Pathology important questions and topics
DR CHAITANYA VAIDYA.
- General Pathology.
- Clinical pathology.
- Endocrine, GIT, Liver and Pancreas.
- CVS, Genitourinary, MSK and CNS.
- RS and malnutrition.
(TOTAL 190 important topics)
GENERAL PATHOLOGY: All General pathology topics to be studied with respect to Definition, Aetiology, Types, Pathogenesis, fate and correlation to Systemic pathology.
- Definition, Causes, Types
- Pathogenesis of ischaemic and hypoxic injury
- Effects of radiation: Mechanism of cell injury by ionizing radiation
- Pathogenesis of Ischaemia-Reperfusion injury
- Cellular adaptation: Atrophy, Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Metaplasia, Dysplasia
- Necrosis: Definition, Types, Aetiology, Morphology
- Apoptosis in physiologic and pathologic processes
- Gangrene: Definition, types , Aetiology, Morphologic features
- Hydropic change: Definition, aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology
- Hyaline change: Intracellular and extracellular hyaline examples
- Mucoid change: Epithelial and connective tissue mucin examples
- Fatty change in liver: Aetiology, Pathogenesis, Morphologic features
- Pathologic calcification: Dystrophic calcification, Metastatic calcification
- Definition, Causes, Signs, Types
- Acute inflammation: Vascular events, Cellular events
- Chemical mediators of inflammation: List of chemical mediators, Source, Functions of mediators
- Inflammatory cells: Functions
- Factors determining variation in inflammatory response
- Morphologic types of acute inflammation with examples
- Outcome of acute inflammation h. Systemic effects of acute inflammation
- Pyrexia: Definition, Pathogenesis
- Chronic inflammation: Definition, Causes, General features, Types.
- Giant cells: Types, Examples
- Granuloma: Definition, Pathogenesis, description
- Regeneration: Cell cycle and different types of cells
Wound Healing and Repair:
- Factors influencing wound healing
- Wound healing: Healing by First intention and Second intention
- Complications of wound healing
- Healing of Fracture, Nervous tissue, Muscle, Mucosal surface, Solid epithelial organ
Definition, Pathogenesis, Morphologic features of thrombi, Origin of thrombi-Cardiac, Arterial, Venous with examples, Differences between Arterial and Venous thrombi, Phlebothrombosis, Thrombophlebitis, Fate of thrombus.
Definition, Types Sources of arterial thromboembolism, Sources of venous thromboembolism Pulmonary thromboembolism: Definition, Aetiology, consequences Fat embolism, Air embolism, Decompression sickness, Amniotic fluid embolism, Atheroembolism, Tumour embolism.
Definition, Types of oedema Pathogenesis of oedema with examples of oedema by each mechanism Differences between transudate and exudates Renal oedema, Cardiac oedema, Pulmonary oedema, Cerebral oedema Differences between Nephrotic oedema and Nephritic oedema Cardiac oedema, Pulmonary oedema, Cerebral oedema.
Definition, Effects, Aetiology, Factors determining severity of ischaemic injury.
Definition, Aetiology, Effect of haemorrhage.
Definition ,Classification and Aetiology ,General pathogenesis of shock Stages of shock: Pathogenesis, effects Clinical features of shock Complications of shock Morphologic features of shock in organs.
Active hyperaemia: Definition, Examples Passive hyperaemia: Local venous congestion, Systemic venous congestion Morphology of CVC of organs: Liver, Lungs, Spleen, Kidney Infarction: Definition, Aetiology, Types Pathogenesis of process of infarction Gross and microscopic appearance of infarcts in different organs.
Definition, Classification, Pathogenesis of amyloidosis
Disorders of metabolism:
- Disorders of bilirubin metabolism
- Disorders of calcium metabolism
- Disorder of purine metabolism
- Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
- Disorders of lipid metabolism
Disorders of pigmentation:
- List of endogenous pigments and exogenous pigments
- Disorders of melanin pigmentation
- Inhaled pigments, Ingested pigments
- Injected pigments
Definition, Sources, Aetiology, Routes of transmission, Common hospital acquired infections.
Hyperlipidaemia and lipidosis:
Major classes of lipoproteins and their role.
