Monthly Archives: December 2012


Healthy Personalities

healthPeople with healthy personalities are those who are judged to be well adjusted. They are so jugged because they are able to function efficiently in the world of people. They experience a kind of “Inner Harmony” in the sense that they are at peace with others as well as themselves.

“The core of a healthy personality is any image of the self that the individual can accept and live with, without feeling too guilty, anxious or hostile, without being self-defeated or destructive of others.”

Jourard has defined a person with a healthy personality as one who “is able to gratify his needs through behavior that conforms with both the norms of his society and the requirements of his conscience.”

Characteristics of Healthy Personalities: Of the many characteristics of healthy personalities, the following are the most common:

  1. Realistic self-appraisals
  2. Realistic appraisal of situations
  3. Realistic evaluation of achievements
  4. Acceptance of reality
  5. Acceptance of responsibility
  6. Autonomy
  7. Acceptable emotional control
  8. Goal orientation
  9. Outer orientation
  10. Social acceptance
  11. Philosophy-of-life-directed
  12. Happiness
  1. Realistic self-appraisals: The well adjusted person sees himself as he is, not as he would like to be. The gap between the real and the ideal self-concept, is very much smaller among the well-adjusted. Since the well-adjusted person can appraise himself, his abilities and his achievements realistically, he does not need to use defense mechanisms to try to convince himself and others that his failure to come up to his expectations is the fault of others or of environmental conditions over which he has no control. He accepts adverse evaluations as a form of constructive criticism and tries to improve qualities that others judge unfavorably. He is ready and willing to change, regard himself as worthy, even if not perfect.
  1. Realistic appraisal of situations: He approaches situations with a realistic attitude, accepting the bad with the good. He realizes that there must be rules of conduct which protects the rights of others and himself, and he is willing to abide by them even when they are not entirely to his liking. He finds that it pays to be a law-abiding citizen rather than a troublemaker or law-breaker. He recognizes that success comes only with hard work, the willingness to make personal sacrifices and pass up immediate pleasures in favor of the long term gains he is striving for.
  1. Realistic evaluation of achievements: A well-adjusted person is able to evaluate his achievements realistically and to react to them in a rational way. This contrasts with the maladjusted person who regards his successes as a personal triumph which shows others his superiority over them. The maladjusted person allows himself to develop a superiority complex which he expresses in boasting, bragging and derogatory comments about those whose achievements fall below this.

A well-adjusted person evaluates his failures realistically to see if they were actually failure for him or whether they were due to competition with persons whose abilities were greater than his. He also considers whether he tried hard enough and if he did not; whether his lack of effort was due to laziness, fear of failure, or some other cause. In addition, he assesses his aspirations to see if they were realistic and if not, he profits by his failure, setting his future aspirations at a more realistic level.

  1. Acceptance of reality: The person must learn to accept his limitations, either physical or psychological, if he cannot change them and to do what he can with what he has. He can also compensate for his limitations by improving those characteristics in which he is strongest.

The poorly adjusted person, by contrast, develops a martyr complex, feeling sorry for himself or blaming himself or others for his limitations.

  1. Acceptance of responsibility: The well adjusted person is enough of a realist to recognize that he should not accept responsibilities that he is unprepared to carry out successfully. He knows that by doing so he will not only win social disapproval for his failures but will undermine his self confidence to the point where he will be hesitant to accept future responsibilities. He accepts responsibility for himself and for his behavior. If things go wrong and if he is criticized, he accepts the blame and is willing to admit that he made a mistake. Acceptance of responsibility means that the well adjusted person is dependable.
  1. Autonomy: Autonomy shows itself in independence. An autonomous person does not depend on others when he is capable of being independent. The well-adjusted person shows his autonomy in several ways. In decision making, he is able to make important decisions with a minimum of worry, conflict, advice seeking and other types of running away behavior. After making a choice, he abides by it, until new factors of crucial importance enter into the picture.
  1. Acceptable emotional control: The person must assume the responsibility for keeping his emotions under control so that they will not hurt others or himself. A well adjusted person can live comfortably with his emotions. This is possible because he had developed, over a period, a degree of stress tolerance, anxiety tolerance, depression tolerance and pain tolerance.
  1. Goal orientation: The well adjusted person set realistic goals while those who are poorly adjusted set more unrealistic goals. The second major difference between well and poorly adjusted people in goal setting is that the well adjusted make it their business to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to reach their goals. The result is that a well adjusted person is a well organized one. He integrates his various functions and roles in life according to a consistent, harmonious pattern. He is thus able to make the best use of his time and effort and this increases his chances of reaching his goals.
  1. Outer orientation: The well adjusted person’s interest in others is revealed in a number of ways. He is unselfish about his time, effort and material possessions. He is willing to respond in any way he can to the needs of others and does not regard it as an imposition. The ability to empathize with others, to understand and to sympathize with them in happiness and sorrow without feeling envious of their successes or scornful of their failures.
  1. Social acceptance: The well adjusted persons see themselves as adequate to meet social challenges, demands and expectations and so they are willing to participate in social activities and are highly capable of identifying with other people. He can be natural, at ease and friendly in his relationships with others and all this increases his social acceptance. Even though he may have little in common with those with whom he is associated, he makes it his business to get along with them if circumstances make it impossible for him to seek the companionship of persons whose interests are more similar to his and who would meet his needs better.
  1. Philosophy-of-life-directed: As well adjusted people are goal-oriented, so do they direct their lives by a philosophy which helps them to formulate plans to meet their goals in a socially approved way. This philosophy of life may be based on religious beliefs, it may be based mainly on what they believe is right because it is best for all concerned or it may be based on personal experiences.
  1. Happiness: One of the outstanding characteristics of the well adjusted person is happiness. This means that in the well adjusted person happiness outways unhappiness and the person is an essentially happy person. Three conditions contribute to the happiness of the well adjusted person. All enhance the person’s self-concept and lead to reasonable self satisfaction. These conditions have been called the “Three A’s of Happiness”:
  • Achievement
  • Acceptance
  • Affection

Dr. Nahida M.Mulla.M.D (Hom) MACH
PRINCIPAL.Professor of Repertory & PG Guide.HOD  Paediatric OPD.,Child Counsellor.
A.M.Shaikh Homoeopathic Medical College,  Hospital & PG Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum – 590010


Pediatrics notes for various competitive examinations

childPediatrics notes for various competitive examinations in Homoeopathy & Medicine

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Pediatric last moment revision -by medfools
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Essential Revision Notes in Paediatrics

Tamil Nadu PSC Homeopathy Medical Officer Question Paper 2007

1. Ascaris is also called

  • A) Roundworm    B) Flatworm
  • C) Fluke                D) None of these

2. Moderate severe Lymphadenitts is caused by

  • A) Virus                 B) Mycobacteria
  • C) Streptococcus D) None of these

3. Repolarisation of ventricles must ·

  • A) Begin in septum       B) Begin in apical epicardium
  • C) Begin at AV node    D) All of these.

4. Increased pressure within Carotid sinus produces .

  • A) Rreflex bradycardia      B) Reflex hyperpnoea
  • C) Increase in heart rate D) Increase in venous pressure.

5. Severe hypertension may cause

  • A) Pulmonary oedema   B) Rise in coronary flow
  • C) Visual acuity                D) All of these

6. Mycobacterium Kansasi  are

  • A) non-specific          B) tuberculous bacilli
  • C) leprous                  D) none of these

7. Superior oblique muscle is supplied by

  • A) Oculomotor nerve    B)Trochlear nerve
  • C) Abducent nerve        D) Trigeminal nerve

8.Which of the following regarding Mandibular nerve is correct?

  • A) Branch of facial nerve
  • B) Purely motor
  • C) Passes through foramen ovale
  • D) Related to Sphenopalatine ganglion

 9. The base of the Heart is formed by the

  • A) right atrium alone   B) left atrium alone
  • C) right and left atria  D) right and left ventricles.

10. The horizontal part of the duodenum crosses the midline opposite to.

  • A)Vertébra L1            B) Vertebra L2
  • C) Vertebra L3         D) Vertebra L 4

11 . Glycerol is converted to glucose in

  • A) Heart  B) Muscle
  • C) Liver    D) Brain.

12.  E.Coli are

  • A) Gram -ve bacilli    B) Gram +ve cocci
  • C) Gram -ve cocci – D) Gram +ve bacilli

13. Cluster testing is useful   detecting case of

  • A)  Diabetes  B) STD
  • C) Cancer       D) Measles

14. ln Typhoid, widal test detects

  • A) O Antigen      B) H Antigen .
  • C) V Antigen       D) both [A) and (B)

15. Ketone bodies are byproducts of Metabolism of

  •  A) Carbohydrate   B) Fat
  • C) Protein                D) all of these

16. Clostridium Tetani can cause

  • A) Tetanus       B) Rabies
  • C) Tetany         D) none of these.

17. Which of the following pair is gram +ve  Cooci ?

  • A) Streptococci and Staphylococci    B) Staphylococci and Klebsiella
  • C) Streptococcci and E. Coli                D) Klebsiellae and  E. Coli

18. Shock leads to A ·

  • A) Disparity in cardiac output and demand
  • B) A collapse
  • C) Dehydration
  • D)   all of these·

19. Conduction velocity is least in

  • A) AV Node      B) SA Node
  • C) His bundle   D) Purkinje fibers

20. Following are Ketogenic except

  • A) Alanine     B) Tyrosine
  • C) Glycerol    D) Fatty acid.

21. Which  is not a common cause of meningitis in adults ?

  • A) Str. Pyogenes -Group A  B) Staph aureus / H influenzae
  • C) Group B streptococcus   D) Myco TB

22. In TB meningitis, CSF finding is

  • A) no sugar        B) low sugar
  • C) persistent proteneuria  D) polymorphonucleocytosls

23. Lepromine tests is strongly positive in

  • A) borderline leprosy        B) Tuberculoid leprosy
  • C) Intermediate leprosy   D) Lepromatous leprosy.

24. A positive Mantoux test indicates that the child

  • A) has   TB infection
  • B) has had BCG vaccination recently
  • C) is suffering from active TB
  • D) all of these

25.  Streptococcus: pyogenes produces all of the following except

  • A) Impetigo contagiosa    B) Erysipelas
  • C) Boil          D) Parmonychia

26. In R·S, most common Paediatric Cocci are

  • A) Pneumococci        B) Staphylocooci
  • C) Streptococci          D) all  of these

27. Skin infections are caused by

  • A) Staphylococci        B) Streptocooci
  • C) both (A) and (B)    D) none of these

28. Professional death sentence has to be passed by

  • A) High Court           B)State Medical Council
  • C) Sessions Court    D) Central Government.

29. Which nucleus is not found in the flow of fourth ventricle ?

  • A) Abducens N              B) Dorsal Vagal N
  • C) Facial N                      D) Hypoglossal N. A

30. Major site of acetoacetate formation from fatty acids is the

  • A) Kidney          B) Adipose tissue
  • C) Liver              D) Muscle

31. The most common mode of transmission of Leprosy is

  • A) skin to skin contact          B)droplet infection
  • C) insect vectors      D) through fomites

32. Insulin has …. . amino acids

  • A) 49   B) 50
  • C) 51   D) 52

33. Continuous  murmur over manubrium is most likely to be on account of

  • A) patent ductus arteriosus     B) aortic stenosis
  • C) mitral stenosis                      D) aortic insufficiency

 34. All bacteria are killed by

  • A) dis infection    B) sterilisation
  • C) both A & B       D) none of these

35. Best way of killing bacteria is by

  • A) Autoclave              B) Incineration
  • C) Refrigeration        D) Hot air oven

36. Smear for Malaria are taken

  • A) at  night                 B) at time of rigors
  • C) both (A) and (B)    D) none of these

37. Dr.Koch is known for

  • A) Tubercle Bacillus  B) Postulates
  • C) both (A) and (B)     D) none of these.

38. Acid fast bacilli were known for

  • A) Tuberculosis    B) Cervical Adenitis
  • C) Leprosy             D) all of these

39. Virulent staphylococci can cause

  • A) food poisoning    B) abscess
  • C) seborrhoea         D) both (A) and (B)

40. Rectum begins in front of

  • A) 1st Sacral vertebra    B) 2nd sacral vertebra
  • C) 3rd Sacral vertebra    D) 4th Sacral Vertebra

41. Warning notice is

  • A) Issued by the Government
  • B) issued to the doctor by Medical Council.
  • C) issued to the public
  • D) none of  these

42. Most important features of inflammation are

  • A) colour, ruber, tumour, pallor and loss of function
  • B) tenderness & oedema
  • C) exudation & transudatation.
  • D) redness and pan

43. Measles is most Common

  • A) Spring      B) Winter
  • C) Autumn   D) Summer

44. In Indian Medical Council Executive Committee consists of

  • A)  the President
  • B) the Vice president
  • C) the President. the Vice-President and 7 to 10 others
  • D) none of them.

45. Calcium requirement during pregnancy per day is

  • A) 400 mg   B) 300 mg
  • C) 500 mg   D) 100 mg

 46. Egg has all the vitamins except

  • A) C     B) B1
  • C) E     D) B6

47. Normal pleura is

  • A) 1 cm above the1st  rib    B) 2 cm above the 1st_ rib .
  • C) upper edge of the 1st rib D) lower edge  of the 1st  rib

48. The oculomotor nerve supplies the muscle of eye

  • A) Superior rectus  B) Superior oblique
  • C) Medial rectus    D) inferior oblique

49. Gangrene leads to

  • A) bad odour       B) colour change
  • C) putrefaction   D) all of these.

50. Recommended   dietary of protein for an average 70 kg male is

  • A) 65gm    B) 110gm
  • C) 80gm    D) 30 gm

51. Muscles Hypoglossal is supplied by nerve

  • A) Lingual   B) XII cranial
  • C) Facial     D) V Cranial

52. Which of the f01l0wlng cranial nerves does not contain parasympathetic fibers

  • A) III          B)  VI
  • C) IX           D) X

53. Which of the following could result  from a destructive lesion of the left  oculomotor nerve ?

  • A) Loss of left pupillary constriction when light is shown to the left eye
  • B) 4 Loss of left pupillary constriction when light is shown in the right eye
  • C) Paralysis of ciliary muscle in the left eye
  • D) All of these.

 54. Features of optic nerve are except .

  • A) Myelinated fibres    B) Unmyelinated fibres
  • C) Sheath of Schwarm   D) Glial cells

55. Total vital capacity is decreased but timed vital capacity ts normal in

  • A)   Bronchial Asthma    B) Chronic Bronchitis·
  • C)   Scoliosis     D) all of these

56. Fourth heart sound ts heard in

  • A) early diastole    B) early systole  ·
  • C) late systole       D) late diastole

57. Infection by group B streptococci

  • A) can be followed by rheumatic fever
  • B) occurs in neonates
  • C) in persons debilitated by underlying systemic disease
  • D) can be prevented by vaccine.

58. A patient with  fever of l03°F, bradycardia nd leulcopenia probably has

  • A) Tydhoid        B) Malaria.
  • C) Meliodosis    D) Brucellosis

59. In Salmonella food poisonin true is

  • A) diarrhoea and vomiting     B) vomiting. no diarrhoea
  • C) diarrhoea. no vomiting      D) long incubation period

60. About typhoid  true is

  • A) blood culture is positive within 7 —- 10 days
  • B) blood culture positive within 3 to 4 days
  • C) blood culture is positive within 24 hours
  • D) all of these

61. Craving for alcohol in any form, falling of hair, pains from darkness to daylight are characterized by

  • A) Mercurius     B) Syphillinum
  • C) Tuberculosis    D) Medorrhlnum

62. Tooth decay at the roots and crowns remain sound in

  • A) Mezerium           B) Thuja
  • C) both (A) & (B)     D) none of these

63. In Sciatica, pain is aggravated by standing, and letting the foot rest on floor. During rest from previous exertion. Amelioration from walking. The drug is

  • A) Rhustox   B) Pulsatilla
  • C) Sepia        D) Valeriana

64. Sexual  debility from inordinate use of salt and violent sexual excitement leading  to aversion to coition causing sterility.  The drug  is

  • A) Lycopodium    B) Phosphorus
  • C) Selenium          D) Natrum mur

65. Tongue of  ……. patient is foul and becomes clear at each menstrual nisus.

  • A) Lachesls    B) Pyrogen
  • C) Sepia          D) none of these.

66. The relationship of Sepia and Natrum mur is

  • A) inimical                B) antidote
  • C) complimentary     D) follows

67. In   laryngitis, selenium patient complains of aphoria resulting from

  • A)  cold exposure    B) overuse of voice
  • C)   overheated        D)  none  of these

68. Indicated after injuries to glands where stony hardness is present in the cellular tissues. The drug of choice is

  • A) Calcarea carb    B) Spongia
  • C) Conium                D) all of these

69. The complaints of Zincum met is relieved ·

  • A) before menses  B) after menses
  • C) during menses   D) before, during an{d after menses. ·

70.  Rhustox is …. sided medicine.

  • A) left                                            B) right
  • C) right upper and left lower    D) no

71. Second edition of Boenninghausen’s characteristics and repertory by Boger was published in

  • A) 1927   B) 1940
  • C) 1935   D) 1937.

72. Who gave the concept of doctrine of Pathological general

  • A) Boennonghausen    B) Kent
  • C) Boger           D) Knerr

73. How many remedies are available in Boger Repertory ?·

  • A) 504     B) 464
  • C) 414     D) 450

74. Synthetlc  Repertory was published in

  • A) 1960    B) 1973
  • C) 1945   D) 1952

75. Bogcr’s Card Repertory was published in

  • A) 1907   B) 1928
  • C) 1936  D) 1942

76. Autovisual  Homeopathic Repertory was introduced by

  • A) Dr. Shankaran B) Dr. Jugal Kishore
  • C) Dr. Patel           D) H. C. Allen

77. How many medicines are there in Knerr’s Repertory ?

  • A) 408      B) 501
  • C) 540     D) 420.

78. In Sinusitis the discharge from the nose contains the fragments of the nasal  cartilage indicates the drug of choice is

  • A) Aurum met    B). Cupr met
  • C) Stan. Met       D) Plumbum met

79.Remedy for the presence of “White Amorphous Salts”itn urine is

  • A) Lycopodiom   B) Berbaris vulg
  • C) Hydrangea   D) Pariera brava.

80. Remedy for Neuralgia of Stump after amputation is ·

  • A) Aconite    B) Allium Cepa
  • C) Bryonia    D) Pyrogen

81. The base of the heart is related to

  • A) descending aorta   B) tendon of diaphragm
  • C) Azygos vein             D) tracheal bifurcation

82. A Nucleus in brain common  to IX. X. and Xl cranial nerves is

  • A) nucleus ambiguous    B) nucleus solitlarius
  • C) red nucleus                 D) dental nucleus.

83. Section 191 IPC relates to

  • A) legal practice to medical doctors
  • B) giving false evidence
  • C) Factories Act
  • D) punishment for false evidence

84) Which nerve passes through Meckel’s cave ?

  • A) Trigeminal         B) Facial
  • C) Abducens         D) Trochlear

85. Oedema is pitting type in legs due to

  • A) renal failure        B) cardiac failure ·
  • C) Anaemia              D) all of these

86. Severe hypertension may cause

  • A) pulmonary oedema     B) reduced visual activity
  • C) rise in coronary flow     D) all of these. “

87. Lower border of costo diaphramatic recess is at the level of which of therib?

  • A)  12    B) 8
  • C) 6        D)10th Rib

88. Neoplasm is defined as .

  • A) new growth         B) benign growth
  • C) malignancy          D) all of these

89. Cause of death in sulphuric acid poisoning is

  • A) perforation of stomach or toxemlc spasm of glottis
  • B) due to shock
  • C) circulatory collapse
  • D) none of these

90. For contraceptive sterillsatlon consent of ………. should be obtained. ·

  • A) husband   wife   B) husband alone
  • C) wife alone         D) father-in-law alone

91. Hydramnios is associated with all, except

  • A) Tracheo-oesophagial  Fistula      B) Anencephali.
  • C) Toxaemic                                        D) Renal agenesis.

92. Trial  labour is contraindicated in

  • A) elderly primi gravida    B) major disproportion
  • C) severe P.E.T’     D) all of these.

93. Commonest type of vertex presentation is

  • A) left occiptto transverse    B) left occiptto anterior
  • C) right occipito anterior      D) right occiptto posterior.

94. Sure sign of intrauterine death is

  • A) spalding sign        B) gas in the aorta
  • C) absence of foetal movements     D) failure of gowth of uterus.

 95. Definite  sign of pregnancy is

  • A)Uterine supple             B) Ballotment
  • C) Foetal heart sound     D) Amenorrhoea

96.In vitro fertilization ts not  indicated in

  • A) Endometriosis                   B) Tubal block
  • C) Cervical lncompetency     D) both (A) and (C)

97. Vulvo vaginal candidiasis ts commonest in

  • A) Addison‘s disease         B) Cushing syndrome
  • C) Diabetes                         D) Malnourishment.

98. In prevention of premature labour the drug  is

  • A) Caulophyllum     B) Asarum Europeum
  • C) Aurum trtphylum    D)Fer. met

99. Retention of urine after labour.The drug of choice is

  • A) Avena Sativa       B) Arnica
  • C) Drosera               D) Dulcamara.

100.Dlarrhoea and vomiting, bloody discharge from bowels during menses. The drug

  • A) Amy  Nitrate  B) Aconite
  • C) Ant. Tart         D) Ammonium Mur

101. The upper end of the superior vena cava is situated at the level of

  • A) upper border of the first right costal cartilage
  • B) lower border of the first right coastal cartilage
  • C) middle of the first intercostal space .
  • D) upper border of the second right costal cartilage

102.In the mid axillary line the pleura reaches as low as the

  • A) 8th rlb     B) 8th intercostal space
  • C) 9th  rib    D) 10th rib

103. Hyperacusis is a condition in which normal sounds appear too loud. The condition can be produced by injury to the

  • A) Vestibular nerve        B) Cochlear nerve
  • C) Facial nerve                 D) Chorda tympani

104· Which is the most common position of the Vermiform appendix ?

  • A) Retrocaecal                B) Pelvic
  • C) Sub-caecal                  D) Pre-ileal

105.At approximately what distance from the ileocaeal junction is- Meckel’s  diverticulum located on the ileum ?

  • A) 30 cm      B) 60 cm
  • C) 90 cm      D) 120 cm

106. Seventh Cranial nerve supplies

  • A) all muscles of facial expression
  • B) all muscles of facial expression excluding orbicularis
  • C)   muscles of facial expression and mastication V
  • D) all muscles of facial expression excluding levator palp. superioris.

107. The only pharyngeal muscle innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerveis the

  • A) Stylopharyngeus         B) Palatopharyngeus
  • C) Superior Constrictor   D) Middle Constrictor.

