Self-assessment in Respiratory System

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lungsSelf-assessment in Respiratory System
Dr  P  Jogi varghese

GENERAL CONSIDERATION

1.Total area of alveolar capillary membrane is about – 75m2

2. The length of the traechea is about – 11cm

3. The length of the right main bronchus is about – 1 to 2.5cm

4. The length of left main bronchus is about- 5cm

5. The wedge of lung tissue supplied by each segmental bronchus is called- Bronchopulmonary segment

6. Approximate number of alveoli in an adult lung is about – 300 million

7. Diameter of an alveoli is – 0.1to 0.2mm

8. The part supplied by single terminal bronchiole is called – acinus

9. The small opening connecting alveoli are called – pores of Kohn

10. Small canals existing between Distal bronchioles and neighboring alveoli are called – Canals of lembert

11. Gaseous exchange in alveoli occurs across – Type I pneumonocyte

12. Surfectant is produced and stored In – Type II pneumonocyte

13. Normal volume of pleural fluid is about – 10 to 20 ml

14. Surfectant is made up of – lipo protein (dipalmitoyl lecithin)

15. Protein content in pleural fluid is – 1.77 g/dl

16. Pleural fluid is formed at – parietal pleura

17. Mucus in the respiratory tract is mainly secreted by – Goblet cells

18. Respiratory centre is situated in – medulla & pons

19. Respiratory centre consist of
1.inspiratory centre
2.expiratory centre
3.pneumotoxic centre

20. The rhythm rate & depth of respiration is controlled by – pneumotaxic centre

21. The principal muscles of respiration are – Diaphragm & intercostal muscles

22. The strongest stimulus to the respiratory centre is – Rise in CO2 in arterial blood

23. Air in the conducting airways is functionally inert and its volume is called – Anatomical dead space

24. Functionally effective ventilation that the alveoli receive is called – Alveolar ventilation

25. Ventilation occurring in the alveoli which is not properly perfused with blood is called – Dead space ventilation

26. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pa O2) is- 80 to 100 mm hg( 11 to 14 KPa)

27. Partial pressure of arterial CO2 is – 35 to 45 mm hg(4.5 to 6 KPa)

28. Volume of gas inspired or expired during each respiratory effort is called – Tidal volume (500 ml)

29. Volume of gas remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration is- Residual volume ( 1.6 lit)

30. Volume of gas contained in the lung at the end of maximal inspiration – Total Lung Capacity (TCL) (5.4 lit)

31. Maximum volume of gas that can be expelled from the lung by forceful effort after maximal inspiration is – Vital capacity (VC)(3.8 lit)

