Monthly Archives: January 2012

Central Council of Homoeopathy India – The Real Culprits

Posted in June 2007
The Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH)  itself the apex body to monitor the standards of Homoeopathic education in India – is determined to dilute the standards of education in Homoeopathy. This is due to immense lobbying by various vested interests, flouting all the established norms, standards. eligibility, and quality of Homoeopathic education in our country. No where in the country and no field of education, especially in medicine we find the external courses being offered at the cost of regular courses.

Majority of colleges in India are substandard even though CCH inspect them regularly !. Present MD exams are not conducted by strict slandered, as a result bulk of substandard doctors are passing out every year. CCH allowing colleges to start MD course who are still lacking the infra structure even for under graduation.

Homeopaths are facing more and more problems in our profession mainly due to vested interest of CCH and other governing bodies – they are the enemies with in the establishment itself. They give more importance to their personal gain rather than the dignity of Homoeopathy. We strongly protested against the attitudes of CCH and suggested a watchdog committee over CCH

This is a retrograde step in the history of medical education. The aforementioned steps initiated by the Central Council of Homoeopathy strongly spells its hidden interest to allow members to get re-elected in the forth coming elections to the council. Moreover some of the members of CCH have either their own colleges or investments in various private Homoeopathic Colleges all over the country. This is a classical example of commercialization and pimping in the medical field.

External MD :- By the introduction of the regular Post-Graduate studies in Homoeopathy, the system took a giant leap towards improving the standard and the quality in par with other prevalent systems of medicine. But by trying to propagate and introduce the External M.D. programme , CCH has degraded the sole purpose of the Post-Graduate studies.

Homoeopathic post graduate courses become a laughing stocks among medical circles. Every homoeopathic post graduate will be looked down upon and will be ridiculed. ” Are you a postal graduate or postgraduate?.” Basic qualification for a Post- Graduation is at the minimum a Graduation in all the universities. But External MD is a PG without a graduation.

External MD means obtaining a post graduate medical degree through postal .One can get this by simply sitting at home.Thre is no question of regular training including internship, case presentations, seminars, clinical discussions, teaching training and such kind of hard work. Just pay money and sit back at home. At the end of 2 year just write an exam for the namesake – get an MD degree.

It is nothing less than a crime if we, in this era of advancement of science and medicine, start to use those outdated and substandard tools such as external M.D, ignoring and disregarding the more efficient regular M.D. course to propagate our great system. It becomes a mockery, not just to anybody who believes in the advancement and progress, but to the very system of Homoeopathy . It is crystal clear that it is just an outcome of the insecurity feeling of various individuals who want to gain the benefits and privileges of the prestigious designation M.D. through much easier and stress free processes.

Earlier when we had approached the concerned Universities regarding the same, we had received more than a positive response and they welcomed such innovative and spirited ideology and communicated to the Central Council of Homoeopathy regarding the same. But the C.C.H. on the other hand out rightly ignored this plea by not responding. This particular stand of C.C.H. shows that they are retarding the growth of this true system of medicine. By doing so, the sitting councilors deliberately misuse the power of an association conferred to them.

The transitory provision for enabling the Diploma holders to take-up M.D. course for a period of 8 years from 1989, has no justification to be continued as a regular feature for another 8 years when hundreds of P.G. holders all over the country have been produced by various P.G. centers of studies in Homoeopathy

The gap between regular candidates and the external candidates is very wide. The continuation of the external P.G. course would defeat the concept of educational standards and excellence in the system. As a result, the patients would be precariously exposed to danger at the hands of Post- Graduate Homoeopaths having received the training as external candidates. Nowhere in the world MD degrees are given through postal way in modern medicine,Ayurveda or Unani. IMC(Indian medical council) has very strict norms regarding post graduate courses.

