Relationship between Pathology and Homoeopathic Philosophy

Dr G Srinivasulu

From inability to let well alone; from too much zeal for the new and contempt for what is old;   from putting knowledge before wisdom, science before art, and cleverness before common sense; from treating patients as cases; and from making the cure of the disease more grievous than the endurance of the same, Good Lord, deliver us. – SIR ROBERT HUTCHISON M.D.FRCP (1871-1960)

MAN is the most precious creature in the entire universe. Ever since his origin he has been constantly and continuously striving to understand his nature and purpose. His greatest desire is to be free from pain and suffering. All the efforts have been centered on the nature of MAN, and the interrelationship of MAN, MALADY and MEDICINE. Right from the Stone Age to the space age, every era is replete with the efforts of Man to understand and unravel the mysterious nature of Maladies.  Man has set his foot on Moon and is on the way to reach Mars. Several inventions and discoveries in science, medicine and technology made man’s life more comfortable and luxurious. Several age old mysteries have been shattered and unfolded.  But Alas! Man is yet to fully understand the true nature of diseases, which are always one step ahead of man’s efforts.

Man declared war against diseases ever since he experienced discomfort, pain and suffering, which have robbed him of his pleasure and joy of life.  In order to fight against these evil forces he devised various ways and means with the help of different combative agents.  At the same time he tried to understand the nature of diseases with the existing and contemporary knowledge.

In his journey of understanding the causes of diseases the primitive man originally thought that the evil forces are responsible for diseases. So he employed Magic and witchcraft to combat these diseases, subsequently through the trial and error method, derived that materia peccans is responsible for diseases.  Medical men were happy to find out the material causes of diseases and readily proclaimed tolle causam!  For centuries, medical men were obsessed with the material concept of diseases and employed leeching, cupping, venesection etc., to remove the material cause. But causes of diseases were ever elusive. Realizing his folly he went further in search of the real causes of diseases.  These efforts led him to the germ theory. Eureka! Medical men were jubilant over this new discovery and proclaimed their victory over diseases by introducing new drugs.  ‘Kill the Germ and cure the disease’ became the watchword or mantra of medical men at the beginning of twentieth’s century. Curative drugs ‘PENICILLIN IS THE PANACEA FOR ALL ILLS OF MANKIND’ proclaimed Alexander Fleming.

Theories on Causes and Hypothetical Prescriptions:
But the all (other) wise and wicked Maladies started surfacing with myriad manifestations to the astonishment of medical scientists. While on one end of the spectrum the infectious and communicable diseases started downward trend, at the other end of spectrum metabolic, malignant, auto immune diseases started showing an upward trend. This was a startling revelation. Surprised medical men started searching for the other factors of disease. They realized the shortcomings of the ‘Theory of Germs’.  In the search of mysterious nature of Man and Maladies he stumbled upon the “Theory of Mind”, which lead to the genesis of ‘Psycho somatic medicine’. Scientists started demonstrating the relationship of Mind and Matter and their interdependency in health, disease and cure. A few diseases started yielding to certain measures/agents based on this new revelation.

With the rapid developments in basic sciences and especially in, Genetics and Molecular biology, scientists all over the world agreed on the “THEORY OF GENES” and unanimously stated that “GENES ARE JUDGES OF HEALTH and DISEASE” and came out with ‘HUMAN GENOME PROJECT’ which seems to promise complete understanding and conquering of diseases, a greatest discovery at the beginning of twenty first century.

Journey from Magic to Miasms through Microbes: Vague theories:
Thus the journey of searching the causes of diseases started with the ‘Theory of Magic’ followed by Theory of Materia peccans, Theory of Microbes, Theory of Mind and lastly Theory of Memory (Genes) with their appropriate combative/curative agents. With the latest discovery of genetic concept of diseases and Gene Therapy or replacement, medical men are quite optimistic of overcoming the sufferings of mankind due to diseases and promising disease free society. It is not new that every century has witnessed a breakthrough in medicine and failed to fulfill the expectations.   So is the case with the new brainchild of medical scientist’s i.e., theory of Genes.