108. Blood Fluke is also called

  • A) Schistosomium haematobium    B) Schistosomium Pulmonale
  • C) Paragonimus          D) Kala-Azar

109. Cerabral féver is caused by

  • A) Pl. Vivax         B) Pl. Falciparum `
  • C) Pl. Ovale ·      D] Ka1a·Azar.

110. Tuberculosis is also called

  • A) Koch’s lesion     B) Kahn’s lesion
  • C) Lewis’ lesion D) none of these

111.ln renal calculus, brick dust red or yellow sediment odour of musk. The drug

  • A)  Ocimum Canum    B) Selenium
  • C) Sepia                        D)Conium

112. Strangulated Hernia. The drug of choice is

  • A) Nux. Vomica    B) Robinia
  • C) Rhustox             D) Chamomilla

113. Which organ is most severely  affected by shock?

  • A) Heart      B) Kidney
  • C) Lung        D)  Liver.

114. Disease  which come under the scope  of Homoeopathy  ?

  • A) Iatrogenic disease
  • B) due to   natural calamities
  • C) Disease where there is domain of similia
  • D) All the above

 115. Sources of Homoeopathic  Medicines are     ·

  • A)  Metals        B)Halogens
  • C) All the poisons   D) all of these

 116, Atrophy of the sides of the body is a symptom belonging to

  •  A) common symptom          B) disease symptom
  • C) pathological symptom   D) second grade general.

117. Homoeopathy is based upon which of the following logic ? _

  • A) Norvum Organum
  • B) Inductive logic
  • C) Deductive logic
  • D) Both Inductive logic and Deducttve logic.

118. Which of the following medicines is very effective in ‘Hyperemesis grav1darum’ ?

  • A) Pyrogen                                    B) Graph
  • C) Symphoricarpos racemosa    D) Ruta

1 19. In Dysmenorrhoea  more profuse the flow, greater is the sufferings

  • A) Vib. Opulus .   B) Nux. Vom.
  • C) Bell                D) Cimicifuga

120. Menses irregular, continuous oozing of watery blood until next period. The drug

  • A) Secali Cor. B)  Sars
  • C) Aconite     D) Thuja. A

121. Which type of Malarias not seen in India?

  • A) Ovale     B) Falciparum
  • C) Vivax     D) P. Malariae

122. Which of the following species commonly causes ‘Cerebra1 Malaria’ ?

  • A) P. Malariae    B) P. Vivax V
  • C) P. Falciparum D) P. Ovale.

123. Sudden onset of cough followed by increasing dyspnea is characteristic of

  • A) Pleural effusion            B) Lobar Pneumonia
  • C) Myocard1al infarction D) Pneumothorax.

124. Most of the deaths after myocardial infarction are seen within the first

  • A) 1 hr         B) 6 hrs
  • C) 12 hrs     D) 24 hrs

125. Diarrhea and dermatitis is due to   …………….. deficiency.

  • A) Riboflavin    B)Thiamine
  • C) Niacin           D) Pantothenic acid.

126. Crackling crepitation  unaltered by coughing is characteristic of

  • A) Pulmonary tuberculosis       B) Interstitial lung disease
  • C) Klebsiella  Pneumonia            D) Lung

127. Causes of acute pulmonary oedema are all except

  • A) inhalation of irritant fumes
  • B) sudden exposure to high attitudes
  • C) acute left ventricular failure
  • D) deep sea diving

128. Angina pectoris   most commonly

  • A) Mitral stenosis
  • B) Aortic stenosis
  • C) Mitral  regurgitation
  • D) Aortic regurgitation

129. Smoking most commonly causes Q

  • A) Carcinoma lung              B) TAO
  • C) Chronic bronchitis         D) Myocardial Ischemla

130. Which remedy is  indicated in the initial stage of meningitls ‘?

  • A) Bell            B) Helleborus
  • C) Zinc met.  D) None of these.

131. Cotton dust causes which one of the following occupational lung disease ?

  • A) Byssinosis          B) Siderosis
  • C) Berylliosis          D) Slllcosis

132. Varying pulse pressure with normal rhythm is seen in

  • A) Left ventricular failure   B) Asthma
  • C) Respiratory failure          D) Cardiac tamponade.

133. Wh1ch is not a complication of Rheumatoid arthritis ?

  • A) Endocarditis           B) Pericarditis
  • C) Splenic infarcts       D) Polycythemia.

134. Following are true for acute bronchial asthma, except

  • A) Intercostal muscle retraction    B) Monosyllablic speed
  • C) Cyanosis                                       D) Decreased respiratory rate. .

135. Bronchopneumonia due to measles, occurs due to

  • A) Sinusitis                           B) lmmunomodulator
  • C) Bronchial obstruction  D) Aspiration

136. Pulmonary embolism causes all, except

  • A) Bradycardia            B) Decreased  cardiac output
  • C) Arterial  hypoxia   D) Acute right ventricular strain.

137. Which  of the following is true about Malaria?

  • A) P. Falciparum can cause relapse
  • B) P. Vivax does not contain pigment granules
  • C) P.Vivax causes enlargement of affected RBC
  • D) Schizogony of P.Ma1aria occurs in 48 hours.

138. The complication least likely to   in a case of chronic bronchitis is

  • A) Pulmonary Hypertension      B)Pneumothorax
  • C)  Emphysema                                 D)Amyloidosis

139. Malaria affects the following organs, except

  • A) Bram                    B) Heart
  • C) Liver                     D) Kidney

140. Which of the following are independent mk factors for Atherosclerosis ?

  • A) Diabetes                        B) Hypercholesterolaemia
  • C)   Smoking                      D) All of these.

141. Fatty change / degeneration occurs in

  • A) liver              B) lungs
  • C) spleen         D) muscle

142. Fatty degeneration is characterised by

  • A) loss of appetite           B) Jaundice
  • C) Lethargy                       D) all of these.

143. Staphylococcus is producing

  • A) Alpha Lactamase              B) B -LactAsmase
  • C) gama – Lactamase           D) none of these.

144. Meningiococci are.

  • A)   Gram negative            B) Gram positive
  • C) Diplococci                      D) both (A)  and (C)

145. Media for culture for Neisseria is

  • A)  Robertson’s medium        B) Theyer Martin medium
  • C) VR medium                         D) none of these. .

146. Ascariasis also leads to

  •  A) Spleen involvement           B) lmmune deficiency
  • C) Pulmonary Eosinophilia      D)   (B) and (C)

147. Pinworms  lead to bleeding and Anaemla. The statement is ·

  • A) True                                              B) False
  • C)  for pregnant women only       D) none of these.

148. HIV   is associated with

  • A) B Lymphocyte            B) T Lymphocyte
  • C) Large Lymphocyte    D) Small Lymphocyte.

149. HIV virus leads to

  • A) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • B) Acute Immune Syndrome
  • C) Acute Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • D)  Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

150. Recently, tuberculosis is becoming a. disease of

  • A)  young  females    B) elderly males
  • C)  elderly females    D) Young children

151. Hookworms can complicate

  • A) Renal failure               B) Bloodless – Anaemia
  • C) Perianal infection In D) none of these

152. E Coli is

  • A) more frequent than E. Hlstolytica    B) lessfrequent  than EH
  • C) none of these                                       D) Co-exists with EH

153. Malariai Parasites are

  • A) vector oriented                  B) causing night rigor
  • C) intra erythrocyte               D) all of  these.

154. Common Plasmodium are

  • A) Pl. Vlvax               B) Pl. Falciparum
  • C) Pl Malariae           D) all of these

155. Salmonellla causes

  • A) Enteric fever         B) Typhoid fever
  • C) both A) and (B)    D) none of these.

156. Salmonella acts by

  • A) Endotoxin           B) Exotoxin
  • C) Antigenicity        D) none of these

157. Food poisoning is caused by

  • A) Staphylococcus         B) E.Coli
  • C) both (A) and (B)         D) none of these

158. The Angle of Louis is at the level of

  • A) lower border of T 3           B) upper border of T 4
  • C)  lower border of T 4          D) upper border of T 5

159. The esophagus

  • A) Passes through at the vertebral  level  T 10
  • B) is found between the trachea and thoracic duct in the superior mediastinum .
  • C) is typically ventral to the azygos vein in the lower thorax
  • D) all of these.

160. Two types of failure leading to shock

  • A) after load and pre-load
  • B) left ventricular and right ventricular
  • C) both (A) & (B)
  • D) none of these

 161. Headache preceded by blindness or blurred vision. The drug is

  • A) Kali  bichromium     B) Gelsemium
  • C) Lac defloratum        D) all of these`

162. Breasts inflamed painful in least jar. Must hold them firmly when going up or downstairs. The drug is

  • A) Lachesiss            B) Lac. Caninum
  • C) Hydrastis           D) Cup. Met

163. Eye bum, ache, and feel strained, hot like balls of fire. Spasms of lower

  • A) Ruta.         B) Rumex
  • C) Ran. Bulb  D) Sepia.

164. Cough with lowness and soreness in the chest with inability to expectorate,  sputa must be swallowed  by taking cold water. The drug is

  •  A) Causticum          B) Pulsatilla
  • C) Dulcamara          D) Cina

165. Shifting type of pain in multiple joints. The drug is

  • A) Hypericum    B) Verat. alb.
  • C) Pulsatllla        D) Calendula

166. Asthma, better by lying down and keeping arms stretched far apart. The drug is

  • A) Ars. alb.       B) Psorlnum
  • C) Tabacum      D) Ruta

167. In bronchial Asthma, patient is better by bending the head backwards. The drug is

  • A) Hep. sulph               B) Kali bich
  • C) Rhustox                    D) A ur met

168. In fever pains in bones are severe. The drug is

  • A) Eupatortum                   B) Arnica
  • C) Ars. alb.                          D) Aconite. .

169. Commonest Heart disease in India is

  • A) Rheumatic           B) Ischemic .
  • C) Congenital            D) infective endocarditis.

170. Deaths due to measles are almost   due to

  • A) Encephalitis           B) Meningitis
  • C) Dehydration          D) Pneumonia.

171. Ambragrlsea is prepared from

  • A) a sarcode            B) nosode
  • C) plant kingdom   D) none of these.

172. Vertigo on seeing flowing water is a symptom of

  • A) Argentum nit.       B) Ferrum met.
  • C) both (A) and (B)    D) none of these.

173. Time seems interminable, space, illimitable ts the indication of

  • A) Ambra griesa        B) Conium mac.
  • C) Cannabis Indica    D) none of these.

174. Incontinence of urine can only urinate when lying, cannot get out of bed quick enough from which the child is roused with difficulty. The drug is .

  • A) Causticum   B) Pulsatilla
  • C) Kreasote .    D) None of these.

175. Involuntary micturition due to weakness of the bladder in girls and women  when becoming cold. The drug is

  • A) Causticum  B) Kreosotum
  • C) Rhustox     D) all of these.

176. Sensitive to flower and odour, periodical headaches associated with vomiting, aggravated by light relieved by passing flatus up and down. It is seen in

  • A) Pulsatilla        B) Sepia
  • C) Sangunaria D) all of these.

177. Mechanical injuries from sharp cutting instruments, Post surgical operations.

  • A) Arnica
  • B) Staphysagria
  • C) both (A) & (B)
  • D) none of these.

178. Sensation of fall in inner parts, feels a ball in the rectum, even after passing stool. The drug is

  •  A) Merc. Cor.          B) Ignatia
  • C) Sepia                     D) Phosphorus.

179. Afraid of sharp, pointed things as pins, needles etc.  is symptom of

  • A) Mercurius        B) Spigelia
  • C) Silicia                 D) None of these.

180. Cannot keep from falling asleep in the evening while sitting or reading hours   before bed time. Wakes at 3 or 4 AM,  Falls into dreamy  sleep at daybreak

  • A) Pulsatilla           B) Kali carb
  • C)  Nux vomica .      D) none of these

181. Drowsiness, sleepiness and dryness of skin and mucous membrane  are  characterised by

  • A) Opium A       B) Nux moscahata
  • C) Bryonia         D) all of these.

182. ln hemorrhagic condition, the character of blood of Lachesis is

  • A) dark watery offensive cougulable
  • B) bright red non-coagulable
  • C) drk clotted sour smelling
  • D) none of these.

183. The leukorhoea  of Hydrastis in characterized by

  • A) thick yellow discharge             B) hanging from os in long strings
  • C) profuse watery greenish        D) scanty  white acrid.

184. Great forgetfulness, remedy for fear of examination in students is the  characteristic symptom of

  • A) Lac caninum      B) Medorrhinum
  • C) Alumina             D) Anacardium

185.  The common name of Eupatorium perfoliatum is , ·

  • A) Marigold       B) Bitter root .
  • C) Bone sett       D) Butter Cup.

186. During severe diarrhea  veratrum alb is characterized by

  • A) craving for ice
  • B) cold perspiration over forehead Q
  • C) both above
  • D) none of these.

187. Nux vomica belongs to ……. temperament

  • A) bilious            B) Sanguine
  • C) irritable         D)all of these

188. The menstrual flow of kreosote is worsen by

  • A) motion     B) lying down
  • C) day time   D) night

189. Eating warm food ameliorates the liver, chest and stomach symptoms. Liver remedy craves hot milk, hot fluids. The drug is

  • A) China                  B) Bryonia
  • C) Chelidoneum    D) All of these

190. Bad effects of suppressed sexual desire or sudden deprivation of sex in widows symptom of

  • A)Lachesis         B) Sepia
  • C) Conium mac. D) none of these

191.Dry hacking cough from slightest inhalation of cold air, wants to cover upto had with head cloths. The drug is

  • A) Belladona         B) Nux vomlca
  • C) Hepar sulph     D) Rumex.

192. In typhoid  fever rises upto 105° —· 106°F and the pulse rate is high out of  proportion to the temperature. The drug is

  •  A) Baptisia       B) Ars  album
  • C) Pyrogen        D) All of these

193. Morning sickness in phosphorus is aggravated

  • A) by eating and drinking                    B) during early morning
  • C) by keeping hands   warm water    D) by all of   these

194. Medicine taken from poppy seeds is

  • A) Nux-moschata         B) Nux vomica
  • C) Cedron                      D) Opium.

l95. Sctatlca. pain in spine and down the arms all neuralgic pains are brought on by suppressed eruptions. The drug is

  • A) Spigelia        B) Kalmia
  • C) Mezereum    D) Kali carb.

196. Prolapse of uterus, excessive sexual desire and profuse menstruation are characterized by

  • A) Natrum mur       B) Sepia
  • C) Murex                 D) all of thes

197.  Psorinum Asthma  is relieved by

  • A) lying on abdomen
  • B) bending head backward
  • C) lying down with arms and legs spread apart
  • D) lying on sides with head high.

198. In constipation, the character of phosphorus stool is

  • A) long slender dry like a dog’s stool
  • B) soft painless .
  • C) round blackballs offensive odour
  • D) none of these.

199. Skin symptoms, of petroleum are worse in

  • A) winter               B) summer
  • C) fall of spring    D) none of these

100.Rapid heartbeat  150 — 170/min is the characteristic symptom of

  • A) Lilium  Tig      B) Mercurius
  • C) Sepia               D) Sulphur

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Grant writing workshop By ICMR for young researchers

ICMR and NIH are jointly proposing to conduct the Joint Indo-US Grantsmanship and peer review workshop under the aegis of the Indo-US Joint statement on ‘Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS’ on 6th-7th February, 2013 at India International Center, New Delhi.

The objective of the workshop is to provide opportunities for young investigators and postdoctoral fellows/trainees to develop grant-writing skills, network with leading HIV/AIDS researchers, and promote collaborations for HIV/AIDS research projects. The workshop will include presentations by ICMR and NIH Secretariat on the ICMR and NIH research programme, tips for writing a successful ICMR/NIH grant application, ICMR/NIH funding mechanisms, and potential sources of funding.

Experts in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention science from India and US as well as representatives from Indian/US funding agencies will participate. The workshop will also include experts in the various fields of HIV/AIDS research.

In the workshop it is proposed to have panel discussion and identify scientific priorities. The participants will be informed regarding essential elements to be included for writing grants for NIH/ICMR, common vision and areas of differences.

There will be a breakout session after the discussion of priority areas of both the countries. The breakout sessions for investigators will be mentored by eminent experts for development of the draft proposal. The involvement of investigators may provide opportunities for future collaborations that would allow national and international investigators to explore and collaborate with potential collaborators/consultants.

The scientists, who have an interest in collaborating with junior level investigators in India/US, are expected to participate in breakout sessions to explore possible collaborations and to develop joint draft proposal. The draft proposals would then be discussed after the presentations.

Deadline for submission of applications to participate in the Grantsmanship Workshop is 31st  December 2012.

Kindly send the completed application form via email to

Dr. Manjula Singh at  or at

Shortlisted candidates will be duly informed.



Fellowship Programme for Medical and Health Science Faculties

doctors4Long term & Short term Fellowship Programme for Medical and Health Science Faculties

Department of Health Research  Ministry of Health and Family Welfare New Delhi
The Department of Health research is developed by Government of India for ‘Human Resource Development for Health Research’. They have various schemes for Health Manpower development. These Schemes of DHR are specially designed for faculties of Medical Colleges / Biomedical Institutes for improving health management and health care.

At present applications are invited for various fellowship schemes as below. The faculty or researcher has to submit application in the prescribed format. The faculty or researcher must be regular employee in Medical Colleges/Research Institutions in India for award of fellowships.

I.  Long-term (6-12 months) fellowship/training in foreign Institutes, in identified areas

Areas identified for fellowship:

  • Toxicology specially areas like nano-toxicology
  • Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • Geriatrics
  • Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Health Informatics
  • Disease Modeling
  • Health Economics
  • Environmental Health
  • Stem cell Research.
  • Any other area relevant for the country (Applicant will have to provide special justification as how it will benefit the country).

Duration:6 to 12 months

  • Only Indian citizens are eligible.
  • The faculty employed on a permanent basis in recognized medical college/ research institution and having at least 3 years of teaching/ research experience.
  • Age: not exceeding 45 years.
  • Qualifications: MD/MS/ PhD.
  • The application should be forwarded by the Employer/ Head of the Institution agreeing to the Terms and Conditions of the fellowship.
  • The applicant should submit a concrete plan of proposed training and utilization plan of the training after availing the fellowship.

II.  Short -term (1-3 months) orientation/training in foreign Institutes, in identified areas

Areas identified for fellowship:

  • Toxicology specially areas like nano-toxicology
  • Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • Geriatrics
  • Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Health Informatics
  • Disease Modeling
  • Health Economics
  • Environmental Health
  • Stem cell Research.
  • Any other area relevant for the country (Applicant will have to provide special justification as how it will benefit the country).

Duration: 1 to 3 months

  • Only Indian citizens are eligible.
  • The faculty employed on a permanent basis in recognized medical college/ research institution and having at least 3 years of teaching/ research experience.
  • Age: not exceeding 55 years.
  • Qualifications: MD/MS/ PhD
  • The application should be forwarded by the Employer/ Head of the Institution agreeing to the Terms and Conditions of the fellowship.
  •  The applicant should submit a concrete plan of proposed training and utilization plan of the training after availing the fellowship.

III. Long-term (6-12 months) fellowship/training in Indian Institutes, in identified areas

Area identified for fellowship:

  • Toxicology,
  • Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • Geriatrics
  • Stem cell research.
  • Clinical Trials
  • Good Clinical Practices (GCP)
  • Good laboratory Practices (GLP)
  • Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Modern Biology
  • Biotechnology
  • Genetics
  • Drugs Chemistry
  • Operational Research
  • Health Informatics
  • Medical Ethics
  • Disease Modeling
  • Health Economics
  • Environmental Health
  • Any other area relevant for the country (Applicantwill have to provide special justification as how it will benefit the country).

 Duration: 6 to 12 months

  • Only Indian citizen are eligible.
  • The faculty employed on permanent basis in recognized medical college/ research institution and having at least 3 years of research experience.
  • Qualifications: MD/MS/ PhD
  • Age: not exceeding 45 years
  • The application should be forwarded by the Employer/ Head of the Institution agreeing to the Terms and Conditions of the fellowship.
  • The applicant should submit a concrete plan of training and utilization plan of the training after availing the fellowship.

IV. Short-term (1-3 months) orientation/training in Indian Institutes, in identified areas

Details of the discipline/area, stipend and application format with terms and conditions for each category can be downloaded from, and

The number of fellowships in each category may vary depending upon the budget but expected to be 30 in each category.

Candidates desiring a fellowship may send 15 copies (print) and a soft-copy of application in the prescribed format by 31st Decedmber 2012 to

Dr. K. Satyanarayana,
Scientist ‘G’ & Coordinator -Department of Health Research,
Indian Council of Medical Research,
Ramanlingaswami Bhawan Ansari Nagar
New Delhi–110029.
(Tel: 011-26589258,  011-26589699)

The envelope containing the application must clearly be marked as:
Application for HRD scheme of DHR and the category of fellowship. The soft copy of the application may be sent to , or , or .

Application for each category of fellowship should be separately sent.

More details available on

Umbelliferae Family in Homoeopathy

Dr Sridhar

  • Most are perennial herbs.
  • Flowers are bisexual.
  • Distributed all over but few are aquatics.
  • family is important for the products used as food, condiments & ornaments.
  • Some members posses alkaloids & resins in poisonous quantities
  • Inflorescence in umbelle or simple or compound.
  • 3000 species in this group.
  • Only 22 remedies from this group.
  • Flowers are usually light in color- white or pink.



  • Sour waterbrash & heart burn extending up to the throat.
  • Good remedy for colics , stomachaches & obstucted flatulence.
  • Unusual distension of abdomen with hysterical belching.
  • Thirst & appetite increased with aggravation after eating
  • Vomiting & diarrhoea with ineffectual urging & offensive flatus.
  • Craving for sour acids and desire for beer or wine.
  • Aggravation or aversion to milk.

2) Nervous system

  • Produces violent spasms & convulsions often epileptic or hysterical
  • Convulsions during and after pregnancy with red face , pupils dilated & frothing at mouth.
  • Tetanic rigidity with falling back wards.
  • Jerking in sleep or as in convulsions.
  • 3) lack of vital heat or tendency to takecold or aggravation from cold.- CHILLY.
  • 4) Bad effects of falls, blows, sprains & injuries.< motion. > rest, lying.
  • 5) excites vascular system with tendency to produce cattarah. Dropsy with fullness & puffiness of parts.
  • 6) sexual sphere :
  • Males:  painful ejaculation with chordee. Sexual desire increased with pollutions for several nights. Aversion to sex also.
  • Females : profuse acrid leucorrhoea. Menses absent , irregular or delayed.  Menses painful, profuse or scanty, short lasting.
  • Sexual desire high.


  • On one side:
  • Cheerful, excited, intoxicated state.
  • Acting in childish fashion- desire for all the pleasures of life-
  • to dress up, dance, desire finery, sexual indulgence, desire company, HYSTERICAL.
  • Due to increased sensitivity & long lasting susceptibility
  • Lack of interest , aversion to dress up, shunning company & presence of people, even family.
  • On the other side:
  • Lack-luster, too simple life.
  • Most of the flowers of this group are less colorful- THEME- simple, peaceful, uncommitted life. Indifference to everything.
  • This is described in the symptom “delusion as if lying in a grave, that is being filled in…. Feels resigned & peaceful.”

