicinal spirit, the increase and exaltation of the strength of the medicine, in order that might cause in the healthy and cure the sick, when undynamised medicines would fail for want of power.

Hahnemann’s conception of doses and diminution of quantities, as seen in Organon was expressed for the first time in ‘What are Poisons? What are Medicines?’- An essay, published in 1806. Here he observes that poisons differ from medicines only in quantity. A substance such as table salt, innocuous and even healthy in small amounts, can become poisonous if consumed in larger quantities. And a substance such as arsenic is toxic even in small doses, loses its toxicity and reveals. medicinal qualities if taken in an infinitesimal dose. The strongest poisons, in Hahnemann’s view, make the best remedies precisely for their inherent ability to exert an effect on the Organism.

From the earliest days and throughout the whole of his medical career, Hahnemann paid the great attention to the question of using cold water in cases of illness. This fact needs more emphasis, since the water healing process has fallen into strong disfavor, when Hahnemann appeared and had only a few supporters amongst the physicians of that time.From the “Directions for curing old sores “ in 1784, it can be seen what extensive use he made of the different methods of applying water. In his later life and to the end of his medical career he esteemed very highly the effect of water. In the Sixth edition of the “Organon” he describes it as a valuable “homoeopathic auxiliary remedy’ in the treatment of the sick and convalescent.

Hahnemann never ceased to observe and to test and the later editions of the Organon. It contain a good deal of additional matter embodying his later experience but nothing that conflicts with the essential principles laid down in first editions. Especially he came to develop views concerning the origin of chronic diseases and the best method of treating them homeopathically which modify some of the paragraphs here set forth and added a good deal of fresh material.

“Organon” exhibits a passionate desire for exact and clear statements. Indeed Hahnemann’s desire for clarity leads him into repetition. But throughout it is clear in thought, arduously painstaking and full of conviction yet moderate and argumentative. No unprejudiced person can rise from its perusal without a respect for Hahnemann and to what is true of Organon in this respect.

Although, in Organon, the fundamental principles appear to have been laid out with an exhortative epistemological rigor in 294 aphorisms (in 5 edition), homoeopaths themselves always an independent lot – have come to this door from as many different directions as there are homoeopaths. This is intrinsic to the art of medicine. Every homoeopath brings varieties and irregularities of real-life and actual clinical situations in individual capacities that would be impossible to impose or teach them in a general way. Every homoeopath, every day thus adds many more aphorisms to the pageless book of homoeopathy of course not in the sense of amended theory but of added experience.

In his ‘Essay on a new Principle for Ascertaining the Curative Powers of Drugs. .‘, he had merely shown the external framework, or the corner stone of his convictions. In his Fragmenta de viribus ….‘, he had collated a number of experimental provings of medicines. In his ‘Medicine of Experience’ and in the smaller and larger other treatises he had carried his investigations further. But in the ‘ Organon’, his methodically constructed work on ‘rational healing’ or on the ‘healing art’ in general; he brought all this to completion.

The Organon may in time be widely recognized as one of the most important books in the entire history of medicine because it introduces in the long story of man’s struggle against disease, a successful system of medicinal therapy that contrasts radically with everything previously taught and practiced.

Dr Achamma Lenu Thomas. BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Dept. of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala

Prognosis after observing the action of Homeopathic remedy

Dr Jeena Aslam

After giving the similimum we should observe the cases for further action. I.e. for prognosis. If your prescription is correct the remedy will surely produce changes. These changes are either disappearance of symptoms, increase of symptoms, amelioration of symptoms or reverse order of its appearance. The common findings are aggravation or amelioration. Aggravation is of two kinds.

(1) Disease aggravation

(2) homoeopathic aggravation. If the patient is growing worse after taking the medicine it is called disease aggravation. If the patient feels better, though the symptoms become worse, it is called homoeopathic aggravation. So only observing the change of symptom we could say whether the patient is improving or not. Change of symptom should be first on the interior. But in incurable cases changes occurs in the exterior first the symptoms are growing worse and yet the patient is made comfortable this is meant by palliation.