It is said that “today’s science is tomorrow’s nonsense or nonscience.” The initial euphoria over various theories and their net applicability and utility has been witnessed by and large by mankind and enjoyed the benefits and losses caused to their health. On the positive side, the life expectancy seems to have increased, various diseases mortality rates have declined and certain deadly communicable diseases are claimed to have been eradicated and efforts are on to say good bye to several other diseases.  But on the negative side man’s nightmare are AIDS and there is a resurgence of Malaria, Plague, Tuberculosis and increasing incidence of malignant diseases, metabolic disorders like diabetes.  This is the present health scenario at the beginning of 21st century.  Medical scientists are analyzing the cumulative knowledge of diseases and their therapeutic agents and planning to expand their horizons of knowledge of diseases and devising ways and means of adopting a holistic view of nature of MAN, MALADIES AND MEDICINE.  At this juncture it is quite pertinent to view some other theories promulgated by other systems of medicine, to understand their relevance and utility in the preventive, promotive and curative health care programmes.

The need of the hour is to have an unprejudiced approach towards understanding of the principles and philosophy of Homoeopathy, its artistic way of prescribing medicines for maladies. Homeopathy system of medicine introduced by Samuel Hahnemann, a German Physician in 1796. He promulgated the implication and application of principle of ‘SIMILIA SIMILIBUS CURANTUR’ which means agents which are endowed with the power of causing diseases are also capable  of curing diseases, a concept which was conceived by Hahnemann and carried forward by his disciples, with greater success from since then.

 His other theories on infinitesimals, vital force and chronic diseases have stood the test of time of two centuries. And have a tremendous potential and application in the fields of preventive, promotive and curative health care. These theories were conceptualized by Hahnemann and put to rigorous tests by experimentation. This confirmed their applications on understanding the nature of diseases and simultaneously their ability to cure diseases in toto as well. His life time ambition was to provide health by simple methods. He stated that the three miasms viz., PSORA, SYCOSIS and SYPHILIS, with their permutations and combinations are fundamental causes of all diseases, be it acute or chronic, which have to be removed through respective anti-miasmatic remedies, for an effective cure.  

Know Miasms Know Prescription techniques:No miasmatic knowledge no prescriptive skills:
Hahnemann exhorted the medical profession to understand the dynamic concept of causes of diseases and to apply his principles to realize its potential in the alleviation of suffering. However the ‘Theory of chronic Diseases’ of Hahnemann was not unanimously accepted by his contemporaries and followers for want of accuracy, adequacy and analogy of concepts. Though his other theories were accepted by followers, there were several questions which remained unanswered for want of clarity in the evolution of thought of  Hahnemann, influence of the then existing sciences dogmatic influence, social curbs etc.,  beclouded its comprehension, interpretation, analysis, relevance and utility  in the medical fraternity in general and homoeopathy in particular. This new theory opened a Pandora’s Box and divided homoeopaths into two categories viz., homoeopaths and Hahnemannians each one claiming the superiority of their Homoeopathic treatment over others.

But the spirit behind the age-old question of   causes of diseases has not been appreciated by many.  It is worth reexamining the accuracy, genuineness, authenticity and veracity of Hahnemann’s observations in the 18th century on   fundamental causes of diseases for the present times in the light of various other contemporary theories and the recent advances in related subjects like immunology, genetics and molecular biology at the beginning of the 21st century.

Hence the need for a  reorientation of our minds with a systematic study of the contemporary theories on causes of diseases and theory of chronic diseases postulated by Hahnemann. Keeping in view of the gravity of the situation and ever increasing quantity of life at the expense of quality, disability and morbidity of diseases, there is a great need to understand the relevance and utility of the principles of Homoeopathy in general and concept of Miasm in particular and their relevance and utility in the present day clinical practice. If we understand miasms very well it is easier for making an effective prescription.