The umbelliferae are an order of plants which have a marked action on:

  •  a) The nervous system
    b) Glandular system
    c) Mucous membrame
    d) Skin 

The remedies obtained from this order are

  1. Conium Mac
  2. Cicuta virosa
  3. Cicuta Maculata
  4. Aethusa cynapium
  5. Apium graveolens
  6. Asafoetida
  7. Ammoniacum gummi
  8. Oenanthe Crocata
  9. Eryngium aquaticum
  10. Hydrocotyle Asiatica
  11. Phellandium Aquaticum
  12. Petroselimun Sativum
  13. Pastinaca
  14. Sium
  15. Sumbul
  16. Zizia
  17. Pimpinella
  18. Imperatoria
  19. Heracleum
  20. Ferula glauca
  21. Eryngium maritimum
  22. Athamantha

 Action on Nervous System

  • Conium Mac
    – It acts as a depressor of Cerebro-spinal system
    – This acts up on Motor nerves producing Paralysis-which spreads from below upwards.
  • Cicuta Virosa
    – Produces congestion at the base of the brain & in the medulla oblongata.
    – It produces local & general spasms and paralysis.
  • Cicuta Maculata
    – Similar to Cicuta virosa
  • Aethusa
    A frightful poison, having narcoic properties as well as Paralyzing effects.
  • Athamantha :There is a dull, befogged condition of brain.
  • Oenanthe crocata :Acts up on cerebro-spinal axis, Convulsions
  • Phellandrium Aquaticum :Acts upon nerves Neuralgias, especially Neuralgic headache
  • Apium Graveolens : It causes nervous irritation, feeling of “fidgets”, Inability to sit still in bed, Cannot keep mind from thinking.
  • Petroselinum Sativum : Acts up on nerves, Neuralgia, especially Neuralgic dysmenorrhoea.
  • Pastinaca : Irritability of gastric nerves depressed, emetics in double the usual doses have no effect.
  • Asafoetida : It is a stimulant to the brain & Nervous system.
  • There is hysterical & nervous symptom of a flatulent character.
  • Sium – Acts on nerves, Neuralgias.

Action on Glandular System

  • Conium Mac
    There is congestion and induration of glandular structures associated with soreness
    Mainly of Mammae, ovary & prostate
  • Aethusa
    mammary and axillary glands are swelled like a string of beads.
  • Hydrocotyle
    Prostatic gland is affected, Sensation of weight in Perinium.
  • Phallandrium
    Mammae are affected especially milk ducts, -More affinity towards right.
  • Petroselinum -Prostatic enlargement
  • Eryngium Aquaticum
    Prostatic gland is affected, frequent desire to urinate and Discharge of prostatic fluid from slightest cause

Action on Skin

  • Cicuta Virosa :Produces Pustular eruption with yellow Crusts.
  • Petroselinum à:-Stimulates the skin  Eruptions
  • Aethusa :Produces herpetic eruption
  • Ammoniacum :-Produces Eruptions
  • Apium Gravealens :-Urticaria always appearing with intense itching with rapid change of location.
    Granulating ulcers with profuse discharge.
  • Hydrocotyle
    – Acne, eczema, Pemphigus
    – lupus, covered with papular eruptions
    – Thick crust covering yellow pus
    – leprosy

Aethusa cynapium

  • Common name:- Fool’s Parsley
  •  Especially for children during dentition in hot summer weather
  • children who cannot bear milk.
  • Great weakness : children cannot stand; unable to hold up the head (Abrot.)
  • Prostration with sleepiness.
  • Idiocy in children : incapacity to think; confused. –
  • Complete absence of thirst (Apis, Puls. -rev. of Ars.).
  • Intolerance of milk.
  • Cannot bear milk in any form; it is vomited in large curds as soon as taken; then weakness causes drowsiness (compare, Mag. c.).
  • Indigestion of teething children; violent, sudden vomiting of a frothy, milk-white substance; or yellow fluid,  followed by curdled milk and cheesy matter
  • Epileptic spasms, with clenched thumbs,  red face,  eyes turned downwards,  pupils fixed and dilated; foam at the mouth, jaws locked.
  • Aggravation. After eating or drinking; after vomiting; after stool; after spasm .
  • Vertigo with drowsiness with palpitation,head hot after vertigo ceases.

Apium graveolens

  • Common name:- Common celery
  • Contains a soporific active principle.
  • Obstinate retention of urine, throbbing headaches and heartburn, have been produced by celery.
  • Swelling of throat, face, and hands.
  • Rheumatic pain in muscles of neck also in sacrum.
  • Growing pains.
  • Hungry for apples.
  • Dysmenorrhoea, with sharp, short pains, better flexing legs.
  • Head  –
  • Depressed; energetic; feeling of fidgets; cannot sleep from thinking.
  • Headache; better eating.
  • Abdomen  –
  • Sore; sharp sticking pain as if stool was coming on; diarrhoea, sharp pain in left iliac region going over to right.
  • Nausea increases with pains.
  • Female  –
  • Sharp sticking pains in both ovarian regions, left, better bending over, by lying on left side, with legs flexed; nipples tender.
  • Respiratory  –
  • ickling, dry cough.
  • Intense constriction over sternum, with drawing feeling through to back on lying down.
  • Throat swollen, dyspnoea.
  • Sleep  –
  • Unrefreshed;
  • sleepless.
  • Wakes from 1 to 3 a.m.    –
  • Eating does not help sleep.
  • Not fatigued from loss of sleep.

Asa foetida

  • Common name:- gum of the stinkasand
  • The flatulence and spasmodic contraction of stomach and oesophagus with reverse peristalsis are the most marked symptoms.
  • In its selection, its relation to the hysterical and hypochondriacal patients, must be borne in mind.
  • Besides these superficial symptoms, it has been found to affect favorably deep ulcerations, caries of bones, especially in the syphilitic organism; here the extreme sensitiveness and terrible throbbing, nightly pains, guiding to its use
  • Throat  –
  • Globus hystericus
  • Stomach  –
  • Great difficulty in bringing up wind.
  • Flatulence and regurgitation of liquid.
  • Hysterical flatulence.
  • Great distention.
  • Sensation of emptiness and weakness, with distention and beating instomach and abdomen.
  • Forcible eructation of gas.
  • Pulsation in pit of stomach.
  • Violent gastralgia; cutting and burning in stomach and region of diaphragm.
  • Female  -Mammae turgid with milk in the unpregnated.
  • Deficient milk, with oversensitiveness.
  • Rectum  –
  • Distended, griping, with hunger.
  • Obstinate constipation.
  • Pain in perineum, as if something dull pressed out.
  • Skin  –
  • Itching, better scratching; ulcers painful on edges.
  • Suppressed skin symptoms produce nervous disorders.
  • Modalities  –
  • Worse, at night; from tough; left side, during rest, warm applications.  –
  • Better, open air; from motion, pressure.

Cicuta virosa

  • Common name:-Water Hemlock
  • Women subject to epileptic and choreic convulsions
  • Spasms of teething children, or from worms.
  • Convulsions : violent,  with frightful distortions of limbs and whole body; with loss of consciousness of opisthotonos; renewed from slightest touch, noise or jar.
  • Puerperal convulsions
  •  frequent suspension of breathing for a few moments, as if dead; upper part of the body most affected; continue after delivery.
  • Abnormal appetite for chalk and indigestible things; for coal or charcoal; child eats them with apparent relish (Alum., Psor.).
  • Epilepsy : with swelling of the stomach as from violent spasms of the diaphragm; screaming; red or bluish face; frequent at night.
  • Injurious chronic effects from concussions of the brain and spine, especially spasms; trismus and tetanus from getting splinters into flesh (Hyper.).
  • Pustules which run together, forming thick, yellow scabs, on head and face.
  • Sycosis menti.
  • Eczema no itching; exudation forms into a hard lemon-colored crust.
  • Brain disease from suppressed eruptions. – Aggravation. From tobacco smoke (Ign.); touch.

Conium maculatum

  • Common name:- Poison Hemlock.
  • The “Balm of Gilead” for diseases of old maids and women during and after climacteric.
  • Especially for diseases of old men; old maids; old bachelors; with rigid muscular fibre; persons with light hair who are easily excited; strong persons of sedentary habits.
  • Debility of old people; complaints caused by a blow or fall; cancerous and scrofulous persons with enlarged glands; rigid fibre.
  • No inclination for business or study; indolent, indifferent, takes no interest in anything.
  • Memory weak, unable to sustain any mental effort.
  • Morose; easily vexed; domineering, quarrelsome, scolds, will not bear contradiction (Aur.); excitement of any kind causes mental depression.
  • Dreads being alone, yet avoids society (Kali c., Lyc.).
  • Glandular induration of stony hardness; of mammae and testicles in persons of cancerous tendency; after bruises and injuries of glands (compare, Aster. rub.).
  • Breasts sore, hard and painful before and during menstruation (Lac. c., Kali c.).
  • Vertigo : especially when lying down or turning in bed; moving the head slightly, or even the eyes; must keep head perfectly still; in turning the head to the left (Col.); of old people; with ovarian and uterine complaints.
  • Cough : in spasmodic paroxysms caused by dry spot in larynx (in throat, Act.); with itching chest and throat (Iod.);
  • worse at night,  when lying down,  and during pregnancy (Caust., Kali br.).
  • Great difficulty in voiding urine; flow intermits,  then flows again; prostatic or uterine affections.
  • Menses : feeble, suppressed; too late, scanty, of short duration; with rash of small red pimples over body which ceases with the flow (Dul.); stopped by taking cold; by putting hands in cold water (Lac d.).
  • Leucorrhoea; ten days after menses (Bor., Bov.); acrid; bloody; milky; profuse; thick; intermits.
  • Bad effects : of suppressed sexual desire,  or suppressed menses; non-gratification of sexual instinct, or from excessive indulgence.
  • Sweat day and night,  as soon as one sleeps, or even when closing the eyes (Cinch.).
  • Aggravation. At night; lying down; turning or rising up, in bed; celibacy.

Hydrocotyle asiatica

  • Common name:- Indian pennywort
  • Curative in disorders that exhibit interstitial inflammation and cellular proliferation in any part.
  • Hypertrophy and induration of connective tissue.
  • Has considerable reputation in leprosy and lupus, when there is no ulceration.
  • The skin symptoms are very important.
  • Of great use in ulceration of womb.
  • Difficulty in maintaining the upright posture.
  • Very copious perspiration.
  • Pains of cervical cancer. 
  • Heat in vagina.

Oenanthe crocata

  • Common name:-water dropwart
  • Epileptiform convulsions; worse, during menstruation and pregnancy.
  • Puerperal eclampsia; uraemic convulsions.
  • Burning in throat and stomach, nausea and vomiting.
  • Red spots in face.
  • Convulsive facial twitching.
  • Skin affections, especially lepra and ichthyosis.
  • Head 
  • Pains all over head, dizzy.
  • Sudden and complete unconsciousness.
  • Furious delirium, giddiness.
  • Countenance livid, eyes fixed, pupils dilated, convulsive
  • Extremities  – Convulsions; opisthotonos.
  •  Pain along crural and sciatic nerves, commencing in back.
  • Cold hands and feet.
  • Numbness of hand and foot. Oleander  (rose-laurel)  * Has a marked action on the skin, heart and nervous system, producing and curing paralytic conditions with cramp-like contractions of upper extremities.  *

Petroselinum (Parsley)

  • Urinary symptoms keynote. Piles with itching.
  • Thirsty and hungry yet as soon as they begin to eat or drink they lose all desire (rev. of, Cal.).
  • Sudden urging to urinate (Canth.).
  • Frequent voluptuous tickling in fossa navicularis
  • Child suddenly seized with desire to urinate; if cannot be gratified at once jumps up and down with pain Burning, tingling from perineum throughout whole urethra.
  • Gonorrhoea : sudden irresistible desire to urinate. Milky discharge.
  • intense biting, itching,  deep in urethra, must rub it with some rough article in urethra for >> ; pain at root of penis or neck of bladder.

Phellandrium aquaticum

  • Common name:- water dropwort
  •  The respiratory symptoms are most important, and have been frequently verified clinically.
  • A very good remedy for the offensive expectoration and cough in phthisis, bronchitis, and emphysema.
  • Tuberculosis, affecting generally the middle lobes.  * Everything tastes sweet.
  • Haemoptysis, hectic and colliquative diarrhoea.
  • HEAD
  • Weight in vertex; aching and burning in temples & above eyes.
  • Female  –
  • Pain in milk ducts; intolerable between nursing.
  • Pain in nipples.
  • Chest  – Sticking pain through right breast near sternum, extending to back near shoulders.
  • Dyspnoea, and continuous cough, early in morning.
  • Cough, with profuse and fetid expectoration; compels him to sit up.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Fever  –
  • Hectic; profuse and debilitating perspiration; intermittent, with pain in arms.
  • Desire for acids.

Miasmatic analysis of some leading homeopathic remedies

D. Vivek N. Patil

  • Lachesis
    Climacteric ailments: haemorrhoids, haemorrhages; hot flushes and hot perspiration; especially at or after the menopause
  • Great sensitiveness to touch; throat, stomach, abdomen; cannot bear bed-clothes or night-dress to touch throat or abdomen, clothes cause uneasiness, make her nervous.
  • All symptoms, especially the mental, worse after sleep, or the aggravation wakes him from sleep; sleeps into the aggravation; unhappy, distressed, anxious, sad < in morning on waking.
  • Great loquacity; wants to talk all the time; jumps from one idea to another; one word often leads into another story.
  • Menses at regular time; too short, scanty, feeble; pains all relieved by the flow; always better during menses
  • Fever annually returning; paroxysm every spring , after suppression by quinine the previous autumn
  • Diphtheria and tonsillitis,  beginning on the left and extending to right side; dark purple appearance < by hot drinks, after sleep; liquids more painful than solids when swallowing; prostration out of all proportion to appearance of throat
  • Piles: with scanty menses; at climaxis; strangulated; with stitches shooting upward
  • The least thing coming near mouth or nose interferes with breathing; wants to be fanned,  but slowly and at a distance
  • Boils, carbuncles, ulcers with intense pain; malignant pustules; decubitus; dark, bluish, purple appearance; tend to malignancy.

Download chart :

Role of homoeopathy in the field of surgery

Dr  P  Chakraborty 

Surgery is an art. It is that branch of medicine which is concerned with the repair, Removal or replacement of the diseased tissue; in other words, any cutting, suturing and repairing of human tissues.

History of surgery

  • Prehistoric cultures had developed forms of surgery. Evidence has been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times.
  • Recent excavations of the construction  workers of the Egyptian pyramids also led  to possible evidence of brain surgery.
  • A prehistoric surgical techniques is ancient Egypt, where a mandible dated to approximately 2650 BC shows two perforations just below the root of the first molar, indicating the draining of an abscessed tooth.
  • Indian   physician Sushruta, the “Father of Surgery”, who taught and practiced surgery on the banks of the Ganges around 600 BC. Much of what is known about Sushruta is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita.
  • Other ancient cultures to have surgical knowledge include ancient Greece – the Hippocratic Oath was an innovation of the Greek physician.
  • Hippocrates – and ancient China. ancient Greek culture – traditionally considered the practice of opening the body to be repulsive and thus left known surgical practices such as lithotomy.
  • In China Hua Tuo –         was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. He was the first person to perform surgery with the aid of anesthesia, some 1600 years before the practice was adopted by Europeans.
  • In the Middle Ages, surgery was developed to a high degree in the Islamic world, with renowned practitioners such as Abulcasis (Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi), an Andalusian-Arab physician and scientist who practised in the Zahra suburb of Córdoba.
  • In Europe, the demand grew for surgeons to formally study for many years before practicing; universities such as Montpellier, Padua and Bologna Universities were particularly renowned.
  • By the fifteenth century – Rogerius Salernitanus composed his Chirurgia, laying the foundation for modern Western surgical manuals up to the modern time.
  • Late in the nineteenth century, Bachelor of Surgery degrees (usually Ch.B.) began to be awarded with the (M.B.), and the mastership became a higher degree, usually abbreviated Ch.M. or M.S. in London, where the first degree was M.B.B.S

Modern surgery

  • Modern surgery developed rapidly with the scientific era. Ambroise Paré (sometimes  spelled “Ambrose”) pioneered the treatment of gunshot wounds, and the first modern surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars.
  •  Navalsurgeons were often barber surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers.
  • Developments of modern surgical approaches – control of bleeding, control of infection and control of pain (anaesthesia), Cauterization , Ligatures, or material used to tie off severed blood vessels, are believed to have originated with Abulcasis in the 10th century and improved by Ambroise Paré in the 16th century.
  • Finally, early 20th century research into blood groups allowed the first effective blood transfusions. The concept of infection was unknown until relatively modern times.
  • Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis -Combating  infection was made in 1847.
  • British surgeon Joseph Lister began experimenting with using phenol during surgery to prevent infections. Lister published his work as a series of articles in The Lancet (March 1867) under the title Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery.
  • Pain –    Modern pain control (anesthesia) was discovered by two American Dental Surgeons, Horace Wells (1815-1848) and William Morton.
  • In Britain by John Snow. Beginning in the 1840s, the discovery of effective and practical anaesthetic chemicals such as ether and chloroform. In addition, the discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare allowed for safer applications.

Types  of surgery

  • Elective surgery
  • Emergency.
  •  Exploratory surgery
  • Therapeutic surgery
  • Amputation
  • Replantation,
  • Reconstructive surgery –
  • Cosmetic surgery,
  • Excision
  • Transplant
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Laser surgery
  • Microsurgery
  • Bariatric surgery

Conditions treated by surgery

  • Surgery is used to both as a treatment, and as an aspect of treatment, for many conditions, including:

Physical trauma, e.g. wounds

  • Anatomical Abnormalities
  • Disorders of function


Ischaemia and infarction

Metabolic disorders


  • Other abnormalities of tissue growth, e.g. cysts, hyperplasia or Organ hypertrophy, as well as some cancers, if caught early enough
  • Deformity and heavy scarring.
  • Brain damage and nerve damage

Homoeopathic view point

  • Homeopathy is highly scientific, logical, safe, quick and extremely effective method of healing. It offers long lasting to permanent cure, treating the disease from its roots, for most of the ailments.
  • Homeopathy is the most rational science with respect to its concepts of health, disease and cure. Homeopathy does not treat superficially by just driving away the symptoms but heals the patient from within.
  • Undoubtedly, homeopathy is the medicine of future.
  • The remedies are prepared from natural substances to precise standards and work by stimulating the body’s own healing power.
  • Homeopathy: Often avoids Surgery,prevents complications – pre,during &post.
  • Surgery comes into play when the physiological changes cannot be brought back to the normal position by medication. When the part becomes irreparable, we replace it or remove it & the condition improves E.g. when a tumor develops, not corrected by medicines we remove it by surgery.
  • Disease primarily a disturbance in the vital force which is only functional in character when there is no apparent pathology & so surgery cannot be applied. If this disturbance persists for sometime & when the human being is not able to overcome the condition and it leads to gross pathological changes which may or may not be brought back to normalcy by medicines, wherein the role of surgery becomes of paramount importance.
  • Pathology is the ultimate of the disease process and not the cause of the disease. Surgery eliminates the ultimate of the disease and not its cause. But this ultimate becomes a foreign matter which is an obstacle to cure & the complete recovery is not possible unless this obstacle is removed.
  • So surgery does not deal with that something unknown which is residing in the body and which can not be located.
  • But in case of injuries caused to the body from without, the surgical treatment is necessary only to the extent that the parts injured require mechanical aid whereby the external obstruction to cure is removed mechanically. But in such injuries also the living organism requires active dynamic aid to put it in a position to restore the organism to health and homoeopathic treatment is called for.
  • On one hand surgery can play an important role in medicine since some conditions such as congenital deformities, structural problems, severe injuries, or life-threatening pathological conditions are simply not treatable without it.
  • Homoeopathic surgery is that form of treatment where the so-called surgical cases can be averted, managed completely or helped in the pre-operative & post-operative stages with homeopathic medicines only.

Homoeopathy in pre and post surgery:
Surgery, at best, is an unpleasant process. Not only does the surgical wound cause pain, but general anesthesia causes its own side effects. Once it is established that surgery is necessary, homeopathic remedies can play a vital role in reducing any complications that may arise as well as accelerating healing and recovery.

Homeopathic remedies can help:
Reduce fear and anxiety prior to surgery

  • Aconitum Napellus:
  • Gelsemium

Excess bleeding during surgery,

If surgery poses the potential for a large loss of blood or undergoing intravenous (IV) therapy –   Arnica montana.

Stop Postoperative Bleeding:Cinchona officinalis,Ipecacuanha, Secale cornutum

Recovery of digestive function following surgery

Nausea and Vomiting:

  • Phosphorus
  • Ipecacuanha
  • Arsenicum

Constipation: Arnica,China Raphanus,,

Phase Out Flatulence:

  • Carbo vegetabilis
  • Cinchona officinalis,
  • Colocynthis

Raphanus : Swelling, Stiffness, pain, bruise and Soreness

  • Ledum palustre
  • Rhus toxicodendron
  • Arinica
  • Calendula.
  • Staphysagria

Gynecological Surgery:• Abortion or Miscarriage: Ignatia 30C, every four hours.• Caesarean Section or Episiotomy:- Staphysagria 30C or Bellis perennis 30C, every four hours.

Dilation and curettage (D & C): Belladonna 30C, every 4 hours.
Hysterectomy: Causticum 30C, every four hours

  • Orthopedic Surgery

• Ruta 30C

  • Scarring

Thiosinaminum 6X,

Dr. P. Chakraborty BHMS, MD
Professor Dept of Surgery
Fr. Muller homoeopathic medical college

Teaching with Technology: Tools to improve Student Learning

If you’re interested in using technology tools to enhance your teaching, it’s easy to get overwhelmed by the mountain of information out there. To make matters worse, much of it is either highly technical or simply not very practical for the college classroom.

Teaching with Technology: Tools and Strategies to Improve Student Learning approaches teaching technologies from your perspective — discussing what works, what doesn’t, and how to implement the best ideas in the best ways.

These articles were written by John Orlando, PhD, program director at Norwich University, as part of the Teaching with Technology column on Faculty Focus. You’ll find the articles are loaded with practical information as well as links to valuable resources.

Articles in the report include:

  • Using VoiceThread to Build Student Engagement
  • Wikipedia in the Classroom: Tips for Effective Use
  • Blogging to Improve Student Learning: Tips and Tools for Getting Started
  • Prezi: A Better Way of Doing Presentations
  • Using Polling and Smartphones to Keep Students Engaged

Whether the courses you teach are face-to-face, online, blended, or all of the above, this report explains effective ways to incorporate technology into your courses to create a rich learning experience for students, and a rewarding teaching experience for you.

