An evaluation of Avogadro’s number in the light of HRTEM and EDS studies of high dilutions of Ferrum metallicum

E S Rajendran

PhD, Professor and Director, Vinayaka Missions Homeopathic Medical College, Vinayaka Mission University, Salem, Tamil Nadu 636308, India.

As a therapeutic tool high dilutions (HDs) are always at the center of controversies due to problems to validate them as a function of Avogadro’s number. Nevertheless, homeopathy is practiced around the world as a complementary and alternative medicine. The present study sought to evaluate HDs of homeopathic drug Ferrum metallicum (Ferr) 6, 30, 200, 1M, 10Mc and 50Mc, all of which except for 6c surpass Avogadro’s number.

Using HRTEM and EDS it was conclusively shown that: 1) all the investigated HDs of Ferr contained plenty of nanoparticles (NPs); 2) the size of NPs were within the quantum dots (QD) size range, except for 50Mc, in which larger particles were found (12.61nm); 3) NPs contained iron in various weight percentages; 4) the weight percentage of iron was highest in HDs 10Mc and 50Mc.

Homeopathy was established in the late 18th century by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann. For his experiments, Hahnemann prepared medicines from a wide variety of natural products.1 Homeopathy has been widely used around the globe for more than 200 years with its popularity fluctuating from time to time.

While there are misgivings about its scientific validity, all along its history homeopathy showed therapeutic effectiveness in the cure of chronic and acute diseases. Such effectiveness kept it alive as an alternative mode of therapy despite the ill-defined scientific explanations about its plausibility.

Keywords: Homeopathy, High dilutions, Ferrum metallicum, Nanoparticles, HRTEM, EDS, Quantum

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