Last moment revision in Vitamins and Minerals

Last moment revision in Vitamin and Minerals
Dr.Kamaljeet Kaur Sidhu {BHMS}

 Deficiency diseases and Sources of Nutrients: NutrientConstituentDeficiency DiseasesSourcesDaily Requirements
Vitamin ARetinol, Retinoic Acid, Beta-CaroteneNight-blindnessCarrots, Papaya, Milk, Cheese, Fish Liver Oil, Green Vegetables etc.900 mcg/day for male

700 mcg/day female

Vitamin B1ThiamineBeriberiBrewer’s Yeast, Whole Grain, Oatmeal, Legumes, Peanuts, Dried Soybean, Sunflower Seeds etc.1.2 mg/day male

1.1 mg?day female

Vitamin B2RiboflavinAriboflavinosisBeef Liver, Lamb, Milk, Mushroom, Spinach, Almonds etc.1.3 mg/day male

1.1 mg/day female

Vitamin B3Niacin or Nicotinic AcidPellagraTuna, Chicken, Turkey, Mushrooms , Bacon, Broccoli, Veal etc.16 mg/day male

14 mg/day females

Vitamin B5Pantothenic AcidAcne, ParesthesiaChicken Liver, Sunflower Seeds, Salmon, Avocados, Corn, Broccoli, Mushroom etc.5 mg/day
Vitamin B6Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, PyridoxamineDandruff-like eruptions, Pink eye, EpilepsyFish, Beef Liver, Potatoes & other starchy vegetables, Fruit (other than citrus) etc.1.3 mg /day male &female
Vitamin B7BiotinGrowth & Neurological Disorders in InfantsRaw Egg Yolk, Liver, Peanuts, Yeast, Whole-wheat Bread, Cheddar Cheese, Pork etc.30 mcg/day
Vitamin B9Folic AcidMacrocytic Anaemia, Birth DefectsDark Leafy Greens like Spinach, Asparagus, Broccoli, Citrus Fruits, Beans, Peas, Lentils, Avocados etc.400 mcg /day male

600 mcg /day female

Vitamin B12Various CobalaminsMacrocytic Anaemia, Memory Loss, Pernicious Anaemia, Mania, Psychosis, ParalysisSeafood, Beef, Chicken, Eggs etc.2.4 mcg/day
Vitamin CL-Ascorbic AcidScurvyAmla, Guava, Chillis, Kiwi, Broccoli, Orange, Papaya, Lemon, etc.90 mg/day male

75 mg/day female

Vitamin DCalciferol (D2) & Cholecalciferol (D3)Rickets, OsteomalaciaSunlight, Mushrooms, Alfalfa, Fish Liver Oils, Cooked Egg Yolk, etc.15 mcg/day

10-15 min. sunlight without sunscreen in morning.

Vitamin ETochopherols & TocotrienolsRed Blood Cell Destruction, Ataxia, Retinopathy, Peripheral Neuropathy, Reproductive FailureWheat Germ Oil, Canola Oil, Sunflower Oil, Almond Oil, Hazelnuts, Peanuts etc.Not more than 15 mcg/day
Essential Fatty AcidsOmega 3 (Alpha Linolenic Acid) and Omega 6 (Linolenic Acid)Several bodily processes afflicted, Skin AilmentsFish Oils, Flaxseed Oil, Hemp Oil, Olive Oil, Pumpkin Seeds, Leafy Vegetables etc.
Vitamin KPhylloquinone (K1), Menaquinone (K2)Lack of Clotting of Blood, Lack of Tissue RenewalGreen Leafy Vegetables etc.
IronAnaemia, ArrhythmiaBananas, Apple, Green Vegetables, Broccoli, Beans, Pumpkin Seeds etc.
PotassiumHigh Blood Pressure, Arrhythmia, Muscle Weakness, Myalgia, Muscle Cramps, Constipation, Respiratory Depression, ParalysisMeat, Milk, Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains etc.
CalciumOsteoporosis, Hypocalcemia, OstopeniaMilk and Milk Products, Eggs, Wheatgrass etc.
MagnesiumDeterioration of Metabolism & Cellular Functioning, Heart Attacks, Insulin ResistanceNuts and Seeds, Green Vegetables, Dark Chocolate, Whole Grains etc.
SodiumCognitive Impairment, Headaches, Nausea, Seizure, Coma, Electrolytic ImbalanceSalt, Fish, Meat, Vegetables etc.
ChlorineSalt, Milk, Meats, Vegetables etc.
PhosphorousMeat, Fish, Poultry, Eggs, Milk, Bananas etc.
IodineGoitre, Cretinism, Deterioration of Metabolism & cellular FunctioningIodised Salt, Sea Food, Green vegetables,Raw milk,Eggs etc.
ProteinKwashiorkorMeat, Seafood, Eggs, Pulses & Legumes, Milk & Milk Products etc.
Protein-EnergyMarasmusGrains, Pulses & Legumes, Meat, Milk & Milk Products, Eggs, Seafood etc.
  • Vitamin A,E,K are fat soluble vitamins.
  • Vitamin B,C are water soluble vitamins
  • NIGHT BLINDNESS:- caused by vitamin A deficiency.Patient is unable to see in night or less light .
  • BERI-BERI:-  caused by  vitamin B-1 deficiency, also known as thiamine deficiency.

There are two types of the disease: wet beriberi  and dry beriberi.
Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. In extreme cases, wet beriberi can cause heart failure. Dry beriberi damages the nerves and can lead to decreased muscle strength and eventually, muscle paralysis.

Today, beriberi mostly occurs in people with an alcohol use disorder

Wet beriberi symptoms include:

  • shortness of breath during physical activity
  • waking up short of breath
  • rapid heart rate
  • swollen lower legs

Dry beriberi symptoms include:

  • decreased muscle function, particularly in the lower legs
  • tingling or loss of feeling in the feet and hands
  • pain
  • mental confusion
  • difficulty speaking
  • vomiting
  • involuntary eye movement
  • paralysis

In extreme cases, beriberi is associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are two forms of brain damage caused by thiamine deficiency.

Wernicke encephalopathy damages regions of the brain called the thalamus and hypothalamus. This condition can cause:

  • confusion
  • memory loss
  • loss of muscle coordination
  • visual problems such as rapid eye movement and double vision

Korsakoff syndrome is the result of permanent damage to the region of the brain where memories form. It can cause:

  • loss of memory
  • inability to form new memories
  • hallucination


4-D’s related to it are:-

Diarrhea,dermatitis,dementia,death. Caused by Vit .B3 deficiency.

SCURVY:- Caused by Vit. C deficiency

Sign –symptoms:-

Pain areas: in the joints, bones, or muscles

Whole body: fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, or malaise

Skin: rash of small purplish spots, rashes, or red spots

Also common: bleeding gums, bruising, coiled hair, failure to thrive, irritability, joint swelling, muscle weakness, poor wound healing, swollen gums, tooth loss, or weight loss. 

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