Download the report :

Review on Guiding symptoms of our Materia Medica by Hering

Dr Satheesh Kumar.P.K  BHMS,MD(Hom)
Medical Officer,Dept. of  Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala

Guiding symptoms of our materia medica ”is a monumental work of ten volume by Dr. Constantine Hering. This work is a collection of cured symptoms and hence it is a complement to all other works in our materia medica. According to author it is an attempt to give our materia medica in such a form that it will help the selection of a curative medicine in any given case as easy as possible.

About the author:
Dr. Constantine Hering was born at Oschath in Saxony on 1.1.1800, and lived till the age of 80.
He wrote the “Domestic physician” and the “Guiding symptoms”- a monumental work of ten volume. He was the chief editor of North American Homoeopathic Journal, The Homoeopathic News and American Journal of Homoeopathic Materia Medica
He proved some drugs, out of which the following ones are most important
1. Lachesis
2. Gelsemium.
3. Iodum
4. Apis mellifica.
He enunciated the law of direction of cure which is known as Hering’s law of cure.

Mode of construction of the book:
First volume start with a preface by author. In addition to elaborate preface to the first volume, short prefaces are given for the third, fourth, fifth, sixth ninth and tenth volume. But there were no preface for Second, seventh and eight volume. Preface of the final volume was given by Therese Hering.

As the author died suddenly, he couldn’t complete the third volume. The remaining part of the third volume and the rest of the volumes might have been completed by either his colleagues or his heirs under the editorial board of Charles G. Raue, Calvin. B Knerr and Charles Mohr.

Hering had a premonition that he wouldn’t be able to complete his work which he expressed in these words a few weeks before his death. “ Perhaps, from my place in heaven, I may peep through a little hole and see that my work is well done”.
The third volume is specially dedicated to Dr.P.P.Wells who was one of his oldest and dearest friends.

In fourth volume they have added one new feature. At the head of each drug will be found a clinical index, giving a list of authorities and designating the publication in which the full report of each case with its cured symptom may be found.
Eg:- Under Chelidonium– Mental disturbances—Buchman B.J.H. Vol. 25
Sick head ache — R. Hughs B.J.H. 1870 Page 796
Spasms glottis — Buchman B.J.H. Vol 25 page 69.
Sixth volume contains Lachesis trignocephalus the pet child of Dr.Hering

The preface of volume 1 deals with two important things.
1. Hahnemannean view of examination of the sick ( Organon – aphorism 95, 101, 102 104 and 153 )
2. the arrangement of symptoms with their markings.

Hahnemann view of examination of the sick:
Here he says that in chronic diseases all the symptoms of the case has to be considered in the minutest detail and the search for a remedy consists in the comparison of the totality of the sick with the symptoms of our proved drugs. In making this comparison the characteristic features ( more prominent, uncommon and peculiar) of the case are more important. More general and indefinite symptoms such as want of appetite, head ache. Weakness, sleep, restless etc unless more clearly defined, deserve less important on account of their vagueness.
He criticize the selection of medicines according to the loose generalization and pathological symptoms.

The arrangement :
The arrangement is the same as that in the “ Analytical therapeutics” and in the “ Condensed material medica”.
To facilitate the study of the relative value of symptoms, four marks of distinction have been adopted. I, II, I and II which correspond to the 4 degrees in Boenninghausen’s repertory.
“ I” is the lowest and designated as occasionally confirmed symptoms. It is omitted in most cases and is sometimes used to mark a difference    in the same line.
“ II” – symptoms more frequently confirmed.
I ” symptoms verified by cures.
II” symptoms repeatedly verified .

Indicates an approved characteristic. But is seldom used by reason of our not wishing to appear authoritative. It is to be hoped that the combined experience of many practitioners, solicited from all sides will enable us in future edition to designate many more symptoms with this mark.
“ q ” The Greek letter “ theta” stands between the cured symptoms and pathological condition or physiological general state. Eg :- pregnancy. Climacteric years etc. .
. Observations from old school ( or the new as are worthy of our consideration) .
“ t ” Toxicological
“ r ” Right
“ l ” Left
<  Increase or aggravation or worse.
> Decrease or amelioration or better.
p – The Greek “ pi ” – Symptoms observed only on the sick.

In each volume medicines are arranged according to the alphabetical order of their name.  

General representation of a medicine is as follows:
Begins with the name of medicine with common name and family ( natural order) .
Then there is a brief introduction about the remedy which include the name of prover, source of remedy, it’s empirical use (uses in other school of medicine) and it’s important clinical condition for which it is used in Homoeopathy.
Symptoms of the drug has been grouped under separate headings and numbered from 1 to 48 begins from mind and ends with drug relationship.

Arrangement of symptoms under the following headings
Inner head.
Outer head.
Sight and eyes
Hearing and ears
Smell and nose
Lower part of the face
Teeth and gums
Taste, speech, Tongue
Inner mouth
Palate ant throat
Appetite, thirst and desires
Eating and drinking
Hiccough , nausea and vomiting
Scrobiculum and stomach
Abdomen and loins
20. Stools and rectum
Urinary organs
Male sexual organs
Female sexual organs
Pregnancy and parturition
Voice, larynx and trachea
Inner chest and lungs
Heart, pulse and circulation
30. Outer chest
Neck and back
Upper limb
Lower limb
Limbs in general
Rest position and motion
Temperature and weather
Attacks , periodicity.
Location ( Locality and direction)
Touch, passive motion, injuries
Stages of life, constitution

Examples for each markings:
I  – Occasionally confirmed  Eg:- Abies nigra — Mind :
I . very low spirited  1 Belching and vomiting:
I. Belching
I. Acid eructation
I. Frequent vomiting of food
Anacardium   __ Hearing and ears :
I. Hearing at times very weak, at other very acute.
Armoracea sativa — Inner chest and lungs:
I. After violent cough hemorrhage and apparent death

II — More frequently confirmed
Eg :- Abies  nigra –Scrobiculum and stomach:
II. Distressing pain in stomach extending to left side.
Absinthium – Tissues:
II. Paralysis of inner organs
Acetic acid — Appetite, thirst, desires and aversion
II. No thirst with fever
Attacks :
II. Lethargic paroxysm
Skin :
II – Tetter like eruptions
I — Verified by cures
Eg:- Abrotanum – Mind:
I. The child is cross and depressed
Absinthium –Stages of life :
I. Especially younger patients
Aconite — Hearing and ears:
I.  Noise intolarable
I. Red and pale alternately
Agaricus — Neck and back :
I. Spine sensitive to touch < morning
I. Pain along spinal column < when stooping.
I I – Repeatedly verified
Eg:- Amylenum nitrosum – Upper face:
I I. Face flushes at slightest emotion
Anti crudum — mind :
I I. Loathing of life
I I. Child is fretful and peevish, turns itself away and   Cries when touched .
Anti tart — Tissues :
I I. Phlebitis.
q – stands between the cured symptoms and pathological condition
Eg:- Agaricus—Upper limbs :
Trembling of hands  q Typhus
Actea racemosa –Fever :
Night sweats, diarrhoea q Tuberculosis of lungs
Anti tart — sensorium :
Vertigo with dimness of vision   and a pressing head ache

Observations from old school  ·
Eg : – Alumen — Lower limb : . . — Ingrowing toe nail
Cough : .  — Phthisis
Pregnancy, parturition, lactation : — Cancer of mammae. .
Abrotanum — Rectum and stool : .
Worms especially ascarides.                                      .

t -Toxicological
Eg:- Anti tart — Scrobiculum and stomach :
Unpleasant feeling of warmth in region of stomach followed by violent pain in fore head and in back part of throat.  t
Aethusa cynapium — Appetite, thirst, desires, aversion :
Burning thirst t.
Hypochonria :
Liver hard, yellowish, spleen livid, tongue black  t
Pregnancy, parturition, lactation :
Violent stinging pain in mammae t .
Heart, pulse and circulation :
Anxiety in precodium t .
Palpitation with head ache, with vertigo with weakness and
Exaltation t.
Indicates an approved characteristic    Aconite — Mind:
Fear of death during pregnancy or confinement ; with prolapsus uteri; with great loquacity or anxiety in region of heart.

Symptoms observed only in the sick
Eg:- Aurum met – Skin :
p- Violent itching first in soles of feet then over whole body from evening till mid night.
Atropinum sulphuricum – Teeth and gum :
Teeth ceased to ache in two hours.
Taste and tongue :
Pappy taste.
Difficult articulation
Furred tongue; 3 rd day.
Took fluid food next day.
Arnica –Mind :
Naturally very sensitive, his keen sensitiveness of mind become greatly exaggerated.
Belladonna –Mind :
Became crazy; got one leg over the window, to kill himself, had tobe tied down; died next day, within two hours, two doses.  consumption.

Merits of “ Guiding symptoms”
1.It is a collection cured symptoms and hence it is a complement to all other works in our materia medica.
2.Symptoms of each drug is grouped under 48 headings and hence the search of particular symptom is more easy.
3.Medicines are arranged in alphabetical order
4.Separate markings are given for each symptoms according to their relative importance. This will help in the selection of similimum.
5.The fourth volume onwards provide authoritative clinical index which add validity to each symptoms

Demerits of “ Guiding symptoms” 
1.There is no index. For this work.
2.Approved characteristic very limited in number. No approved characteristic even in fully proved polychrest like Nux vom, Sulphur, Pulsatilla etc.
3.variolinum and vaccinum are given under a single heading with symptoms are in a mixed up manner.
4.The first three volume lacks authoritative clinical index. So the source of symptoms obtained are unknown

Euphorbiaceae Family of Homeopathy Medicines

The euphorbiaceae as an order contain an acrid principle which in some cases is oily in character, in others resinous; in case it is the latter, it escapes from the plant as a milky juice drying into a gum. These oils or gums have two properties. If applied to the skin, they produce redness and vesication. The vesicles fill with yellowish-white serum and may even suppurate and form scabs of a honey color. They all act more or less intensely as purgatives, producing a watery diarrhoea, associated with colic, tenesmus, flatulence, burning, nausea and vomiting.

Economically important- rubber, castor oil, tung oil & many are ornamental

The medicines we derive from this order are

  1. Croton tiglium- croton oil seed
  2. Acalypha indica- indian nettle
  3. Euphorbium officinarum- gum euphorbium-spurge
  4. Euphorbia corollata,
  5. Jatropha curcas,
  6. Mercurialis perennis-dog’s mercury
  7. Hippomane mancinella
  8. Ricinus communis.- castor oil
  9. Stillingia sylvatica- queen’s delight
  10. Hura brazilliens- Assacu 


1) COMPRESSION- is the key note – tendency to produce lots of tension,constriction, oppression which builds up in the system- both mind & body- burst out from any  orifice of the body in the form of gushing diarrhea, vomiting physically and mentally as insanity (loosing the top of head) if it causes a break down at the mental level.

2) EQUANIMITY (evenness of temper)is easily disturbed- expressed as fear of losing reason, of ghosts, of being poisoned, thinks that ghosts will take away her(mancinella) OR feels that she left alone in this world (hura)

3)Tendency to produce anxiety, fretfulness, as if something happen, sense of apprehension, agitation, grumbling

4) Fear– of misfortune, of people, of being poisoned, of ghost

5) Feeling of everything cramped up inside, nothing flows out, leading to fear of insanity

6) Irritable, easily, angered easily, impatient, shows sudden swings in emotion also there is feeling of

7)  Loneliness, & fear that he would loose dear ones

8) Aversion to work or mental labour

9) There is profound calmness, tranquility, calmness, tenderness and compassion 


1) GIT– sense of constriction, band around feeling, – colic, oppression, as if in a vice. Rumbling, gurgling, bourborygmi or movement

  • Excessive nausea and forceful vomiting
  • Discharge is accompanied by BLOOD
  • Sudden, cutting , violent FORCEFUL, GUSHING evacuation- profuse diarrhea

2) SKIN- tightness,tension, hidebound feeling  

  • Violent, itching,burning,erysipelas, vesication , as if hot coals were applie
  • Pains of cancer, ulcers, gangrene and pimples

3) Acrid- active principle of plant juiceleads to extreme irritation, unendurable burning& drying up of mucus membrane associated with extreme drowsiness

4) Enlarged , swollen sensation- choking

5) Female – menstrual irregularity, breast –lancinating pain in nipples, radiating breast pain

6) Eyes- intense inflammation & pain

7) Respiratory system– cough- dry, hacking with soreness. Good remedy for bronchitis & hay fever

8) PAINS– as if knife, needles were thrust 

Individual drugs

MANCINELLA (manganeel apple)

  • Skin symptoms most marked.
  • Dermatitis, with excessive vesiculation, oozing of sticky serum and formation of crusts.
  • To be remembered in mental depressed states at puberty and at climacteric, with exalted sexuality. [Hering.]
  • Loss of vision.
  • Pain in the thumb.


  • Silent mood, sadness.
  • Wandering thoughts.
  • Sudden vanishing of thought.
  • Bashful.
  • ear of becoming insane.


  • intense erythema.
  • vesicles.
  • fungoid growths.
  • erysipelas.
  • large blisters, as from scalds.
  • heavy, brown crusts and scabs.
  • pemphigus. 

Hura brasiliensis (assacu)

  • Used in leprosy, when skin feels as if it were hide bound tense vesicles; sensation of splinter under thumb-nails.
  • Skin of forehead feels drawn tight.
  • Stiff neck, pain in back.
  • Throbbing in finger tips.
  • Itching, pimples on all projecting portions of bone, malar bones, etc.

Euphorbia corollata

Euphorbia corrolata has

  1. a deadly nausea.
  2. sudden and powerful vomiting of food in stomach.
  3. throws up large quantities of water mixed with mucus.
  4. then of clear fluid like rice-water.
  5. copious watery evacuations of the bowels.

These symptoms are accompanied by great anxiety, deadly prostration and cold sweat. Attacks that recur after short intermissions. Vomiting of food, water and mucus and copious evacuations. Feeling of clawing in stomach, cold sweat. (Verat. Alb.)

Euphorbium officinarum (spurge-resinous juice of euphorbia resinifera)

  • An irritant to the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Burning pain in bones.
  • Pains in limbs and paralytic weakness in the joints.
  • Important respiratory and skin symptoms.
  • Terrible burning pains.
  • Pains of cancer.
  • Everything appears larger than it really is.

Jatropha curcas (purging nut)

  • Of value in cholera and diarrhoea.
  • The abdominal symptoms are most important.
  • Suppressed measles (h. Farrington).
  • Stool
  • Sudden, profuse, watery, like rice-water.
  • Diarrhoea; forced discharge; loud noise in abdomen like gurgling of water coming out of a bung-hole, associated with coldness, cramps, nausea, and vomiting.

Ricinus communis  (castor-oil)

  • has marked action on gastro-intestinal tract.
  • increase the quantity of milk in nursing women. (urtica uens)
  • vomiting and purging.
  • languor and weakness.

 Acalypha indica  (indian nettle)

  • A drug having a marked action on the alimentary canal and respiratory organs.
  • It is indicated in incipient phthisis, with hard, racking cough, bloody expectoration, arterial haemorrhage, but no febrile disturbance.
  • Very weak in the morning, gains strength during day.
  • Progressive emaciation.
  • All pathological haemorrhages having notably a morning aggravation.
  • Cough dry, hard, followed by hoemoptysis; worse in morning and at night.
  • Spluttering diarrhoea with forcible expulsion of noisy flatus, bearing down pains and tenesmus.

Croton tiglium- Croton Oil Seeds.
Affects mucous membrane of intestinal tract, producing transudations of watery portions of blood, a copious, watery diarrhoea (ver.), and develops an acute eczema over whole body (rhus).

The bowels are moved as if by spasmodic jerks, “coming out like a shot” (gamb.); as soon as patient eats, drinks,  or even while eating; yellow watery stool.

Constant urging to stool followed by sudden evacuation, which is shot out of the rectum (gamb., grat., pod., thuja).

Swashing sensation in intestines, as from water, before stool (rumbling before stool, aloe).

Drawing-pain through the left chest into the back. – nursing women; every suck the child gives produces pain from nipple back.  (goes to back, crot. t.; from nipple all over body-phytolacca, to uterus, puls., sil.).

Intense itching of skin, but so tender is unable to scratch; >> by gentle rubbing; eczema over whole body.

Intense itching of genitals of both sexes (rhus); vesicular eruption on male; so sensitive and sore is unable to scratch.

Cough; as soon as the head touched the pillow a spasmodic paroxysm of cough set in; suffocated, must walk about the room or sleep in a chair. asthma, with cough; cannot expand the chest.

Aggravation. Diarrhoea; every motion; after drinking; while eating or nursing (arg. n., ars.); during summer; from fruit and sweetmeats (gamb.); the least food or drink.


TCAM Alternative Medicine Exam schedule 2013 at MOH UAE

uae5TCAM Alternative Medicine Exam schedule 2013 at MOH UAE

Homoeopathy & Alternative Medicine Exam dates for 2013 at Ministry of health United Arab Emirates – Date of Written Exam, Place of registration & Place of Exam

Note: Oral Exam will be conducted for candidates successful in TCAM Written Exams

Dates will be announced for each TCAM Oral exams right before each TCAM Written Examination.


Please go through the link for details and requirements

MOH will inform the candidates in case of any cancellation or changes in the dates of interviews.

Date of Written Exam

Place of Registration

Place of Exam
05/02/2013 ONLINE registration is MANDATORY for ALLTCAM specialties and payment will be done at the MOH. Sharjah Nursing Institute (Tel.: 06-5589933)
09/04/2013 ONLINE registration is MANDATORY for ALLTCAM specialties and payment will be done at the MOH. Sharjah Nursing Institute (Tel.: 06-5589933)
04/06/2013 ONLINE registration is MANDATORY for ALLTCAM specialties and payment will be done at the MOH. Sharjah Nursing Institute (Tel.: 06-5589933)
24/09/2013 ONLINE registration is MANDATORY for ALLTCAM specialties and payment will be done at the MOH. Sharjah Nursing Institute (Tel.: 06-5589933)
26/11/2013 ONLINE registration is MANDATORY for ALLTCAM specialties and payment will be done at the MOH. Sharjah Nursing Institute (Tel.: 06-5589933)

Please note that in some speciality exams the canditates are required to pass Prometric “Online” exam prior to attend the oral exam. Examination process (Prometric)

Source :


Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education

operationBy Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson

Apathetic students, illiterate graduates, incompetent teaching, impersonal campuses — so rolls the drumfire of criticism of higher education. More than two years of reports have spelled out the problems. States have been quick to respond by holding out carrots and beating with sticks.

There are neither enough carrots nor enough sticks to improve undergraduate education without the commitment and action of students and faculty members. They are the precious resources on whom the improvement of undergraduate education depends.

But how can students and faculty members improve undergraduate education? Many campuses around the country are asking this question. To provide a focus for their work, we offer seven principles based on research on good teaching and learning in colleges and universities.

Good practice in undergraduate education:

  1. Encourages contacts between students and faculty.
  2. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students.
  3. Uses active learning techniques.
  4. Gives prompt feedback.
  5. Emphasizes time on task.
  6. Communicates high expectations.
  7. Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.

We can do it ourselves — with a little bit of help . . . .

A Focus for Improvement
These seven principles are not ten commandments shrunk to a twentieth century attention span. They are intended as guidelines for faculty members, students, and administrators — with support from state agencies and trustees — to improve teaching and learning. These principles seem like good common sense, and they are — because many teachers and students have experienced them and because research supports them. They rest on 50 years of research on the way teachers teach and students learn, how students work and play with one another, and how students and faculty talk to each other.

While each practice can stand alone on its own, when all are present their effects multiply. Together they employ six powerful forces in education:

  • Activity
  • Expectations
  • Cooperation
  • Interaction
  • Diversity
  • Responsibility

Read the full article at :

Good practices hold as much meaning for professional programs as for the liberal arts. They work for many different kinds of students — white, black, Hispanic, Asian, rich, poor, older, younger, male, female, well-prepared, underprepared.

But the ways different institutions implement good practice depend very much on their students and their circumstances. In what follows, we describe several different approaches to good practice that have been used in different kinds of settings in the last few years. In addition, the powerful implications of these principles for the way states fund and govern higher education and for the way institutions are run are discussed briefly at the end.

As faculty members, academic administrators, and student personnel staff, we have spent most of our working lives trying to understand our students, our colleagues, our institutions and ourselves. We have conducted research on higher education with dedicated colleagues in a wide range of schools in this country. We draw the implications of this research for practice, hoping to help us all do better.

We address the teacher’s how, not the subject-matter what, of good practice in undergraduate education. We recognize that content and pedagogy interact in complex ways. We are also aware that there is much healthy ferment within and among the disciplines. What is taught, after all, is at least as important as how it is taught. In contrast to the long history of research in teaching and learning, there is little research on the college curriculum. We cannot, therefore, make responsible recommendations about the content of good undergraduate education. That work is yet to be done.

This much we can say: An undergraduate education should prepare students to understand and deal intelligently with modern life. What better place to start but in the classroom and on our campuses? What better time than now?

Seven Principles of Good Practice

1. Encourages Contact Between Students and Faculty
Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students’ intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and future plans.

Some examples: Freshman seminars on important topics, taught by senior faculty members, establish an early connection between students and faculty in many colleges and universities.

In the Saint Joseph’s College core curriculum, faculty members who lead discussion groups in courses outside their fields of specialization model for students what it means to be a learner. In the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, three out of four undergraduates have jointed three-quarters of the faculty in recent years a junior research colleagues. At Sinclair Community College, students in the College Without Walls program have pursued studies through learning contracts. Each student has created a “resource group,” which includes a faculty member, a student peer, and two “community resource” faculty members. This group then provides support and assures quality.

2. Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort that a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one’s own ideas and responding to others’ reactions sharpens thinking and deepens understanding.

Some Examples: Even in large lecture classes, students can learn from one another. Learning groups are a common practice. Students are assigned to a group of five to seven other students, who meet regularly during class throughout the term to solve problems set by the instructor. Many colleges use peer tutors for students who need special help.

Learning communities are another popular way of getting students to work together. Students involved in SUNY at Stony Brook’s Federated Learning Communities can take several courses together. The courses, on topics related to a common theme like science, technology, and human values, are from different disciplines. Faculty teaching the courses coordinate their activities while another faculty member, called a “master learner,” takes the courses with the students. Under the direction of the master learner,

3. Encourages Active Learning
Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.

Some examples: Active learning is encouraged in classes that use structured exercises, challenging discussions, team projects, and peer critiques. Active learning can also occur outside the classroom. There are thousands of internships, independent study, and cooperative job programs across the country in all kinds of colleges and universities, in all kinds of fields, for all kinds of students. Students also can help design and teach courses or parts of courses. At Brown University, faculty members and students have designed new courses on contemporary issues and universal themes; the students then help the professors as teaching assistants. At the State University of New York at Cortland, beginning students in a general chemistry lab have worked in small groups to design lab procedures rather than repeat prestructured exercises. At the University of Michigan’s Residential College, teams of students periodically work with faculty members on a long-term original research project in the social sciences.