Pathology Vs Philosophy: Views on Illness and wellness:
These two branches of learning are diametrically opposite to each other in their views and concepts. Pathology believes in gross and visible evidences for the presence or absence of disease where as Philosophy believes in the metaphysical and dynamic changes in the body as evidences for illness or wellness. However in the light of developments in the new fields viz., Immunology, and Genetics, the dynamic concept of disease is steadily gaining ground.

Pathology: The science of Genesis of disease: Contemporary views:
The concept of disease is as old as life itself. Since the beginning of mankind, there has been desire as well as need to know more about the causes and mechanisms of disease. The answers to these questions have evolved over the centuries from supernatural beliefs to the present state of our knowledge of modern pathology. However Pathology is not separable from other multiple disciplines of medicine and owes its development to interaction and interdependence on advances in diverse neighboring branches of science and strides made in medical technology. Rudolf Virchow and other pathologists defined Pathology as: “ The foundation of medical science and practice. Without pathology, the practice of medicine would be reduced to myths and folklore”. “Pathology is defined as the study of structural and functional abnormalities that are expressed as diseases of organs and systems. Pathology is “Scientific study of disease”. Study of structural and functional changes in disease.

 You need to have a basic knowledge of normal Anatomy (structure) and Physiology (function) to understand Pathology.

  • It is scientific study of structure and function of the body in disease.
  • Study of disease, its causes, and consequences.

“WHAT” of disease:

 Irrespective of the line of treatment every medical practitioner has to answer the patient for certain questions.

  • What is wrong? Diagnosis
  • What is going to happen? Prognosis
  • What can be done about it? Treatment
  • What should be done to avoid complications and spread? Prevention

“WHY “: Causes: Etiology

  • How: Pathogenesis: Mechanism
  • Symptoms: The functional implications of the lesion felt by the patient
  • Physical Signs: Lesions discovered by the clinician


  • Probable diagnosis
  • Patho physiology
  • Prognosis
  • Plan of treatment & Management
  • Prophylaxis -prevention 

Conventional Material Pathology: It deals with the study of disease, its causes, and consequences. According to it there are vast numbers of etiologic agents of disease viz.,

  1. Infectious (e.g. bacterial, fungal, viral , parasitic)
  2. Immunologic
  3. Genetic (inherited and acquired)
  4. Physical (e.g. traumatic, thermal, electrical, barometric, radiation)
  5. Chemical (e.g. hypoxic/anoxic, nutritional, toxic {exogenous and metabolic},  carcinogenic, teratogenic) 

Metaphysical (dynamic) Pathology:
Homoeopathy enunciates the metaphysical concept of disease cause and cure by emphasizing the dynamic nature of diseases and drugs. The concept of Miasms can be better explained and understood in the present century with the help of medicine and pathology in general and Genetics & Human Genome Project findings in particular. Metaschematism of diseases, Metamorphosis of clinical expressions of diseases, Metastatic nature of deadly diseases, Mutations in genes and multiplication of maladies are all living examples of myriad manifestations of Homoeopathic concept of Miasms. As the human traits are carried over to their offspring through mysterious memory (Genes) so are disease traits are carried forward to the next generation through miasmatic influence. The acceptance of Genetic theory of diseases tantamount to acceptance of Miasmatic theory of genesis of diseases.

Rising Graph of diseases:
Increased incidence of mortality and morbidity of non communicable diseases viz., Hypertension, diabetes, Cancer and Cardiovascular diseases indicates the afflictions of deep seated organs and Polymiasmatic disease manifestations. Increasing genetic evidence to several diseases and promising gene therapy or gene transplantation are some of the new promises of medicine. This seems to be quite near but yet so far for a common man. Geneticists are challenging the nature with cloning. But alas! They can never substitute Cure with any other method. Because life, health and disease are dynamic in nature and they are beyond the reach and scope of Modern Magical Medical Man.  

Suppressions starting point of diseases:
Behind every incurable and mind boggling, mysterious medical condition there lies suppression. Each suppression of either acute or chronic expression through oppressive non-homoeopathic methods driving the disease inside and transforming them from curability to incurability. This metamorphosis of maladies in the space-time interval are increasing by leaps and bounds resulting in annual or bi-annual publication of books on pathology and medicine with innumerable X, Y and Z syndromes.

