E.S.Rajendran* and T.Abdurahiman**
Abbreviations: HRTEM – High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope
FESEM – Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope
EDS – Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
Laboratory facilities availed
- FESEM& EDS –CeNSE(Centre for Nano Sciences and Engineering) IISC (Indian Institute of Science), Bangalore.
- HRTEM& EDS– International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam.
FESEM1&EDS2: All the commonly used potencies of Carbo vegetabilis† (Carbo veg) in centesimal scale3 (6C, 30C, 200C, 1M, 10M, 50M and CM) were analyzed under FESEM with EDS. Nanoparticles were identified in all the potencies of Carbo veg. The particles were studied for the elementary composition using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy.
HRTEM2& EDS: All the commonly used potencies of Aurum metallicum† (Aurum met) in Centesimal scale4 (6C, 30C, 200C, 1M, 10M, 50M and CM) were analyzed under HRTEM with EDS. Nanoparticles were identified in every potency. The particles were studied under EDS to identify the elementary composition.
† All potencies of Carbo veg and Aurum met were procured from Willmer Schwabe India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
In FESEM study of Carbo veg, enormous particles were identified in all the potencies in nanometer scale. The EDS analysis revealed that the particles in all potencies were mostly composed of Carbon and Oxygen.
Under the HRTEM study of Aurum met, plenty of particles were identified in nanometer5 and in Quantum Dots2 (QD) scale. EDS analysis showed the presence of Au (Gold) in all the potencies of Aurum metallicum.
Many theories were proposed by researchers regarding the action of homeopathic potentised drugs in human beings. Some of the important theories proposed earlier were, water memory theory6 proposed by Bellavite and Signorini;hormesis7 by Iris.R.Bell and Gary.E.Schwartz; gene regulatory hypothesis8 by Anisur Rahman Khuda Bukhsh; silicon nanoparticles as a non-specific biological amplifier9 by Mary Koithan and Iris.R.Bell and modulation of signal proteins10 by Anisur Rahman, Soumya Sundar Bhattacharya et al. Some of these theories were based on experimental evidence and others were hypothetical in nature.
The present study conclusively proved that Homeopathic potencies are basically Nanomedicine. Homeopathic drug potencies are filled with particles in nanometer scale as well as in Quantum Dots. Also it proves without doubt that homeopathic potencies are not simple alcohol as skeptics alleged. The therapeutic action of homeopathic drugs though clinically verified all along, was under the shadow of doubt due to the perceived scientific limits of the period. The present discovery of Nanoparticles in all the potencies of homeopathic drugs prove beyond doubt that the therapeutic action of homeopathic drugs are mediated through the Nanoparticles and QDs present plenty in each micro drop of the medicinal solution.
This discovery further reveals a possibility that homeopathic drug potencies are fundamentally Nanomedicine and highly advanced curative agents. The potential of this new discovery is yet to be revealed fully.
- Bandyopadhyay, A. K., Nano Materials, 2008, New Age International Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, p.92.
- T, Nano:The Essentials: Understanding NanoscienceAnd Nanotechnology,2007, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi,p.32, 34,179.
- Samuel Hahnemann, MateriaMedicaPura, Vol.1, 1990, B.Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, p.354-355.
- Homeopathic pharmacopeia of India, Vol II, Second edition, 1984, Government of India, Ministry of health and family welfare, p.65.
- Sellers Kathleen, Mackay Christopher, Bergeson Lynn.L et al.,Nanotechnologyand the Environment, 2009, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, USA,p.12.
- Bellavite P, Signorini A.The Emerging Science of Homeopathy. Complexity, Biodynamics and nanopharmacology, 2nd edition, 2002, Berkeley, New Atlantic Books.
- BellIris R, SchwartzGary E, Adaptive Network Nanomedicine: An Integrated Model for Homeopathic Medicine, Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition) 2013; 5(2), p.691.
- Khuda-BukhshAnisurRahaman, Current Trends in High Dilution Research with Particular Reference to Gene Regulatory Hypothesis, Nucleus – International journal of cytology and allied sciences (Springer publications), published online: 18 Mar 2014.
- Bell Iris R, Koithan Mary, A Model for Homoeopathic Remedy Effects: Low Dose Nanoparticles, Allostatic Cross-Adaptation, and Time-Dependent Sensitization in a Complex Adaptive System, BMC Complementary & alternative Medicne2012,12:191, p.4
- Khuda-Bukhsh A.R, Bhattacharyya Soumya Sundar et al, Modulation Of Signal Proteins: A Plausible Mechanism to Explain How a Potentized Drug Secale Cor 30c Diluted Beyond Avogadro’s Limit Combats Skin Papilloma in Mice. Evid Based Compliment Alternat Med.2011,2011:286320, published online June 18,2011.
(Thanks to Vinayaka Mission’s University. The study of Aurum metallicum 6C – CM in this paper forms a part of my PhD thesis – Dr. E.S.Rajendran)
Courtesy : The paper orginally presented in world homoeopathy submit at Mumbai by Global Homoeopathy Foundation (GHF)