32. Perfusion scans in respiratory system is very useful in detecting – Pulmonary Thromboembolism

33. Gas used in ventilation scan is – Xe133

34. Radioisotope need in perfusion scan – 99mTc

35. Braery or Metallic cough is seen in – Intrathoracic tumors esp aneurism

36. Bovine cough is characteristic of Recurrent Laryngeal nerve tumors

37. Painful barking cough is seen in Acute laryngitis

38. Thin watery sputum is suggestive of Alveolar cell carcinoma

39. Pink frothy sputum is seen in Pulmonary oedema

40. Green colour of sputum is due to Pus cells

41. Yellow sputum consist of Pus cells & eosinophils

42. Rusty sputum is seen in Lobar Pneumonia

43. Black or dark sputum is seen in Aspergillosis & Anthracosis

44. Dyspnoea which develop suddenly at rest suggest Pulmonary embolism & pneumothorax

45. Orthopnoea + Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea are features of Lt Cardiac failure

46. Pursed lip breathing is seen in Emphysema

47. Paradoxical breathing is seen in Flair chest

48. Cheyne stroke breathing is seen inRespiratory centre disease

49. Biots breathing is seen in meningitis

50. Stertorous breathing is seen in Narcotic Poisoning & certain drugs

51. Kuesmaul respiration is seen in Metabolic Acidosis

52. Stridor is produced in Laryngeal spasm, oedma & foreign body aspiration

53. Cyanosis become evident when the concentration of reduced haemoglobin rises above 5 gm/dl

54. Normal ratio of respiratory rate to pulse is 1:4

55. Increased rate of respiration is called Tachypnoea

56. Increased depth of the respiration is called Hyperpnoea

57. Horizontal groove running horizontally from the sternum outwards in the lower part of chest – Harrison’s sulcus

58. Marked bulging of sternum in Rickets – Pigeon’s chest, (pectus carinatus), keel breast

59. Exageration of the normal depression seen at the lower end of sternum – Funnel’s chest or cobblers chest (pectus excavatum)

60. Knob like projection at the junction ribs with the costal cartilage is seen in rickets- Rickety Rossary

61. Barrel shaped chest is seen in – Emphysema

62. Flat chest is seen in – Pulmonary tuberculosis & Pulmonary fibrosis

63. Long narrow chest is called – Alar, phthinoid or pterigoid chest

64. Hyper resonance in percussion of chest may be seen in – Emphysema & Pneumothorax

65. Dullness in chest percussion is seen in – Pulmonary consolidation, pulmonary collapse, pleural thickening

66. Stonydullness on percussion is seen in – Pleural Effusion

67. Bronchial breath sounds are features of – Consolidation, Collapse, Fibrosis

68. Increased Vocal fremitus is seen in – Consolidation, Large cavities near surface

69. Vocal fremitus is diminished in – bronchial obstruction

70. Vocal fremitus is totally absent in – Pleural effusion,pneumothorax

71. Listening to the intensity and characterof vocal fremitus in – vocal resonance
72. Bronchophony is typical of – Consolidation

73. Whispering pectoriloquy is seen in – Consolidation,Over Cavity communicating with bronchus

74. Nasal or bleating auscultatory sound heared above the level of pleural effusion is called – Aegophony

75. A fixed monophonic wheeze is diagnostic of – Tumours and foreign body

76. Late inspiratory crackles are diagnostic of – pulmonary oedema,fibrosing alveolitis

77. Sequential inspiratory wheeze or are diagnostic of – Fibrosing alveolitis

78. Cavernous or amphoric breathing is a finding of – Pulmonary cavity or pneumothorax

79. Common cold or acute coryza is caused by – Rhino virus[picorna virus]

80. Hay fever is otherwise known as -Seasonal rhinitis

81. Perineal allergic rhinitis is caused by Allergy to fecal particles of house dust mite – [dermatophgoides ptenonyssinus]

82. Commonest virus causing pharyngitis is – Adenovirus

83. Most persistent and severe tonsillitis are caused by – H. Influenzae and staphylococcus aureus

84. Barking cough and laryngeal stridor are features of – Croup

85. Localised outbreaks of influenza are cause by – Influenza virus B

86. Prolonged period of debility and depression following an influenza infection is called – Post viral syndrome

87. First aid given in Foreign Body aspiration is – Heimlich manoeuvre

88. Most important cause of COPD is considered to be – Cigarette smoking

89. The earliest feature in c/c bronchitis is – Mucus hypersecretion

90. Increase in the size of mucus glands in c/c bronchitis can be assesed by – Reid Index (Normally > 0.4)

91. Enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole, associated with destruction of their walls is seen in -Emphysema

