The constitution temperament and diathesis in Homoeopathy

Dr Anjana Kumari
Dr Priyaka Kapoor

Abstract– The Constitution or the physical makeup of a person  or hereditary characters and influenced by environmental factors and  The Temperament or mental make  up of a person or personality  and The Diathesis  acquired constitutional disorder or  predisposes constitutional defect.

Keywords-constitution, temperament, diathesis.

INTRODUCTION –Hippocrates(father of medicine) was born on the island of Cos around 460 BC.he was born during the prophetic ministries of Nehemiah and Malachi, or some 450 years before the birth of Christ. He placed great emphasis on the innate constitution of human beings because it intermingles with and condi­tions all responses to environment.A generic explanation of human “Temperaments” or “Personalities” is that all of us have been born with genetically inherited “behavioral tendencies” that are as much a part of our DNA as is the color of our hair; all of us are made up of DNA combinations passed on to us through our parents and ancestors. This fact is important because it helps us to more fully understand our basic behaviouraldisposition. much of our human personality is inherited,it has also been influenced and shaped by our unique environments.

The characters which the baby receives from his parents, we can call as the endogenous factor (genetic determined) and the characters which influenced by facing different environmental conditions like house, school, friends  etcwe can call as the exogenous factors (environmentalinfluences).

The term constitution is derived from the Latin noun, constitutio, which means an arrangement or physical make-up. Constitutional means that which affects the whole; the inherent natural make-up or structure of a person or thing; the way something is arranged in reference to its composition, construction or nature; that which relates to the physical and mental health or make-up. The term, constitution, is closely related to the word, diathesis, which means an inherited or acquired constitutional disorder. Therefore, there may be inherited and acquired dispositions and diseases that affect the whole constitution.

  1. Close defines constitution as “that aggregate of hereditary characters, influenced more or less by the environment which determines the individuals reaction, successful or unsuccessful , to the stress of environment”.

J.T. Kent says “physical constitution is the external disorder following disorder in the man, the vital force”.

Dr. Leon Vannierclassified constitution based on chemical element in

  1. Carbonic-correspond to vitality origin from psora and affect epithelium
  2. Fluoric-originates from syphilitic miasm affect elastic tissues
  3. Phosphoric- correspond to lack of vitality , originates from tubercular miasm and affect serous membrane

Thomas paschero of Argentina , classified and compare the pathology process with hahnemann’s miasms

  1. Inflammation correspondes to excitation and it is psora.
  2. Proliferation correspond to inhibition and hence it is sycosis .
  3. Desteraction correspond to loss of function hence syphilis.

Grauvogl’sClassification–  in 1870 homeopath Dr. Von Grauvogl classified constitution most of homeopaths accepted this classification.which is as followes-

  • Carbo Nitrogenoid Constitution– result of insufficient of oxygenation and excess of carbon and nitrogen, caused deficiency disorders and perverted nutrition. Psora of Hahnemann resembles carbonitrogenoid type’ symptom aggravated by excessive eating, resting and sexual breathlessness, respiratory  disorders, fast pulse, constitution or diarrhea, flatulence etc
  • Oxygenoid Constitution-an excess of oxygen result into breakage of hydrocarbons and nitrogen.leads to destruction of tissues and bones. better feels in rains or cold weather and by rest and food taking .Syphilis of Hahnemann resembles the   oxygenoid type symptoms increase at seasore or low altitude.
  • Hydrogenoid Constitution–excessive hydrogen leads to water retention in blood and tissue.Sycosis of Hahnemann resembles the hydrogenoid type. Symptoms aggravated by bathing,eating sea food.

The Latin verb “temperare,” which meaning to temper or moderate, is where the word temperament originates.Hippocrates documented his patients’ inclinations and symptoms based on the four tempera¬ments, which are the most prevalent biological kinds. These temperaments were dubbed the choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine, and melancholy temperaments by Hippocrates. The four archetypal elements of earth, water, fire, and air are associated with the key characteristics of the four temperaments and four humours.

According to H.A. Roberts, “the homeopathic remedy can remove the morbific influences that are attached to the temperamental tendencies, thus greatly preventing the dangers arising from the temperamental weakness.”

According to current scientific theory, humoural fluids, also known as the “medium of life,” make about 80% of the human body. In the classical context, humor refers to a fluid of the animal body, particularly one of the four that Hippocratic physiology considers when determining temperament or mental disposition. This serves as the foundation for the definition of humor, which is a certain temperament or mental state. This is the source of phrases like “they are out of humor,” “she is in bad humor,” and “he has no humor.” Each of the four primary animal fluids, or humours, has a distinct tone, feel, and consistency.bilious (bile) -The earthy yellow bile is angry, dry and hot, the watery.

  1. pituitious (clear fluids)- pituitous phlegm is weepy, moist and cold.
  2. sanguineous (red blood) -the fiery sanguine blood is passionate, hot and moist.
  3. atrabilious (blackbile) -the airy black atrabile is melancholic, cold and dry.

The psycho-neuro-endocrine system’s (PNE) physiological and psychological operations, as well as its connection to morphological structures, are intimately linked to the Hippocratic notion of temperament.

All human personalities, with the exception of people with serious mental problems, may be broadly classified into four categories, which are further subdivided into two groups: extroverts and introverts, according to scientific investigation.

  1. Extroverted Personalities: The Sanguine and Choleric personality types are more gregarious, “out-going,” and at ease in large groups of people. They can even stand out in a crowd.
  2. Introverted Personalities: The Melancholy and Phlegmatic personality types are more “reserved” and reserved, and they experience anxiety when they are with people, particularly when they are the target of attention.

