Dr Arun S Raj
The term congenital bone disorder describes alterations in typical combination that present themselves at one or multiple parts of the skeletal system. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic heterogeneous group of bone disorders. In case of diaphyseal fractures, telescopic rods are fixed in the proximal and distal epiphyses of the long bones. The design allows that the rods grow with the bone. These rods dramatically reduced the number of operations needed for one child. But complications like the cutting out of the nail or bowing of the bone around the nail can occur in any method of treatment due to the nature of the disease. Fibrous dysplasia is a non-hereditary, benign tumorous bone disorder, in which normal bone is displaced by fibrous bone. Surgical approaches include removing the affected intraosseous lesion and filling this cavity with autologous or allogenic bone material. Depending on the extent of the fibrous dysplasia, one also has to consider stabilizing the bone by intramedullary rods.
Congenital Bone Diseases:
Many diseases of the skeletal system are congenital in the sense that they become evident at or soon after birth. This does not imply that they all are genetically determined. Most are caused by factors operating during pregnancy, delivery, or early infancy.
Pediatric Orthopaedic Birth Defects:
Orthopaedic birth defects include a wide range of conditions affecting a baby’s bones and muscles, tendons, and ligaments that connect them. These conditions occur while your baby is developing in the uterus. Some orthopaedic birth defects heal on their own and don’t require treatment. Others can lead to complications if left untreated, including:
What Causes Orthopaedic Birth Defects?
Orthopaedic birth defects happen when bone and muscle tissue develops abnormally in babies during fetal development. According to the March of Dimes, the causes for about 60 percent of birth defects are unknown. Some common risk factors may include:
- Abnormal genes inherited from a parent
- Missing or abnormal genes caused by a chromosome disorder
- Toxins including alcohol, cigarette smoke, illicit drugs, certain medications, radiation, and certain chemicals
- Severe maternal infections during pregnancy, including rubella (German measles), chicken pox, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Preexisting maternal conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disease, heart disease, and high blood pressure
How Are Orthopaedic Birth Defects Diagnosed?
Depending on the type of orthopaedic birth defect your child may have, the pediatrician may recommend one or more of the following tests:
- Blood and urine tests to check for infection or enzyme deficiency
- Diagnostic imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI scans, to examine bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments
- X-rays to look for problems in bones
- Genetic testing, either prenatal or after birth, to check for abnormalities
- Biopsy of muscle or bone to check for a range of problems.
Homoeopathic view on Genetical Disease:
Genetics has historically focused on chromosomal and metabolic disorder. Genetic background plays a major role in virtually every medical condition. This is particularly true when one considers disease susceptibility, the interaction of genetic background with the environment, host responses to illness and to pharmaceutical agents, or the metabolic drugs. Although genetics has traditionally been viewed through the window of relatively rare single gene diseases, many disorders such as hypertension, asthma, diabetes, susceptibility to cardiovascular disease are also affected by genetic background, as often evident from a patient’s family history.
The basic purpose of genes is the production of structural proteins and enzymes. This occurs through a series of events, termed TRANSCRIPTION, PROCESSING, & TRANSLATION.Medical genetics is concerned with the study of human genetic variation. The basis of that variation is mutation, or change in the DNA sequence. Mutations can and do occur in every cell of the body: When they occur in somatic cells, there is a risk of cancer development; when they occur in the germ line, there is a risk that an offspring may inherit a structural or functional disability. Many mutations are benign or silent; others explain variation in the severity of a genetic disease (polymorphisms), whereas others produce serious consequences.
It is now recognized that homeopathic remediation can affect gene expression because, in the absence of pharmacological intervention, biological changes such as disease progress and promotion of disease symptoms as in the proving process must be driven by activation or deactivation of specific genes that synthesize the proteins (enzymes, hormones and inflammatory mediators, for example) that are needed to bring about those changes. It therefore follows that some homeopathic remedies must have the capacity to promote changes in gene activity. So, it has become very important to understand more about the gene targeting capabilities of homeopathic substances. Molecular biological technologies have now confirmed that highly diluted substances such as plant and tissue extracts do have the capacity to boost gene expression in a specific way.