Recurrence & Resistance:
Increased resistance to the so-called antimicrobials and retroviral drugs based on the Germ theory of diseases indicates the irrelevance of the concept of Germs/Microbes in the causation of diseases. Kill the microbe and cure the disease is easier said than done in the present scenario. The dictum in homoeopathy is “Prick the host and Pluck the disease – a patient friendly therapeutic tool. The Germs are surviving and with each generation of powerful drugs they are emerging with renewed resistance to them. This trend indicates that our attitudes towards them need a new approach. One cannot terminate them but one should learn to tame them and allow them to have a peaceful coexistence with man. So a Germ free society is a big myth in the present century. All our efforts should be Man-oriented rather than Microbe-centered. The homoeopathic philosophy affirms that treat the man not the microbe. The mission of the medical man is to restore the sickness to health, to cure on easily practicable principles. This sublime approach towards sickness will pay rich dividends in long run rather than resorting to hostile approach towards host (man) and pest (microbe).

The raising graph of Hypertension, Peptic Ulcer, Autoimmune disorders reveal a connecting link between Mind and Body. Emergence of Psychosomatic medicine, a branch that deals exclusively with the influence of Mind and body. This field of medicine reflects the concept of miasms in general and the role of mind in particular. The age-old adage of Mind over Matter can be better understood and appreciated in Homoeopathy.

Resurgence of Plague, Malaria and Tuberculosis and unholy alliance of AIDS with Tuberculosis indicates their either increased resistance to various drugs or decreased resistance of the human organism due to repeated suppressions.  The homoeopathic concept of Complex diseases formation under strong medication where two dissimilar diseases meet together will result in choosing their best sites for survival and after the cessation of oppression the old diseases reappear is known to all of us. This mechanism of hide and seek nature of diseases are evidently seen in the present situation.

Recurrence of so called acute diseases viz., Measles, Chicken Pox. Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis, which are said to be self-limiting, are periodically appearing either in epidemic or endemic proportions. These deadly and devastating diseases are no longer acute. These are only acute exacerbations of a chronic underlying state. This trend indicates the existence of miasms in the background and causing them to reappear periodically. These disguised presentations of acute diseases have to be looked from a different angle. A patchy type of prophylactic measures will be short lived and they continue to lurk in the body and emerge in a different form as and when a congenial atmosphere arises.

Psychiatric disorders viz., Schizophrenia, Manic-depressive psychosis, Suicide, Depression, Behavioral disorders are steadily increasing in the society. This trend indicates the complexities of miasms and their manifestations on the mind. Indiscipline, intolerance and impatience are some of the hallmarks of the present century. With increased technology there came increased insanity and idiocy. Till last century somatic diseases had an upper hand and now the Psychic disorders are showing their supremacy. We find a Paradigm shift of diseases on this Psychic front.

Vaccination is it a boon or bane?
These bullets to win battles with Microbes are seriously debated all over the world. On the one hand the success story of eradication of small pox and poliomyelitis in the offing is strongly in favor of vaccination. On the other hand the short term and long-term effects viz., Encephalopathy, post encephalitic syndrome, neuro allergic reactions, autism and brain damage are directly linked to the vaccine abuse. Prof.J.S.Bajaj, a super specialist in modern medicine says that, “The allopathic medicine provided the two “magic bullets” of Vaccination and Antibiotics to fight communicable diseases. But the epidemiological evolution leading us to non communicable diseases related to life style social pathology and decreased resistance to various diseases for which there are no magic bullets yet.” To be or not to be vaccinated is mind-boggling and a million-dollar question. The concept of Vaccination from the womb to the tomb is worth reexamining in the light of emergence of queer, rare and uncommon medical problems in this century. The Indian council of Medical research findings on the futility of B.C.G. vaccination should be an eye opener to the protagonists of vaccination.