4. Gives Prompt Feedback
Knowing what you know and don’t know focuses learning. Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses. When getting started, students need help in assessing existing knowledge and competence. In classes, students need frequent opportunities to perform and receive suggestions for improvement. At various points during college, and at the end, students need chances to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know, and how to assess themselves.

Some examples: No feedback can occur without assessment. But assessment without timely feedback contributes little to learning.

Colleges assess entering students as they enter to guide them in planning their studies. In addition to the feedback they receive from course instructors, students in many colleges and universities receive counseling periodically on their progress and future plans. At Bronx Community College, students with poor academic preparation have been carefully tested and given special tutorials to prepare them to take introductory courses. They are then advised about the introductory courses to take, given the level of their academic skills.

Adults can receive assessment of their work and other life experiences at many colleges and universities through portfolios of their work or through standardized tests; these provide the basis for sessions with advisors.

Alverno College requires that students develop high levels of performance in eight general abilities such as analytic and communication skills. Performance is assessed and then discussed with students at each level for each ability in a variety of ways and by a variety of assessors.

In writing courses across the country, students are learning, through detailed feedback from instructors and fellow students, to revise and rewrite drafts. They learn, in the process, that feedback is central to learning and improving performance.

5. Emphasizes Time on Task
Time plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use one’s time well is critical for students and professionals alike. Students need help in learning effective time management. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. How an institution defines time expectations for students, faculty, administrators, and other professional staff can establish the basis of high performance for all.

Some examples: Mastery learning, contract learning, and computer-assisted instruction require that students spend adequate amounts of time on learning. Extended periods of preparation for college also give students more time on task. Matteo Ricci College is known for its efforts to guide high school students from the ninth grade to a B.A. through a curriculum taught jointly by faculty at Seattle Preparatory school and Seattle University. Providing students with opportunities to integrate their studies into the rest of their lives helps them use time well.

Workshops, intensive residential programs, combinations of televised instruction, correspondence study, and learning centers are all being used in a variety of institutions, especially those with many part-time students. Weekend colleges and summer residential programs, courses offered at work sites and community centers, clusters of courses on related topics taught in the same time block, and double-credit courses make more time for learning. At Empire State College, for example, students design degree programs organized in manageable time blocks; students may take courses at nearby institutions, pursue independent study, or work with faculty and other students at Empire State learning centers.

6. Communicates High Expectations
Expect more and you will get more. High expectations are important for everyone — for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations for themselves and make extra efforts.

Some examples: In many colleges and universities, students with poor past records or test scores do extraordinary work. Sometimes they outperform students with good preparation. The University of Wisconsin-Parkside has communicated high expectations for underprepared high school students by bringing them to the university for workshops in academic subjects, study skills, test taking, and time management. In order to reinforce high expectations, the program involves parents and high school counselors.

The University of California, Berkeley introduced an honors program in the sciences for under-prepared minority students; a growing number of community colleges are establishing general honors programs for minorities. Special programs like these help. But most important are the day-to-day, week-in and week-out expectations students and faculty hold for themselves and for each other in all their classes.

7. Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning
There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and styles of learning to college. Brilliant students in the seminar room may be all thumbs in the lab or art studio. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with theory. Students need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.

Some examples: Individualized degree programs recognize different interests. Personalized systems of instruction and mastery learning let students work at their own pace. Contract learning helps students define their own objectives, determine their learning activities, and define the criteria and methods of evaluation. At the College of Public and Community Service, a college for older working adults at the University of Massachusetts-Boston, incoming students have taken an orientation course that encourages them to reflect on their learning styles Rockland Community College has offered a life-career-educational planning course. At the University of California, Irvine, introductory physics students may choose between a lecture-and-textbook course, a computer-based version of the lecture-and-textbook course, or a computer-based course based on notes developed by the faculty that allow students to program the computer. In both computer-based courses, students work on their own and must pass mastery exams.

Whose Responsibility Is It?
Teachers and students hold the main responsibility for improving undergraduate education. But they need a lot of help. College and university leaders, state and federal officials, and accrediting associations have the power to shape an environment that is favorable to good practice in higher education.

What qualities must this environment have?

  • A strong sense of shared purposes.
  • Concrete support from administrators and faculty leaders for those purposes.
  • Adequate funding appropriate for the purposes.
  • Policies and procedures consistent with the purposes.
  • Continuing examination of how well the purposes are being achieved.

There is good evidence that such an environment can be created. When this happens, faculty members and administrators think of themselves as educators. Adequate resources are put into creating opportunities for faculty members, administrators, and students to celebrate and reflect on their shared purposes. Faculty members receive support and release time for appropriate professional development activities. Criteria for hiring and promoting faculty members, administrators, and staff support the institution’s purposes. Advising is considered important. Departments, programs, and classes are small enough to allow faculty members and students to have a sense of community, to experience the value of their contributions, and to confront the consequences of their failures.

States, the federal government and accrediting associations affect the kind of environment that can develop on campuses in a variety of ways. The most important is through the allocation of financial support. States also influence good practice by encouraging sound planning, setting priorities, mandating standards, and reviewing and approving programs. Regional and professional accrediting associations require self-study and peer review in making judgments about programs and institutions.

These sources of support and influence can encourage environments for good practice in undergraduate education by:

  • Setting policies that are consistent with good practice in undergraduate education.
  • Holding high expectations for institutional performance.
  • Keeping bureaucratic regulations to a minimum that is compatible with public accountability.
  • Allocating adequate funds for new undergraduate programs and the professional development of faculty members, administrators, and staff.
  • Encouraging employment of under-represented groups among administrators, faculty members, and student services professionals.
  • Providing the support for programs, facilities, and financial aid necessary for good practice in undergraduate education.

What Indian students should not expect from their institutions and need to develop in themselves

It is unfortunate that those who manages institutions and universities in India do not think about the future of students and they feel by delivering outdated university curriculum in very old fashioned bookish and spoon feeding way of teaching and talking about the glorious past of our country, and finally by giving away a piece of paper called “degree” they have done their duties as so called “academicians” !

It is even more unfortunate that these ‘academicians’ only emphasize on studying theories over applications and feel ‘scholarly activities’ and so called ‘research’ in educational institutions much more than imparting Employability skills among students although neither those ‘scholarly activities’ nor those ‘researches’ had any innovations that will benefit mankind other than just talking about those. This debate gets dangerous and the academicians take the names of few institutions of India where only India’s finest students get admissions based on their IQ and numeric skills but not based on their emotional intelligence!

Where is the vision about life, career, future and society among the students which should ideally come from the teachers, where is the innovation, self confidence, exposure, openness of mind and global vision ?

Many scholarly research endeavors have been made in the area of knowledge, education and learning within the context of a institute. The debate about the role of an academic institution is rich and revealing. An education expert, Robert Wolf proffers four models for the ideal university which is also applicable to any academic institution:

  • the academic institution as a sanctuary of scholarship
  • the academic institution as a training camp for future industry professionals
  • the academic institution as a social service center and
  • the academic institution as an assembly line for established ‘men and women.’

In-depth research also indicated several gray areas in the recruitment process conducted by the companies which was reconfirmed by the recent actions by several leading IT & ITES giants when they retrenched over 800 employees across the country on the basis of ‘non-performance’ including those who were 3 to 4 years old. This also focus on several other hard facts

Academics is yet to impart with the career related skills.

A large number of students are conceptually unclear about career issues.

High marks and getting job do not guarantee that one can retain it.

A more holistic approach and learning beyond ’employability’ training.

Till date, most of the higher education institutions in India ignored a very important area of enhancing the skills of the gurus, the Faculty development programs. Many institutions feel this to be ‘waste of time and resources’ and most of the gurus feel that once they are teaching in such higher level, there is ‘no need of further training’!

As a result what are really missing in our education

  • The market reality (so not really market driven)
  • Vision (except in prospectus or on display in reception)
  • Contemporary curriculum with focus on developing professional skills
  • Standard teaching practices
  • Most of the “global” practices
  • Inability to think rationally and act differently
  • Inability to impart vision  (self-development/ self-learning/ attitude/ grooming)
  • Academic leadership & quality faculty
  • Dynamism and long term thinking

What Indian institutions do not teach …

  • Lessons on Time management and Priorities.
  • Lessons on commitment, hard and smart working.
  • Lessons on common sense, gut instinct, confidence and foresight.
  • Lessons on managing stress, depression, crisis and change.
  • Lessons on honesty, communicating, negotiating and interviewing.
  • Lessons on people management, practical aspect of dressing.
  • Lessons on art of networking and entertaining people.
  • Lessons on entrepreneurial attitude.
  • Lessons on global vision, process mindset and balancing EQ & IQ.
  • Lessons on holistic thinking and growth.

Read more :

Importance of Employability skills training for the Indian students
After years long research and analysis our associate consultants with extensive global competency and employability training experience have developed the integrated training program suitable for Indian and South Asian engineering and management students based on the following list of employability skills lately referred to as ‘soft skills’ which is different by far from what people used to refer as ‘soft skills’, even a year back. To be precise, it’s based on Competencies Framework and featured an Employability Skills Framework identifying nine key Employability Skills :

These refer to one’s ability to do the job and are sometimes called ‘hard skills’. They might include such things as :

  1. Technical ability
  2. Knowledge
  3. Qualifications

The assumption is sometimes made that discipline specific skills are more important than employability skills. However, in today’s world where knowledge (discipline specific) rapidly becomes obsolete the ability to identify, access, network and communicate new information (employability) is vital for career success.

  • Initiative
  • Communication
  • Teamwork
  • Problem solving
  • Initiative and enterprise
  • Planning and organizing
  • Self-management
  • Learning
  • Technology


  • Adapting to new situations
  • Developing a strategic long-term vision
  • Being creative
  • Identifying opportunities not obvious to others
  • Translating ideas into action
  • Generating a range of options
  • Initiating innovative solutions.


  • Working with people of different ages, gender, race, religion or political persuasion
  • Working as an individual and as a member of a team
  • Knowing how to define a role as part of a team
  • Applying teamwork skills to a range of situations eg, crisis
  • Identifying strengths of team members
  • Coaching, mentoring, and giving feedback.

Problem Solving

  • Developing creative, innovative solutions
  • Developing practical solutions
  • Showing independence and initiative in identifying problems and solving them
  • Solving problems in teams
  • Applying a range of strategies to problem solving
  • Using mathematics including budgeting and financial management to solve problems
  • Applying problem-solving strategies across a range of areas
  • Testing assumptions, taking the context of data and circumstances into account
  • Resolving customer concerns in relation to complex project issues.


  • Managing time and priorities – setting timelines, coordinating tasks for self and others
  • Being resourceful
  • Taking initiative and making decisions
  • Adapting resource allocations to cope with contingencies
  • Establishing clear project goals and deliverables
  • Allocating people and resources to tasks
  • Planning the use of resources including time
  • Participating in continuous improvement and planning
  • Developing a vision and a proactive plan to accompany it
  • Predicting – weighing up risk, evaluating alternatives, applying evaluation criteria
  • Collecting, analysing, and organising information
  • Understanding basic business systems and their relationships.


  • Listening and understanding
  • Speaking clearly and directly
  • Writing to the needs of the audience
  • Negotiating responsively
  • Reading independently
  • Empathising
  • Using numeracy effectively
  • Understanding the needs of internal and external customers
  • Persuading effectively
  • Establishing and using networks
  • Being assertive
  • Sharing information
  • Speaking and writing in languages other than English.


  • Having a range of basic IT skills
  • Applying IT as a management tool
  • Using IT to organise data
  • Being willing to learn new IT skills
  • Having the occupational health and safety knowledge to apply technology
  • Having the appropriate physical capacity.


  • Having a personal vision and goals
  • Evaluating and monitoring own performance
  • Having knowledge and confidence in own ideas and vision
  • Articulating own ideas and vision
  • Taking responsibility.


  • Managing own learning
  • Contributing to the learning community at the workplace
  • Using a range of mediums to learn – mentoring, peer support, networking, IT, courses
  • Applying learning to technical issues (eg, products) and people issues (eg, interpersonal)
  • Having enthusiasm for ongoing learning
  • Being willing to learn in any setting, on and off the job
  • Being open to new ideas and techniques
  • Being prepared to invest time and effort in learning new skills
  • Acknowledging the need to learn in order to accommodate change.

P:S: This article is contributed by(Prof. (Dr.) Sudhi Ranjan Dey.He  is a graduate of Calcutta University and DBA in Consumer Behavior and MBA in Marketing & HR from Europe. He is the CEO of Gurgaon based Global management Xperts which is a pioneer training organization in India in the field of Academic leadership, Employment Enhancement and Professional Efficiency and Effectiveness Enhancement among freshers. Sudhi has over 30 years of global industry experience, held senior positions with Toyota, Nissan, General Motors, Sony, Ford, Sony Music, etc., lived across 17 countries, worked in 33 countries across 4 continents and visited 69 nations.)

Efficiency of homoeopathic treatment of breast cancer


Placebo- controlled evaluations of the homoeopathic drug for the treatment of hot flashes in women with non metastatic breast cancer treated by adjuvant hormonal therapy.

Chemotherapy is used as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, like hormone therapy in patients with hormone -sensitive breast cancer.

These adjuvant treatments reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis. The side effects of hormone therapy are known and depend on the therapeutic strategy and the drug used.

The side effects are – nausea, vaginal dryness, benign ovarian cyst, weight gain etc.

To evaluate the miasmatic background–
All 4 miasms are take place in this breast cancer – psora, sycotic, syphilitic & tubercular. Psora is from some functional changes in the breast, sycotic is from there is proliferation in the breast & syphilitic is from destruction of the nipples, around the nipple and areola.

But there is dominant miasm is “SYCOTIC MIASM” – because there is over growth, soft gelatinous wart like growth, encapsulated tumors, sensation like stitching, tearing & affected part are sore and stiff.

Pain < on damp weather &> by dryness.

To evaluate the incidence of breast cancer
This cancer incidence study will determine whether female flight attendants are at increased risk of breast and other cancers and whether the risk is dose-related. The study will include a cohort of approximately 10,000 women who were employed as flight attendants for one or more years.

Breast cancer cases will be identified from telephone interviews of living subjects and next-of-kin of deceased subjects, as well as from death certificates.

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Review on Concordance Repertory of William Gentry

Dr.Sanchoo Balachandran ,BHMS,MD(Hom)

It is based on the plan of Crudens concordens of bible. Cruden`s complete concordens– every word of the whole bible is arranged in alphabetically, so that any time the student may find the location of any passage that he may desired, this concordance is a libarary of instructions, it is a lexicon of explanations. Alexander cruden 1701–1770.

How it gave origin
The author came across a symptom which necessitate him to search for days in materia medica and repertories the symptom was `constant dull frontal headache, worse in the temples with aching in umbilicus’ This particular incidence force him to think about in preparing a repertory based on Crudens concordance of bible.

Concordant word meaning is indexing
Year of publication -1890.
Number of drugs represented – 420.
Number of volumes- 6.
Number of chapters – 30.

Phraseology is condensed from that of materia medica without changing the sense. The phraseology is not changed because the author feels that he is not authorized to do so. Preference is given to word expressing the condition (the principal word) , synonyms should be thought off.

Rules adopted.
Ø Characteristic pathogenic symptoms are selected.
Ø Repeatedly verified symptoms are selected.
Ø Two or more remedies have the power of producing similar condition ,include them as mearly suggestive, under the name of condition produced.
Give the noun , verb, and essential adjective in sentence.

How to search rubrics in the repertory
In searching for any desired symptom, the physician should first express it mentally, employing words commonly used, and then select the word in the sentence expressing the central thought , idea, fact condition, or object, of the sentence or the noun, verb or essential, and referring in concordance to the word selected, desired symptom may be fount, unless a synonym has been selected in which case same may be thought of.

Individual chapters
Vol –1
Mind and disposition
Head and scalp
Vol –2
Vol –3
The abdomen
Anus recrum and stool
Urine and urinary organs
Male sexul organs
Vol — 4
Utreus and its appendages
Menstuation and discharges
Pregnency and parturation
Lactation and mammary gland
Vol –5
Voice larynx and trachea
Chest, lung, bronchi and cough.
Heart and circulation
Chill and fever
Sleep and dreams
Vol –6
Neck and back
Uper extrimites
Lower extrimites
Bones and limbs in general

Generalities and key notes


Homoeopathy Medicines from Halogens

labIn Greek terminology , the words ‘halos ‘ means sea salts, and genes means born. It is so originated due to their close resemblance and gradual transition of physical & chemical properties.

Halogens have 7 electrons in their outer orbit.

They require one electron to complete their outer orbit and become stable, so they constantly trying to get one electron & hence these halogen remedies are very active, restless, excited and anxious. Halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine.

Important remedies

  • Chlorine
  • Bromine
  • Iodine
  • Fluorine.

Spongia from animal kingdom , contain iodine, some amount of bromine & calcareous matter

Important Features of Halogens

1)Constitution  – Lean, thin, emaciated with a typical cachexic look.

2) Diathesis  – Scrofulous.

3) Miasm – anti syphilitic, anti tubercular,

4)Thermal reaction:

  • Hot.
  • Iodum- hot
  • Bromium-bchilly
  • Fluorine- ambithermal

5)Ailments from :

  • Summer;
  • Warmth.

6) Tendency  to affect glands. All of the halogens act upon the glandular system producing enlargement, induration and even abscess in glands. Thus we find them all useful in scrofulosis, especially Iodine,

  • Lymphatic  glands  hypertrophied.
  • Endocrine  glands affected e.g. Iodium – goitre.
  • Bromium –  toxic goitre. Hypo or hyper functioning of glands.
  • Sexual  glands :- hypo functioning and atrophy of  ovaries,testes etc.
  • Primary  / secondary sterility. E.g.:  infantile  uterus  ; azoospermia etc.

7) Hollow organs affected: like

  • Respiratory tract,
  • Intestines,
  • Uterus,
  • Heart etc.

8) Tendency to  produce spasms.

Spasmodic affections of respiratory tract. They all produce spasm of the glottis and this is most marked, has proved most characteristic in Chlorine, although they all have it.

9)Marked affinity for all mucous membranes. producing violent inflammation, rawness and excoriation

10)  Affinity for bones & hair.      

  • bones –  deformities, tumors, etc.
  • hair – hairfall etc.

11)Highly acrid discharges :

Discharges burn the parts on which they flow producing

  •  inflammation , 
  •  then congestion ,
  •  then ulceration ,
  •  then malignancy.

12)Slow onset of disease.

13)Sluggish torpidity.- Therefore halogens useful  in chronic diseases.

 14)Highly irritant. Destroy fibrin present in blood, leading to haemorrhages.

 15)Tendency to pseudo membrane formation. All excepting Chlorine, tend to produce croupous membranes; Chlorine tends more to diphtheritic membrane than pure croupous

 16)Oedematous conditions. Esp. Cardiac dropsy.


  • < night,
  • < heat. 

Mental features

1) Anxiety belongs to all of the halogens.
It hardly originates in the mind, probably coming from some defect in the body itself. It is a common symptom in heart and lung affections, and it is probably thence that the symptom springs. This anxiety is expressed in this way: The patients expect to see objects jump around them or they think that somebody is about them, and they turn around to see if such is the case. This is an effect of Bromine,

2) Restless, excitable people–There is a decided erethism, during which the patient is very excitable, and restless, moving about from place to place, now sitting here, now sitting there, he fears that every little occurrence will end seriously. they continually want to be doing something

3)active– they are active , agile people

4) Impusive—they wanted to do things quickly, impulse to do violent & strange things

5) Destructive—tendency to become destructive, tendency to ruin things which they don’t like

6) Violent– they take harsh & violent measures

7) Forgetful
A third characteristic symptom is their forgetfulness, as described by Vithoulkas (1991 b, page 50). They are so busy and they have so much on their mind that they can’t keep up with it. They are inclined to write everything down on little notes, but even then they keep forgetting certain things.

8) Obsession
Their fear of forgetting things might become an obsession. This may lead to compulsive behaviour, all because they want to be able to keep everything under control. This results in fixed ideas: ‘I have to do this, and I must do that’. 



  1. Iodine. The Element.
  2. Persons of a scrofulous diathesis, with dark or black hair and eyes; a low cachectic condition,  with profound debility and great emaciation (Abrot).
  3. Great weakness and loss of breath on going upstairs (Calc.); during the menses (Alum., Carbo an., Coc.).
  4. Ravenous hunger; eats freely and well, yet loses flesh all the time (Abrot., Nat. m., Sanic., Tub.).
  5. Empty eructations from morning to night, as if every particle of food was turned into air (Kali c.).
  6. Itching: low down in the lungs, behind the sternum, causing cough; extends through bronchi to nasal cavity (Coc. c., Con., Phos.).
  7. Hypertrophy and induration of glandular tissue_thyroid, mammae, ovaries, testes, uterus, prostate or other glands_breasts may dwindle and become flabby.
  8. Palpitation, worse from least exertion (compare Dig.from least mental exertion, Cal. ars.).
  9. Sensation as if the heart was squeezed together; as if grasped with an iron hand (Cac., Sulph.).
  10. Leucorrhoea: arid, corrosive, staining and corroding the linen; most abundant at times of menses.
  11. Cancerous degeneration of the cervix; cutting pains in abdomen and haemorrhage at every stool.
  12. Constipation, with ineffectual urging >> by drinking cold milk.
  13. Croup: membranous, hoarse, dry cough, worse in warm, wet weather; with wheezing and sawing respiration (Spong.).
  14. Child grasps the larynx (Cepa); face pale and cold, especially in fleshy children.
  15. Relations. Complementary: to, Lycopodium.
  16. Compare: Acet. ac., Brom., Con., Kali bi., Spong. in membranous croup and croupy affections; especially in overgrown boys with scrofulous diathesis.
  17. Follows well: after, Hep., Mer.; is followed by Kali bi. in croup. Acts best in goitre when given after full moon, or when the moon is waning. _ Lippe.
  18. Should not be given during lying-in period, except in high potencies. Hering.
  19. Aggravation. _ Warmth; wrapping up the head (reverse of, Hep., Psor.).


Bromine.- The Element.