92. Typical emphysema present in smokers and coal workers is -Centriacinar or centrilobular emphysema

93. Pan acinar or pan lobular emphysema is associated with – Alpha 1 anti trypsin deficiency

94. Major complication of para septal or distal acinar emphysema is – Spontaneous pneumothorax

95. Major inhibitor of proteases in the respiratory tract is -Alpha 1 antitrypsin

96. Dilation of alveoli without destruction of alveoli is termed as – Compensatory emphysema

97. Hypertranslucency in chest X ray is seen in – Emphysema, pneumo thorax

98. Tear drop heart is seen in – Emphysema, malnutrition, dehydration, Addison’s disease, constrictive pericarditis

99. Recurrent bronchial infection and permanent dialatation of bronchi and bronchioles is seen in – Bronchiectasis

100. Recurrent haemoptysis in bronchiectasis is called – Brochiectasis sicca syndrome

101. Coarse leathery basal crepitus is seen in – Bronchiectasis

102. Foul smelling sputum is seen in – Bronchiectasis,lung abcess, bronchogenic carcinoma

103. Conical glass test for sputum is done in -Bronchiectasis

104. Postural drainage and clapping is done in – Bronchiectasis, lung abscess

105. Pancreatic insufficiency, broncho pulmonary infection, high sweat sodium and uro genital disfunction is seen in -Cystic fibrosis

106. Cystic fibrosis is due to Mutation in a gene located on – chromosome number 7

107. Basic pathology in bronchial asthma- Spasm of smooth muscle, oedema of mucus membrane, mucus in lumen

108. Extrinsic asthma is otherwise called – Early onset or atopic asthma

109. Intrinsic asthma is otherwise called – Late onset or non atopic asthma
110. IgE is raised in – Extrinsic asthma

111. Residual volume and functional residual capacity are increased in – Bronchial asthma and emphysema

112. Curschmann’s spirals in sputum is diagnostic of – Bronchial asthma

113. Prolonged asthma not releaved by treatement is called – Status asthmaticus

114. Hyper ventillation rather than airway obstruction is seen in – Renal asthma

115. Disease of the lung with eosinophilia in peripheral blood associated with parasites like ascaris,ankylostoma, pollens, certain drugs are found in – Loeffler’s syndrome

116. Hypersensitivity reaction in the alveoli associated with eosinophilia is seen in -Loeffler’s syndrome

117. Absolute eosnophilic count of 2000/cmm or more is seen in -tropical eosinophilia

118. Tropical eosinophilia is otherwise called -Weingarten syndrome

119. Eosinophilia associated with infestation with filarial worm is seen in- tropical eosinophlia

120. Hypersensitive pneumonitis caused mainly inhalation of organic dust is seen in -Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

121. Major organism responsible for community acquired pneumonia is -Pneumococcus

122. Major cause of pneumonia in young adults – mycoplasma

123. Important protozoan causing pneumonia is – Entamoeba hystolytica

124. Dysphagic pneumonia is caused by – pharyngeal diverticulum, Achalasia cardia, Hiatus hernia, Oesophageal stricture

125. Lipoid pneumonia is caused by – Kerosene, paraffin, petroleum products

126. Dyspnoea, cough with blood stained or rusty sputum is characteristic of – Lobar pneumonia

127. Herpes labialis with fever is seen in – Pneumonia

128. Physical findings in pneumonia are – decreased movement of the affected side , increased vocal fremitus, bronchial or absent breath sounds, inspiratory crackles, increased vocal resonance

129. WBC count is raised in all pneumonias except – Legionella pneumonia

130. Cavitation occur in pneumonia is associated with – staphylococcal & pneumococcal type III pneumonia

131. Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia is seen in – mycoplasma pneumonia

132. Hypernatremia with pneumonia occurs in – Legionella pneumonia

133. Causes of recurrent pnuemonia include – local bronchial obstruction, bronchopulmonary disease, recurrent aspiration , immune deficient status.

134. Widespread consolidation often in upper lobes , systemic disturbances , purulent dark sputum and high mortality is seen in
Klebsiella pneumonia

135. Mucoid sputum with prominent constitutional symptoms are seen in – Viral pneumonia

136. Total count is normal in – Viral pneumonia

137. Specific test for lobar pneumonia is – Detection of pneumoccal antigen by CIE

138. Mortality in pneumonia is very high in – staphylococcal & pneumococcal type III infection

139. Lymphadenopathy and AIDS related lesions are produced by -Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellularae

140. Swimmingpool bacillus or fish tank bacillus is – M. marinum

141. Buruli’s ulcer is caused by M. ulcerans

142. Consolidation of calcified peripheral lung lesion and calcified hilar lymphnodes is known as – Ghon complex

143. Thrombosis of vessels in pulmonary cavity along with anuerysmal change is called – Rassmussen’s aneurysm

144. Bluish red raised ,tender , cutaneous lesion on the shin present in TB is called – Erythema nodosum

145. Erythema nodosum seen in – TB , Sarcoidosis , staphylococcal infection , drug reaction

146. The acute changes in primary complex are – miliary TB , TB meningitis

147. Obstruction of middle lobe bronchus by secretion in TB associated with bronchiectasis is known as – Middle lobe syndrome

148. Haematogenous spread of mycobacterium TB in children and young adults can lead to – Miliary TB , TB meningitis

149. Choroidal tubercles are characteristic of – Tuberculosis

150. Snow storm appearance in chest x ray is found in – Miliary TB

151. Persistant cough or smokers cough is seen in – Tuberculosis

152. Snow storm appearance in chest x-ray is found in – Miliary TB

153. Persistent cough or smoker’s cough in seen in – Tuberculosis

154. Hypersenstivity reaction of TBinfection manifesting as arthritis is called – Poncet’s syndrome

155. Post tussive crepitus heard at lung apices are diagnostic of – pulmonary TB

156. Tympanitic note on percussion , bronchial breath sounds and amphoric breathing are diagnostic of – pulmonary cavity

157. Chronic infection , clubbing and postural cough with productive foul smelling sputum is characteristic of – Bronchiectasis

158. Chronic tuberculous lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes is otherwise called -Scrofula

159. Hard matted non tender cervical lymph node are seen in – pulmonary TB

160. TB of spine involving mid thoracic spine is called – pott’s disease

161. Sharply angulated kyphosis without scoliosis seen in TB spine – Gibbus deformity

162. Cold absess is a frequent concomitant of – TB spondoylitis

163. CSFshowing high protein content low glucose and lymphocytosis is seen in – meningeal TB

164. Phlyetenular keratoconjunctivitis is seen in – ocular TB

165. The parts of intestine mainly involved in GIT TB is – Terminal ileum ,ceacum

166. Granulomatous disease of the skin in TB is called – Lupus vulgaris

167. Gene amplification by PCR one to detect TB identifies – mycobacterial DNA

168. Transcription mediated amplification of ribosomal RNA of mycobacteriumTB is called- AMTD (Amplified mycobacterium TB detection)

169. The antigen used in tuberculin Mantoux test is – PPD

170. Amount of PPD needed in Mantoux test – 0.1ml or 100 units/ml

171. The reading in mantoux test is taken after – 48 to 78 hours

172. Present or post mycobacterium TB infection can be diagonosed in mantoux by noting – Erthema + induration more than 10mm in diameter

173. In mantoux test PPD is injected into – Volar surface of forearm

174. Heaf multiple puncture test is employed in – Tuberculosis

175. Number of punctures in heat multiple puncture test is -6

176. Directly observed therapy schedule (DOTS) is seen in – Tuberculosis

177. RNTCP (revised national tb control programme) is based on- DOTS

178. Mycobacterium used in BCG is – M. bovis

179. Site of BCG vaccination is – ID over Lt shoulder joint just below the insertion of Deltoid

180. Majority of bronchogenic CA belongs to – Squamous cell variety

181. Peripheral bronchogenic CA belongs to – Adenocarcinoma

182. Central bronchogenic CA are usually- SCC & Oat cell tumors

183. Metastasis of Bronchogenic CA is more in – Liver

184. Metastasis is more common with – Adenocarcinoma & Undifferentiated CA

185. The Bronchial CA which both common in males & females is – Adenocarcinoma

186. Bronchial CA which has little relation with Cigarette Smoking is – Adenocarcinoma

187. Apical Bronchial CA belongs to- Squamous cell variety

188. Apical Bronchial tumors are otherwise called – Pancoast tumors

189. Oedema of face & neck, Cyanosis & suffusion of eyes are seen in – Superior venacaval obstruction

190. Horners syndrome comprise of – Ptosis, Anhiderosis, Miosis, Enophthalmos

191. Coin shaped shadow in chest X rays are seen in – 10 & 20 neoplasm, TB, Fungal infection, Old scars, Lung abcess, Aspergillomas, Haematomas.