The important observations are:-
1. Prolonged and final decline of the patient:- Here the antipsoric given was too deep so that it causes destruction. It was an incurable case. Don’t go higher than 30th or 200th and observe whether the aggravation is going to be too deep or too prolonged. In such cases moderately low potency and 30th is low enough.

2. Long aggravation, but final slow improvement:- There was beginning of some very marked tissue changes in some organ, the man was on the borderland, it is better to start with low potencies.

3. Aggravation is quick, short, and strong with rapid improvement of the patient: – Here no tendency to structural changes in the vital organs. Any structural changes that may be present will be found on the surface that is the organ that is not vital. This aggravation occurs in the first hours after the remedy in an acute sickness or during the first few days in a chronic disease.

4. No aggravation with recovery of the patient: – No organic disease, no tendency to organic disease. It is the highest order of cure in acute affections, the potency exactly fit the case, in cures without aggravation we know that the potency is suitable and the remedy is a curative remedy.

5. Amelioration comes first and aggravation afterwards: – Here the condition is unfavorable. Here either the remedy was superficial and could only act as a palliative or the patient was incurable and the remedy was some what suitable.

6. Too short relief of symptoms: – Some condition may interfere with the action of the remedy it may be unconscious on the part of the patient or it may be intentional. In acute disease we may see too short amelioration and the remedies have to be repeated. In chronic disease it means that there are structural changes and organs are destroyed or being destroyed.

7. Full time amelioration of symptoms, yet no relief to the patient: – The remedies act favorably but the case is incurable. Hence the patient is palliated and it is a suitable palliation. E.g. Patient with one kidney can only improve to a certain degree.

8. Some patient prove every remedy they get: – The patient incline to be hysterical, patient is oversensitive to all things or patient is said to have an idiosyncrasy to everything. We administer a dose of high potency and they will go and prove that medicine. Such oversensitive patients are very useful to the homoeopathic physician. When you find a patient he proves everything we give him higher potencies, go back to 30th and 200th potencies.

9. Action of medicine upon provers: – Healthy provers are always benefited by proving if they are properly conducted. It is well to observe carefully the constitutional state of an individual about to become a prover and write these down and substract from proving.

10. New symptoms appearing after the administration of the remedy:-If a great number of new symptoms appear after the administration of remedy, the prescription will generally prove to be an unfavorable remedy.

11. When old symptoms are about to reappear:- Patient is on the road to recovery, so old symptom often come back and go off without any change of medicine indicate that medicine must be left alone, if old symptom come back to stay, repetition of the dose is often necessary.

12. Symptom take the wrong direction: – If we prescribe for the rheumatism of knees relief takes place at once in the rheumatism of the extremities, but the patient is taken down with violent internal distress, that settles in the region of the heart. Here transference has taken place from the circumference to centre and the remedy must be antidoted at once, otherwise structural changes will take place in that new site.

Views of H.A.Robert:-
His concept is same as that of Kent explained it in his book under the chapter “remedy reaction”.

Second prescription
Second prescription may be the repletion of the first or it may be an antidote or a compliment, but none of these things can be considered unless the record has been again fully studied. The medicine that has partly cured the case can often finish it and that medicine should not be changed until there are good reasons for changing it. So advice to be given to the patient that not to change the doctor frequently. We should not make a hurried second prescription. The early repetition of the medicine will prevent an opportunity for making a second prescription.

The Second prescription presupposes that the first one has been a correct one that it has acted and that it has been let alone, when the symptoms return then the patient has same generals and particulars as formerly it means that first prescription was a good one that the case is curable and that Second prescription must be repetition of the former.

Another reason for making a Second prescription is the appearance of a lot of new symptom taking the place of old symptoms, old symptoms do not return but new symptoms come in their place, it must be antidoted, the new symptoms combining with the old ones must again be studied and second remedy must corresponds more particularly to the new than to the old. Wait a long time , when the patient come to a stand still, if no outward symptom have appeared another dose of the same medicine can be considered, if there is return of original symptoms , then we have same guide to the administration of medicine.