Dr.Hahnemann has mentioned in Organon of Medicine Aphorism 78 – “The true natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic Miasm, which when left to themselves and unchecked,always go on increasing & growing worse, & torment the patient to the end of his life with ever aggravated suffering”. Every miasm is nothing but a defence mechanism at genetic level. Destructive defence mechanism is indicating syphilitic and constructive or physiological defence mechanism is posra.
The chronic miasms in the mother were responsible for hereditary disorders in the child when he was in the intra-uterine state, and these could be treated by the homeopathic remedy. Susceptibility plays a major role in the development of problem in genetically disorder individual to development of suffering. And the same way susceptibility is also important to treat that suffering in with homoeopathic DNA (medicine). Now, it is a time to do research with the help of molecular biology that how our dynamic & extremely low attenuated homoeopathic medicines stimulate the Genetic code.
Dr.Hahnemann has mentioned in Organon of Medicine Aphorism 186 as those so-called local maladies which have been produced a short time previously, solely by an external lesion, still appear at first sight to deserve the name of local disease. But then the lesion must be very trivial, and in that case it would be of no great moment. For in the case of injuries accruing to the body from without, if they be at all severe, the whole living organism sympathizes; there occur fever, etc.
The treatment of such diseases is relegated to surgery; but this is right only in so far as the affected parts require mechanical aid, whereby the external obstacles to the cure, which can only be expected to take place by the agency of the vital force, may be removed by mechanical means, e.g., by the reduction of dislocations, by needles and bandages to bring together the lips of wounds, by mechanical pressure to still the flow of blood from open arteries, by the extraction of foreign bodies that have penetrated into the living parts, by making an opening into a cavity of the body in order to remove an irritating substance or to procure the evacuation of effusions or collections of fluids, by bringing into apposition the broken extremities of a fractured bone and retaining them in exact contact by an appropriate bandage, etc.
But when in such injuries the whole living organism requires, as it always does, active dynamic aid to put it in a position to accomplish the work of healing, e.g. when the violent fever resulting from extensive contusions, lacerated muscles, tendons and blood-vessels requires to be removed by medicine given internally, or when the external pain of scalded or burnt parts needs to be homoeopathically subdued, then the services of the dynamic physician and his helpful homoeopathy come into requisition.
Role of Homoeopathic Treatment on Congenital Abnormalities of Bones including dislocations:
Materia Medica aspect chief remedies for bone fractures and dislocations:
Acon, Agar, Agn, Alum, Ambr, Am-c, Am-m, Anac, Ang, Anthrac, Arn, Ars, Asar, Bar-c, Bell, Bov, Bry, Calc, Calc-f, Calc-p, Calen, Caps, Carb-an, Carb-v, Caust, Chel, Cocc, Colo, Mag-c, Con, Croc, Dulc, Euph, Eup-per, Fl-ac, Graph, Hep, Hyper, Ign, Kali-I, Kali-n, Kreos, Lach, Lachn, Led, Lyc, Mag-m, M-ambo, Merc, Mez, Nat-c, Nat-m, Nit-ac, Nux-v, Petr, Ph-ac, Phos, Psor, Puls, Rhod, Rhust, Ruta, Sep, Sil, Spig, Stann, Staph, Stict, Stron-c, Sulph, Symph, Thuja, Zinc, etc…
Repertory aspect of Bone Fractures and dislocations:
Ankles – DISLOCATION, ankle joint, sprains- agn. anac. Arn. bell-p. BRY. calc-f. calc-p. carb-an. kali-bi. Led. m-aust. nat-ar. nat-c. nux-v. ph-ac. phos. prun. rhod. Rhus-t. Ruta sil. stront-c. sulph.
