Dr Puneet Kumar Misra
Foundation of the homoeopathy are start in the last decade of the 18th century by master Dr Hahnemann(1755-1843) in 1796 and it continue till existing time , the assessment of human disorder /diseases from the origin of homoeopathy and currently are very different , but unfortunately homoeopathic youth compare the homoeopathy from the existing state of modern medicine (allopathic) in the place of circumstance of old school(allopathic) at the startup of homoeopathy period ,therefore they discard the available fact of disorder/ diseases in the early diagnosis, and wait the presentation of the disorder/ diseases stage details available in the origin time literature and compare with it , therefore they facing the obstacle and difficulty in the treatment and management of disorder/ diseases through the homoeopathy.
Key words – Old school, Allopathic, Homoeopathy, Disorder, Diseases
Introduction – Dr Hahnemann first published an article about the homeopathic approach in a German-language medical journal in 1796 based on principle of “like cures like” became the basis for an approach to medicine which he gave the name homeopathy. He first used the term homeopathy in his essay Indications of the Homeopathic Employment of Medicines in Ordinary Practice, published in Hufeland’s Journal in 1807. When he reading William Cullen’s A Treatise on the Materia Medica, he encountered the new concept and claims that cinchona the bark of a Peruvian tree was effective in treating malaria because of its astringency. Hahnemann believed that other astringent substances are not effective against malaria and began to research cinchona’s effect on the human body by self-application. Noting that the drug induced malaria-like symptoms in him. He concluded that it would do so in any healthy individual. This led him to postulate a healing principle: “that which can produce a set of symptoms in a healthy individual, can treat a sick individual who is manifesting a similar set of symptoms. he published in 1810 “Organon of the Rational Art of Healing”, followed over the years by four further editions entitled The Organon of the Healing Art, the first systematic treatise and containing all his detailed instructions on the subject. A 6th Organon edition, unpublished during his lifetime, and dating from February 1842, was only published many years after his death. It consisted of a 5th Organon containing extensive handwritten annotations and more methodical and aphoristic form, after the model of the Hippocratic writings. During the course of the development of homoeopathy dr Hahnemann write many books of the materia medica which play an important role in the treatment till existing time.
Global medical before the Hahnemann – The practice of medicine began by the greatest physician in Greek medicine was Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) And regarded as ‘the father of medicine’. Hippocrates dissociated medicine from religion and magic. He firmly believed in study of patient’s symptoms and described methods of diagnosis. He recorded his observations on cases in the form of collections of writings called “Hippocratic Corpus” or “Corpus Hippocraticum”, which remained the mainstay of learning of medicine for nearly two thousand years all branches of medicine. However, the prevailing concept at that time on mechanism of disease based on disequilibrium of four basic humors (water, air, fire, and earth) was propagated by Hippocrates too but this concept was later abandoned. He studied and classified diseases based on observation and reasoning. He challenged the tradition of magic in medicine, and initiated a radically new approach to medicine i.e., application of clinical methods in medicine. Hippocrates’s lectures and writings as compiled later by Alexandrian scholars into encompassed into 72 volume, work contain the first scientific clinical case histories. Some of the sayings of Hippocrates later became favorites with physicians, such as “Life is short, the art (of medicine) long, opportunity fleeting, experience treacherous and judgment difficult”, and “where there is love for mankind, there is love for the art of healing”. His famous oath, the “Hippocratic oath” has become the keystone of medical ethics. It sets a high moral standard for the medical profession and demands absolute integrity of doctors. Hippocrates will always be regarded as one of the masters of the medical art.