Some associations has filed civil writ petitions in Delhi High Court, Kerala High Court and Karnataka High Court stating that the system of external P.G. Degree is irrational, arbitrary and would endanger the system. The system of conferring Post-Graduate Medical Degrees by correspondence is opposed to all notions of organized training/education because such a degree with a shorter course and with no clinical and teaching training is adverse to the interest of the excellence and standard of education. It will only degrade and disintegrate the system of Homoeopathy in the long run

OTC Rule : – Another serious concern is the DTAB recommended OTC rule. In nut shell the OTC rule will help the sale of homoeopathic medicines through stationary shops,STD booths or other cheap method of sale without the prescription of a registered homoeopath. It is more saddening and astonishing that some perverted interests among some councilors and leading homoeopathic manufactures and even some doctors are behind this movement. They have fallen prey to the mischievous game plan of few homoeopathic pharmaceuticals whose interest is only in sheer enormous profit. This would only lead to misuse of drugs undermining the future interest of the system and profession. Without proper knowledge it will promote the abuse of medicine.

Our association responded in time and informed the matter to various authorities concerned and also those companies who are the real culprits. Our stern decision compelled the office bearers of some of the above said companies to visit us and assure that they have no role in the schedule K/OTC marketing and gave it in writing too to prove their innocence.

Short term course to MBBS holders : – CCH had taken a decision to start a short term course of below one year for allopathic doctors to introduce them into our profession and give registration to practice homoeopathy. It is a highly deplorable decision. In no way it will support the cause of homoeopathy rather it may degrade the whole system as happened in America. No one can master this great science and art like homoeopathy in few months. These allopathically minded half homoeopaths- mongrels- will certainly inhibit the growth of classical homoeopathy in our country. Can Indian Medical Council start a similar course to BHMS graduates in return ? Definitely not.

Bio technology :- Regarding non-inclusion of BHMS degree as one of the criteria for various Biotechnology. PG. and Doctoral Courses.

Applications for combined entrance examinations in Biotechnology for selection of candidates to the MSc & PhD programmes in different universities throughout the country are called during the month of March every year. But the eligibility criteria is any degree in life science with 55% aggregate marks including MBBS. BSc (MLT), BSc Nursing, BDS. But you could clearly see that BHMS is not given in the list. This means we as Homoeopathic physicians studying for 51/2 years in a most prestigious Homoeopathic Medical College is not accepted as par to even a degree holder in life science like Botany or BSc Zoology (which is a 3 yr course). This is a disgrace to this whole profession.

We boast Homoeopathy to be the medicine of the new millennium, we should be able to prove this to others, standing on the platform of biotechnology which other scientists in medicine will accept. Over 40,000 job opportunities are coming up every year in Biotechnology field; so once you get the eligibility, BHMS shall not be an end course leading only to MD (Hom) and shall open up other avenues of employment. We represented this matter several times to CCH but all in vain.

The real culprits : – Majority of the CCH members particularly of the PG committee and executive committee are having their own colleges or are having direct or perverted interested in some of the colleges. As per the new regulations, permission to start new MD courses can be given to colleges or hospitals having mere 25 beds, which show the power and influence of the few people , with vested interest in the CCH . Due to this several private colleges or so called hospitals will come up shortly with MD courses.

As per the new amendment dated 30.06.03- No additional reader is required in PG centers where UG courses are also being run. Separate departments, separate library and extra indoor beds are not required in PG canters if they are conducting UG courses also. No separate guides from the concerned subject is required for a couse,but guides from other department can be appointed as guides and any diploma holder with 20 years of experience can be appointed as guides. What an alarming situation. Is it really upgrade or downgrade homeopathy ? These amendments are really meant for private colleges without basic facilities.

When the whole medical world is busy with upgrading their standards, this step is in the retrograde direction. These are all due to only a handful of power full people with perverted and vested interest, who are more of business minded politicians,pimpers, less of homoeopaths.