192. Lung abscess is otherwise known as – Suppurative pneumonia

193. Most common causes of replacement fibrosis in India is – Pulmonary TB

194. Flattening of the affected side, decreased chest movements are typical of – Replacement fibrosis

195. Vocal fremitus and resonance both are reduced in – Pulmonary fibrosis

196. The form of fibrosis in which both lungs are uniformly affected are – Interstitial fibrosis

197. Reduction in TLV, VC & RV are important features of – Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

198. The term Pneumoconiosis was coined by the scientist – Zenker in 1866

199. Size of the particals which can be filtered by Nasofilters is – more than 20 micro meter in diameter

200. Sources of farmer’s lung is – Mouldy hay

201. Antigen or agent in farmer’s lung – Micropolyspora faene & aspergillus fumigatus

202. Antigen in bird fancirs lung in – Avian serum proteins

203. Antigen in malt workers lung in – Aspergillus Clavatus

204. Bagassosis is caused by inhalation of – Sugar cane dust (monldy bagasse)

205. Compost lung is caused by inhalation of – Compost (Aspergillus)

206. Laboratory workers lung is caused by inhalation of – Male rat urine

207. Suberosis is caused by inhalation of – Cork dust

208. Siderosis is caused by inhalation of – Iron oxide

209. C/C granulomatous change in pneumoconiosis is seen in inhalation of – Berillium

210. Pneumoconiosis assosiated with aircraft building and atomic energy is due to inhalation of – Berillium

211. Silicosis is otherwise known as – Grinders disease

212. Silicosis is commonly associated with – Tuberculosis

213. X ray changes in silicosis are mainly seen in -Upper zones

214. Egg shell calcification of hilar L.N’s in X ray is characteristic of – Silicosis

215. Sausage shaped opacities in upper zones are characteristic of – Silicosis

216. Snow storm appearance in X ray is ssen in -Silicosis

217. Asbestos is a complex – Silicate

218. Pneumoconiosis is associated with manufacture of fire proof blankets and cement is – Asbestosis

219. Asbestos bodies are seen in – Asbestosis

220. Asbestos bodies are otherwise called- Ferrugenous bodies

221. Sputum examination shows ferrugenous bodies in – Asbestosis

222. Pleural mesothelioma is characteristic of- Asbestosis

223. X ray changes in asbestosis is mainly seen in- Lower zones

224. Anthracosis is caused by inhalation of- Coal dust

225. Miner’s phthisis is caused by inhalation of- Coal dust

226. Progrssive massed fibrosis is seen in – Anthracosis

227. Pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of cotton dust, flax or hemp is termed as- Byssinosis

228. Monday fever is typical of – Byssinosis

229. Madura foot or mycetoma is cause by – Nocardiosis

230. Monod’s sign is seen in – Aspergillosis

231. Posodas disease desert fever or california disease is caused by – Coccidoidomycosis

232. Darling disease or cave’s disease caused by- Histoplasmosis

233. Phenomena of cough cough cough- spit spit spit is characteristic of – Pulmonary oedema

234. Bat’s wing appearance in chest x ray is characteristic of – Pulmonary oedema

235. Kerley’s B lines and kerley’s A lines are diagnostic of – Pulmonary oedema

236. Pulmonary embolism most commonly results from – Deep vein thrombosis

237. 70-80% of venous thrombus comes from – Lower leg veins

238. Tumors most commonly involved in pulmonary thromboembolism is – Choriocarcinoma

239. Saddle embolism in pulmonary artery causes- Massive pumonary embolism

240. Medium or moderate sized pulmonary emboli causes – Pulmonary infarction

241. Recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism causes – Pulmonary hypertension

242. Pulmonary infarcts are common in the – Right side of lung

243. Raised JVP, hepatic enlargment right ventricular gallop rhythm are features of- Pulmoary hyper tension & rt ventricular failure

