IHMA Model MD Homeopathy Entrance 2005 Paper.I

Questions : 150        Marks : 600           Time : 120 Minutes

1. Please read the instructions given in the OMR Answer Sheet for marking answers. Candidates are advised to strictly follow the instructions contained in the OMR Answer Sheet.

2. For each question there are four suggested answers, given against (A), (B), (C) and (D) of which only one will be MOST APPROPRIATE answer. Indicate it in the OMR Answer Sheet.

3. Negative Marking: In order to discourage wild guessing, the score will be subject to penalization formula based on the number of right answers actually marked and the number of wrong answers marked. Each correct answer will be awarded FOUR marks. ONE mark will be deducted for each incorrect answer. More than one answer marked against a question will be deemed as an incorrect response and will be negatively marked.                                                           

1. The doctor who helped Hahnemann in Vienna.

  • A. Dr. Muller
  • B. Dr. Von Quarin
  • C. Dr. J.K. Bischoff
  • D. Von Bruckenthal E. Dr. Dzondi

2. Hahnemann got his masters degree on,

  • A. April 10J755
  • B. November 17, 1782
  • C. August 10, 1779
  • D.July2, 1843
  • E. September 29, 1812

3. When was the cure and prevention of scarlet fever published,

  • A. 1790    B. 1805   C. 1801
  • D.1803      E. 1810

4. Number of medicines proved by Hahnemann.

  • A. 99    B. 100
  • C. 29    D. 145

5. Life period of. Kent.

  • A. 1853-1931     B. 1849-1916     C. 1785-1864
  • D. 1800-1880    E. 1828-1877

6. Name the doctor who treated Lucy the 2nd wife of Dr. Kent.

  • A. Dr. Robbi      B. Dr. August Weihe     C. Dr. Kummer
  • D. Dr. Dunham E. Dr.’ Richard Phelan

7. Which is the work of Dr. C. Hering.

  • A. Domestic physician
  • B. Therapeutics of fever
  • C. Encyclopedia of pure materia medica
  • D. A birds eye view of Hahnemann’
  • E. Science of therapeutics

8. Name the medicine which was prescribed to Dunham by Dr. Hering which help him recover his illness. ”

  • A. Ars.alb   B. Puls
  • C. Lach        D. Lith.

9. Dr. Hahnemann wrote preface to one book of Dr. Boennenghausen. Which was it.

  • A. Repertory of medicines which are not antipsoric
  • B. Attempt at showing relative kinship of Homoeopathic medicines
  • C Repertory of antipsoric medicines
  • D Homoeopathic and complete image of disease

10). The homoeopathic physician who treated Maharaja Ranjith Singh of Punjab.

  • (A) M.L Sircar (B) J.M. Honingberger
  • (C) L.C. Dutta

11. Aphorism 153 is regarding.

  • (A) Indisposition (B) Characteristic Symptom (C) Mental Symptom
  • (D) Alternating Action (E) Dr. Dzondi

12. The word used by Trinks in his Annals to describe the provings of person, ‘whom Hahnemann calls as “symptom manufacturer’ is

  • (A) Hg (B) Lg (C) Ng
  • (D)gN (E)Bg

13. Aphorism which describes about routes of administration in 5th edition is.

  • (A) 274 (B) 290
  • (C) 293 (D)288 (E) 292

14. Aphorism which describes natural law of cure.

  • (A) 26 (B) 29
  • (C) 144 (D)272

15. Diet & regimen is described in.

  • (A) § 158-162 (B) § 245-249
  • (C) § 259-263 (D) § 264-268

16. When do homoeopathic aggravation occurs in a psoric chronic diseases (psoric origin) when treated with antipsoric medicines (According to Ve).

