Pathology important questions and topics

Pathology important questions and topics 


  1. General Pathology.
  2. Immunity.
  3. Clinical pathology.
  4. Hematology.
  5. Neoplasia.
  6. Endocrine, GIT, Liver and Pancreas.
  7. CVS, Genitourinary, MSK and CNS.
  8. RS and malnutrition.

(TOTAL 190 important topics)

GENERAL PATHOLOGY: All General pathology topics to be studied with respect to Definition, Aetiology, Types, Pathogenesis, fate and correlation to Systemic pathology.

Cell injury: 

  1. Definition, Causes, Types
  2. Pathogenesis of ischaemic and hypoxic injury 
  3. Effects of radiation: Mechanism of cell injury by ionizing radiation
  4. Pathogenesis of Ischaemia-Reperfusion injury 
  5. Cellular adaptation: Atrophy, Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Metaplasia, Dysplasia
  6. Necrosis: Definition, Types, Aetiology, Morphology 
  7. Apoptosis in physiologic and pathologic processes 
  8. Gangrene: Definition, types , Aetiology, Morphologic features 
  9. Degeneration: 
    1. Hydropic change: Definition, aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology 
    2. Hyaline change: Intracellular and extracellular hyaline examples 
    3. Mucoid change: Epithelial and connective tissue mucin examples 
    4. Fatty change in liver: Aetiology, Pathogenesis, Morphologic features 
  10. Pathologic calcification: Dystrophic calcification, Metastatic calcification

Inflammation : 

  1. Definition, Causes, Signs, Types 
  2. Acute inflammation: Vascular events, Cellular events 
  3. Chemical mediators of inflammation: List of chemical mediators, Source, Functions of mediators 
  4. Inflammatory cells: Functions
  5. Factors determining variation in inflammatory response 
  6. Morphologic types of acute inflammation with examples 
  7. Outcome of acute inflammation h. Systemic effects of acute inflammation 
  8. Pyrexia: Definition, Pathogenesis 
  9. Chronic inflammation: Definition, Causes, General features, Types. 
  10. Giant cells: Types, Examples 
  11. Granuloma: Definition, Pathogenesis, description 
  12. Regeneration: Cell cycle and different types of cells

Wound Healing and Repair: 

  1. Definition 
  2. Factors influencing wound healing 
  3. Wound healing: Healing by First intention and Second intention 
  4. Complications of wound healing 
  5. Healing of Fracture, Nervous tissue, Muscle, Mucosal surface, Solid epithelial organ

Hemodynamic disorder: 

1. Thrombosis: 

Definition, Pathogenesis, Morphologic features of thrombi, Origin of thrombi-Cardiac, Arterial, Venous with examples, Differences between Arterial and Venous thrombi, Phlebothrombosis, Thrombophlebitis, Fate of thrombus. 

2. Embolism: 

Definition, Types Sources of arterial thromboembolism, Sources of venous thromboembolism Pulmonary thromboembolism: Definition, Aetiology, consequences Fat embolism, Air embolism, Decompression sickness, Amniotic fluid embolism, Atheroembolism, Tumour embolism. 

3. Oedema: 

Definition, Types of oedema Pathogenesis of oedema with examples of oedema by each mechanism Differences between transudate and exudates Renal oedema, Cardiac oedema, Pulmonary oedema, Cerebral oedema Differences between Nephrotic oedema and Nephritic oedema Cardiac oedema, Pulmonary oedema, Cerebral oedema.


Definition, Effects, Aetiology, Factors determining severity of ischaemic injury. 


Definition, Aetiology, Effect of haemorrhage. 

6. Shock: 

Definition ,Classification and Aetiology ,General pathogenesis of shock Stages of shock: Pathogenesis, effects Clinical features of shock Complications of shock Morphologic features of shock in organs.

7. Hyperaemia: 

Active hyperaemia: Definition, Examples Passive hyperaemia: Local venous congestion, Systemic venous congestion Morphology of CVC of organs: Liver, Lungs, Spleen, Kidney Infarction: Definition, Aetiology, Types Pathogenesis of process of infarction Gross and microscopic appearance of infarcts in different organs.


Definition, Classification, Pathogenesis of amyloidosis 

Disorders of metabolism: 

  1. Disorders of bilirubin metabolism 
  2. Disorders of calcium metabolism 
  3. Disorder of purine metabolism 
  4. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism 
  5. Disorders of lipid metabolism

Disorders of pigmentation: 

  1. List of endogenous pigments and exogenous pigments 
  2. Disorders of melanin pigmentation
  3. Inhaled pigments, Ingested pigments
  4. Injected pigments 
  5. Haemosiderosis
  6. Porphyrias.


Definition, Sources, Aetiology, Routes of transmission, Common hospital acquired infections.

Hyperlipidaemia and lipidosis: 

Major classes of lipoproteins and their role. 


  1. Cells of immune system 
  2. Development of immune system 
  3. T cells and Cell mediated immunity 
  4. B cells and Humoral immunity 
  5. The complement system 
  6. Antigen: Definition, Types
  7. Antigenic determinant: Factors determining antigenicity 
  8. Antibody: Definition, Functions 
  9. Immunoglobulin: Definition, Classes, Functions 
  10. Antigen-antibody reactions 
  11. Characteristics of Ag-Ab reaction 
  12. Precipitation reactions 
  13. Agglutination reactions 
  14. Hypersensitivity: Definition, Types, Mechanism of types of Hypersensitivity Reaction 
  15. Immunodeficiency diseases: Definition, Types 
  16. Primary immunodeficiency
  17. Secondary immunodeficiency 
  18. Autoimmunity
  19. Transplantation Blood group antigens & Blood transfusion reactions.