  1. It acts best, but not exclusively, on persons with light-blue eyes, flaxen hair, light eyebrows, fair, delicate skin; blonde, red-cheeked, scrofulous girls.
  2. Sensation of cobweb on the face (Bar., Bor., Graph.).
  3. Fan-like motion of alae nasi (Ant. t., Lyc.).
  4. Sailors suffer from asthma “on shore.”
  5. Stony, hard, scrofulous or tuberculous swelling of glands, especially on lower jaw and throat (thyroid, submaxillary, parotid, testes).
  6. Diphtheria : where the membrane forms in pharynx; beginning in bronchi, trachea or larynx, and extending upwards; chest pains running upwards.
  7. Membranous and diphtheritic croup; much rattling of mucus during cough,  but no choking (as in Hepar); sounds; loose, but no expectoration (Ant. t.).
  8. Croupy symptoms with hoarseness during whooping-cough; gasping for breath.
  9. Dyspnoea : cannot inspire deep enough; as if breathing through a sponge or the air passages were full of smoke or vapor of sulphur; rattling; sawing; voice inaudible; danger of suffocation from mucus in larynx (in bronchi, Ant. t.).
  10. Hypertrophy of heart from gymnastics in growing boys (from calisthenics in young girls, Caust.).
  11. Physometra; loud emission of flatus from the vagina (Lyc.); membranous dysmenorrhoea (Lac. c.).
  12. Cold sensation in larynx on inspiration (Rhus, Sulph.); >> after shaving (< after shaving, Carbo an.).
  13. Relations. Compare : in croup and croupy affection, Chlor., Hep., Iod., Spong.
  14. Hard goitre cured after Iod. failed.
  15. Brom. has cured in croup after failure of Iod., Phos., Hep., Spong.; especially in relapses after Iod.
  16.  “The chief distinction between Brom. and Iod. is, the former cures the blue-eyed and the latter the black-eyed patients.”-HERING.

Chlorum (chlorine gas in water)

  • The marked effect on the respiratory organs, producing spasm of the glottis, is the chief symptom of the drug.
  • Asthma to relieve the spasm of glottis.
  • Useful externally and internally in gangrene.
  • Mind
  • Marked loss of memory, especially for names.
  • Respiratory – Coryza with sudden gushes of sharp, corroding fluid, making nose sore inside and about the alae.
  • Constriction, with suffocation. Spasm of the glottis.
  • Irritation of epiglottis, larynx, and bronchi.
  • Loss of voice from damp air.
  • Sudden dyspnoea from spasm of the vocal cords, with staring protruding eyes, blue face, cold sweat, pulse small.
  • Inspiration free, with obstructed expiration. [Mephit.] Livid face.


  1. Fluorine is rather special in that it isn’t easy to potentise.  If we were to dissolve it in water it would immediately react with the water to form Fluoric acid.  Other solvents would give similar problems, so it won’t be easy to find a suitable medium to potentise
  2. Fluorine in its pure elemental form. It is the most reactive of all the non-metallic elements and it affects every substance it comes in contact with, even metals like Platina.
  3. There are only a few noble gases that are not affected by its aggressive action.

Picture of Fluorine

  • Essence: letting go of personality and values.
  • They have a tendency to let go of all the values they have had to take on board during their life so far.  They feel that they can no longer live within this restrictive set of rules and norms and they would rather get rid of them.

Usefulness of Homoeopathy in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Girish Gupta1 , J.P.Singh2 , Salil Tandon3 , Santosh Singh1 , C. Nayak4 ,Hari Singh4 , Ch.Ravindar4 , K.R.J.Nair4 , Praveen Oberai4 .

Background and Objectives: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition in elderly men and its incidence is age related. Although clinical evidence of disease occurs less commonly, symptoms of prostatic obstruction are also age related and if untreated affect quality of life. No data regarding clinical as well as diagnostic parameters assessment in cases of BPH in response to homoeopathic medicines is available. Therefore, an observational study on BPH was conducted with 20 pre-decided medicines for the treatment of BPH.

Methods: A collaborative research study between Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH), New Delhi and Homoeopathic Research Foundation, Lucknow was planned. A total of121 patients enrolled, out of which 43 completed the study according protocol. Trial medicines selected on the basis of principles of homoeopathy were prescribed and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Ultrasonography, Uroflowmetry and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) were assessed before and after homoeopathic treatment.

Results: After comparing pre and post treatment results, the difference in mean values IPSS, Prostate weight, PSA and Average flow rates were found statistically significant. Maximum Flow Rate and Post Void Residual Urine (PVRU) were found improving but statistically not significant. Lycopodium(n=15), Pulsatilla(n=11), Sulphur(n=8) and Calcarea carb.(n=3) were found to be most useful among 20 trial medicines.

Conclusion: Results obtained from the study are encouraging with findings that 93.0% patients improved clinically with an evidence of positive changes in diagnostic parameters. However, such study with randomized control trial is needed to further validate the usefulness of the homoeopathic medicines.

Keywords: homeopathy; observational study; benign prostatic hyperplasia; international prostate symptom score; lycopodium; pulsatilla; sulphur

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Book review on 'The chronic diseases' by Hahnemann

The chronic diseases (die chronischen krankheiten) their peculiar nature and their homoeopathic cure

Dr. Samuel hahnemann in 1828.

Presently it contains 2 volumes and which is  Translated from 2nd Enlarged German Edn of 1835.

By Prof. Louis H. Tafel With Annotations byDr. Richard Hughes

Total number of drugs – 48.

History of the work

  • The chronic diseases is Hahnemann’s last medical work of fundamental importance.
  • It has 2 Editions

I EDITION – 4 Volumes (1828-1830)

  • I Vol. – devoted to an exposition of his theory
  • II & III Vol – 15 new medicine.
  • IV  Vol – 7 medicines (5 from malaria medica. Pura + 2 new drugs – Kalic and Natnus)

So total number of drugs – 22

II EDITION – 5 Volumes (1835-39).

  • I Vol & II Vol -1835
  • III Vol. – 1837
  • IV vol – 1838
  • V- 1839

Besides the twenty two medicines of the Ist edition it contain 25 others of which 13 are new and 12 had already appeared in Materia medica pura.

So total = 47 drugs

      22 – from Ist Edn

       25 – 13 (new) + 12 from MMP—II nd Edn

Present Edition contain 2 volumes

Translated from second enlarged German edition of 1835 (Exported reprint edn.1995)

Volume I – Has two parts

Part I (Theoretical part)

  • Translations preface
  • Annolator’s preface
  • Authors preface
  • Authros preface
  • Nature of chronic disease
  • Cure – Sycosis,   Syphilis,      Psora

Part II (Medicinal part) Antipsoric medicines)

Agaricus to Kalicaib (27 drgus)

Volume II

Medicines – Lycopodium to Zinc met (21 drugs) Index to the first or theoretical part.

List of Drugs

Volume I Volume II
1. Agarius muscarius 1. Lycopodium
2. Alumina 2. Mag. Carb
3. Ammonium carb 3. Mag mur
4. Ammonium mur 4. Manganum
5. Anacardium Orient 5. Mezereum
6. Antim crude 6. Muriatic acid
7. Ars alb 7. Natrum Carb
8. Aurum 8. Natrum mur
9. Aurum mur 9. Nitric acid
10 Baryta carb 10. Nitrum
11. Borax veneta 11. Petroleum
12. Calc. carb 12. Phosphorous
13. Carboanimalis 13. Phosphoric acid
14. Carbo veg 14. Platina
15. Causticum 15. Sarasaparilla
16. Clematis erecta 16. Sepia
17. Colocynth 17. Silica terra
18. Conium mac. 18. Stannum
19. Cupr. Met 19. Sulphur
20. Digitalis 20. Sulphuric acidum
21. Dulcamera 21. Zincum met
22. Euphorbium
23. Graphites
24. Guajacum
25. Hepar Sulph Calc
26. Iodum
27. Kali carb


1. Translators Preface
This is the second translation of this work to English. The first translation is done by Dr. Charles J. Hempel and published by Wm. Radde in the year 1845-46.

Translators preface is written by L.H. Tafel. Here, he describes  about the  mode of translations made  from the original  work. He has tried to translate the same German  word by the same  English word, except, where  words have several meanings. These are few words,  which  require  a varied translations, according  to the context. for eg. Brust is used for both for chest and females  mammae

He mentioned that the symptoms taken from the old school authorities (poisonings/overdose) are cited with small capitals and that of other provers are given in italics as in case of  Materia medica pura.

There is no separate index for antipsoric medicines because this is furnished in various  repertories especially in that  of Boenning housen’s. There is a separate index for theoretical part of this work.

2) Annotators preface
In this secton, Richard Hughes, says that as Hahnemann became famous in the treatment  of various illnesses,  he had to pay more attention to the chronic diseases, thereby he stopped to attend acute diseases.

Among the 3 volumes of Ist edn of this work (1828-30), two latter volume contains the pathogenesis of 15 medicines, which are not present in Materia medica pura.

There are

  1. Amm Carb
  2. Baryta carb
  3. Calc carb
  4. Graphites
  5. Iodum
  6. Lycopodium
  7. Mag carb
  8. Mag mur
  9. Nat carb
  10. Nit acid
  11. Petroleum
  12. Phosphorous
  13. Sepia
  14. Silicea
  15. Zincum

The pathogenesis of above medicines appear without a word of explanations as to how the symptoms were obtained and without acknowledgement of fellow observers. At this time Hahnemann was 70 or 80 years old and he was not in a position to conduct proving upon him. So we are compelled to reach a conclusion that these symptoms are mainly from his experience from treatment of cases.

Hahnemann  recommended the medicines to be given in the dilution from 18-30th. When the lower potencies (upto 12th) were used it produced violent symptoms in sufferers of chronic diseases, which make up  the bulk of the Ist issue of chronic diseases.

In the 4th volume, published in 1830, 2 more medicines added (Kalicarb and Natmur) and additional symptoms   are give for 5 other medicines (Carbonanimalis, carboveg, Caust, Conium and Sulphur) which already given in Materia Medica pura.

The second edition of the “Chronic diseases” published  in 1835-39. It contains 47 medicines. (Besides 22 medicines of Ist Edn. It contains 25 others, of which 13 are how and 12 had already appeared in Materia Medica Pura.

New drugs are                                                   Old ones are

1. Agaricus 1. Ars
2. Alumina 2. Aurum
3. Amm mur 3. Colocynth
4. Anacardium 4 Digitalis
5. Ant. Crude 5. Dulcamera
6. Borax 6. Guaicum
7. Clematis 7. Heparsulph
8. Cuprum 8. Manganum
9. Euphorbium 9. Muriatic acid
10. Mezerum 10. Phosph acid
11. Nitrum 11. Sarasaparilla
12. Platinum 12. Stannum
13. Sulphuricacid

Hahenemann strongly recommended the use of 30 potency in all drug proving is order to yield good results.

Richard Hughes appended a note to the list of “fellow observers” which were given by Hahnemann in the preface of each medicine (This note gives an idea about the time of provers is whether they were the provers of the later  or earlier  times,  manner of their experimentation whether  their observations  already existed in print and what information we have about them.)

In pathogenesis  of drugs, the symptoms  cited by other  authors were thoroughly  varified  by Richard Hughes and made necessary correction and explanation to set it forth in its full meaning and value. Additional information  is given at the bottom of the page, represented  by Small figures, 1,2,3 etc. and Hahnemann’s own annotations  are designated by *  etc.

3) Editor’s Preface
In editors preface Pemberton Dudley mainly deals with the peculiarities of style in writings of Hahnemann, some of which are not all common to our English polemical literature. Eg : His long and involved sentences. His exceedingly frequent  use of parenthetical clauses and sentences and his use of parenthesis within the parenthesis.  Etc.

At the end of Editor’s preface he says that no attempt has been made to render this work or any portion of it, a model of concise perspecuity. On the  contrary the aim has been  to retain rather than  to eliminate the characteristic style of the original text.

4) Author’s Preface
To the first edition – 1828

Here the expressed his doubt about the acceptance of his great discovery by the  contemporaries in other school of medicines.

He criticizes the use of larger doses, which may tends to endanger the patient life.

Preface to the fourth volume  (Inquiry  into the process of Homoeopathic healing)

In this preface Huhnemann  explain  the mode of action of Homoeopathic medicines, and how the cure take. He also mentiond that the vitalforce alone couldn’t overcome the miasmatic chronic disease. It required the aid of remedies of true healing art.

Preface to the 5th Volume  (Dilution and potencies (dynamisation)

Here he describe about the dynamisation. These are the processes by which the medicinal properties which are latent  in natural substances while in their  crude state become aroused and then become enabled to act in an almost spiritual manner on our life.

Dynamisation usually done in 2 ways.

1) In case of dry substances trituration is  employed

2) In case of liquid substance by means of shaking or succession.

First part (Theoretical part)

5. Nature of Chronic diseases
Here he says about the usefulness of Homoeopathic medicines in the treatment of Sporadic, venereal, and acute diseases and he criticize the crude and inhuman ways of Allopathic treatment like blistering plasters, leeching, cupping, pain killing narcotics etc.

Hahnemann specified the importance of etiological factors  which can alter health like some gross errors in diet, some violent  exertion of mind or body, repeated fright great grief, sorrow and continuous vexation etc.

Even  after administration of similinum, Hahnemann observed a continuous relapse  or recurrence of the symptoms occurred at variable intervals and there by no complete cure. This made him think about the obstacles for complete cure and this led him to the discovery of the nature of chronic diseases, which lead him to theory of 3 chronic measms – Psora, Sycosis and syphilis.

6) Cure of chornic diseases
Here Hahnemann describes about the Homoeopathic medical treatment of large number of chronic diseases. The treatment of chronic diseases become impossible without the help of Homoeopathic antimiasmatic medicines.

The two  miasmata syphilis and sycosis cause a smaller part of the chronic disease,  will treat first in order to make the path free to the  therapeutics of the immeasurably greater number of the various diseases which spring from psora.

Hahnemann says that the whole sycosis dependent on fig wart miasma, as well as the excrescence, can only be cured most surely and thoroughly through the internal  use of  Thuja.  When the action of thuja is exhausted  it should be alternated with a small doses of nitric acid, which must be  allowed to act as long as long a time in order to remove the whole sycosis. There is no need of using external  application  except in most difficult  and inveterate  cases, we can moister  the figwards everyday with the mild pure juice prepared from  the green leaves of Thuja, mixed with equal volume of alcohol.

If the patient was at the same time affected with another chronic ailment is psora complicated with sycosis or both miasm (psora and sycosis) conjoined then it is necessary to treat the psoric component first, with specific, antisporic medicines. Then to  make use of the remedy for sycosis and lastly proper  dose of the best preparation of Mercury is given against syphilis. The same  alternating treatment in continued until a complete cure is affected.

The syphilis is chronic miasma, which is more widely spread than sycosis. In the cure of this venereal  disease three states are to be distinguished , when the syphilis is alone and associated with local symptoms (chancre) or the local symptoms has been removed by external application  or associated with some other local symptoms which act vicariously for the internal disorder.

Hahnemann says that “there is on earth no chronic miasma, no chornic disease  spring from a miasma which is more curable and more easily curable than this (syphilis).

If it is not complicated with psora and present with local symptoms (chancre) then it needs only one little doses of the  best mercurial remedy in order to cure thoroughly and forever the whole syphilis with its chancre.

Cure of third stage of syphilis is most difficult when compared to Ist and 2nd stage. The latent psora cannot obstruct the cure of syphilis but if it is  complicated with developed  psora it is  impossible to cure the venereal disease alone.

When syphilis is complicated with awakened psora, this combination is called masked, spurious syphilis or pseudosyphilis– a monster of a double disease and it is very difficult to cure. Treating the psoric component  first with suitable antipsoric  which is homoeopathically the best fitting to the then prevailing state of the disease, when this medicine has completed its action also probably a second most suitable to the still prominent Psora symptoms and these should be allowed to act against the psora, until they have effected all that can be at present done against  it — then should be given the dose  above described of the best Mercurial preparation to act against  the venereal disease for three, five to seven  weeks, ie so long as it will continue  to produce an improvement in the venereal symptoms.

In  inveterate  and difficult cases this first  course will not accomplish what is desired. A repetition of a similar process of cure in required.

Psora is the most ancient, most universal, most destructive  and most apprehended  chronic  miasmatic disease which for many thousands of years has disfigured and tortured mankind and which  during the last centuries has become the mother of all thousands  of incredibly  various chronic diseases by which the  whole civilized human race on the  inhabited globe is being more and more afflicted. It is the most hydraheaded of all the chronic miasmatic diseases.

He says, sulphur in small doses will make a brief beginning of cure of  chronic  disease. But excessive or frequent  repetition  of sulphur  in chronic disease is of no use.

The cure of old psora that has been deprived of its eruption whether it may be latent  and quiescent  or already broken out into chronic disease can never be accomplished with sulphur alone nor with sulphur baths  either natural or artificial . Recent itch disease with its primary cutaneous eruption is easily  cured from with in by very small dose of properly potentised preparation of sulphur. But the other psoric diathesis  ie, latent  psora and developed  psora with its secondary manifestation is very seldom  cured by any single  antipsoric remedy but requires  the use of  several of these remedies in the  worst cases the  use of quite a number of them one after the  other for its perfect cure.

Then Hahnemann was describing  the diet and mode of living of chronic patient. Avoidance  of coffee, spiritual  liquors, main  hindrances to the cure like allopathic  treatment, modom  civilized life, suppressed sexual  instinct.

A Homoeopathic physician must know how to use the antisporic  remedies for the cure  of chronic disease successfully. Hahnemann warns the physician to be cautious about the dose, unwanted hastiness of repetition and wrong  choice of remedy.

A Teacher’s Code of Conduct

The external teacher offers only the suggestion which rouses the internal teacher to work to understand things.- Swami Vivekananda

No one was ever really taught by another;each of us has to teach himself.

We agree that no rules or codes can guarantee a change in behavior or character or ensure a teache r’s personal integrity. However, we are convinced that a written code will serve as a reminder about the great responsibility vested with the teachers- that of molding the young minds of this great democracy so that they become her worthy citizens.

The Code, in line with the vision of Swami Vivekananda, seeks to motivate the teachers to impart the kind of education he dreamt of. In his words:

“We want that education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one’s own feet.”

The Code encompasses the various attributes of character- truthfulness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring and service orientation.

Our belief that the Code will serve the purpose vests on two of its positives- i) it will be a self-imposed Code; and ii)the detailed Guidance to Practice which is appended to the ode makes it ‘doable’; otherwise, we would have had to depend only on the power of positive thinking and the power of affirmations!

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Dandruff and Homoeopathy

Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma M.D. (Homoeopathy)
Dr. Reena Rawat B.H.M.S.
Dr. Nancy Rastogi B.P.T., M.I.A.P.

Origin of word
The word dandruff is derived from dand (origin unknown) and hurf, meaning “scab”. This is probably linked to the Old Norse word hrufa, meaning “scab”. The Old High German word hruf means “scurf”.

Dandruff is the presence, in varying amounts, of white or gray scales in the hair of the scalp, due to excessive or normal branny exfoliation of the epidermis as a consequence of the common, asymptomatic, fluffy, clinical expression of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp and has been referred to as Pityriasis sicca, scurf or Pityriasis simplex capillitii.

The disease is characterized by scaling (Psora/ Sycosis) on an erythematous base (Psora). The scale often has a yellow, greasy appearance. Itching may be severe (Psora). Dandruff causes flakes of skin to appear (Psora/ Sycosis). When the skin cells on our scalp are renewed the old ones are pushed to the surface and out of the scalp. With dandruff, the renewal of skin is faster; more dead skin is shed, making the dandruff more noticeable.

Dandruff can be chronic or the result of certain triggers (Causa occasionalis). Erythema paranasale, more common in young women than men, may be part of this disease spectrum.

There are three main types of dandruff.

It occurs from bad hygiene practices. Sebum, if left, can combine with dead skin and dirt to form dandruff.

It is formed due to the presence of a fungus – Malassezia furfur; present on most everyone’s scalps without causing problems with dandruff (Pseudopsora). Whenever excess skin oil is present on the scalp (Psora/ Sycosis), the oil provides enough food for the fungus to grow out of control. It causes the skin to become irritated and form additional skin cells on the scalp.

It forms as a secondary side effect of scalp conditions, e.g. psoriasis (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis). As the additional skin cells shed, they can combine with sebum oil into dandruff. In eczema (Psora/ Pseudopsora), dry flaky skin on the scalp can fund to dandruff formation.

Its aetiology is unknown. Involvement of sebum is supported by clinical observations of people with Parkinson disease, who typically show increased sebum production secondary to dopamine deficiency and have a markedly increased incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

Dandruff can occur if the scalp is frequently exposed to extreme temperatures. Excessive flaking may be caused by an underlying illness or condition, such as psoriasis, Malassezia furfur infection, seborrheic dermatitis, or even head lice.

Clinical picture

There are white flakes of skin on the scalp, and hair.

  • Flakes may be oily looking
  • Head may feel tight and itchy
  • Head may feel tingly
  • Head may feel sore
  • Red, flaky, greasy patches of skin (adults, Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp in adults)
  • Crusting and scaling rash on scalp (babies with Seborrheic dermatitis, or cradle cap)

It classically involves regions of rich in of sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, forehead, especially the glabella, external auditory canal, retroauricular area, nasolabial folds, and the presternal area.

In infants, seborrheic dermatitis presents as cradle cap. Here it can also be part of Leiner disease, in which the condition is generalized and associated with diarrhea and failure to thrive.

A severe form of seborrheic dermatitis that is difficult to treat is seen in many HIV–infected individuals with low CD4 counts.

Dandruff and Homoeopathy Medicines
agar. all-s. aloe alum. AM-M. anac. ARS. ars-br. asim. aur. bad. BAR-C. bran. bros-au. BRY. bufo CALC. calc-p. CALC-S. CANTH. CARBN-S. carc. cean. chinin-s. choc. cic. citl-g. coch. CROT-H. DULC. dys. fl-ac. germ-met. granit-m. GRAPH. grat. hep. hera. HYDR. hydrog. ictod. iod. jab. KALI-BR. KALI-C. kali-chl. kali-m. kali-p. KALI-S. kola kreos. lac-. Lach. led. LYC. MAG-C. mag-p. maland. MED. merc. MEZ. NAT-M. nicc. OLND. oncor-. par. petr. PHOS. porc-m. positr. propr. PSOR. quill. rad-br. Rhus-t. rosm. ruta sanic. saroth. SEP. sil. stann. STAPH. sul-i. SULPH. term-c. THUJ. tritic-vg. tub. uran-met. URT-U. vanil.