  • (A) 1st few hours (B) Varying periods till cure results
  • (C) At the end of the cure (D) Varying hours for first eight to ten days
  • (E) Dr. Dzondi

17. What is the appropriate management when accessory symptoms develop while beating acute diseases.

  • (A) Antidote the remedy
  • (B) Wait till symptom picture become clear
  • (C) Retake the case and add new symptoms to original symptoms and prescribe
  • (D) Take coffee

18. Local maladies are described in which aphorism.

  • (A) 210 (B) 231
  • (C)174   (D)1l7 (E) 56

19. Tinea worm) infection occurs in an epileptic person. What can be the result.

  • (A) Epilepsy get cured
  • (B) Epilepsy and Tinea combines together and exist together
  • (C) Epilepsy get suppressed
  • (D) Tinea is repelled

20. What can happens when small pox occurs in a person with violent opthalmic causing blindness. —-——-

  • (A) Small pox repelled
  • (B) Small pox suppress opthalmia ;
  • (C) Small pox cures opthalmia and blindness
  • (D) Both exist in their own parts

21. The most difficult cases to cures the incurables.

  • (A) Psoric miasmatic cases
  • (B) Trimiasmatic
  • (C) Drug diseases
  • (D) Syphilitic cases

22. In proving medicines are given to healthy persons in.

  • (A) Large doses    (B) Moderate doses
  • (C) Minute doses  (D) Single minute dose

23.The person who preceded Hahnemann in testing medicines for their pure action in healthy person.

  • (A) Brousseou (B) Nening
  • (C) Autentrith (D) Albrecht Von Haller

24. Best Prover.

  • (A) Medical students           (B) Physician
  • (C) Oversensitive patient   (D) Children

25. How to manage a case of acute mania.

  • (A) The indicated antipsoric medicine
  • (B) Non antipsoric medicines like Aeon, Bell etc.
  • (C) Physical remedies
  • (D) Use of non antipsoric medicines like Acon,Bell followed by antipsoric medicine

26.The most efficacious time to administer medicine in case of intermittent fever.

  • (A) Anytime                   (B) At the height of heat paroxysm
  • (C) During chill stage (D) Very soon after the termination of paroxysm

27.The chief guide in selection of most appropriate diseases.

  • (A) Medicine similar to the most prominent stage
  • (B) Medicine similar to all the stages
  • (C) Symptoms of patient health during intervals when he is free from disease
  • (D) Medicine suitable to his past do fever

28. After administering a remedy the patient became better mentally with few new symptoms. What is your inference. ‘ “

  • (A) Indicated medicine good response
  • (B) Wrong medicine
  • (C) Partially indicated remedy
  • (D) Response in a terminal stage of disease – prognosis unfavorable

29. The most suitable degree of minuteness for sure and gentle effect can be found out by.

  • (A) experience and experiment
  • (B) experiment and research
  • (C) Accurate experience and careful observation of sensitiveness of each patient
  • (D) proper case taking and miasmatic diagnosis

30. Olfaction is described in foot note of which aphorism.

  • (A) 275 (B) 272
  • (C) 285 (D)285 (E) 288

31. Which of the parts of body can be used as a route for administration of medicine.

  • (A) bloodvessel      (B) Skin
  • (C) Wounded skin  (D) Nerves

32. In 50 millesmal potency 1 part of 3rd tricturation should be dissolved in …………. part of alcohol water mixture.

  • (A) 100 (B) 300
  • (C) 500 (D) 1000

33. Dynamisation theory was introduced in which edition of organon .

  • (A) I (B) II (C) 111
  • (D) IV           (E) V

34. 3rd edition of organon is known as.

  • (A) improved                                 (B) augmented
  • (C) improved and augmented (D) original

35. No- of Aphorisms in 4th edition of organon.

  • (A) 292                (B) 291
  • (C) 294                (D)315       (E) 271

36. Chronic disease was published after…………… years of research study.

  • (A) 10 (B) 11
  •  (C) 12 (D) 14

37. Which is the observation which details the action of medicine on provers.

  • (A) 8 (B) 9
  • (C) 11 (D)10.

38. Two advices were taken back by Hahnemann mentioned in the preface of 5th edition. One was the use of mild electric shocks the other was.

  • (A) Using 2 successions instead of 10
  • (B) Using 10 successions instead of 2
  • (C) Use of pitch plaster on back to produce it during
  • (E) Use of tea in diet

39. What are called ‘morbi intercurrentes’.

  • (A) Intercurrent remedies (B) Antimiasmatic remedies
  • (C) Nosodes                              (D) Intermediate diseases

40.Meaning of “Cito”.

  • (A) Safety (B) Quickly
  • (C) With least amount of medicine
  • (D) Pleasantly

41.In a three fold complication of three chronic misaim which miasm is to be treated first.

  • (A) Psora     (B) Syphilis
  • (C) Sycosis (D) Tubercular

42.Greek word for Psora.