Ankles – PAIN, ankles – dislocated, as if – as if it would dislocate- calc-p. calc. nat-c. Ruta
Ankles – SPRAINED, ankles- agar. ANAC. ang. ARN. asc-t. Bell-p. BRY. Calc. caust. eup-per. fl-ac. gran. graph. kali-bi. LED. nat-c. nat-s. nit-ac. plb. RHUS-T. RUTA Sil. Stront-c. Valer. verat. zinc.
Ankles – WEAK, ankles – dislocation, and spraining, easy, foot bends under- calc-p. nat-c. RUTA stront-c.
Arms – DISCOLORATION, arms – yellow, spots – DISLOCATION, as if, feeling- Ant-t. merc. rhus-t.
Arms – WEAK, arms – hip, joints, with pain in, as if dislocated, worse when walking- psor.
arn. asaf. CALC-P. calen. lyc. nit-ac. ruta sil. sulph. SYMPH.
BACK – INFLAMMATION – cord – dislocation, from a- acon. arn. hyos. merc. rhus-t.
BACK – INFLAMMATION – cord – fracture, from a- acon. phos.
BACK – INFLAMMATION – spine – spinal cord – dislocation, from a- acon. arn. hyos. merc. rhus-t.
BACK – INFLAMMATION – spine – spinal cord – fracture, from a- acon. phos.
Back – INJURIES, back – dislocations- ARN. bell-p. BRY. calc-f. CALC. caust. Coloc. hyper. lyc. nux-v. phos. RHUS-T. Ruta stront-c. sulph. zinc.
Bones – BRITTLE, bones – fractured, often- CALC-P. calc. Merc. Sil.
Bones – brittle, fractured etc- asaf. bufo calc-f. calc-p. Calc. Lyc. Merc. par. ph-ac. ruta Sil. Sulph. symph. thuj.
Bones – BROKEN, bones – compound, fracture- ang. ARN. bry. calc-p. Calc. Calen. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. Lach. Petr. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.
Bones – BROKEN, bones – fractured, often- CALC-P. calc. Merc. Sil.
Bones – BROKEN, bones – inflammation, after fracture of tibia- ANTHRACI.
Bones – BROKEN, bones – union, of fractures, to promote- arn. asaf. CALC-P. calen. lyc. nit-ac. ruta sil. sulph. SYMPH.
Bones – DECAY, of bones – expulsion, promotes, of necrotic bone – assisted, after fracture of head of femur- Cocc.
Bones – DISLOCATED, feel as if out of joint, in getting up shakes herself to get them in place- med.
BONES – Fracture- Arn. Calc-f. Calc-p. calc. calen. croc. ferr. iod. kali-i. Ruta sil. Sulph. Symph. valer.
Bones – INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows – brittle, bones, fractured often- CALC-P. calc. Merc. Sil.
Bones – INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows – compound, fracture- ang. Anthraci. ARN. bry. calc-p. Calc. Calen. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. Lach. Petr. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.
Bones – INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows – fractures, disposition to- CALC-P. calc. Merc.
Bones – INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows – inflammation, after fracture of tibia- ANTHRACI.
Bones – PAIN, bones – fractures, in, old- mag-m.
Clinical – amputation, pain, phantom pains – compound, fracture of left upper arm, after- Calen.
Clinical – dislocations, joints, of – easy, dislocation- am-c. Bry. Calc. cann-i. Carb-an. carb-v. con. hep. kali-n. Lyc. merc. Nat-c. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Nux-v. Petr. Phos. Rhus-t. Ruta Stront-c. Sulph.
Clinical – dislocations, joints, of- Agn. Am-c. ambr. ang. Arn. bar-c. Bell. bov. Bry. Calc. cann-i. Carb-an. carb-v. caust. con. Form. graph. hep. Ign. Kali-n. kreos. Lyc. Merc. mez. mosch. Nat-c. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Nux-v. Petr. Phos. Puls. rhod. Rhus-t. Ruta sabin. sep. spig. stann. staph. Stront-c. Sulph. zinc.
CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION AND AMELIORATION IN GENERAL – Dislocations and sprains, agg.- AGN. Am-c. ambr. ang. ARN. bar-c. bov. BRY. CALC. CARB-AN. Carb-v. Caust. con. Graph. hep. IGN. Kali-n. kreos. LYC. M-ambo. MERC. mez. mosch. NAT-C. NAT-M. NIT-AC. NUX-V. PETR. PHOS. PULS. Rhod. RHUS-T. RUTA sabin. SEP. Sil. Spig. stann. staph. SULPH. zinc.
Constitutions – ELDERLY, constitutions – bones, non-union of fractured- CALC-P.
Dislocation easy, spontaneous- ars. Calc. carb-an. chel. graph. lyc. nat-c. phos. prun. rhus-t. ruta sep.
Dreams – FRACTURE of, jaw- hecla rauw.
DROPSY – joints – fractures, after- bov.
EXTERNAL THROAT – PAIN – sprained, dislocative- agar. ambr. ars. asar. calc. carb-an. chinin-s. con. merc. petr. sars.
EXTREMITIES – DISLOCATION – Hip; spontaneous dislocation of- bell. bry. Calc-f. CALC. CAUST. Coloc. Kali-c. lyc. Nat-m. puls. Rhus-t. ruta sulph. Thuj. zinc.
EXTREMITIES – DISLOCATION- drym-cor. oxal-c. rham-pr.
EXTREMITIES – DISLOCATION; EASY- ars. Calc. carb-an. chel. graph. lyc. nat-c. phos. prun. rhus-t. ruta sep.
EXTREMITIES – FRACTURES – Legs – Bones – Tibia – open fracture- Anthraci.
EXTREMITIES – FRACTURES – open fractures- Calen.
EXTREMITIES – FRACTURES- arn. bell-p-sp. BRY. CALC-P. Calc. Calen. eup-per. RUTA Sil. SYMPH.
EXTREMITIES – GANGRENE – Leg – fracture of Tibia, with compound- Anthraci.
EXTREMITIES – GANGRENE – lower limbs – legs – bones, tibia, with compound fracture of- ANTHRACI.
EXTREMITIES – INJURIES – Hand – fracture with laceration- Hyper.
EXTREMITIES – INJURIES – Tibia, compound fracture of, with inflammation or gangrene- Anthraci.
EXTREMITIES – INJURIES, – Hand, – fracture with laceration- Hyper.
EXTREMITIES – PAIN – Bones – fractures; in old- bamb-a. symph.
EXTREMITIES – SWELLING – general – edematous – joints – fractures, after- bov.
EXTREMITIES – SWELLING – general – joints – fracture, after- bov.
EXTREMITIES – SWELLING – Joints – edematous – fractures, after- bov.
EXTREMITIES – SWELLING – Joints – fracture, after- bov.
EXTREMITIES – WEAKNESS – joints – dislocation, after- rheum
FACE – Jaws – Dislocated easy- ign. Petr. Rhus-t. staph.
FACE – Lower jaw and maxillary joints – dislocation, easy- IGN. Petr. phos. RHUS-T. Staph.
FACE – Lower jaw and maxillary joints – dislocative pain- cor-r. IGN. M-ARCT. op. petr. RHUS-T. rob. spig. spong. staph.
Feet – DISLOCATION, as if, feeling- arum-t. bell.
Female sexual organs – Dislocation of hip joint with pain in uterus- sol-t-ae.
Fevers – INTERMITTENT, fever, ague, malaria – quotidian, fever – 5 pm., preceded by yawning and pain in maxillary joint, as if dislocated- rhus-t.
Fevers – QUOTIDIAN, fever – 5 pm., preceded by yawning and pain in maxillary joint, as if dislocated- rhus-t.
Fingers – joints – dislocation, easy- hep.