Repertory of Dandruff

  • Brows – dandruff sanic.
  • Dandruff – itching med.
  • Dandruff – scaly, profuse sanic.
  • Dandruff – white ars. kali-m. mez. Nat-m. Thuj.
  • Dandruff – yellow calc. Kali-s.
  • Dandruff ars. canth. Graph. lyc. nat-m. Phos. staph. sulph. thuj.
  • Eyebrows – lashes – dandruff sanic.
  • Eyes – ERUPTIONS, eyes – eyebrows, about the – dandruff sanic.
  • FACE – DANDRUFF – Eyebrows sanic. sulph.
  • FACE – DANDRUFF, beard chinin-s.
  • FACE – ERUPTIONS – dandruff, eyebrows sanic.
  • Generals – HAIR, general, head and body – falling, out, of hair – dandruff, due to am-m. kali-c. thuj.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – greasy skin, with maland.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – horny kola
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – itching MED.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – itching med. positr. propr. ruta
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – Occiput nat-m. sep.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – scaly – profuse sanic.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – scaly sanic. term-c.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – scaly, profuse sanic.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – skin, with greasy maland.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – white alum. ars. choc. KALI-M. kola MEZ. NAT-M. olnd. PHOS. THUJ.
  • HEAD – DANDRUFF – yellow calc. KALI-S.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – copious, falls out in clouds Phos.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – enormous canth. kali-s.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – headache, with, in pregnancy calc.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – herpetic – circles like ringworm, in sep.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – herpetic graph. nat-m.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – scaly – hair comes out, skin peels off with itching and smarting staph.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – scaly canth. Kali-s. THUJ.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – smells, badly Lyc. Psor.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – weather, worse in change of Dulc.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – white – flakes, in, with itching kali-m.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – white – white and dry mez. nat-m.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – white alum. choc. Kali-chl. kali-m. Mez. NAT-M. Phos. THUJ.
  • Head – DANDRUFF, scalp – yellow KALI-S.
  • HEAD – DRYNESS – hair – falling, and, with dandruff KALI-C.
  • HEAD – External – dandruff – occiput, on nat-m. sep.
  • HEAD – External – dandruff alum. Ars. GRAPH. kali-c. Olnd. phos. stann. sulph.
  • HEAD – FALLING out, hair, alopecia – dandruff, from am-m. thuj.
  • HEAD – HAIR – affections of – falling out, alopecia – dandruff, due to am-m. thuj.
  • HEAD – Scalp – Dandruff am-m. Ars. Bar-c. bran. bry. fl-ac. Graph. hep. hera. iod. Kali-s. lyc. nat-m. phos. sanic. Sep. sil. sul-i. sulph. thuj.
  • Pregnancy – HEADACHES, during pregnancy – dandruff, with Calc.

A brief study mercurial group of Homeopathy medicines

Dr. Vivek N. Patil

The three grand characters of Mercurial group are – destructiveness, elusiveness and restlessness.

The drugs in the Mercurial group are listed below.

 Name of drugs

  1. Mercurius Solubilis
  2. Mercurius aceticus
  3. Mercurius auratus
  4. Mercurius biniodatus = mercurius iodatus rubber
  5. Mercurius bromatus
  6. Mercurius corrosivus = Mercurius sublimates
  7. Mercurius cum Kali   = Mercurius biniodatus cum kali iodato
  8. Mercurius cyanatus
  9. Mercurius dulcis, calomel
  10. Mercurius iodatus flavus
  11. Mercurius Methylenus
  12. Mercurius Nitrosus
  13. Mercurius  Oxydatus   = Mercurious precip. ruber
  14. Mercurius phosphorus
  15. Mercurius  pracipitatus  albus
  16. Mercurius pracipitatus flavus
  17. Mercurius  Sulphocy- anatus
  18. Mercurius Sulphuratus niger
  19. Mercurius Sulphuratus ruber
  20. Mercurius Sulphuricus
  21. Mercurius  tanicus
  22. Mercurius  vivus
  23. Mercurialis perennnis

Congestive, Catarrhal, Exudative, Ulcerative, Suppurative, Destructive, Glandular, Scrofulous, Scorbutic, Anemic, Rheumatic, Offensive, Sensitive, Tremulous, Dropsical, Agile, Chaotic, Debilitated, Syphilitic

1. Congestive: Merc is basically inflammatory group of remedies. Every inflammation begins with congestion and Merc has it forcefully in its pathogenesis. This congestiveness has to be differentiated from Aco, Bell or Ferr-ph. These three drugs have congestion in their first stage of inflammation. Merc presents a furtherance of activity where suppuration has supervened. An abscess in Merc is of spreading congestion-more red, more painful, more throbbing, and with adjacent lymphadenopathy.

2. Catarrhal: Merc causes inflammation of mucous membranes resulting in profuse, thin, slimy, acrid, burning, foul or thick greenish-yellow discharges. Merc covers simple to malignant catarrhs in its pathogenesis.

3. Exudative: Exuding the ichorous fluid, pus etc. through affected lesions like boils, abscesses, carbuncles, sinuses, fistulae etc. is the characteristic of Merc. The exudation is usually offensive in nature.

4. Ulcerative: Merc has ulcerations; of the mucous membranes, esp. of mouth and throat. The syphilitic miasmatic dimension is responsible for recurrent and non-healing ulcerations; ulcers based on deep pathologies, or metabolic basis. Syphilitic, phagadenic ulcers.

5. Suppurative: Inflammation in Merc doesn’t stop at the level of congestion. Inflammatory action is intensely acute and violent and rapidly tends to septic disorganization. It is as if little resistance is offered by the system. Defective mesenchymal system and phagocytosis turns the condition into suppuration. Merc has tendency to pus formation and the pus is thin, green, putrid; streaked with blood. Suppuration in glands, ulcers or even internal vital organs like lungs (e.g. empyema) or kidneys (e.g. peri-nephric abscess or pyelonephritis) comes within the range of Merc.

6. Destructive: Merc transforms healthy cells into decrepit, inflamed and necrotic wrecks. Merc is destructive both at body and mind levels. Its lesions resemble those of syphilis. Merc’s action is similar to that of the toxins of infectious diseases. Inflammations of malignant types, and prostration. Appropriate Merc salt can be thought of in cases where perforation threatens.

7.   GlandularMerc has increased glandular activity, esp. of salivary and mucous glands. Lymphatic system is esp. affected with all the membranes and glands. Merc has concomitant lymphadenopathy with skin lesions like boil, abscess, ulcer etc. Syphilitic miasm is responsible for even malignant glandular affections and fevers. Based on scrofulous diathesis, it also covers tubercular glandular affections. Chronic suppurating glands; cold abscesses are dealt with Merc. 

8. Scrofulous: Tuberculous disease of lymphatic nodes and of bone, with slowly suppurating abscesses. Merc decomposes the blood, producing a profound anemia. It thus affects the nutrition and prepares a ground for scrofulous affections. Syphilitic activity further leads to cachexia.

9. Scorbutic: Merc has spongy and bleeding gums. When the general condition is impaired and metabolism affected because of malnutrition, scorbusis may get developed. Scorbusis may be a precursor of metabolic diseases like DM.

10. Anaemic: Merc through decomposition of blood, and through bone-narrow depression causes profound or aplastic anemia. Hemorrhages, metabolic disorders, hepatic and renal toxicity cause anemia. Hence Merc constitution is emaciated, pale with dark ring around eyes.

11. Rheumatic: Rheumatic diathesis is one of the features of Merc group. It has both acute and chronic dimensions. Mercs are sensitive to both heat and cold – human barometers and they come down with acute joint swellings and pains consequent to weather changes. ‘Redness’ indicates Merc.

12. Offensive: Merc is filthy, mentally as well as physically. All discharges smell horribly; the decomposition, the debris, the slough, the suppuration; smell emanates from the body. Mercs are, hence, recognized to an observant physician.

13. Sensitive: Mercs are very sensitive to weather changes, hence termed as ‘human barometer’. The inflamed part is very sensitive and depicts all characters of inflammation. The reactivity pattern is exhibited well. Sensitivity attracts environmental stimuli; hence modalities or sensory stimuli / inputs are usually available. Sensitivity is also present at mind level.

14. Tremulous: ‘Trembling’ is a marked characteristic of Merc. Paralysis agitans – Parkinsonism -come under pathogenetic action of Merc. Syphilitic expressions with a lot of pathologies at nerves, spinal cord, and brain resulting in inco-ordination are responsible for tremulousness.

15. Dropsical:  Dropsy due to anemia, hepatic, renal  or cardiac affections are covered by Merc. Edematous swellings in the affected parts characterize Merc.

16. Agile: Merc is basically an‘active’ group. We get rapid development of symptoms leading to destruction. When active disease processes are present, Merc group is indicated. It is less indicated for remnants or for exhaustion stage. That work is allotted to other groups like Carbon etc. Usually full-blown acute or chronic diseases are found in Merc group because of increased sensitivity and susceptibility.

17. Chaotic: The aberrant immune response as expressed in autoimmune disorders give the character of chaos. Under severe infection, the system becomes prey and behaves in an eccentric way. Tubercular miasma actively dominates the scene. The agile character allows the system to go into chaos.

18. Debilitated: The sway of disease processes under tubercular and syphilitic miasmatic activities depletes the energy. The system can’t continue for long and succumbs. Anemia, malnourishments add to the state of debility. Discharges produced do not ameliorate and further deplete the energy.

19. Syphilitic: Merc and syphilis are knot together since antiquity. Merc has in its pathogenesis all stages of syphilis-primary, secondary and tertiary. Low states and phagadenic condition from syphilitic poison. Destructive effects on nerves. It covers both acute and chronic phases. Discharges which system develops as defense do not help and syphilitic march is continued.

Merc group is an active group and hence must be considered in all inflammatory processes characterized by suppuration. But once Merc action has been over, (for example in a case of an abscess), it is better to follow with either a constitutional remedy or a nosode. Sul is a liaison remedy to complement Merc.

Merc group resembles Acid group as far as inflammation and destruction is concerned. But Acid group is more debilitated. ‘Struggle followed by exhaustion’ is the theme with Acid group. In Merc group struggle is an active process. Fight is the theme and it is continued till decomposition occurs. But if this state appears, better to go to Carbon group of remedies.

Merc group should be compared with Spider group. This group is slyer, nervier and has more loss of control.

Previously Merc was used for all and sundry as a medicine. Now antibiotics and steroids are used. Now we don’t get Mercurialised constitutions to treat homeopathically. But it is necessary to note that modern man is using Mercury more than his predecessors. And it needs to be antidoted by our potentised Mercury.

Analogical relationship 

  1. A poor conductor of heat but a fair conductor of electricity.
  2. Atom shows the unstable quick reaction; changes its physical state quickly and  possesses extraordinary mobility.
  3. Low melting and boiling point; reacts to changes of temperature and atmospheric   pressure.
  4. Mercury has affinity for the liquid sphere and left to itself it assumes the form of  any liquid, the drop, which at the slightest instance, due to lack of adhesion and liability of inner coherence separates into innumerable droplets, restlessly moving about in every direction.
  5. Solubility of mercury is directly proportional to availability of NaCl; NaCl enhances Mercury solubility.
  6. Mercury is heaviest of all known liquids, weighing 13.6 times as an equal volume  of water (1litre bottle of Hg weighs more than a bucket of water).
  7. Its power of cohesion is extremely great but its adhesion to its surroundings is  poor. Neither grasped like a solid and doesn’t stick like liquid and retains its own shape.
  8. Takes up and dissolves all metals such as gold, silver, tin etc. with the exceptions of iron in solutions called amalgams.
  9. A bizarre substance; cold and elusive, always restless; but when still, it is better   than a mirror to see into.
  10. Due to its solubility in lipids, Mercury has a tendency to concentrate in nervous    tissue and particularly the brain which is extremely sensitive to mercury.
  11. Mercury switches are used in automatic control and measuring instruments as  they ensure instantaneous opening and closing of electrical circuits.
  12. Hg dissolves metals as water dissolves salt.

Interpretation in MM 

  1. Present erratic pattern of disease process. Established pathologies run rapidly.
  2. Unstable mind and body, imaginations run riot. Exaggeration of complaints. Wants   to travel.
  3. Human Barometer. Increased susceptibility and sensitivity. Changeability.
  4. Vacillating.
  5. Unstable at maintaining relations. Restless. Can go to any extreme under emotional dominance.
  6. Both Mercury and Natrum salts are related to ‘liquid state’ and hence catarrhal.
  7. Mercury is furtherance of Natrum presenting suppuration and thick discharges.
  8. Merc compliments Natrum and is an acute of it. Mentally Nat anger may go into
  9. Merc rage.
  10. Heavy to deal with both from personality and disease point of view. Presents deep   acting, syphilitic pathogenesis. Discharges are thick and suppurating.
  11. A leader who coheses the mass but can’t maintain close I.P.R. (Inter-personal Relationship) of harmony owing to elusive, detached and chameleon attributes.
  12. Odd, clumsy, restless and difficult to unfold; full- blown disease portrait helps  click the remedy.
  13. Presents “Mercurial erethism”- profound and characteristic disturbance of   nervous system and mind.
  14. Instantaneous, quick to act. A trifle can provoke out of proportion response.
  15. When open; aggressive, dictatorial; when closed; timid, shy, easily embarrassed.
  16. Mercury almost dissolves the personality of others with its dictatorship, divide  and rule policy.

Use of ICT In Teaching – Learning & Evaluation

Prof. D N Sansanwal 

Gurukul System of Education was in vogue in India. The main characteristics of Gurukul System were dedicated and knowledgeable teachers, individualized and learner centre teaching, and self-motivated students eager to learn. This system changed due to increase in number of students. Consequently, the number of teachers increased. Some teachers are born but rests of them have to be given rigorous training so as to develop required competency to become a teacher.

Teachers have been conscious about the quality of their teaching. To enhance the quality, some teachers use teaching aids, like, charts, models – static & working, specimen, slides, etc. because teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids. It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A – V Aids during teaching. The use of A – V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated persons becoming teachers.

Central Government realized the need of improving quality of education through the use of Television wherein most competent teacher teaches the topic with the help of most appropriate teaching aids. This helped in improving the quality of teaching in schools having no teacher to teach the subject, less competent teacher, schools having poor or no facility of teaching aids, etc. Programmes offered through television were produced by different State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) in different languages. Even the Video Instructional Materials were produced and made available to teachers; still majority of schools did not make use of them. Some of the reasons were no facility of TV and VCR, no electricity, TV and VCR not in working condition, not incorporated in the time table, lack of initiation on the part of teacher and Principal, etc. Along with A – V Aids, the print media has to go a long way in improving the quality of teaching and learning. Format in which the textbooks were written was not beneficial for teachers and students. Researchers started thinking and using different Theories of Learning for developing Instructional Material. This gives birth to Programmed Learning Material based on Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning. Programmed Learning Materials were compared with that of Lecture Method or Conventional Method. Programmed Learning Material alone as well as in combination with other methods for teaching different subjects was found to be effective in terms of achievement of students (Bhushan, 1973; Dewal, 1974; Pandya, 1974; Shitole, 1976; Kuruvilla, 1977; Patel, 1977; Sodhi, 1977; Verma, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mullick, 1979; Parlikar, 1979; Shah, 1979; Pandey, 1980; Seshadri, 1980; Shah, 1980; Trivedi, 1980; Inamdar, 1981; Man, 1981; Mavi, 1981; Suthar, 1981; Davies, 1982; Ravindranath, 1982; Menon, 1984; Choudhary, 1985; Gautam, 1986; Joshi, 1988; Thaker, 1993; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; Pandit, 2003; Dubey, 2004 & Kaur, 2005). PLM was found to be as effective as Structured Lecture Method in terms of achievement of students (Chandrakala, 1976; Govinda, 1976). Lecture Method was found more effective than Demonstration Method and Programmed Learning Method (Ghetiya, 1999). Also students expressed favourable opinion towards PLM (Govinda, 1976; Chauhan, 1973; Kuruvilla, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mavi, 1981; Davies, 1982; Menon, 1984; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; and Kaur, 2005). In addition to it, the developed Instructional Material was found to be significantly effective in enhancing creativity (Sharma, 1995), in developing better understanding about environment (Sharma, 2005) and in enhancing Reading Skills amongst students (Danikhel, 1998) and Reasoning amongst students (Suri, 2002). The findings of researches were in favour of Programmed Learning Material (PLM). The PLMs are no more in use because the development of PLM is tedious as well as costly and time consuming. The format of PLM has under gone a change along with name. Consequently, Modules were developed in particular format. At present, the Print Instructional Materials used in different Programmes offered by Open Universities are in Module format. All above mention efforts could not improve the quality of teaching to the level of satisfaction of teachers, students, parents and other stakeholders. Search is on for most effective tools to be used by teachers for quality education. 

The lust for quality is still on. This is the age of INFORMATION dominated by the Digital Technology. The Digital Technology has influenced all aspects of human life. Education is not an exception. Now the technology is in the process of change from Digital to Photon. Shortly Photonic Technology will be available for the use of the society. At present majority of devices are based on Digital Technology. One such device is Computer. The Computer is an electronic device that has the capacity to store, retrieve & process both qualitative & quantitative information fast and accurately. The computers were never developed for improving quality of teaching – learning process. But researchers started using Computers for teaching purpose. It gave birth to Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Computer Based Instruction (CBI), etc. People started developing CAI for teaching different subjects at School as well as Higher Education level. The developed CAIs were compared with the Lecture Method / Traditional Method and found that the developed CAIs were significantly superior to Lecture Method / Traditional Method in teaching different subjects (Hayes, 1987; Perkins, 1987; Cates, 1988; Cohen, 1988; Karvelis, 1988; Lawson, 1988; Yates, 1988; Bonk, 1989; Conlin, 1989; Drexell, 1989; Fillingim, 1989; Isler-Hamilies, 1989; Koza, 1989; and Prabhakar, 1995)  Further, the Traditional method of Teaching was found to be more effective in comparison to CAI (Hulick, 1987; Oates, 1988; Cosmos, 1988; Benson, 1989; Park, 1990; and Clem, 1990). The Model of Supplemental CAI was found to be effective in improving educable mentally handicapped students’ achievement in Mathematics and Spelling (Ankney, 1987). Language Impaired Children benefited from written format, like, dialogue with a computer (Ward, 1987). Setting goals, following instructions, accessing information to accomplish the task, and evaluating performance benefited students with learning disabilities when they were engaged with CAI activities (McPherson, 1991). Older Adults successfully used the computer and were able to improve their knowledge about Health with a CAI lesson (McNeely, 1988). CAI was effective in Language acquisition (Edfelt, 1989) and teaching abbreviation (Edward, 1989). CAI had a positive impact on reading comprehension for average reader but not for learning disabled readers (Trahan, 1989). CAI, Tutorial Retrieval Text, and Programmed Lecture were equally effective in promoting learning (Whitakar, 1990). Use of software improved achievement in learning calculus and did not cause damaging effects when access was denied (Cunningham, 1991).  CAI was found to be effective in terms of achievement of Science Process Skills (Vensel, 1988), in increasing Meta-cognitive Writing Skills (Bonk et al., 1989), in teaching reference skills to seventh grade students (Driscoll, 1990), in increasing the rate of the acquisition of School Readiness Skills of pre-school children (Legenhausen, 1991) and in improving writing skill (Powell-Hart, 1992). In spite of benefit of CAI in different aspects of learning, CAI has not entered into the Classrooms as most of the developed CAIs were not based on sound Theories of Learning. People involved in developing CAI were not having the sound base of Instructional Design. Secondly, the courses are changing, the schools also do not have sufficient computer facility, teachers are not trained in the use of CAI, etc. The use of Computers was not only for teaching but also for Psychological Testing, Evaluation; database Management, Library Management, etc.   

Networking of computers gave birth to Information Technology (IT). UNESCO considered Information Technology as “Scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and management techniques used in information handling and processing, their application, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and associated social, economical and cultural matters”. According to Smith & Cambell (1982), a mosaic of technologies, products and techniques have combined to provide new electronic dimensions to information management. This mosaic is known by the name of Information Technology. OECD (1987) treated Information Technology as “a term – used to cover technologies used in the collection, processing and transmission of information. It includes micro-electronic and info-electronic based technologies incorporated in many products and production processes and increasingly affecting the service sector. It covers inter alias computers, electronic office equipment, telecommunication, industrial robot and computer controlled machine, electronic components and software products.”

Darnton and Giacoletto (1992) defined IT as the systematic study of artifacts that can be used to give form or description to facts in order to provide meaning or support for decision making, and artifacts that can be used for the organization, processing, communication and application of information. Sansanwal (2000) defined IT as the use of hardware and software for efficient management of information, i.e storage, retrieval, processing, communication, diffusion and sharing of information for social, economical and cultural upliftment.

The Information Technology leads to development of Websites. Government, Corporate sector, educational institutions, etc. started uploading the information on their websites. It provides facilities for Chat, e-mail, surfing, etc. It opens up a new source of information which increased the limitation of access to information. Prior to IT, people were using only the print material for searching the information. It limited the search. This limitation has been overcome by the IT.

IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with ease and fast. But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any other media is also to be transmitted to the users. Thus, the ICT = IT + Other media. It has opened new avenues, like, Online learning, e-learning, Virtual University, e-coaching, e-education, e-journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in imparting information fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can access it anywhere. It will be cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. It has broken the monotony and provided variety in the teaching – learning situation. The ICT being latest, it can be used both at school and higher education levels in the following areas:

  • Teaching
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Remedial Teaching
  • Evaluation
  • Psychological Testing
  • Development of Virtual Laboratory
  • Online Tutoring
  • Development of Reasoning & Thinking
  • Instructional Material Development 

Teaching at School as well as Higher Education, mostly, concentrates on giving information which is not the sole objective of Teaching. Along with giving information, the other objectives are:

  • developing understanding and application of the concepts
  • developing expression power
  • developing reasoning and thinking power
  • development of judgment and decision making ability
  • improving comprehension, speed and vocabulary
  • developing self-concept and value clarification
  • developing proper study habits
  • developing tolerance and ambiguity, risk taking capacity, scientific temper, etc.  

With the present infrastructure, class size, availability of teachers, quality of teachers, training of teachers, etc., it is difficult to achieve all the objectives. Further, most of the teachers use Lecture Method which does not have potentiality of achieving majority of above mentioned objectives. The objectives are multi-dimensional in nature, so for their achievement multiple methods should be used in an integrated fashion. At present ICT may be of some use. It is a well known fact that not a single teacher is capable of giving up to date and complete information in his own subject. The ICT can fill this gap because it can provide access to different sources of information. It will provide correct information as comprehensive as possible in different formats with different examples. ICT provides Online interaction facility. Students and teachers can exchange their ideas and views, and get clarification on any topic from different experts, practitioners, etc. It helps learners to broaden the information base. ICT provides variety in the presentation of content which helps learners in concentration, better understanding, and long retention of information which is not possible otherwise. The learners can get opportunity to work on any live project with learners and experts from other countries. The super highway and cyber space also help in qualitative improvement of Teaching – Learning Process. ICT provides flexibility to learners which is denied by the traditional process and method. Flexibility is a must for mastery learning and quality learning.

On INTERNET many websites are available freely which may be utilized by teachers and students for understanding different concepts, improving vocabulary, developing Reasoning & Thinking, etc. ICT can help in preparing students for SAT, GRE, TOEFL, etc.