  • (A) Garab(B) Psora agria
  • (C) Scabies jugis (D) Yalephed

43.What is schein symptome.

  • (A) Mental symptom(B) Local symptoms
  • (C) Subjective symptom
  • (D) Symptoms produced as a result of excess homoeopathic medicine

44.Who gave the name ’50 millesmal to the new method of dynamisation.

  • (A) Horace (B) Gellert (C) Boenninghausen
  • (D) P. Schmidt (E) William Boericke

45.”What influence can it exert whether a homoeopath adopt the theoretical opinion of Hahnemann on not, so long as the holds the principal tool of master and the materia media of our schools. Whose words are they

  • (A) William Boericke (B) C.Hering
  • (C) Richard Hughes   (D) Stuart Close

46.Craving for Potato is a ——– symptom.

  • (A) Psoric (B) Sycotic
  • (C) Tubercular (D) Syhilitic

47. Craving sweets is…………….. symptoms.

  • (A) Psoric (B) Sycotic
  • (C) Tubercular (D) Syphilitic

48. Aversion meat is…………. symptom.

  • (A) Psoric (B) Sycotic
  • (C) Tubercular (D) Syphilitic

49. Amelioration by natural discharge is……………. symptom.

  • (A) Psoric (B) Sycotic
  • (C) Tubercular (D) Syphilitic

50. Ist part of materia medica was published in the year 1811. It contained………medicines.

  • (A) 8 (B) 11
  • (C) 12 (D) 10

51. The dose of cinchona bark used be for proving by Dr. Hahnemann.

  • (A) 4 drachms (B) 1 drachms
  •  (C) 2 drachms (D) 3 drachms

52.The term guiding symptoms was coined by…..

  • (A) Guernesy (B)Kent
  • (C)Hering (D)Boennighausen

53. Number of medicines in fragmenta de viribus….. posilivus.

  • (A) 9S (B) 99
  •  (C) 27 (D)67

53. Cyclopedia of drug pathogenecy was written by.

  •  (A) Hering                   (B) Boenninghausen
  •  (C) Richard Hughes (D) Stuart close

54. Allens encyclopedia contains – volumes

  • (A) 8 (B) 9
  • (C) 10 (D)12

55. Vegetable analogue of Kali lod.

  • (A) Pulsatilla (B) Phytolacca
  •  (C) Mezerium (D) Belladona

56. Acoustic of renal system / digitalis of kidney.

  • (A) Cantharis (B) Sarsaparilla
  • (C) Lycopodium (D) Solidago

57. Lack of vital heat in chronic diseases.

  • (A) Alumina (B) Led Pal
  • (C) Psorinum (D) Sepia

58. ………….. is followed by Kalibi in nasal catairah.

  • (A) AurMet (B) Pulsatilla
  • (C) Silica (D) Calccarb

59. Acrid exhausting leucorrhoea in little girls with moth spots an forehead.

  • (A) Sepia     (B) Copaiva .
  • (C) Cubeba (D) Caulophylhem

60.Has cured Aphonia when Aeon, Phos and Spongia had failed.

  • (A) Brans                      (B) Caust
  • (C) Arun Triphyllus (D) Cina

61. Often cures dropy after Apis and Ars fails.

  • (A) Apocy   (B) Dig
  • (C) Bry          (D) Colch

62.Unsteady walking and easy falling of little children.

  • (A) Calcphos (B) Caust
  •  (C) Sel            (D) Baryta carb

63.Is often useful after bad effects from spoiled fish and decayed vegetables.

  • (A) Ass alb  (B) Carboveg .
  • (C) Carboan (D) Pyrogen

64. Opium belongs to the family.

  • (A) Ericacea (B) Melanthacea
  • (C) Loganacea (D) Papavaracea

65. Hydrastis belong to the family of.

  • (A) Rubiacea           (B) Solanacea
  • (C) Ranunculacea (D) Umbilifera

66.Breath smells like urine

  • (A) Petroleum(B) Graph
  • (C) Carboveg (D) Mercurius

67.Remedy for worms, nephritis and purpura.

