Dr. ALOK A. KATKOL.MBA, MD(Hom.), PhD Scholar. &
Intern Scholars: Ms. BANDARU HARIKA & Ms. BATCHU INDUMATHI
Background:- INFLUENZA-LIKE ILLNESS (ILI) is a subset of acute respiratory infections. Clinical features of Influenza like illness are fever with or without chills, sore throat, cough, myalgia, runny nose, headache, fatigue.
Objective :-To compare the residual symptoms of Influenza like illness after treatment with Allopathy and Homoeopathy in college going students between 18-25 years
Methods :- A survey has made to compare the residual symptoms of Influenza like illness after treatment with Allopathy and Homoeopathy between the age group of 18- 25 years by taking the sample size of 50 persons present at the time of study with their consent. Persons with RT- PCR positive is excluded for the survey.
Results :- Total 51 persons responded for the survey. 21 persons took allopathic treatment in which 13 persons have residual symptoms. 26 persons took homoeopathic treatment in which 8 persons have residual symptoms
Conclusion : Persons who took homoeopathic treatment were found to have less number of residual symptoms when compared to the persons who took Allopathic treatment.
INFLUENZA – LIKE ILLNESS (ILI) is a subset of acute respiratory infections (ARI) represents approximately 62% of acute respiratory infections. Viral pathogens are the most significant contributors. ARI is caused by many viruses, including the following: Influenza viruses (IAV, IBV, ICV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Rhinovirus (HRV), Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV), human enterovirus (HEV), human adenovirus (HADV). Clinical features of Influenza like illness are fever with or without chills, sore throat, cough, myalgia, runny nose, headache, fatigue. The present study “SURVEY TO COMPARE THE RESIDUAL SYMPTOMS OF INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS AFTER TREATMENT WITH ALLOPATHY AND HOMOEOPATHY IN COLLEGE GOING STUDENTS Between THE AGE GROUP OF 18- 25 Years” to know which method of treatment (Allopathy or homoeopathy) is more efficient to treat influenza like illness with no or less number of symptoms.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES:
AIM: To know which method of treatment (Allopathy or Homoeopathy) in treat influenza like illness has less number of residual symptoms.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To compare the residual symptoms of Influenza like illness after treatment with Allopathy and Homoeopathy in college going students between 18-25 years.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
DEFINITION: The CDC defines ILI as “A temperature of >= 100°F (>=37.8°C), oral or equivalent and cough or sore throat, in the absence of a known cause other than influenza. ” 
The WHO defines ILI similarly as “Sudden onset fever (> 38°C) with cough or sore throat, in the absence of other diagnosis,” and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) as ILI plus shortness of breath and/ or difficulty breathing and hospital admission. 
ILI defined as a person with acute respiratory illness, with a temperature of (>38°C), and cough within past 10 days of onset. SARI:
Defined as those with acute respiratory illness, measured fever of (>38°C), cough within past 10 days of onset and requiring hospital admission.
EPIDEMIOLOGY: Prevalence rate of ILI in India is more during monsoons (July- September) with a small peak in March during some years. ILI rates were highest among children < 5years and persons >= 60 years 
ETIOLOGY: Causes of ILI Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Rhino virus, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza viruses, Human coronaviruses( including the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome) and the recently recognised human metapneumovirus(HMV) .  Respiratory syncytial virus is the major cause of lower respiratory tract disease (specially bronchitis and pneumonia) in children before 1year of age. Children are at increased risk for a more severe course of illness if they have a history of prematurity or underlying cardiac / respiratory disorders. It peaks between January and March. Human metapneumovirus Produces a disease spectrum much like that of RSV including upper respiratory tract infections, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Mean and median ages of HMV infection range from 6-20 mo, slightly older than for RSV, but like RSV. There is an association between HMV infection and subsequent development of wheezing. It peaks in March and April. Adenovirus Causes several different syndromes including upper and lower respiratory tract disease, keratoconjunctivitis, haemorrhagic cystitis, and gastroenteritis with diarrhoea. The diarrhoea often accompanies the respiratory tract symptoms. It peaks in winter season followed by second peak in Spring / summer season. Para Influenza viruses types 1 to 4 Primarily known as the cause of croup, but up to 15% of bronchiolitis/ pneumonia can be attributed to this. I peak late fall/winter season. Human coronavirus NL63, first described in 2004, can cause fever and LRI, but usually causes URI. Coinfections are commonly reported. Seasonal peaks from January to March in temperate climates. Human Studies have shown that bocavirus causes both URI and LRI. It seems to be a relatively common paediatric respiratory virus with a disease spectrum similar to that of RSV and HMV. Most authors in temperate climates have observed a higher occurrence of HBoV detections during the winter and spring months.