GANGRENE, general – leg, fracture, after – tibia, fracture, after- Anthraci.
GANGRENE, general – leg, fracture, after- anthraci. Lach.
GENERALITIES – DROPSY – Joints – fractures, after- bov.
GENERALITIES – INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises – bones, fractures- acon. ang. anthraci. ARN. ars. asaf. bell-p. bry. CALC-F. CALC-P. CALC. CALEN. CARB-AC. con. cortico. cortiso. croc. crot-h. des-ac. EUP-PER. ferr. fl-ac. hecla hep. hyper. iod. kali-i. lach. led. lyc. mag-m. mang. merc. mez. nit-ac. PETR. PH-AC. phos. PULS. ran-b. rhus-t. rob. RUTA sep. SIL. staph. stront-c. SUL-AC. sulph. SYMPH. THYR. valer.
GENERALITIES – INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises – bones, fractures – compound fractureang. ANTHRACI. ARN. CALC. CALEN. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. LACH. PETR. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.
GENERALITIES – INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises – Bones, fractures- acon. ang. anthraci. Arn. ars. asaf. bell-p. bry. Calc-f. CALC-P. Calc. Calen. Carb-ac. con. cortico. cortiso. croc. crot-h. des-ac. Eup-per. ferr. fl-ac. hecla hep. hyper. iod. kali-i. lach. lyc. mag-m. mang. merc. mez. nit-ac. Petr. Ph-ac. phos. Puls. rhus-t. RUTA sep. Sil. staph. stront-c. Sul-ac. sulph. SYMPH. Thyr. valer.
GENERALITIES – INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises – Bones, fractures – compound fracture- ang. Anthraci. ARN. Calc. Calen. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. Lach. Petr. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.
GENERALITIES – INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises – dislocation, luxation- acon. agar. AGN. alum. AM-C. am-m. AMBR. anac. ang. ant-c. ant-t. ARN. ars. asar. aur. bar-c. BELL. bov. BRY. calad. CALC-F. calc-p. CALC. camph. cann-s. caps. CARB-AN. CARB-V. CARL. CAUST. cham. chel. chin. cina cocc. COLOC. con. croc. cycl. dig. dros. dulc. euph. FERR-S. FORM. GRAPH. hell. hep. IGN. ip. kali-c. KALI-N. kreos. lach. led. LYC. m-arct. m-aust. mag-c. mag-m. mang. meny. MERC. mez. mosch. mur-ac. NAT-C. NAT-M. NIT-AC. nux-m. NUX-V. par. PETR. ph-ac. PHOS. plat. plb. prun. psor. PULS. ran-b. rheum rhod. RHUS-T. RUTA sabin. sars. seneg. sep. sil. SPIG. spong. stann. staph. STRONT-C. SULPH. thuj. valer. verat. verb. zinc.
GENERALITIES – PAIN – bones – fractures, in old- mag-m.
GENERALITIES – PAIN – General – bones – old fractures, in- mag-m.
GENERALITIES – SHOCKS – injury, from – fractures, from- acon. arn.
GENERALS – ABSCESSES – Bones, of – fractures- sil.
Generals – AMPUTATION, pain, phantom pains – compound, fracture of left upper arm, after- Calen.
GENERALS – CONVALESCENCE; ailments during – bones; fracture of- osteo-mye.
Generals – Fracture in joints- m-ambo.
GENERALS – HISTORY; personal – dislocations- tub.
GENERALS – INJURIES – Bones; fractures of – compound fracture- ARN. Calen. crot-h. hyper. Lach.
GENERALS – INJURIES – Bones; fractures of- acon. ang. Arn. asaf. asar. bell-p-sp. bell-p. bry. Calc-f. calc-p. calc. Calen. CARB-AC. con. cortico. cortiso. croc. dulc. Eup-per. ferr. hecla hep. HYPER. iod. kali-i. led. lyc. nit-ac. Petr. Ph-ac. phos. Puls. ran-b. rhus-t. rob. RUTA Sil. SPIG. staph. stront-c. Sul-ac. sulph. Symph. valer. vanil.