  • (A) Terebinth (B) Phos
  • (C) Crotalushor (D) Hamamelis

68. Daily colic in infants at 5 a.m.

  • (A) Nalsulph (B) Nux vom
  • (C) Kalibrom (D) Mag phos

69. “Whenever….. is chosen you must above all observe the moral symptoms, and be careful that it closely resembles them. The anguish of mind and body, the restlessness, the disquiet not to be allayed.” Which is the medicine referred to.

  • (A) Chamomilla (B) Sepia
  • (C) Arsalb             (D) Aconite

70. Idiocy in children in capacity to think confused.

  • (A) Baryta carb (B) Picric acid
  • (C) Aethusa        (D) Agaricus

71. Late to walk and talk.

  • (A) Barycarb (B) Natm
  • (C) Calccarb (D) Agaricus

72. Complaints of imaginary odour before the nose, as of herring or musk.

  • (A) Agnus castus (B) Calc
  • (C) Nax.v (D) Sulph

73. Adapted to indolent weary persons averse lo either mental or physical labour mental labour fatigues.

  • (A) Alumina (B) Psomium
  • (C) Acid Phos (D) Aloes

74. Time passes too slowly, an hour seems half a day-

  • (A) Arg.n (B) Cocc
  • (C) Gcon (D) 1 & 3 (E) All

75. Adopted to those who are fat and sluggish on body large and fat, but legs too then.

  • (A) Calc Carb (B) Graph
  • (C) Capsicum (D) Ammo mur

76. Old people with morning diarrhoea, suddenly become constipated on alternate diarrhoea and constipation.

  • (A) Con . (B) Baryta Carb
  • (C) Ambra Grisea (D) Antim Crud .

77. For bad effects of vaccination when thuja fails and silica is not indicated

  • (A) Sarsaparilla (B) Malandrinun
  • (C) Antimtart (D) Sulph

78. After Baryta carb will often eradicate the constitutional tendency to quinsy.

  • (A) CalcCarb(B) Mere sol
  • (C) Psor         (D) Sil

79.Lung disease of tall slender, rapidly growin^youthupper third of righthmg.

  • (A) Phos(B Tub
  • (C) Ars (D) CalcCarb

80.In Euphrasia menses is, .

  • (A) Late (B) Profuse
  • (C) Early (D) Late and Scanty

81. Women inclined to obesity, who suffer from habitual constipation, with a history of delayed menstruation.

  • (A) Puls (B) Capsicum
  • (C) Calc.ars (D) Graphics

82.Pulse irregular in force regular in rhythm.

  • (A) Dig     (B) Naja
  • (C) Lil.tig (D) Cactus

83.At every menstrual nisus mouth throat and tongue became intolerably dry,especially when sleeping.

  • (A) Bry(B) Sep
  • (C) NuxMoschata (D) Sulphur

84.Poke root is the common name of.

  • (A) Sang(B) Phytolacca(C) Collinsonia
  • (D) Asclepius                    (E) Spigelia

85. Bitter cucumber is the common name of.

  • (A) Amygdalus (B) Dulcamara
  • (C) Coloc             (D) Parthenium

86.Kali Bi is the inimical of.

  • (A) Phos (B) Puls
  • (C) Sil (D) Calc Carb

87.Complementary to Baryta Carb.

  • (A) Mag Carb (B) CalcCarb
  • (C) Dulcamara (D) Ammo Carb

88. Antidote of Aesculus H.

  • (A) Op (B) Nux
  • (C) Aloes (D) Collinsonia

89. Can only void urine while sitting bent backwards.

  • (A). Sars (B) Med
  • (C) Zinc.met (D) Chimaphila

90. Vertigo on opening eyes.

  • (A) Theridion (B) Sep
  • (C) Tab (D) Am

91. Convulsions with consciousness.

  • (A) Stram (B) Op
  • (C) Hyos (D)Nux (E) 1&4

92. Children are obstinate, headstrong, cry when spoken kindly to.

  • (A) Sil (B) Lyco
  • (C) Puls (D) Stann

93.Pain in places where the bones are least covered, as tibia, back of hands.

  • (A) Acid.Phos (B) Ruta
  • (C) Symphytom (D) Sang

94.The word pharmacy is derived from pharmakon wirch is………….. word.

  • (A) Latin (B) Greek
  • (C) Arabian (D) Roman

95. 1st Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia was published in the year.