Hippocrates was also an epidemiologist. Since he distinguished between diseases which were epidemic and those which were endemic, he was in fact the first true epidemiologist. He was constantly seeking the causes of disease. He studied such things as climate, water, clothing, diet, habits of eating and drinking and the effect they had it producing disease. His book “Airs, Water and Places” it considered a treatise on social medicine and hygiene. The Hippocratic concept of health and disease stressed the relation between man and his environment. In short, the Greeks gave a new direction to medical thought. They rejected the supernatural theory of disease and looked upon disease as a natural process, not visitation from a god of immolation. The Greeks believe that matter was made up of four elements – earth, air, fir and water. These elements had the corresponding quality of being cold, dry, hot and moist and were represented it. The Greeks postulated that health prevailed when the four humors were in equilibrium and when the balance was disturbed, disease was the result. The human body was assumed to have powers of restoration of humoral equilibrium, and it was the physician’s primary role to assist in this healing process. While the humoral theory of Hippocrates was based on incorrect foundations, the concept of the innate capacity of the body of responding to disturbances in the equilibrium that constitutes health is highly relevant to modern medicine. 1, 2
The hypothesis of disequilibrium of four elements constituting the body (Dhatus) similar to Hippocratic doctrine finds mention in ancient Indian medicine books compiled about 200 AD—Charaka Samhita, a finest document by Charaka on medicine listing 500 remedies, and Sushruta Samhita, similar book of surgical sciences by Sushruta, and includes about 700 plant-derived medicines.1,
Global medical at the time of Hahnemann – when dr Hahnemann (1755-1843) in 1796 the entry in the medical field at the same time the new era establishment is under progress and start the break formation to the old pattern, and credit is goes to for beginning of it for the study of morbid anatomy (pathologic anatomy), goes to Italian anatomist pathologist, Giovanni B. Morgagni (1682–1771). Morgagni was an excellent teacher in anatomy, a prolific writer and a practicing clinician. By his work, Morgagni demolished the ancient humoral theory of disease and published his life-time experiences based on 700 postmortems and their corresponding clinical findings. He, thus laid the foundations of clinic pathologic methodology in the study of disease and introduced the concept of clinic pathologic correlation (CPC), establishing a coherent sequence of cause, lesions, symptoms, and outcome of disease. Towards the end of 18th century, Xavier Bichat (1771–1802) in France described that organs were composed of tissue and divided the study of morbid anatomy into General Pathology and Systemic Pathology. Richard Bright (1789–1858) who described non-suppurative nephritis, later termed glomerulonephritis or Bright’s disease; Thomas Addison (1793–1860) who gave an account of chronic adrenocortical insufficiency termed Addison’s disease; and Thomas Hodgkin (1798–1866), who observed the complex of chronic enlargement of lymph nodes, often with enlargement of the liver and spleen, later called Hodgkin’s disease. 1,2
Medical revolution after Dr Hahnemann
The man was groping in darkness about the causation of disease and Several theories were advanced from time to time to explain disease causation such as the supernatural theory of disease, the theory of humors by Greeks and Indians, the theory of contagion, the miasmatic theory which attributed disease to noxious air and vapors (Homoeopathy, which was propounded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) of Germany gained foothold in India during 1810 and 1839. It is a system of pharmacodynamics based on “treatment of disease by the use of small amounts of a drug that, in healthy persons, produces symptoms similar to those of the disease being treated” . Homoeopathy is practised in several countries, but India claims to have the largest number of practitioners of this system in the world. The theory of spontaneous generation breakthrough came in 1860, when the French bacteriologist Louis Pasteur ( 1822-1895) demonstrated the presence of bacteria in air. He disproved the theory of “spontaneous generation”. In 1873, Pasteur advanced the “germ theory of disease”. In 1877, Robert Koch (1843-1910) showed that anthrax was caused by bacteria. The discoveries of Pasteur and Koch confirmed the germ theory of disease. It was the golden age of bacteriology. Microbe after microbe was discovered in quick succession gonococcus in 1847; typhoid bacillus, pneumococcus in 1880; tubercle bacillus in 1882; cholera vibrio in 1883; diphtheria bacillus in 1884, and so on. These discoveries and a host of others at the turn of the century marked a turning point in our etiological concepts. All attention was focused on microbes and their role in disease causation. The germ theory of disease came to the forefront, supplanting the earlier theories of disease causation. Medicine finally shed the rags of dogma and superstition and put on the robes of scientific knowledge. Subsequently, G.H.A. Hansen (1841–1912) in Germany identified Hansen’s bacillus in 1873 as the first microbe causative for leprosy (Hansen’s disease). While the study of infectious diseases was being made, the concept of immune tolerance and allergy emerged which formed the basis of immunization initiated by Edward Jenner. Metchnikoff (1845-1916), a Russian zoologist, introduced the existence of phenomenon of phagocytosis by human defense cells against invading microbes, Paul Ehrlich (1854–1915), German physician, conferred Nobel prize in 1908 for his work in immunology, described Ehrlich’s test for urobilinogen using Ehrlich’s aldehyde reagent, staining techniques of cells and bacteria, and laid the foundations of haematology & clinical pathology.
Robert Feulgen (1884–1955) described Feulgen reaction for DNA staining and laid the foundations of cytochemistry and histochemistry. Though the presence of cells in thin sections of non-living object cork had been first demonstrated much earlier by Robert Hooke in 1667, it was revived as a unit of living matter in the 19th century by F.T. Schwann (1810–1882), the first neurohistologist, and Claude Bernarde (1813–1878), pioneer in pathophysiology . Rudolf Virchow (1821–1905) in Germany is credited with the beginning of microscopic examination of diseased tissue at cellular level and thus began histopathology as a method of investigation. Virchow hypothesised cellular theory having following two components: All cells come from other cells. Disease is an alteration of normal structure and function of these cells. Virchow was revered as Pope in pathology in Europe and is aptly known as the ‘father of cellular pathology’. The role and significance of learning of pathology in clinical medicine is quite well summed up by Sir William Osler (1849- 1919), acclaimed physician and teacher in medicine considered as ‘Father of Modern Medicine’ by his famous quote “your practice of medicine will be as good as is your understanding of pathology, Sir William Osler’s familiar quote “Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability” captures well the complex nature of clinical medicine.1, 2
At the same time German physicist Wilhem Konrad Rontgen in 1895 discovered the X-rays while investigating the effect of electron beams in electrical discharges through low pressure gases and john hall Edwards in Birmingham England 11 January 1896 use first time in clinical condition in a surgical treatment during operation.