244. West mark sign(x ray) is seen in- Pulmonary infarction

245. Triangular opacity in chest x ray seen in – Pulmonary infarction

246. Most common anticoagulant given in pulmonary thromboembolism is- Heparin

247. Heparin is cotraindicated in – Severe trauma,peptic ulcer, bleeding disorders,cerebral haemorrhage & hypertension

248. Enzymes needed for thrombolytic therapy are – Streptokinase,urokinase, TPA(tissue plasminogen activator)

249. Venous interruption or implantation of umbrella like device in inferior venacava is done in – Pulmonary thromboembolism

250. Sharp stabbing pain in chest worse on coughing is indicative of – dry pleurisy

251. Serous pleural effusion can be – Exudate or transudate

252. Collection of transudate in the pleural space is called- Hydrothorax

253. Specific gravity of transudate in hydrothorax is between – 1008-1012

254. Predominant lymphocyte in pleural fluid are seen in- TB, Fungal disease, Lymphoma

255. Predominant polymorphs in pleural fluid are seen in- Pulmonary infarction, a/c bacterial pneumonia, RF

256. Predominant eosinophils pleural fluid are seen in – Pulmonary infarction, Infection, Hodgkin’s disease, Hydatid disease, Drug allergy

257. Multineucleated giant cells in pleural effusion is seen in – RA, SLE, PAN, Scleroderma

258. Thick Greenish yellow pleural effusion with flakes of fibrin is seen in infection with – Pneumococcus

259. Thin, turbid, greenish yellow pleural effusion is seen in – Steptococcal infection

260. Blood tinged pleural effusion is seen in – Pleural neoplasm, Trauma, Pulmonary infarction, TB, Anticoagulant therapy,Hemophilia

261. Chocolate colored pleural effusion is seen in – Amoebic liver abscess ruptured into pleura, Old cholesterol effusion

262. Pleural effusion is clinically detectable when the pleural fluid is about – 500ml

263. Pleural effusion is radiographically detectable when the fluid is about – 300ml

264. Orthopnoea and preference to lie on the affected side is seen in – Pleural effusion

265. Sternomastoid sign or trail sign is seen in – Pleural effusion

266. Sternomastoid muscle on the side of mediastinal displacement become prominent in pleural effusion is- Sternomastoid sign or Trial sign

267. Elli S shaped curve in percussion is seen in – Pleural effusion

268. Organisation of fibrin from the fluid on the surface of the collapsed lung is called – Cortication

269. Site of Thoracocentesis in pleural effusion – 8th or 9th IC space in posterior axillary line

270. Collection of pus in the pleural cavity is called – Empyema

271. Hyperresonance with silence is characteristic of – Pneumothorax

272. Cracked pot sound on percussion is heared in – Open pneumothorax

273. The condition in which the resting PaO2 falls below 60 mm of hg and resting PCO2 rises above 50 mm of hg can be- Respiratory failure

274. Situs inversus, Bronchiectasis, Sinusitis Ciliary dysfunction- Kartageners syndrome

275. Bronchiectasis- inherited deficiency of bronchial cartilage – Williams – Campbell syndrome

276. Bronchiectasis- acquired defect in components of the airway wall including cartilage, elastic tissue, muscle – Mounier kuhn syndrome

277. Bronchiectasis, obstructive azoospermia – Young syndrome

278. Hypo plastic lymphatics, lymph oedema, pleural effusion, yellow discoloration of nails, Bronchiectasis – Yellow nail syndrome

279. Levocardia, sinusitis, Bronchiectasis, no cilliary abnormality – Chandra khetarpal syndrome

280. Pulmonary fibrosis, RA with Coal workers pneumoconiosis -Caplan’s syndrome

281. Condition following inhalation of gastric acid (pulmonary oedema) – Mendelson’s syndrome

Part II
1. Number of bones in human body – 206

2. Types of bones – Spongy & Compact bone
In spongy bone the lamellae are arranged one above another. In compact bone Lamellae are closely arranged in concentric circles around a central canal containing osteocyte. Spongy bones contain bone marrow compact bone do not.