  1. Haemoglobin estimation. WBC count RBC count Differential count Blood group/BT/CT.
  2. Pap stain.
  3. Pap smear test.
  4. Coombs test.
  5. Sickling test and electrophoresis.
  6. FNAC.
  7. Lab test findings in DIC (Disseminated intravascular coagulation.).
  8. Prothrombin time.
  9. Widal test.
  10. HIV diagnostic tests.
  11. Bone marrow aspiration.
  12. Benedicts test.
  13. Semen analysis.
  14. FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization).
  15. LFT (Liver function test).
  16. RFT (Renal function test).
  17. CSF analysis findings in different types of meningitis.
  18. Hematocrit. Packed cell volume.
  19. Glycosylated Hb.
  20. Exfoliative cytology.
  21. Megaloblastic anemia peripheral smear finding and bone marrow findings.
  22. Rh incompatibility.
  23. Heriditary spherocytosis.
  24. Bethesda system of reporting Cervical Smears.
  25. Types of Reed Sternberg giant cells.
  26. Philadelphia chromosome.
  27. Bence – Jones protein.
  28. Urine examination
  29. Physical properties. 
  30. Chemical properties: i. Albumin ii. Blood iii. Glucose iv. Bile pigments v. Bile salts.
  31. Stool examination.


  1. Anaemia: Iron deficiency anaemia, Sideroblastic anaemia, Megaloblastic anaemia,Pernicious anaemia, Haemolytic anaemia, Aplastic anaemia,G6Pd defeciency 
  2. Haemoglobinopathies: Sickle cell anaemia, Thalassaemia 
  3. Leucocytosis, Leucopenia, Leukaemias 
  4. Lymphomas(Hodgekin’s andNon Hodgekin’sLymphoma) 
  5. Infectious Mononucleosis 
  6. Bleeding Disorders: Thrombocytopenia. ITP, DIC,TTP 
  7. Laboratory evaluation of Anaemias, leukaemias, Thrombocytopenia.


  1. Definition
  2. Basic components of neoplasia
  3. Classification of tumours 
  4. Characteristics of tumours 
  5. Differences between Benign and malignant tumours 
  6. Spread of tumours: Local invasion 
  7. Metastasis: List routes of metastasis 
  8. Grading of cancer & Staging of cancer
  9. Carcinogenesis: Basic concept of molecular pathogenesis of cancer 
  10. Carcinogens; physical, chemical, viral.


  1. Goiter
  2. Hyperthyroidism
  3. Hypothyroidism 
  4. Thyroiditis
  5. Acute gastritis
  6. Chronic gastritis 
  7. Duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer; 
  8. Differences between duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in terms of pathologic changes, clinical features 
  9. Enterocolitis 
  10. Mal absorption Syndrome. 
  11. Appendicitis.
  12. Intestinal obstruction: Intussusception and Volvulus.
  13. Inflammatory Bowel disease 
  14. Distinguishing features of Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis in terms of pathologic changes.
  15. Ca Colon
  16. Peritonitis
  17. Hepatitis: Acute, chronic.
  18. Jaundice 
  19. Alcoholic liver disease: Outline of ethanol metabolism 
  20. Cholecystitis 
  21. Portal venous obstruction 
  22. Cirrhosis of Liver
  23. Acute and chronic pancreatitis 
  24. Diabetes mellitus.
  25. Complications of diabetes mellitus


  1. Heart failure 
  2. Ischaemic heart disease 
  3. Rheumatic fever 
  4. Valvular Heart Disease 
  5. Bacterial endocarditis 
  6. Pericarditis: Definition, Classification 
  7. Cardiomyopathy
  8. Acute renal failure 
  9. Chronic renal failure 
  10. Glomerular diseases 
  11. Acute nephritic syndrome and Nephrotic syndrome 
  12. Acute pyelonephritis 
  13. Renal vascular diseases: Hypertension 
  14. Nephrolithiasis 
  15. Chronic pyelonephritis 
  16. Acute tubular necrosis 
  17. Hypertension
  18. Meningitis 
  19. Bacterial and viral encephalitis
  20. Definitions of Orchitis, Epididymitis, Balanoposthitis.
  21. Prostatitis: Definition, Types
  22. Bartholin’s adenitis
  23. Vaginitis
  24. Cervicitis 
  25. Salpingitis 
  26. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
  27. Acute mastitis 
  28. Breast abscess-pathogenesis 
  29. Endometritis and Myometritis: Types and Causes 
  30. Fibroadenoma: Morphology.


  1. Pneumonia
  2. COPD
  3. Bronchitis
  4. Emphysema 
  5. Bronchial asthma 
  6. Bronchiectasis 
  7. Pleuritis or pleurisy 
  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  9. Restrictive Lung Disease
  10. Pneumoconiosis 
  11. Hydrothorax, 
  12. Haemothorax, 
  13. Chylothorax, 
  14. Pneumothorax
  15. Lung abscess 
  16. Tuberculosis
  17. Definitions of Acute rhinitis, Allergic rhinitis, Sinusitis, Tonsillitis, Quinsy.
  18. Protein-Energy Malnutrition: Definition.
  19. Conditions resulting from vitamin deficiencies- Keratomalacia, Beri beri, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome. Ariboflavinosis, Pellagra, pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, scurvy, rickets, osteoporosis.
  20. Contrasting features of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.

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