CLINICAL FEATURES: 
- Fever with or without chills
- Sore throat
- Runny or stuffy nose
- Some people may suffer with diarrhoea and
It can cause mild to severe illness and at times lead to death. People who have Influenza-like illness may suffer with few or all of these symptoms
Flu Symptoms vs. Cold Symptoms
The symptoms of colds and flu can be a lot alike.
- Fever – It can last 3 or 4 days with the flu; it’s rare with a cold. Aches – They might be severe with the flu; they’re mild with a cold.
- Chills – You’re likely to have them with the flu, but they’re rare with a cold. Fatigue – This is common with the flu and happens sometimes with a cold. Sneezing – You’re more likely to have this with a cold than with the flu.
- Cough and chest discomfort – This is common with both but tends to be severe with the flu. Stuffy nose – This sometimes happens with the flu but is common with a cold.
- Sore throat – This can be common with the flu but is more likely with a cold. Headache – This is common when you have the flu but rare with a cold.
The study conducted on ILI during the year 2009-2010 in France by Stephane Vincent PharmD, Antoine Demonceaux, MD., and Marie-France Bordet, MD. In this study, 461 patients in the study, 197 (42.7%) were prescribed only allopathic medications and 72 (15.6%) were prescribed only homeopathic medications, but 192 (41.7%) were prescribed both homeopathic and allopathic medications. Furthermore, 115 of the 310 (37.1%) patients visiting AGPs were prescribed at least one homeopathic medication and 90 of the 151 (59.6%) patients visiting HGPswere prescribed at least one allopathic medication. AGPs prescribed the following agents more frequently:paracetamol (77.1% versus 38.4%; p < 0.0001); ibuprofen (31.6% versus 6.0%; p < 0.0001); other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (6.1% versus 0.0%; p < 0.0001); local antiseptics (12.3% versus 2.6%; p = 0.0004);
Nasal decongestants (26.8% versus 1.3%; p < 0.0001); antiemetics (3.6% versus 0.0%; p = 0.020); and antivirals (20.3% versus 1.3%;p < 0.0001). However, the HGPs prescribed different homeopathic dilutions more frequently as follows: Belladonna (6.1% versus 33.8%; p < 0.0001); Eupatorium perfoliatum (5.2% versus 30.5%; p < 0.0001); Gelsemium (7.1%
Versusthe22.5%; p < 0.0001); Bryonia (0.3% versus 21.2%; p < 0.0001); Influenzinum (5.2% versus 15.2%; p = 0.0003); and L52 (a mixture of several homeopathic dilutions of ILI medications; 1.6% versus 12.6%; p < 0.0001; Table 4). Oscillococcinum, a homeopathic medication used for ILI, was prescribed at similar rates for patients visiting AGPs and HGPs (19.4% versus 21.9%; not significant). Prescriptions for cough suppressants/expectorants, vitamins, minerals/other supplements, and antibiotics were uncommon ( < 6% of patients in both groups) and not significantly different between patients visiting AGPs and HGPs. patients who are under homoeopathic medication complained less frequently of headache, cough, muscle or body ache, chills, and nasal discharge than patients who are under allopathic medication. So, patients who are treated with homoeopathic medications only are more satisfied with their treatment than other patients.
The study conducted on ILI based on effectiveness of homoeopathic and allopathic medicine by pharmacists during the year 2013. In this study homoeopathic medicine treated the younger patients with more severe symptoms of ILI or ent symptoms in 3 days. 
The study conducted on ILI during the year 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandamic in India. In this study, the patients presented with prominent symptoms particularly temperature, cough, Runny nose treated with Arsenic album. 
MATERIALS AND METHODS;
SOURCE OF DATA. :-
Students of A.M. SHAIKH HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, HOSPITAL, BELGAUM, KARNATAKA.
Method of collection of data – Questionnaire (Annexure-1) Study design: Observational study
Type of Research: Survey method Sample size: 50
Participation subjects: students of both sexes between the age of 18-25 years.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: – On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria
Inclusion Criteria: –
College going students between the age group of 18- 25 years who are present at the time of study
Students who are participating in the study with their consent Students with RT-PCR negative report are included
Exclusion Criteria: –
Students who are below the age of 18 and above the age of 25 are excluded Students suffering with pre-existing diseases
Sample Method: Convenience sampling method. Duration of study: 6 months.
Total 51 persons responded for the survey. Out of which 73.1% are female and 26.9% are male (Table 1).
|Table 1: Sex Distribution|
Persons with different age groups who participated in the survey (Table 2)
Table 2: Age Group Distribution
Persons suffered with COVID positive in past 6 months (Table 3)
Table 3- Frequency of Positive COVID history
Persons suffered with ILI symptoms before treatment. (Table 4).
Table 4- Symptom-wise distribution of the study population
|Symptoms||No. Of persons suffered before treatment||%|
|Rise in temperature||19||37.3%|
Type of treatment taken by the persons who suffered with ILI symptoms (Table 5).
|Table 5-Type of treatment taken|
Number of persons who have residual symptoms after the treatment (Table 6).