3. Covering of the Bone – Periosteum containing outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer capable of producing bone ( osteogenic layer)

4. Types of joint
a. Fibrous joint, with no range of movements Eg: Cranial sutures, tibiofibular joint
b. Cartilagenous joint, with limited range of movement Eg: symphysis pubis, intervertibral joint.
c. Synovial joint, with Wide range of movement Eg: hip, knee, elbow

5. What is enthesis – The point of attachment of tendons & ligaments to the bones are called enthesis.

6. What is Dowager’s hump – Gradual shortening of the Vertebral column & thoracic kyphosis in Osteoporosis

7. What is Pauci arthritis- involvement of 4 joint or less

8. Nodes seen in Osteoarthritis – Heberden’s nodes in Distal interphalangial joints

9. Swan neck deformity and button hole deformity are seen in – Rheumatoid arthritis

10. Piano key sign is seen in – Rheumatoid arthritis

11. What is Baker’s cyst – Baker’s cyst are tense cyst due to collection of synovial fluid in popliteal fossa leading to swelling and pain in calf muscle (seen in Rheumatoid arthritis)

12. What is joint mice – Loose cartilaginous bodies seen with in the joint are called joint mice ( features of OA)

13. What is Tennis elbow & Golfers elbow – Tenderness &pain due to the rupture of the common origin of the extensor tendons at the lateral epicondyle < by Dorsiflexion on wrist against resistance is called TENNIS ELBOW. Tenderness due to flexor tendon at the meial epicondyle & pain < by active flexion of wrist and resisted pronation is called GOLFERS ELBOW.

14. What is de Quervain’s Tenosynovitis – Inflammation of the common tendon sheath of Abductor pollicis longus & Extensor pollicis brevis

15. What is Carpel tunnel syndrome – Entrapment neuropathy with compression of Median nerve in carpel tunnel causes pain, numbness & muscle wasting

16. What is Tinel’s sign – In carpel tunnel syndrome percussion over the Flexor retinaculam may lead to shooting up pain along the distribution of median nerve in hand

17. What is Gibbus – Angular deformity of spine visible & palpable due to secondary malignant deposits in spine

18. What is Patellar tap – Presence of fluid can be confirmed by pushing fluid from the supra patellar bursa into the joint and tapping on the patella

19. What is Genu valgum – Knock knee ( knee joints are displaced medially)

20. What is Genu Varum – Bow legs (knee joints are displaced laterally)

21. What is Genu recurvatum – Hyperextension of knee

22. What is Pes planus – Flat foot

23. What is pes cavus – High arched foot

24. What is CREST syndrome –
i. C – calcinosis
ii. R – raynaud phenomena
iii. E – oesophageal hypomotility
iv. S –sclerodactyly
v. T –telengectasia

25. What is hitch hiker’s thumb – Z shaped deformity of thumb seen in RA

26. What is Hallux valgus – Lateral deviation of big toe

27. What is Caplan’s syndrome – RA + pneumoconiosis

28. What is rosewaler test – (antibodies in RA can be demonstrated in Rosewaler test) 3tests SCAT (sheep cell agglutination test) HEAT(human erytrocyte agglutination) DAT(Differential agglutination)

29. What is felty’s syndrome – RA + splenomegaly + neutropenia/ RA-+ve +skin pigmentation +lymphadenopathy

30. What is sjogren’s syndrome – keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes) xerostomia (dry mouth) RA

31. Sicca syndrome – dry eyes & dry mouth (RA is absent)

32. What is bamboo spine (railway spine) – spinal column becomes a rigid pillar due to calcification & ossification of the vertebral borders and ankylosis of spine –features of Ankylosing spondylitis

33. What is Reiters syndrome
an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology characterised by urethritis ; ;conjunctivitis ; arthritis

34. What is behcet’s syndrome
a multisystem disorder presenting with recurrent oral ulcer + recurrent genital ulcer + eye lesion +skin lesion + arthritis