Change of remedy in the Second prescription:- After administration of the remedy when a new group of symptoms appear somewhere in the body related to the patient such as the patient has never had this new group of symptoms means that the new remedy must be considered and under such circumstances, the change of remedy will be the second prescription. Even if the symptoms have been changed don’t change the remedy provided that the patient has continually improved.

Complimentary: – A good Second prescription is necessary to compliment the former and this is always a change of remedy. E.g. Calcarea follows belladonna. When there are a series of remedies sulphur, calcarea, lycopodium and the cognates are closely related.
The second prescription takes into consideration the change of plan of treatment. The plan of treatment consists in assuming that the case is a psoric one, sycosis or syphilitic. When one is uppermost, the other is quiet, so we have to change our plan of treatment according to the state of the patient.

No prescription can be made for any patient, except after a careful study of the case. Always restudy your cases, don’t administer a medicine without knowing the constitution of the patient.
Views of  H.A. ROBERT are similar to that of KENT as far as Second prescription is concerned

Dr Jeena Aslam BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Department of Homeopathy
Government of Kerala

Download Synopsis of Kent’s Observations :

Essential hypertension- A miasmatic study

Dr Jeena Aslam

Essential hypertension is a lethal disease that has affected nearly 15%of the Indian population. More awful is the very nature of the disease, it occurs without the development of any symptom at all. It occurs without any evident organic cause. As many as 50% of the essential hypertensive patients do not develop any symptom at all, hence it is described as silent killer.

The term hypertension is used to describe an increase in pressure in arteries. When the term hypertension is used alone, it means systemic hypertension. It means increase in pressure in the systemic circulation.

Definition: – Systemic hypertension cannot be defined precisely. But it is generally agreed that sustained elevation of systolic pressure above 140mm of Hg and/or diastolic pressure above 90mm of Hg constitutes systemic hypertension. Elevation of the diastolic component of blood pressure is particularly significant in hypertensive cases because (1) it is less affected by extraneous and other influences and (2) indicative of the constant load against which heart has to work.

Classification of blood pressure in adults:-

Category   Systolic     Diastolic
Normal       <130          <85
High normal 130-139   85-89

Stage (1) mild 140-159 90-99
Stage (2) moderate 160-179 100-109
Stage (3) severe 180-209 110-119
Stage (4) very severe >210 >120

Homoeopathic concepts about essential hypertension:-

Essential hypertension pertains to the class of chronic diseases described by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homoeopathy

Role of miasms:
– Dr. Hahnemann perfected his theory on chronic diseases in the year 1828. According to this theory, chronic diseases results from chronic miasms.

Human beings are under the influence of two opposing immaterial forces: Vital force and miasms. Vital force is constructive or life preserving in action and is responsible for the harmonious functions of the whole body. Miasm, on the other hand, is destructive in action and makes man susceptible to various diseases. When the external and internal environments that encompass all spheres of human functions are favourable for thriving of man, vital force is on the upper hand and man is healthy: otherwise miasm is on upper hand and man becomes diseased

There are three known miasms namely psora, sycosis, and syphilis. Psora results from bad thinking and bad willing. It is in the mind that psora originates and it is in the mind that vitiates most. If bad thinking and willing are not checked at appropriate times, they lead to bad actions. Sycosis and syphilis result from such bad actions. Psora is considered the mother of all chronic diseases.

There are three stages of psora

1.Latent psora: – This is the first stage of miasmatic action. Miasm first make a disturbance in the vital force which is manifested as abnormal sensations and functions of the organism. These symptoms are just constitutional and do not refer any particular organ or tissues. Nosology fails to apply here, and man appears to be healthy.

2.Secondary psora:-This is characterized by the disharmony of the functions of various tissues and organs. It is a later manifestation of the disharmony of the vital force produced by the latent psora.