Prophylactics in Homoeopathy :  Japanese Encephalitis prevention :A case study:
The homoeopathic viable and sustainable alternative for wide-ranging or broad-spectrum prevention strategy i.e., B.C.T.  a concept introduced by Dr.G.L.N.Sastry a pioneer in homoeopathic public health strategy specialist, is worth implementing. The drugs viz., Belladonna, Calcarea Carb and Tuberculinum  ( B.C.T.) given in specified and standardized schedule will certainly save our human race from man made and nature’s maladies. This technique based on dynamic concept of diseases and drugs and miasmatic interpretation for recurrence of certain epidemics has given gratifying results. The dreaded epidemic of Japanese Encephalitis was effectively controlled through homoeopathy. Between 1993 and 1999 the recorded J.E. cases were 5308 and 1511 children died from Japanese Encephalitis. Homoeopathic Prophylactic drugs viz., belladonna 200 on 1,2,3, days one dose each time, Calacarea Carb 200 on 10th day one dose and Tuberculinum 10 M one dose on 21st day were administered in a phased manner from 1999 to 2005 every year with the cooperation and collaboration of allopathic department in A.P.  After its implementation the mortality and morbidity of J.E. drastically came down within one year.

 342 cases were reported in 2000 with 72 deaths, in 2001 only 30 cases with 4 deaths were recorded and in 2002 18 cases were recorded without any deaths. In 2003 and 2004 no cases were reported. The Govt. of A.P. had officially published the statistics and acknowledged the efficacy of homoeopathy. This is the first major involvement of Homooepathy in the field of epidemics prevention in our country. The neighbouring states which have not administered these homoeopathic prophylactics continued to show higher incidences of J.E. cases and deaths. Endemics and epidemics are outbreaks of miasms. They should be studied and prevented through miasmatic prescription. The definition and scope of Genus Epidemicus has to be viewed holistically. But in this capitalistic world the watchword is economics of medicine (Mediconomics), where Man, Malady and Medicine are viewed from the point of Money.

Metamorphosis of Maladies: Emergence of new forms of H.I.V. and A.I.D.S. may be the classical example of metamorphosis of syphilis, which was suppressed by all kinds of drugs but is reemerging in the disguised form with more virulence, morbidity and mortality. 

Homoeopathy, a multifaceted medical science has been proving its efficacy in diverse clinical conditions ever since Dr.Samuel Hahnemann introduced it two centuries ago. The success and failures in our clinical practice depends upon our confidence in the principles and patience in observing the action of medicine. It is often noticed that for want of these qualities we loose our cases and ultimately blame homoeopathy. In spite of several hurdles, homoeopathy has been demonstrating its efficacy not only in chronic diseases but also in serious acute conditions, epidemics and terminally ill patients too. In the present world of medicine, strong laboratory and clinical evidences are needed to demonstrate the authenticity of any medical technique or method. This is an Evidence Based Era. The British Homoeopathic Journal has appealed to the medical doctors to document their cases both by print and visual media for further validation of our system of medicine.

The strength of Homoeopathy is its clinical cures (evidences) and its weak spot is statistical significance. The so-called scientists refuse to look at what is present in homoeopathy instead they highlight its weak spot. In fact, statistics have a dubious role in biological and medical sciences. Because no two human beings are genetically similar. Homoeopaths who base their prescriptions on individualistic features are much ahead of their medical contemporaries in producing qualitative results. Claude Bernard said, “When an observed fact does not correspond to an official theory, it must be accepted and the theory rejected. Theory must be changed to be adapted to nature and it is not nature, which must be adapted to theory.” May Homoeopathy grow from strength to strength in the new millennium?    Aude Sapere. The science of Pathology and the and art of Philosophy has to be blended to achieve the highest mission of a physician i,.e., as envisaged the master hahnemann.

May Homoeopathy grow from strength to strength and flourish in its pristine purity.


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Dr.G.Srinivasulu, M.B.S. M.D.(Hom.)
12-8-402, Alugadda Bavi, Mettuguda,

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