GENERALS – INJURIES – dislocation- AGN. Am-c. Ambr. ang. ARN. bar-c. Bell. bov. Bry. calc-p. CALC. cann-s. caps. Carb-an. Carb-v. Carl. Caust. Coloc. con. Croc. Ferr-s. Form. Graph. hep. IGN. Kali-n. kreos. lach. led. LYC. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. mag-c. Merc. mez. mosch. NAT-C. NAT-M. Nit-ac. Nux-v. par. PETR. PHOS. psor. PULS. rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. Ruta sabin. sep. sil. Spig. stann. staph. Sulph. tub. zinc.
GENERALS – PAIN – Bones – fracture; point of- mag-m. symph.
GENERALS – SHOCK – injuries; after – fractures; from- acon. arn.
GENERALS – SWELLING – Joints; of – fractures; after- bov.
Hands – DISLOCATION, fingers, joints, easy- bell. hep. teucr.
Hands – PAIN, fingers – joints – first – dislocation, as of- alum. ruta
HEAD – INJURIES of the head, after – fracture of skull, splintered bones- acon. arn. calc-p. Calen. hyper. symph.
HEAD – PAIN – Skull – fractured- bell. glon.
Hip joint – dislocation spontaneous- coloc. rhus-t. thuj.
Hips – Cramping, pain, hip and lumbar region – moving, when, as if stiff or dislocated- ang.
Hips – dislocation, sensation- agar. am-c. am-m. ang. bamb-a. bry. calc-p. Caust. chel. con. dulc. euph. fl-ac. hura Ign. ip. irid-met. iris kreos. laur. mag-m. merc. mosch. nat-m. osm. pall. psor. Puls. sanic. sep. sulph. tarax. thuj. tril-p. zinc.
Hips – dislocation, spontaneous, of hip- Aesc. Bell. Bry. Calc-f. Calc. carb-an. Caust. Coloc. dros. eupi. ip. kali-i. kreos. lyc. merc. nit-ac. pall. puls. Rhus-t. Ruta sil. sulph. Thuj. zinc.
Hips – hip-joint, disease – dislocation, with, of head of femur- Calc.
Jaws – dislocation, easy- ign. petr. Rhus-t. staph.
Joints – EDEMA, joints, dropsy – fractures, after- bov. Bry. led.
Joints – swelling – oedematous, fractures, after- bov.
Joints – weak – dislocation, after- rheum
Limbs – AMPUTATION, pain, phantom pains – compound, fracture of left upper arm, after- Calen.
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM – Knees – Dislocation of patella, on going upstairs- cann-s.
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM – Nape of Neck – Dislocated, bruised feeling- bell. caust. fago. Lachn.
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM – Wrists – Pains – Sprained, dislocated feeling- bry. cist. Eup-per. Hipp. ox-ac. Rhus-t. Ruta ulm-c.
Lower extremities – Dislocation in hip joint, when walking- bry.
Lower extremities – Fracture in legs- m-arct.
Lumbar back – dislocative pain- eup-per. lach.
Lumbar back – vertebrae, of – dislocated or as if- sanic.
Malaria, infection, ague – quotidian, fever – 5 pm., preceded by yawning and pain in maxillary joint, as if dislocated- rhus-t.
Neck and back – Fracture in back- sul-ac.
NECK AND EXTERNAL THROAT – Sprained or dislocative pain- agar. ambr. ars. Asar. calc. carb-an. merc. sars.
Oedema – joints of, fractures, after- bov.
Pelvis – DISLOCATED, as if, sacrum- agar. nux-v.
RESPIRATION – Impeded by – back – dislocative or sprained pain in- petr.
RESPIRATION – Impeded by – scapulae – sprained or dislocative pain in- petr.