The common observation is that the quality of teaching in the classroom is on the decline. More and more students are depending on the private tutorial classes. The private tuition also has become a business. This phenomenon is not only in India but in other countries too. There are about 800 students from USA who have enrolled themselves for Private tuition in Mathematics. It means tuitions are also being outsourced. This is being done through the use of ICT. There are students who fail to understand certain concepts or retain certain information. This can be assessed by introducing the diagnosis in the process of teaching – learning. Today, t  his is not being done. The reasons might be large class size, non-availability of diagnostic tests in different subjects, lack of training, money and desire on the part of teacher, etc. This is the age of technology. These difficulties can be easily over come with the help of ICT. Sansanwal (2005) developed Computer Based Diagnostic Testing in Mathematics and Sansanwal and Lulla (2007) developed Computer Based Diagnostic Testing in Chemistry. Both these were tried out in CBSE affiliated schools situated in Indore. These developed Computer Based Diagnostic Tests work well and helped the teachers as well as students in identifying the gray area of each and every student. This can be put on the website of the school and the student can access it from home also. The student can prepare the topic / chapter and can take the test to find exactly what he has not understood? The teacher cannot do this manually. The student progress can be monitored and his performance can be improved. This will develop confidence in students and may change their attitude towards the subject. It may also help in reducing the suicidal tendency among students. Students may start enjoying learning. Further, the following are the main advantages of Computer Based Diagnostic Test.

  • They do not require any special setting or arrangement. The only requirement is computer systems and software.
  • The student can use it even from home if made available on school website.
  • They do not need any special assistance from teacher. Unlike the paper-pencil test, it does not require paper setting and paper correction on the part of the teacher.
  • It saves time on the part of the teacher and students.
  • The feedback is given immediately after the test is over, which gives an intrinsic reinforcement to the student.
  •  The student finds it more interesting and motivating as compared to the paper-pencil diagnostic test.
  • It can be updated from time to time.
  • It is economical in terms of money as it requires only one time investment.

There are some limitations of Computer Based Diagnostic Testing (CBDT). These are as follows:

  • The learner might find it uninteresting or monotonous as compared to paper pencil test.
  •  The teacher might find CBDT difficult to administer if he / she is not a computer savvy.
  • It faces certain constraints, like, power cut, when it is being administered.
  • The learner might not take it seriously as he / she is used to the traditional paper and pencil tests.
  • The development of CBDT is costly and tedious as compared to paper and pencil test.
  •  The use of CBDT requires many computers which may not be available in all the schools.
  • The learners who are not computer friendly might not feel at ease while giving the test on Computer.
  • Certain technical problems might crop up which can distract the learner while giving the test.
  • All teachers may not be competent to develop diagnostic test and especially CBDT.
    • Teacher may not know computer languages that may be used for developing CBDT.

Once the ICT is used for diagnosis purpose, the next step is to organize Remedial Teaching Programme. The Remedial Teaching can be done by the teacher if some common mistakes are identified. It may not be feasible to organize Remedial programme for individual students. At this point, the ICT can be used for giving individual Remedial Programme. It may be Online or off line. The instructional material if designed specifically for meeting the individual needs of students and uploaded on the School website and then the ICT can be used for providing Remedial teaching Programme. 

At present the paper pencil tests are conducted for evaluating the academic performance of students. These tests are conducted in the group setting. The content coverage is poor and students cannot use them at their own. These tests are evaluated by the teachers and they may not give feedback immediately to each and every student. It may be due to this that students are unable to know their weakness and do not make any attempt to improve upon them. The ICT can be made use in the evaluation. One such attempt has been made by Sansanwal and Dahiya (2006) who developed Computer Based Test in Research Methodology and Statistics. It has been titled as Test your Understanding: Research Methods and Statistics. This test can be used by individual student to evaluate his learning. The student can instantaneously get the feedback about the status of his understanding. If the answer is wrong, he even can get the correct answer. It goes a long way in improving the learning and teacher has no role to play in it. It is left up to students to use it. Such tests can be uploaded on the website for wider use. The students from other institutes can also make use of it. Not only the students even the teachers can also use it to assess their own understanding of the subject. If used by teachers before teaching the topic, they can prepare the topic properly. Such software can be used for internal assessment. Thus, ICT can be used to improve the quality of pre as well as in-service teacher’s training.

There are individual differences. Through research some correlates of academic achievement have been studied. Rarely this information is used by school / college teachers. Many of them even do not know about such researches. Even if they know, they do not make use of it at the time of forming the groups for different academic activities. One of the major reasons is that the school / college does not have a trained psychologists who can assess the students on some of the correlates of academic achievement. Further, the psychological testing is laborious and involves money and time. Even the appropriate psychological tests are not available. This is the age of digital technology. It can be used to digitalize all the psychological tests including the scoring and evaluation. The same may be available on the website and students and teachers can use them whenever required. Even student can use it individually and can share the result with the teacher who can help the student to improve his academic performance. The digitalized psychological tests will be easy to use and economical also. Thus ICT can be used in psychological testing also.  

The students understand better, if they do some practical related to the concept. It makes learning easy and interesting. Laboratory helps in developing scientific temper. But the fact is that practical are not done by each student in each school. There are many schools which do not have laboratory. Sometime if laboratory is available, the instrument is not available. The students are not given freedom to do experiments at their own. Some good schools have laboratories all classes right from class I to XII. They allow students to play with the material available in the laboratory under the supervision of teacher. The teachers also make use of laboratories during their teaching. At higher level, the schools are asked not have practical where in animals are used. Animals based practicals are done in Biology. In short, there are many restrictions under which the students have to work in the laboratory. Now it is possible to have Virtual laboratory. Once the Virtual Laboratory is developed, it can provide lots of freedom to students. The students can manipulate any attribute or variable related to the experiment and can see how it affects the outcome. Suppose a student wants to study the factors that can affect the focal length of a mirror. At present in the real laboratory, the student cannot manipulate many variables that he thinks might be related. But Virtual laboratory can provide lots of freedom to the student. That is, student can take different types and shapes of objects, change the distance between mirror and object to any extent, change the thickness of the mirror, etc. and can see how such attributes affect the focal length of the mirror. The Virtual Laboratory can be developed using ICT. It may be made available at the door step of each and every students by uploading it on the Website. Further each country can think of developing science Website which should give access to Virtual Laboratory and it must be free of cost. Such a Website will not only help Indian students but can go a long way in helping students of Underdeveloped and developing countries.

The digital technology has broken the foundries between countries. Human beings do not feel any type of restriction in communicating with people all over the globe. The access has become easy. It is a well known fact that all students do not understand all subjects to the same extent. Some students find subjects, like, Mathematics, Physics, English, Chemistry, Accountancy, etc. difficult. All educational institutions do have well equipped laboratories and qualified & competent Faculty. Consequently students do feel the need of academic support out of the school. Therefore, students go for tuition. These days students from USA & other countries are enrolled in private tuition classes in India. That is they are being taught Online. This has become possible only due to ICT. In Online tutoring the student stays at his home. He logs in to his tutor through the use of Internet and software. He can see the teacher who is in India and the teacher can see the student who is in USA. The student asks the question and teacher replies it by writing on soft board or using power point presentation. This interaction is normally one to one. It has made the academic life of many students easy. This is how the manpower available in India can be made use of other countries. Not only Online Tutoring but some of the students do outsource their assignments. These assignments are completed by the teachers of other country. Of course, academically it is not correct because the purpose of giving assignment is not achieved. The student does not develop academically and he may become weak in the subject. All this is happening just because of ICT.      

Web Based Instruction (WBI) can be developed with the help of ICT.  According to WBT Information Centre (1997), Web Based Instruction (WBI) is an innovative approach to distance learning in which computer based training (CBT) is transformed by the technologies and methodologies of the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet and Intranets. WBI presents content in a structure format that allowing self-directed, self-paced instruction on any topic. WBI is media rich learning fully capable of evaluation, adaptation and remediation, all independent of computer platform.

Ron Kurtus (1998) states that, in its strictest sense, Web Based Training (WBT) is the communication of information over the WWW or Web with the objective of instructing or training the user. WBT is actually is in the form of Computer Based Training (CBT) that uses the Web or company intranet as the delivery medium instead of using disks or CD-ROMs. Both CBT and WBT are part of a larger classification called Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) that includes such communication forms as Online manuals and Windows Help.

Sansanwal and Nawayot (2001) defined Web Based Instruction as a hypermedia-based instructional programme that utilizes the attributes and resources of the WWW to create a meaningful learning environment where learning is fostered and supported.

Sansanwal and Nawayot (2001) developed WBI for facilitating the Reasoning ability of people. It was a website hosted for three weeks and 72 people belonging to countries, like, Australia, Africa, America, France, Germany, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand and UK visited the developed website. Out of 72 visitors, 55 took the pretest and 45 took both pretest and posttest. The reason of not taking the test was that the WBI was in English and visiting people did not know English. So language can be the barrier in WBI. The WBI was found to be effective in facilitating Reasoning Ability amongst people belonging to different countries and age group. The WBI can be developed in other subjects too. It will provide variety of Instructional Material to students and they can choose that suits them best. This will improve the academic standard. The WBI for developing Reasoning and Thinking will be very helpful for human beings belonging to different countries and age. This is important in the present context as most of the Educational Institutions do not pay attention to development of Reasoning & Thinking. They do not have any period in the time table for Reasoning and Thinking. These abilities once develop can help individual for solving the day-to-day problems. On the whole it will improve the quality of life. Thus, ICT can be used for developing WBI for facilitating Reasoning and Thinking. 

At present there is a shortage of qualified and competent teachers in all most all subjects at all levels. Not only this, even the instructional material available in the print form is not of quality. This is because many authors have written on those topics that they have never read and / or done research. Sometime the information given in the books is also wrong. The book reading is not very enjoyable and does not help students in understanding the concepts and retaining the information. There are many teachers who are well known for the specific subject. Their lectures should be digitalized and made available to all the users. It will enhance the quality of instruction in the classrooms. The teacher can use them in the classrooms and can organize discussion after it wherein the new points can be added both by the teacher as well as students. It will make the teaching effective, participatory and enjoyable. Sansanwal (2006) has done this. Sansanwal has developed digitalized lectures on Research Methodology and Statistics and has used it for teaching this subject at master’s level. Other researchers are also using it. Of course, digitalized lectures will have their limitations of revision and inbuilt interaction. These lectures can be uploaded on any website and students & teachers can access any lecture they like.

Another form of digitalized lectures is e – content. The CEC is making efforts to develop e – content material in different subjects for the benefit of diverse users. The competent teachers can develop e – content in their own areas of specialization. This has lots of potentiality to bring quality in teacher education. The ICT can be used in developing Instructional Material and e-Content.


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Prof. D N Sansanwal
Ex Director, School of Education
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore

Tests of Immunological Function with Interpretation

Baseline investigations include full blood count and white cell differential count , acute phase reactants (CRP), renal and liver function tests, urine dipstick and serum immunoglobulins with protein electrophoresis.

Additional microbiological, virological and radiological tests may be appropriate. At this stage it is often clear which category of immune deficiency is being considered

The important serological reactions are:

  1. Precipitation test
  2. Agglutination test
  3. Compliment fixation test
  4. Neutralization test
  5. Opsonisation
  6. Immunofluorescence
  7. Radio immuno assay (RIA)
  8. Enzyme linked immuno assay (EIA)
  9. Immunoelectroblot

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Homoeopathy Medicines from Ferrum Group

lab6Ferrum or Iron is most abundant element on the earth after oxygen, silicon  and aluminium. It is  supposed that human beings  started  to work on meteorite  iron earlier  than with other metals. Iron ores not found in the  pure form but in the compounds  form mainly  iron oxide.

The word   Ferrum  coming  from Latin means,  “insensitive tough, hard,  inflexible,  heavy”.

In the periodic  table Iron is described as transition metal

  • Symbol – Fe
  • Group – Eight
  • Series – 4 (ferrum Series)
  • Atomic no – 26
  • Atomic wt – 56 amu.

General Uses

1) It is used for the manufacture of tools, weapons, machines, vehicles, furnitures, nails  screws etc.

2) It has been  combined with all sorts of elements  to form alloys,  steel, which are of different  varieties  and grades.

Ferrum  is one of the  prominent  constituents  of animal body, being  present in considerable  quantity in blood and hence iron has great  importance in human nutrition.

Iron is component  of haemoglobin , myoglobin, cytochromes, catalase, peroxidase and certain other enzyme system. As a part of these haeme complexes and enzymes  the function of iron  in the body is O2 transport and cellular  respiration. Iron deficiency also impair immune response.

The body of an  adult human contain 3-4 gm (4.2 gm) of Fe and 75% of this  found in blood. Small part found in myoglobin.

Fe is  considered as  a trace element  and daily requirement.

  • Adult man – 10 mg/day
  • Woman     – 18 mg/day
  • Children – 20-25 mg/day
  • Pregnancy – 40 mg/day

Sources of Iron
Animal sources are not only important  sources  of readily available iron but they also increase  the absorbability of iron in plant  food at the same time iron from animal foods is absorbed well than that from  vegetable  sources.

Eg : Liver,  Kidney, meat, fish and eggs. Milk is a poor source of iron.

Plant sources are good source of iron but availability  of iron from plant source is low due to  presence of phytates  and oxalates  which interfere with iron  absorption.

Eg : green leafy vegetable, cereals ,pulses,  onions,  grapes, nuts, oil seeds, jaggery etc.

Absorption of iron  takes place in the duodenum  and upper SI. Animal  protein  and Vit C  enhance  Fe absorption while phytates and oxalates  retard  it.

Hypochromic microcytic  anaemia  most commonly occurs in growing  children, ,menstruating  and pregnant  woman. Those who  suffer from parasitic  diseases such as hook worm and malaria.  

Ferrum group of Medicine  in Homoeopathy (Boericke)

  • Ferrum met
  • Ferrum phos
  • Ferrum picricum
  • Ferrum lodatum
  • Ferrum magneticum 

Rare and uncommon

  • Ferrum aceticum
  • Ferrum arsenicum
  • Ferrum  bromatum
  • Ferrum citricum
  • Ferrum cyanatum
  • Ferrum muriaticum
  • Ferrum  permetricum
  • Ferrum protoxalatum
  •  Ferrum  pyrophos
  • Ferrum sulph
  • Ferrum tartaricum

1.Iron is the strongest and stable metal. As it is stronger and stable the ferrum  personalities are solid, stable resolute and firmly fixed in faith.

2.Iron when heated becomes red hot. Ferum personalities. Can’t bear  contradiction (<opposition).

3.At a very high temperature, iron changes its  physical form. In the  same way ferrum shows a peculiar character of changeability.

4.Iron  has the  tendency of getting  corroded (rust) In the  same way they show deficiency of iron in their  system leading  to anaemia.


Blood – Iron has a specific  action upon the  blood, producing  a decrease of the albumin and an increase of water in the serum at the same time diminishing  RBC.

Temperature – Raise the temperature  both in health and disease.

Spleen – Atrophy and loss of function

Digestive  organs – Irritation  of mucus  membrane.

Teeth – destruction of enamel

Kidney – fathy degeneration  and albuminria.

Elimination – through  mucus membrane

Characteristic  Features of Ferrum Group


Suited to weak, anaemic persons  with irregular  distribution of blood  and great pallor  of lips and mucus membrane.

Anaemia under the mask of plethora and congestion  Sanguine temperament,

 Grauvogl’s oxygenoid  constitution

Psora and tubercular miasm.

Haemorrhagic diathesis.


All Ferrum are

a. Solid, stable, resolute, sturdy and determined

They believe  in reality and are very firmly supported Ferrum shows quality   of being  firm in purpose or action.

b. All ferrum  shows perseverance and persistence

c. Irritability  – All ferrum shows  irritability which leads to exertion and anger, which arouses their fighting  spirit  but soon after  they become  fearful and exhausted  draw away from any kind of conflict. Irritable, and easily annoyed.

d. They can’t tolerate  any kind of opposition, resistance or obstacle < by any obstacle in their way which leads to depletion  and prostration.

e. Ambitious – Having their own ambitions and desires, shows eager  desire to succeed to achieve  power, wealth  and fame. If not achieved it leads to weakness and exhaustion.

f. Changeable

g. Require some kind of support  for their firmness and strength. Always want sympathy. Have nostalgic character.

h. Moral:-  have good conduct, good morals and are stubborn in their course of action.

Shows hardness and strength : remain streadfast and  resolute.  Shows little mercy and very strong in giving hard judgements.

i. They are very strict, shrewed,  obstinate and practical 

j. Ferrum people will never bend or break,  though  they will gradually  rust away becoming anaemic and emaciated.

k. Ferrum personalities  have often been beaten is their childhood. This had made them very weary, they are  constantly on their guard.

3. Characteristic Physical symptoms

1.Easily bleeding tendency /haemorrhagic diathesis

Bleeding general – Ferrmet, Ferrars, Ferriod ,Ferrum mur, Ferrphos.

Blood Does not coagulate  – Ferr met, Ferrum mur, Ferr phos.

2. Anaemic  and chloritic condition , chlorosis and secondaring anaemia due to bleeding tendencies.

3. Marked congestion and relaxation of tissues.

Excitability of circulation is irregular . There is a change  between irritability in circulation and weakness. There exists  a tendency of blood to rush from which the  face changes from pallor to fiery red. FALSE PLETHORA

4.All type of menstrual  irregularity

5.Most of the ferrums are right  sided.

6.Weakness & Restleness.

Weakness even from talking, prostration with irregular  and rapid pulse. Exertion tires and fatigues  when keeping  still, must keep limbs moving.

7.Restless  sleep from frightful, unpleasant and anxious dreams

Ferrmet – Anxious tossing of nemerus dreams

Ferr iod – Dreams of thieves and fighting with them.

Ferr phos – Dreams of quarelling.

8.Thermal reaction – Predominently chilly

Ferrmet and Ferr ars – Chilly

Ferr iod – hot

9.Edema of both internal and External

10. Hyperpyrexia of various types

Ferr phos – All catarrhal and inflammatory fevers – Ist stage

Ferrars – continued fever with enlarged spleen.

Ferr met  – fever with shivering  of short  duration. Shivering  in the evening  or night  with violent  thirst. Chill with thirst and red  hot face. Dry  heat which  throw off all the covering  and followed by perspiration.

 11.All ferrum  show marked  action on digestion

  Which is  weak and exhausted to drugs and food particles cold and allergens.

12.Vomiting after eating and drinking  and vomiting of pregnancy.

13. Specific action over the liver and spleen, causes their enlargement

Spleen enlarged – Ferrars, ferriod, ferrmet, ferr mur, Ferr phos  Ferr acet.

Liver enlarged – Ferrars , ferriod, ferr met, Ferr phos

14.Aversion to meat and aggravation from meat

But desire for meat – Ferr met and ferr mur.

15. Rheumatic complaints

Rheumation of shoulder especially  right.

16.Pain – Rheumatic, stitching and tearing pains

17. General < From Rest, Rapid movement , night by opposition.

                   > gentle movement,  warm food.

18. General paralytic  weakness with difficulty of movement and relaxation of the muscle. 

19.Profuse cold perspiration  from slightest  exertion and perspiration aggravate the general weakness.

Ferrum wants  everything  in moderate  quantity (hence they are called Mr. Moderator)

Moderate weather, food and movements

Characteristic features of Individual drugs


  • Mind – Irritable, slight noises are unbearable, over sensitiveness. Excited from slightest opposition.
  • Head ache in the back of head with rearing (throbbing) in the neck.
  • Vertigo on seeing flowing water
  • Face fiery red and flushed from least pain, and motion or exertion, Red part becomes bloodless, white and puffy. false plethora
  • Pain in teeth, relieved  by icy cold water.
  • Voracious appetite  or absolute  loss of appetite. Spits up food by the mouthful. Vomiting  immediately after eating. Vomiting  after mednight.  Intolerance  of eggs. Vomiting  as soon as food is  eaten, leaves  table suddenly and with one effort  vomits everything  eaten,  can set down  and eat again.
  • Diarrhoea, painless, undigested at night after eating  and drinking with good appetite.
  • Menses – too early, prefuse, long lasting with ferry red face, flow pale, watery and debiting.
  • Cough only in the day time (Euphs) > by lying down > by eating ( spong)
  • Anaemic  murmer. Pulse full, soft and yielding  also small and weak. Heart  contracts suddenly filling the blood  vessels and then  suddenly draws a reflux resulting in pallor.
  • Rheumatism of shoulder, Lumbago better  by walking slowly.
  • Fever General coldness of extremities. Chill at 4 am.
  • Modalities < setting sweating  after cold washing  and over heating  midnight.

                 > Walking slowly after rising.

Remedy for the first stage of all febrile  disturbances and inflammations before exudations sets in especially for catarrhal affections of the respiratory tract.

Clinical–  Bronchitis in young  children. In acute exacerbation of TB, a fine  palliative with wonderful  result.

Head-Sore to touch cold, noise and far. Ill effects of sun (sunstroke) Headache better by cold applications.

  • First  stage of otitis, cold,  tonsillitis, peritonitis, dysentery, chest conditions,  of cardiac diseases.
  • Vomiting of undigested  food, haematemesis, sour cructationes
  • Diurnal enuresis
  • Menses every 3 weeks with bearing  down and pain on the top of head.
  • Chest- Ist stage of any inflammatory condition. Expectoration of pure blood in  pneumonia.
  • Heart  Ist stage of cardiac disease. Pulse,  quick short and soft.
  • Articular rheumation. Rheumatic pain in shoulder pain extends to chest and wrist.
  • Sleep Restless and sleepless. Anxious dreams. Night  sweats of anaemia.
  • Fever catarrhal and inflammatory fevers, first stage  chill daily at 1 pm.

Great remedy to complete the action of other  medicines.

  • Failure of the function of an organ under  exertion Eg : the voice  fails  after  public speaking.
  • Acts best in dark  haired patients  plethoric with sensitive  livers.
  • Warts and epithelial  growth, corns with yellowish  discolouration.
  • Senile  hypertrophy of prostrate. Frequent micturiction  at  night  with a full feeling  and pressure  in the rectum. Smarting at the neck of bladder& penis (barosma crenulatum).
  • Epistaxis, chronic deafness and tinnitus  due to gout
  • Pseudo leukaemia.


  • Scrofulous affections, glandular enlargements and tumours call for his remedy.
  • A/C  nephirtis  after eruptive  disease. Impertigo,  boils
  • Urine  dark, sweet, smelling (diabetes). Crawling sensation in the urethra& rectum.
  • Uterine displacements. On sitting as if  something was pressed upwards in the vagina.
  • Exophthalmic goiter from suppression of menses


  • Small wa
  • Wrts on hands.
  • Pain in  nape of neck, paralytic weaknessà Abdomen movements, grumbling in the abdomen. Loose evacuation with much flalutulence,  esp on left side with pulling  pain in legs. Abundant and frequent  emission of foetid flatus.


  • Clinical – P. Anaemia, chlorosis, Bright’s disease
  • Enlargement  of spleen and liver
  • Enlarged spleen with high fever (Ferr iod, if no fever)


  • Sticky, excoriating  leucorrhoea, uterus  heavy and prolapsed, scalp feels numb.


  • Basedow’s disease , Erethism
  • Acidity, eructation of food in mouthful
  • Watery and painless stools.
  • Pain in gall bladder
  • Menorrhagia ,pressing , throbbing  between  periods  with rush of blood  to head.