  • (A) 1882 (B)1870
  • (C) 1825 (D) 1897

96. 1st Indian Pharmacopoeia was published in.

  • (A) 1974(B) 1978
  • (C) 1982 (D)1971

97.—–is included Radiata.

  • (A) Sepia                      (B) Murx
  • (C) Asterias ruberis(D) Spongia

98….. is taken from grease of horse.

  • (A) AmbraGrisea (B) Anthracinum
  • (C) Malandrinum(D) Variolinum

99.Example of plant nosode,

  • (A) Ustilago   (B) Secale.Cor
  • (C) None         (D) 1&2

100. Magnetis Polics Australia is.

  • (A) Whole Magnet (B) North Pole
  • (C) South Pole (D) None

101. Sugar of milk is prepared by.

  • (A) Hahnes Method (B) Stapf Process*

102. Belladona Q is prepared by,

  • (A) Class I (B) Class II
  • (C) Class III (D) Class IV

103. Carcinocin is prepared by.

  • (A) Class.1 (B) Class II
  • (C) Class 4 (D) Class IV

104. Abbreviation of Send

  • (A) Mitt (B) M
  •  (C)m (D) MDu

105. Part used for homoeopathic preparation in Belladonna.

  • (A) Root (B) Flower
  • (C) Whole plant (D) Fruit

106. How many minutes of triturating is done to convert 1 c to 2 c

  • (A) 20(B) 60
  • (C) 120 (D) 40 minutes

107. Carbolic acid is prepared under.

  • (A) IV     (B) Va
  • (C) VI b (D)VIa

108. Drug power in Class V(b) preparation is.

  • (A) 1/100 (B) 1/10
  • (C) 1/6 (D) 1/1000

109. Drug and magic remedies act was passed in.

  • (A) 1954 (B) 1930
  • (C) 1957 (D)1934

110. Rectified spirit contains………… % of water.

  • (A) 26*/2% (B) 37%
  • (C) 471/2 % (D) 16 % (E) 58%

111. Repetition of medicine is called.

  • (A) Posology             (B) Pharmacononay
  • (C) Phannacognosy(D) Pharmacopallaxy

112. Main object of Homoeopathic case to kind is.

  • (A) Prognosis                (B) Diagnosis
  • (C) Individualisation (D)All

113. A well taken case is half cured – According to:

  • (A) Kent                         (B) Stuart Close
  • (C) Elizabeth Wright (D) Hahnemenn

114. Boenning Bausen’s Reporting of the Anti psorics was prefaced by.

  • (A) Hahnemann (B) Boeninghausen
  • (C) H.A. Robert (D) Hering

115. 1s1 Indian repertory the ‘Manual of Homoeopathy’ was published by.

  • (A) Fr Augustus Mullar (B) Augustine Mullcr
  • (C) Dr. S.K. Tiwari (D) C. Hering

116. Repertory of the more characteristic symptoms of the Materia Medica – Published by.

  • (A) A. Lippe (B) C. Hering
  • (C) C. Lippe (D) Jabr.

117. Which among the following is not a puritan repertory.

  • (A) Knerr’sRep.                                      (B) Jahr’sRep.
  • (C) Hering’s Analytical Repertory (D) Murphy’s Repertory

118. The chapter mind in Kent’s repertory was made by.

  • (A) Kent Alone (B) Lee and Kent
  • (C) Lee Alone (D) Clar a Loui.se Kent

119. BBCR is mainly based on.

  • (A) TPB
  • (B) Boenning Bausen’s Repertory ofAntipsoric
  • (C) B.H’s Repertory of Medicines which are not antipsoric
  • (D) All the above

120. Repertory of sensations as if made by..

  • (A) H.A. Robert (B) Honi Comb
  • (C) None               (D) Both

121. Ist Card Repertory was available to the profession in which year.

  • (A) 1888 (B) 1892
  • (C) 1896 (D)1893

122. Size of the card in Jugal Kishore’s Card Repertory is.

  • (A) 9″x3″”(B) 9″x2
  • (C) ll”x3″ (D)iix2″

123. 1st Indian edition of Murphy’s Repertory is in the year.

  • (A) 1973 (B) 1974
  • (C) 1994 (D) 1993

124. Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic medicine published by.