SENSATIONS AND COMPLAINTS IN GENERAL – Dislocated or wrenched easily, spontaneous- Agn. am-c. bry. Calc-p. CALC. Caps. Carb-an. carb-v. COLOC. Con. hep. kali-n. Led. Lyc. mag-c. merc. NAT-C. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Nux-v. PETR. Phos. RHUS-T. RUTA sep. staph. Sulph.
shock, traumatic – fractures, from- acon. Arn. bry. stront-c.
Shoulders – PAIN, shoulders – dislocation, as of- ant-t. caps. cor-r. Croc. fl-ac. ign. mag-c. mag-m. mez. myrt-c. nicc. olnd. RHUS-T.
Sleep – INSOMNIA, sleeplessness – fracture, after reposition of- arn. Stict.
SLEEP – SLEEPLESSNESS – fracture, after reposition of- Stict.
SLEEP – SLEEPLESSNESS – general – fracture, after reposition of- STICT.
TEETH – Dislocative pain- nux-v.
TEETH – PAIN – dislocated, as if- NUX-V.
Upper extremities – Dislocation in right carpal joint, severe pain and- tub.
UPPER EXTREMITIES – Dislocative pain, joints fingers- acon. alum. fl-ac. GRAPH. Ign. Kali-n. laur. Lyc. mag-c. Nat-m. nux-m. Phos. rhod. stann. Sulph.
Wrists – DISLOCATION, feeling- agar. am-c. am-m. ang. Arn. Bry. bufo carb-an. cina eup-per. gels. ign. mez. nux-v. Ox-ac. phos. rhus-t. sars. thuj. tub.
Wrists – PAIN, wrists – dislocation, as of- Arn. Eup-per. phos.
- Bone disease – developmental abnormalities and Health condition, Britannica.com
- Bone Healing- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 3. Musculoskeletal Trauma Surgery > The Healing Process
- Chapter26.OrthopedicEmergencies- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Emergency Medicine
- Children’s Fractures & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e > Chapter 40. Orthopedic Surgery > Pediatric Orthopedics
- Children’s Fractures & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e > Chapter 40. Orthopedic Surgery > Pediatric Orthopedics
- Complications- Principles of Critical Care > Chapter 96. Pelvic Ring Injuries and Extremity Trauma > Extremity Trauma
- Complications- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries
- Discharge Instructions- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries
- Encyclopedia Homoeopathica
- Fracture and Dislocation- role of homoeopathy-homoeopathy world community
- Management of Osteoporotic Fractures- Harrison’s Online > Chapter 348. Osteoporosis > Osteoporosis: Treatment
- Orthopedic injuries to these structures include the following:- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries > Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries: Introduction
- Paediatric orthopaedic birth defect, childrensnational.org
- Pathophysiology of Fractures- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries
- Periprosthetic Fracture- CURRENT Rheumatology Diagnosis & Treatment > Chapter 60. Approach to the Patient with a Painful Prosthetic Joint > Differential Diagnosis
- Prehospital Care- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries
- Principles of Operative Fracture Fixation- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 3. Musculoskeletal Trauma Surgery
- Radar 10
- Radiographic Evaluation- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries
- Samuel Hahnemann- Organon of medicine 6th edition
- Skeletal injuries may be detected when a child presents with unexplained swelling of an…- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 290. Child Abuse and Neglect > Physical Abuse > Clinical Features > Physical Examination
- Subluxation and Dislocation- Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries > Orthopedic Emergencies
- Table 8–10 Risk Factors for Fractures- reenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 9e > Chapter 8. Metabolic Bone Disease > Bone Anatomy and Remodeling > Osteoporosis
- Traumatic Subluxations & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics > Chapter 24. Orthopedics > Trauma
- Treatment- Principles of Critical Care > Chapter 96. Pelvic Ring Injuries and Extremity Trauma > Extremity Trauma
Dr Arun S Raj