 The Four Cardinal Temperaments

  1. CHOLERIC — referred to as a “Type A” personality or “the doer” (or “the driver”); he is a hard driving individual known for accomplishing goal.
    1. Fundamentally ambitious and leader-like.
    2. The choleric temperament has a predominance of the bilious humour that gives them a warm, dry, lean, rectangular or square body, tight muscles and connective tissue
    3. Yellowish coloring and a tendency to be irritable, angry and impatient.
    4. There is a tendency to liver complaints as well as digestive and intestinal disorders and skin eruptions.
  2. PHLEGMATIC — referred to as “the watcher” — they are best in positions of unity and mediation, and solid in positions that desire steadiness.
    1. Fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly attentive to lazily sluggish.
    2. The phlegmatic temperament has a predominance of the pituitious humour which gives them a chilly, moist, round, oval-shaped body with soft, loose, watery tissue
    3. pale or whitish coloring and a tendency towards tearfulness, timidity and indecision.
    4. There is a tendency towards weight gain, edema, lymphatic stagnation and genitourinary problems.
  3. SANGUINE — referred to as “the talker.” They are expressive in personality, desire influence, and being enthusiastic with people.
    1. fundamentallyimpulsive and pleasure-seeking.
    2. The sanguine temperament has a predominance of the blood humour that gives them a hot, moist, triangular or barrel-shaped body with strong, muscular, fleshy tissue
    3. Reddish coloring and a tendency towards pride, optimism and violence.
    4. There is a tendency towards high blood pressure, blood disorders, strokes and heart disease.
  4. MELANCHOLIC — referred to as “the thinker.” Their analytical personality’s desire caution and restraint, best at attending to details.
    1. The melancholic temperament has a predominance of the atrabilious humour which gives them a cool, dry, rectangular or thin body, lack of tissue, thin pipe-stem bones, ashy gray coloring, and a tendency towards pensiveness, depression and nervousness.
    2. There is a tendency toward hypo­chondria, disorders of the brain and nervous system, and respiratory complaints.

There are 12 temperaments that are mixtures of the four major types.

  1. Phlegmatic type-
    1. the cholero-phlegmatic
    2. the sanguino-phlegmatic
  • the nervo-phlegmatic
  1. choleric type-
    1. the phlegmo-choleric
    2. the sanguino-choleric
  • the nervo-choleric
  1. sanguine type-
    1. the cholero-sanguine
    2. the phlegmo-sanguine
  • the nervo-sanguine
  1. nervous type-
    1. the cholero-nervous
    2. the phlegmo-nervous
  • thesanguino-nervous.

A specific grumbling or a gathering of conditions in view of a few underlying or metabolic peculiarities can be known as the diathesis. The greek word ” diatithenai ” implies ” to orchestrate ”

A disquisition of the constitution and attitude is almost connected with the investigation of acquired and gained diatheses. A diathesis, the Greek word for demeanor, is a specific condition or carnal propensity that inclines an individual toward a specific grumbling state. In homeopathy, the term “diathesis” refers to a predisposition or constitutional tendency towards certain types of diseases or imbalances in the body. Homeopathic practitioners often consider a person’s diathesis when selecting a remedy. The concept is based on the idea that individuals may have inherent vulnerabilities or susceptibilities to specific health conditions.

Types of diathesis:

  1. Lymphatic diathesis- closed to psoric factors . like psora, skin eruptions and then  the affections of inner organ results.
  2. Uric acid diathesis- very closed to hahnemann’s sycotic symptoms. this diathesis is also known as lithemic , rheumatic ,gouty or hydrogenoid diathesis. aggravated in cold, damp weather , humid atmosphere, cold application, by residing at the sea bed, by taking  at ervegetables etc.
  3. Dyscratic diathesis– very closed to hahnemann’s syphilitic miasmatic symptoms. The degenerative diesases, cancerous conditions etc.
  4. Tubercular diathesis– wasting of body, weakness, destruction of the tissue with glandular involvement etc. also call e scrofulous diathesis.

The Constitution, temperament and disposition was introduced by Dr. Hahnemann, expanded on by Dr.Boenninghausen, clarified by Dr.Jahr, and recorded in the materia medica by Dr.Hering.

some modern homoeopaths think that constitutional factors play no role in Homoeopathy, Hahnemann, Hering, Boenninghausen and Jahr studied the effects of the remedies on consti­tution and temperament in their provings and observed in further clinical confirmations.

Barnett placed more importance on host constitution in disease whereas Pasteur placed more importance on the role of the pathogen. Hippocrates placed the most emphasis in the congenital constitution although he did not deny the influence of external stress factors and pathogens. The fundamental cause of disease is so closely related to the predispositions of the constitution that it is impossible to ignore its primacy.

Great physicians like Hippocrates, Paracelsus, and Hahnemann were well aware of the importance of the constitution in the healing art.


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  4. Nagendra babu, G. Comprehensive study of organon. (1 Ed.). Noida,up : Bjain publishers; 2009

Dr. Anjana Kumari 1
Assistant professor Department of Organon of Medicine and Homoeopathic Philosophy Nootan Homeopathic Medical college (under Sankalchand Patel University) visnager,Gujarat, India.

Dr. Priyaka Kapoor 2
Assistant professor Department of Pathology University College of Homeopathy Dr.Sarvepalli
Radhakrishna Rajasthan Ayurved University, kadwad, Jodhpur. rajasthan

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