35. What is tophi
tophi are nodules formed due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around the joints & in the articular cartilage

36. What is PAN (PolyArteritis Nodosa)
(necrotising vasculitis of unknown aetiology characterized by the formation of multiple nodules along blood vessels) nodules are visible & palpable

37. What is kawasaki’s disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome – disease characterisedby fever more than 5 days ; bilateral conjunctival redness; erythema of lips +buccal mucosa; acute cervical lymphadenopathy; coronary dilatation seen children below 5yrs

38. What is overlap syndrome or MCTD(mixed connective tissue disease)- polymyositis & dermatomyositis with SLE+ RA+ sjogren syndrome

39. What is gottron’s sign – seen in dermatomyositis (connective tissue disorder) violent erythematous papules & plaques occur over the dorsal aspect of metacarpophalangeal & proximal interphalangeal joints bony prominence elbow knee an ankles

40. What is CRP – C-Reactive Protein (G a b globulin capable of reacting with the capsule of pnuemoocci) absent in normal plasma but appear in the presence of different types of inflammatory arthritis

41. What is ANA – Antinuclear Antibodies. Antibodies against DNA (single strand) RNA etc . Confirmatory of SLE

42. What is LE cells – Lupus Erythematous Cells seen in SLE .these are polymorphonuclear luecocytes which have phagocytosed nuclear material under the influence of antibodies

43. What is Wegener’s syndrome – E-epistaxis, nasal crusting, ulceration of throat – allergic or eosinophillic necrotising granulomatous lesion in medium sized blood vessels
44. L-lung (dyspnoea with bloody sputum)- K-kidney (glomerulonephritis) there may be haemoptysis, proptosis, diplopia, glomerulonephritis

45. What is Churg-Strauss syndrome (css) – allergic rhinitis; nasal polyposis; late onset asthma; acute onset of skin lesions (purpura or nodules) eosinophilia

46. What is Henoch-Schonlein purpura – small vessel vasculitis occuring in children & young adults- Purpura cover buttocks and legs, arthritis, respiratory tract infection, pain & bleeding of the GIT, nephritis

47. Takayasu’s disease – pulseless disease due to large vessel vasculitis affecting aorta & its main branches (pulmonary & coronary)

48. What is trigger finger – Results from Stenosing tenosynovitis in flexor tendon sheath with intermittent locking of the finger in flexion ( more common in ring finger)

49. X ray finding in osteoporosis – ‘cod fish vertebrae’

50. What is shoulder-hand syndrome – Shoulder movements are restricted with pain and swelling of hand

51. What is whipple’s disease – Rare disorder characterised by Diarrhoea, Steatorrhoea, abdominal pain, weight loss & fever, skin pigmentation, malabsorption, anaemia and arthritis

52. What is perthes disease – Ischaemia of the upper end of femur with pain & restricted movements of hip joint

53. What is Pagets disease (osteitis deformans)- Condition produced due to increased proliferation of osteoclast & excessive bone resorption

54. What is morphoea – Localised scleroderma ( lesions restricted to a localized area of skin seen in progressive systemic sclerosis)

55. What is Discoid Lupus – The form of SLE in which the only manifestation of disease is confined to skin

56. What is Libman sack endocarditis – Silent verrucous lesions of the mitral valve is seen in SLE

57. What is Clutton’s joint – painless effusion of the synovial fluid in the knee joint, seen in syphilis.

58. What is Charcot’s joint – Progressive destruction of a joint due to repeated trauma resulting in loss of sensation & joint instability (neuropathic joint) seen in syphilis

59. Nodes of OA seen in DIP – Herberden’s nodes

60. Nodes of OA seen in PIP – Bouchard’s nodes

61. What is Still’s disease – Variant of RA seen in Children ( c/c juvenile polyarthritis) (maculopapular rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, splenomegaly, RA –ve)

Dr. P. Jogi varghese
Department of Medicine
Dr. Padiar Memorial Homoeopathic medical college ,
Chottanikkara (PO), Ernakulam