- Cells of immune system
- Development of immune system
- T cells and Cell mediated immunity
- B cells and Humoral immunity
- The complement system
- Antigen: Definition, Types
- Antigenic determinant: Factors determining antigenicity
- Antibody: Definition, Functions
- Immunoglobulin: Definition, Classes, Functions
- Antigen-antibody reactions
- Characteristics of Ag-Ab reaction
- Precipitation reactions
- Agglutination reactions
- Hypersensitivity: Definition, Types, Mechanism of types of Hypersensitivity Reaction
- Immunodeficiency diseases: Definition, Types
- Primary immunodeficiency
- Secondary immunodeficiency
- Transplantation Blood group antigens & Blood transfusion reactions.
- Haemoglobin estimation. WBC count RBC count Differential count Blood group/BT/CT.
- Pap stain.
- Pap smear test.
- Coombs test.
- Sickling test and electrophoresis.
- Lab test findings in DIC (Disseminated intravascular coagulation.).
- Prothrombin time.
- Widal test.
- HIV diagnostic tests.
- Bone marrow aspiration.
- Benedicts test.
- Semen analysis.
- FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization).
- LFT (Liver function test).
- RFT (Renal function test).
- CSF analysis findings in different types of meningitis.
- Hematocrit. Packed cell volume.
- Glycosylated Hb.
- Exfoliative cytology.
- Megaloblastic anemia peripheral smear finding and bone marrow findings.
- Rh incompatibility.
- Heriditary spherocytosis.
- Bethesda system of reporting Cervical Smears.
- Types of Reed Sternberg giant cells.
- Philadelphia chromosome.
- Bence – Jones protein.
- Urine examination
- Physical properties.
- Chemical properties: i. Albumin ii. Blood iii. Glucose iv. Bile pigments v. Bile salts.
- Stool examination.
- Anaemia: Iron deficiency anaemia, Sideroblastic anaemia, Megaloblastic anaemia,Pernicious anaemia, Haemolytic anaemia, Aplastic anaemia,G6Pd defeciency
- Haemoglobinopathies: Sickle cell anaemia, Thalassaemia
- Leucocytosis, Leucopenia, Leukaemias
- Lymphomas(Hodgekin’s andNon Hodgekin’sLymphoma)
- Infectious Mononucleosis
- Bleeding Disorders: Thrombocytopenia. ITP, DIC,TTP
- Laboratory evaluation of Anaemias, leukaemias, Thrombocytopenia.
- Basic components of neoplasia
- Classification of tumours
- Characteristics of tumours
- Differences between Benign and malignant tumours
- Spread of tumours: Local invasion
- Metastasis: List routes of metastasis
- Grading of cancer & Staging of cancer
- Carcinogenesis: Basic concept of molecular pathogenesis of cancer
- Carcinogens; physical, chemical, viral.
ENDOCRINE, GIT, LIVER AND PANCREAS:
- Acute gastritis
- Chronic gastritis
- Duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer;
- Differences between duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in terms of pathologic changes, clinical features
- Mal absorption Syndrome.
- Intestinal obstruction: Intussusception and Volvulus.
- Inflammatory Bowel disease
- Distinguishing features of Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis in terms of pathologic changes.
- Ca Colon
- Hepatitis: Acute, chronic.
- Alcoholic liver disease: Outline of ethanol metabolism
- Portal venous obstruction
- Cirrhosis of Liver
- Acute and chronic pancreatitis
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Complications of diabetes mellitus
CVS, GENITOURINARY, MSK AND CNS:
- Heart failure
- Ischaemic heart disease
- Rheumatic fever
- Valvular Heart Disease
- Bacterial endocarditis
- Pericarditis: Definition, Classification
- Acute renal failure
- Chronic renal failure
- Glomerular diseases
- Acute nephritic syndrome and Nephrotic syndrome
- Acute pyelonephritis
- Renal vascular diseases: Hypertension
- Chronic pyelonephritis
- Acute tubular necrosis
- Bacterial and viral encephalitis
- Definitions of Orchitis, Epididymitis, Balanoposthitis.
- Prostatitis: Definition, Types
- Bartholin’s adenitis
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
- Acute mastitis
- Breast abscess-pathogenesis
- Endometritis and Myometritis: Types and Causes
- Fibroadenoma: Morphology.
RS AND MALNUTRITION:
- Bronchial asthma
- Pleuritis or pleurisy
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Restrictive Lung Disease
- Lung abscess
- Definitions of Acute rhinitis, Allergic rhinitis, Sinusitis, Tonsillitis, Quinsy.
- Protein-Energy Malnutrition: Definition.
- Conditions resulting from vitamin deficiencies- Keratomalacia, Beri beri, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome. Ariboflavinosis, Pellagra, pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, scurvy, rickets, osteoporosis.
- Contrasting features of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.