Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy of Homeopathic Drug Lycopodium

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic (EDS) Studies of Centesimal Scale Potencies of the Homeopathic Drug   Lycopodium clavatum

ES  Rajendran, MD (Hom)
Director, Prof & Head Dept of Homeopathic Philosophy, Vinayaka Missions Homeopathic Medical College,  Unit of Vinayaka Missions University, Salem 636 308, India

Background: Homeopathy is a therapeutic method discovered by Samuel Hahnemann, MD, in 1790.  Homeopathy often makes use of medicines prepared at such high dilutions that the physical existence of even a single molecule of the source substance is said to be theoretically impossible.  Nevertheless, these drug products appear to have biological effects.  Therefore, we sought to examine the potential physical properties of a common homeopathic medicine,            Lycopo-dium clavatum.

Methods: Selected dilution factors (potencies) of Lycopodium clavatum               were studied with the help of Field Emission  Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for the identifcation of particles and  their elementary composition.

Results:  Nanoparticles were detected in all potencies tested.  Carbon and oxygen were the two elements present in all sample particles.

Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of nanoparticles in multiple potencies of the common homeopathic medicine Lycopodium clavatum.  This data adds to the body of evidence concerning the presence of source material in high potency homeopathic medicines.

Published in the American Journal of Homoeopathic Medicine

Volume 108 Number 1 Spring 2015

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