Table 6- No. of subjects with residual symptoms after treatment.
|Residual symptoms||n (%)|
Frequency of residual symptoms after the treatment (Table 7).
Table 7- Frequency of residual symptoms after treatment.
|Residual symptom||No. Of persons (n)||%|
|Rise in temperature||3||5.9%|
INFLUENZA – LIKE ILLNESS (ILI) is a subset of acute respiratory infections (ARI) represents approximately 62% of acute respiratory infections. Viral pathogens are the most significant contributors. ARI is caused by many viruses, including the following: Influenza viruses (IAV, IBV, ICV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Rhinovirus (HRV), Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV), human enterovirus (HEV), human adenovirus (HADV).Clinical features of Influenza like illness are fever with or without chills, sore throat, cough, myalgia, runny nose, headache, fatigue. The present study“ SURVEY TO COMPARE THE RESIDUAL SYMPTOMS OF INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS AFTER TREATMENT WITH ALLOPATHY AND HOMOEOPATHY IN COLLEGE GOING STUDENTS Between THE AGE GROUP OF 18- 25 Years ” to know which method of treatment ( Allopathy or homoeopathy) is more efficient to treat influenza like illness with no or less number of symptoms.
For this study, we have conducted a survey to which 51 persons have responded with consent 98.1 %. Out of which 73.1% are female and 26.9% are male and their education qualifications is BHMS. Among 51 persons, 1.9% is of 18 years of age, 1.9% is of 21 years of age, 5.8% is of 22 years of age, 23.1% is of 23 years of age, 50% is of 24 years of age, 15.4% is of 25 age, 1.9% is of 26 years of age. In which 13.7% are tested positive and 86.3% tested negative in the past 6 months. Persons who have tested positive in past 6 months are excluded from the survey. Persons who suffered with Influenza like illness before treatment, out of which 60.8% suffered with Runny nose, 52.9%,suffered with cough, 52.9% with sore throat, 51% with Headache, 37.3% with rise in temperature, 31.4% with myalgia, 29.4% with chills. 80.4% has taken the treatment for the symptoms. In which 41.2% took Allopathic treatment, 51% took Homoeopathic treatment and 7.8% took other mode of treatment. In this survey we are comparing the residual symptoms of ILI after the treatment with Allopathy and Homoeopathy. So we are excluding the persons who took other mode of treatment from the survey. In that 43.1% have residual symptoms after the treatment and 56.9% have no residual symptoms.
In this survey, 41.2% took Allopathic treatment. In which 61.9% experienced residual symptoms and 38.09% have no residual symptoms. 51% took Homoeopathic treatment. In which 30.76% have experienced residual symptoms and 69.23% have no residual symptoms and 7.8% took other mode of treatment.
Persons who took homoeopathic treatment were found to have less number of residual symptoms when compared to the persons who took Allopathic treatment.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza activity – United States, 2012– 13 season and composition of the 2013–14 influenza vaccine MMWR, 62 (23) (2013), 474-479.
- World Health Pandemic influenza preparedness and response: a WHO guidance document, Global Influenza Programme, Geneva (2009). Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241547680_eng.pdf [accessed 05.06.22]
- Thomas RE. Is influenza-like illness a useful concept and an appropriate test of influenza vaccine effectiveness? 2014 Apr; 32(19):2143–9.
- Saha, Siddhartha, et al. “Estimation of Community-Level Influenza-Associated Illness in a Low Resource Rural Setting in ” PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 4, 26 Apr. 2018, p. e0196495, 10.1371/journal.pone.0196495. Accessed 11 Nov. 2020.
- Kelly H, Birch C. The causes and diagnosis of influenza-like illness. Aust Fam 2004 May;33(5):305-9. PMID: 15227858.
- Budd, Alicia, et “VPD Surveillance Manual 6 Influenza, Chapter 6: Influenza.” CDC.
- Vincent, Stéphane, et “Management of Influenza-like Illness by Homeopathic and Allopathic General Practitioners in France during the 2009–2010 Influenza Season.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, Feb. 2013, pp. 146–152, 10.1089/acm.2011.0706. Accessed 26 July 2021.
- Danno, Karine, et al. “Effectiveness of Homeopathic Medicine Associated with Allopathic Medicine in the Outpatient Management of Influenza-like Illnesses or Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders by Pharmacists.” Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 19, no. 8, Oct. 2013, pp. 631–641, 10.18553/jmcp.2013.19.8.631. Accessed 26 July 2021.
- Mathie, Robert T., et al. “Homeopathic Treatment of Patients with Influenza-like Illness during the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in India.” Homeopathy, vol. 102, 3, July 2013, pp. 187–192, 10.1016/j.homp.2013.04.001. Accessed 20 Nov. 2019.