  • (A) Murphy (B) Phathak
  • (C) Boericke (D)Clarke

125. Total number of chapters in Knerr’s Repertory is.

  • (A) 38 (B) 48
  • (C) 47 (D)37

126. Eliminating symptoms are first coined by.

  • (A) MLDhawale (B) MLTyler
  • (C) Hering (D) Hahnemann

127. Reportorium synthaticum homoeopathicum published by.

  • (A) Barthel and Will Klunker (B) JostKunzli
  • (C) Boger                                        (D) Frederik Schroyens

128. Kent says: “The greatest of all comparers of the materia medica was Boenningbausen. The concordances of Boenning baussn’s book are wonderful. These are the most important part of the book and they would not fail.” The chapter concordance of Boenning bausen’s reporting contains.

  • (A) 124 Med (B) 141 Med
  • (C) 125 Med (D) 144 Med

129. The 3rd volume of synthetic reporting contains.

  • (A) Mental Symptoms (B) Physical Generals
  • (C) Sleep, Dream & Sex

130. Integrated approach for repertory section was put forward by.

  • (A) MLDhawale (B) HA Robert
  • (C) Boger (D) Boeiming Haucen

131. Three mark medicine for abuse of sulphur in Kent’s Repertory is.

  • (A) Calc(B) Mere
  • (C) Ars. (D)Puls

132. In Kent’s Repertory septicemia belongs to the chapter.

  • (A) Extremities (B) Generalities
  • (C) Skin                 (D) None

13o. Medicines for Anthrax in Kent’s Repertory .

  • (A) Anthracinum only (B) Ars.
  • (C) Sec (D) All the above

134. Bums belong to ……………. chapter inBoenninghaucen’s repertory,

  • (A) Aggravation                                           (B) Sensations
  • (C) Both sensations and aggravations (D) Skin

135. Cross reference given for Humorous in Kent’s repertory is.

  • (A) Mood (B) Justing
  •  (C) Joy (D) Joyous

136.Match list I (symptoms) with list II (Medicines) and select the correct answer using cods.

  • (A) Speaks continually in questions – Vertrum Alb.
  • (B) Repeats the questions first – Aurum
  • (C) Precocity – Mere. sol
  • (D) Swallows his feces – Zincum Met

137. The chapter relationship of remedies was worked out by.

  • (A) Boenninghaucen(B) Gibson Miller
  • (C) Dr. J.T.Kent          (D) Dr. William Boericke

138. Aggravation from seashore. Medicines are,

  • (A) Ars. (B) Mag.mur,
  • (C) Sep.(D) All.

139.Menopause is included in Kent’s repertory under.

  • (A) Generalities         (B) Gentalia female
  • (C) Genitalia – male  (D)All

140. Boenninghaucen makes four divisions of the back. In this TPB – Steiss means.

  • (A) Sacral region   (B) Region of coccyx
  • (C) Lumbar region (D) Back in general ‘

141. Rubric scurvy belong to which chapter in TPB.

  • (A) Mouth                (B) Sensations
  • (C) Aggravations  (D) Ameliorations

142. Rubric for loathing of life in BBCR is.

  • (A) Depression (B) Tedium
  • (C) Listlessness (D) Desire death

143 Non union of bones is found in the chapter in kents repertory

  • (A)extremities (B)generalities
  • (C)head               (D) back

144 Photophobia is found in the chapter in kents repertory

  • (A) vision (B) generalities
  • (C) eye      (D) mind

145 A patient desires to die due to his severe pains .which is the rubric for him

  • (A)desire death (B) Pain
  • (C) suicidal (D)Kill

146 Cannot look at knife or blood

  • (A)Phos        (B) Alumen
  • (C)Alumina (D)sulph

147 Women with aversion to her own sex

  • (A)Plat   (B) graph
  • (C) lyco (D) raph

148 Exostosis of lower jaw

  • (A) Sil               (B) Thuja
  • (C) Calc flour (D)Phos

149. Rubric worms is found in …. Chapter in kent’s repertory

  • (A) generalities (B)rectum
  • (C) abdomen      (D) stomach

150. Hoarseness is found in the chapter

  • (A) Respiration                  (B) Cough
  • (C) larynx and trachea (D) Nose

Download Answer Key : www.similima.com/pdf/ihma-answerkey2005.pdf

All ights reserved @ similima

More Homoeopathy PG Entrance Question papers 

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.