CONCEPT Of CAUSATION
Up to the time of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and origin of germ theory various concepts of disease causation were in vogue, e.g., the supernatural theory of disease, the theory of humors, the concept of contagion, miasmatic theory of disease, the theory of spontaneous generation, etc. Discoveries in microbiology marked a turning point in our aetiological concepts. The Germ theory of disease concept gained momentum during the 19th and the early part of 20th century. The emphasis had shifted from empirical causes (e.g., bad air) to microbes as the sole cause of disease. The concept of cause embodied in the germ theory of disease is generally referred to as a one-to-one relationship between causal agent and disease. park 33 But in many diseases /disorder the “agent” is still unidentified, e.g. coronary heart disease, cancer, peptic ulcer, mental illness, etc. Where the disease agent is not firmly established, the etiology is generally discussed in terms of “risk factors”. The term “risk factor” is used by different authors with at least two meanings. A. an attribute or exposure that is significantly associated with the development of a disease. b. a determinant that can be modified by intervention, thereby reducing the possibility of occurrence of disease or other specified outcomes .1
- It is matter of jubilant and prestige for the homoeopathy that after induction of germ theory existing theories start to fade and have no existence currently, while homoeopathy retains its own existence .
- Miasmatic theory which are by propounded by Samuel Hahnemann are based on the perfect picture of diseases (aphorism 89) (on the basis of the totality of symptoms given by patient and his relative are matched with the drugs features found in proving ) and all chronic diseases widely classified in the three major group of miasm on the basis of the totality of symptoms Psora(mother of all miasma) ,Syphilis(venereal chancre diseases) and Sycosis (figwart-diseases) .
- The approach of the prescribing in the old school (allopathic) is partially based on the symptomatic and other environment event because at that time the physical presentation of disorder is the main tool of prescribing, therefore homoeopathy totally adopted complete physical presentation with macro pathological change but after induction of germ theory the old school (allopathic) adopt it and start the up gradation while homoeopath continue on own traditional pattern .
- Currently the old school (allopathic) take over all modification in treatment with the help of time to time development generated by the newcomers and elaboration of own up to the level of organ transplant .
- Dr Hahnemann time only morbid anatomy are use for the support of clinician for the purpose of identification or selection of disorder and rest are based on the symptomatic criteria
- This is the dedication of Dr Hahnemann that they start it and build up to this level it service currently, but after him newcomers comes in this field continue the tradition of Dr Hahnemann and makes the gap from new development in the medical area , while the old school (allopathic ) adopt everything and reached up to the cellular or molecular level of the diseases/ disorder origin, and make the uniform pattern of the treatment and management of each diseases/ disorder with the help of all new discovery for the uncover of it. the old school (allopathic ) continues endeavor to resolve the obstacles in the treatment and generated new branches for it.
When we compare and conclude the origin time and Existing Purview of homoeopathy with old school (allopathic ) , we found that huge difference build up by the newcomers of homoeopathy from the current trends of identification or selection of disorder/diseases which are developed by old school (allopathic ) , and most of youth as well as established homoeopath advocacy to make a distance from new discovery and it is worthless. Currently old school (allopathic ) with the association of various service of its branch to provide diagnostic & management information to the physician for better early quality care of the patient, and provide the data for helping in the makeup of essential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, therefore It is the necessity of time in the homoeopathy that all teaching, nonteaching and research institution of it, compiled the all discrete observation data which available in the numerous materia medica and repertory from the time of origin to till now, all Data to be transformed into information by summarizing them and adjusting with the available details of disorder/diseases by all sources, transformation of all data information through integration and processing with clinical experience and perceptions which based on the available data of treatment on uncountable patient in all area through a pilot project and try to make a universal pattern of the management and treatment of each disorder/diseases with safeguard of all heritage of homoeopathy for forthcoming generation.
- Park Park`s. textbook of preventive and social medicine. 26th edition. M/s Banarsidas Bhanot Jabalpur ; march 2021. Page.2,3, 6,33,38,39
- Dr harsh mohan . text book of pathology. 8th Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ansari Road, Daryaganj New Delhi.amended reprint:2021 page no 2,3,4,5,6
Dr Puneet Kumar Misra B.Sc, BHMS
Lecturer (Practice of Medicine)
Govt Pt J LN H M C Kanpur