Mental and characteristic symptoms and rubrics of Vipera berus

Dr Elampirai M

ABSTRACT: Vipera is an important remedy in our Materia medica from ophidia group. Here we elaborate the picture of Vipera.

KEYWORDS: Vipera, Varicose veins, Homoeopathy, Mental generals, characteristic symptoms.


Vipera is venomous snake and it is an important remedy in our Materia medica from ophidia group.

  • Vipera berus – common viper of England; common adder;
  • Other varieties : Vipera torva – German viper, Vipera redi – Indian viper and Russell’s viper
  • Found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and the America
  • Suborder: Viperidae

Natural characteristics:

  • Ability to withstand extreme cold than other snakes. These snakes prefer to live in grassy or rocky areas. It is found at higher altitudes and lower atmospheric temperatures (colder climates)
  • Nocturnal creatures
  • Hibernation for prolonged period.

Mode of attack:

  • Attack without warning
  • Attack accurately, lightning speed and leave swiftly, leave no chance for escape.
  • Sudden Single strike but more poison.

Venom of Vipera:

  • Venom of Vipera is both neurotoxic as well as hemotoxic.
  • Hemotoxic components – hemorrhagic tendency.
  • Few neurotoxic components also present. It leads to ascending paralysis.
  • Amount of venom injected at a bite : 150–200 mg
  • Fatal dose – 40 mg
  • Fatal period – Few hours to days
  • After bite – Swelling, Cellulitis And Hemorrhage
  • Then it leads to suppuration and sloughing
  • Coagulation disorders and Hemorrhage from the rectum, urethra and other orifices.
  • Hematuria
  • Gangrene of the part involved.
  • Leads to systemic bleeding also. Such as Subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracranial haemorrhage, Retroperitoneal and intraperitonial haemorrhages
  • Intravascular haemolysis leads to renal failure.
  • Hypotension is important manifestation of viper bite and is usually accompanied by tachycardia.


  • Sexuality:

“Wild sexual excitement; temptation of adultery; everything that is prohibited in this way becomes a temptation.”

Mind – adulterous

Mind – ailments from – sexual excesses

Mind – ailments from – sexual excitement

  • Hatred and revenge, rage and fury, jealousy.
  • Delusion being persecuted by ghost.
  • Drug addiction

Drug addiction, especially by injection.

Mind – Drugs – desire – injection; by

  • Ambition :

Mind – ambition – increased

Mind – ambition – increased – competitive

Mind – duty – too much sense of duty

Mind – duty – too much sense of duty – children; in

  • Coma, with thirst for water.
  • Fear :

Fear of thunderstorm

Fear of travelling by a car


  • Periodicity
  • Development arrested in children.
  • Hemorrhagic tendency – even chronic epistaxis, hematuria.
  • Blood and blood vessels especially veins.
  • Hemorrhage – red, black, dark clots, excessive bleeding; With Prostration and faintness.
  • Sleep: Restless; must change position. Sleepiness with inability to sleep.
  • Exhausting dreams.
  • Speech:

Mind – speech – delirious

Mind – speech – hesitating

Mind – speech – inarticulate

Mind – speech – incoherent

Mind – speech – intoxicated, as if

Irrational talking, with sleeplessness and pains

Wandering, as if drunk, answers mumbling, incoherent.

Tongue swollen, protruding; speech difficult.


Nervous system:

  • Temporary increase in reflex, paresis supervenes a paraplegia of lower extremities extending upwards.
  • Resembles acute ascending paralysis.
  • Poly neuritis.
  • Polio myelitis
  • Multiple neuritis.
  • Paralyzed parts then ulcers and gangrene follows.


  • Inflammation of vein with great swelling.
  • Veins swollen and sensitive
  • Bursting sensation. Fullness and unbearable pain.
  • Patient obliged to keep the extremities elevated.
  • Aggravation by hanging down. Seems as if they would burst and pain unbearable.
  • Varicose veins and acute phlebitis.
  • Severe cramps in lower extremities
  • Blue lower limbs.
  • Vipera is indicated many times in varicosities and phlebitis during pregnancy and the menopause.
  • Congestion of blood in veins with intolerable, bursting pains aggravation by hanging down the affected part


  • Shuffling gait caused by paralysis of foot.
  • Varicose veins and acute phlebitis with bursting sensation in the affected limbs when allowed to hang down.


  • Hematuria
  • Involuntary urine, dark yellow (Jaundice), Fetid and black.


  • Persistent edema with tendency to ulcers (of legs); with septic conditions following.
  • HEART – Cardiac dropsy


  • Edema of glottis
  • Swelling like goiter.
  • Viscid mucus adheres to pharynx.


  • Excessively swollen
  • Lips and tongue swollen
  • Lips blue, tongue swollen, livid; protruding.
  • Tongue swollen, livid, protruding.
  • Face: Red or pale.
  • Hippocratic, with cold sweat on forehead.
  • Scorbutic line on gums.
  • Tongue moist on edges with thirst for cold drinks.

Gastro intestinal system:

  • Vomiting after milk with shivering.
  • Coldness of body with colic.
  • Slow digestion.
  • Diarrhea, green substances; yellow, viscid fluid; fetid; black.
  • Enlargement of liver with violent pain with jaundice and fever.
  • Green and bloody stools.
  • Excruciating pain in epigastrium; aggravation pressure.
  • Violent pain in enlarged liver, extending to shoulder and jaundice with fever.


  • A/F menopause. Climacteric affections
  • Flow red with dark clots.
  • Not profuse but continuous.
  • With prostration and faintness from nursing the child.
  • Epistaxis with vertigo while nursing the child.


  • Livid
  • Skin peels in large plates.
  • Lymphangioma, boils, carbuncles, ulcers and gangrene with bursting sensation
  • Amelioration elevating parts.
  • Reopening of old wounds.
  • Black, petechial spots all over body; blisters.
  • Sensation as if something ran up the thigh occurred in bitten limb
  • Sweat over the whole body except the bitten limb.

Vertigo – With epistaxis, loss of vision and anxiety.

Eyes: Paralysis of lids, with dim vision or lost.


  • Burning heat rising from heel to tongue, with longing for cold application though skin is cold to touch.


  • Allen’s keynotes; rearranged and classified with leading remedies of the Materia medica and bowel nosodes including reportorial index – H.C. Allen.
  • Boericke’s new manual of Homoeopathic Materia medica with repertory by William Boericke.
  • Survival by Dr. Rajan Sankaran
  • Materia medica of Homoeopathic medicines by Dr.S.R.Phatak
  • A Dictionary of Practical Materia medica by J.H.Clarke.
  • A Study on Materia medica by Dr.N.M.Choudhuri.
  • The Genius of homeopathic Materia medica by S.M.Gunavante.

Dr. Elampirai M
PG Scholar, Department of Materia medica,
Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore.

Under the Guidance of, Dr. Ashok Kumar Dantkale
Professor, Department of Materia medica,
Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore.

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