3.Tertiary psora:- Psoric action advances as time passes by in multilateral directions and gross structuctural changes in the tissues and organs begin to appear. This is the stage of tertiary psora. Diverse pathology is seen in this stage.

Chronic diseases are the class of disease that spring from the chronic miasms. The whole or central life is attacked and disturbed first by some morbific agent of miasmatic nature; this central disturbance leads to disturbance in the life of tissues, organs or cells. Chronic disease thus follow a definite course of evolution starting from the central to the periphery and marked by the three stages of psora, followed by sycosis and syphilis. Hahnemann explained about this in his book ‘nature of chronic diseases’ as “their beginning was promising, the continuation less favourable and outcome was hopeless, is true as far as hypertension is considered. It does not show any identifiable organic cause during most part of its course of evolution and has to be understood from the totality of symptoms.
Pathophysiology of hypertension:-

Magnitude of arterial pressure depends on the two fundamental hemodynamic variables: Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance.

Cardiac output: – It is the volume f blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute. Normally 5 to 6 liters of blood is pumped out in healthy adult. It is depends on blood volume, which is greatly depends on body sodium.

Peripheral resistance: – The impediment of the blood flow occurring in the entire systemic circulation is called peripheral resistance. The total peripheral resistance is determined by lumen size of the arterioles, thickness of the arteriolar wall and the effects of the neural and hormonal influences that either constrict or dialate these vessels

Auto regulation:-It is a process by which increased blood flow to resistant vessel induces vasoconstriction, an adaptive mechanism that protects against hyper perfusion of tissues.

Blood pressure regulation:-
Humoral factors
Constrictors               Dialators
Angiotensin II         Prostaglandins
Blood volume  Thromboxane    Kinins
Local factors

Blood pressure= Cardiac output × Peripheral resistance

Cardiac Factors            Neural Factors
Heart rate            Constrictors            Dialators
Contractility       α-adrenergic             β-adrenergic

Kidney plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. Renal dysfunction is essential for the development and maintenance of both essential and secondary hypertension.

Blood pressure variation in the rennin-angiotensin system.

Kidney influences both peripheral resistance and sodium homeostasis and the rennin-angiotensin system appears to central to these influences. Renin formed from the juxtra glomerular cells of the kidney converts plasma angiotensinogen to angiotensinI, and it is again converted into angiotensin II by ACE. Angiotenin II alters blood pressure by increasing both peripheral resistance and blood volume.

Kidney produces a variety of vasodepressor that counterbalance the vasopressor effects of angiotensin.they include prostaglandins and kinins.

When blood volume is reduced, the GFR falls, this in turn leads to increased reabsorbtion of sodium by proximal tubules in an attempt to conserve sodium and expand blood volume.

ANF, a peptide secreted by heart atria inhibits sodium reabsorbtion in distal tubules and causes vasodilatation.

Arterial hypertension occurs when changes develop that alters the relationship between blood volume and total peripheral resistance.

Essential hypertension
is a complex disorder that almost certainly has more than one cause. It may be initiated by environmental factors (e.g. stress, salt intake, estrogen), which affect the variables that control blood pressure in the genetically predisposed individual. Although the susceptibility genes for essential hypertension are currently unknown, they may include genes that govern responses to an increased renal sodium load, level of pressor substances, such as angiotensin II, reactivity of vascular smooth muscle to pressor agents, or smooth muscle cell growth.

Genetic Influence + Environmental Factors
Plasma and ECF #              Vascular reactivity     #Vascular wall
Volume                                                                    Thickness
Plasma and ECF Volume
Cardiac output
(Auto regulation)

From the pathophysiology we came to the conclusion that hypertension occurs in a predisposed individual as this miasm is inherited from parents. Hence first stage person is under the influence of psora, later the increased blood volume and increased peripheral resistance indicates its sycotic background, and finally vascular pathology and end organ damage occurs which indicate the syphilitic nature. Hence hypertension is trimiasmatic in nature.

Dr Jeena Aslam BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Department of Homeopathy
Government of Kerala