We had received a complaint from PG students regarding the unnecessary delay in conducting the practical and vivas in Govt.Homoeopathic Medical College.Calicut as their theories were over in last December. This was due to the irresponsible attitude of CCH as they were not released the panel of examiners since last one year in spite of the repeated cry of students. We had submitted a memorandum to the university and also issued a press release in this regard . We are proud to say that as a result the university revalidated the panel and conducted the exam on 30th July – without waiting for CCH.

Majority of the homoeopathic colleges in India are substandard even though CCH inspect them regularly. Majority of the so called ‘inspectors’ obtaining bribe and grand good certificate to those colleges which are lacking even the basic requirements. We strongly recommend a CBI inquiry in this regard – against the CCH members who have earned lacks of rupees in unscrupulous way. How the Bakson’s homoeopathic medical college got recognition for BHMS & MD courses simultaneously ? Usually recognition to MD courses were given only after years of experience in BHMS

The so called inspectors once visited a  homoeopathic medical college in South India for inspecting the basic requirements for starting regular MD courses there. They were ready to grant permission but only on one condition- the management should start External MD first, then only regular MD. Saddening to know that this college currently producing so many ‘postal graduates’ through out South India.

The government of India have received many complaints about the malfunctioning of CCH and has decided to constitute a commission to inquire into the activity of CCH over a period of 5 years. Irregularities and corruptions done in CCH over a period of time have caught the eye of law makers and the Govt. of India.

Earlier authority of CCH manipulated his nomination and at the same time continued also as an elected member. According to section 5(2) Act of 1973 no person at the same time serve as a member at the same time in more than one capacity. SO many members of CCH are continuing in office even after expiry of their terms as per HCC Act. More over some of the office bearers of CCH against whom complaints have been received to the Government are still continuing in their position.

Ministry has written (letter no.14030/06/2002) to CCH regarding the decision to appoint a commission of inquiry and asked the CCH to send or appoint a member in the commission. Ridiculously CCH has decided to send the name of the accused  as a member of the commission of inquiry !

An executive meeting of CCH held on 27.07.03 has extended the recognition of various homoeopathic colleges without basic infrastructures for the year 2003-04. According to HCC Act 1973 , CCH has no right to take the decision regarding the recognition of the colleges. Repeated questions are put forward by the Members of Parliament  in both houses regarding the corruptions and indescripencies in the opening of new homoeopathic medical colleges, specially when most of the colleges belong to the sitting members of CCH including president and vice president.

So for protecting and promoting the interest of medical world and the system of homoeopathy we strongly recommend a JPC (Joint Parliamentary Committee) inquiry on the irregularities and corruptions done by CCH.  Aude Sapre

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Personality development & Homeopathy

 Dr Ajit Kulkarni   M.D. (Hom.)
“Emotional feelings, instead of finding expression and discharge in the symbolic use of words and appropriate behavior must be conceived as being translated into a kind of “organ language.” – Past Maclean, M.D. 

1. A. Introduction
Body language is all around us. It is a fascinating subject and a thrilling experience- to observe the motion of the ‘intelligent’ body and to analyze the context in which it is represented. Body language plays a significant role in oral communication. It is powerful and indispensable and now it has become a household word due to its popularity and utility.

The human being is the highly evolved perfect design of nature. His spoken language is the most prized possession, but his silence is no less precious. Hence it is said that “Speech is great, but silence is greater.” It is through communication that a human being SHARES and the body, synchronizing with the sub-conscious mind, gives off very sublet signs through choreography without the use of words. ‘Communication is like a dance,’ states Condon, ‘with everyone engaged in intricate and shared movements across many subtle dimensions, yet all strangely oblivious that they are doing so.’ The wise body opens its gate to an astute observer to fathom inner feelings, emotions, attitudes and ideas.

It is believed that a charming person has a pleasant voice, a dynamic person has a vibrant voice and a confident person an assured voice. Body language is often regarded as a secondary product and its value is underestimated. However, it could be primary, it could project even before words have taken their shape and it could be the only language through which a patient can express himself. The body language is not merely a physical manifestation of the spoken words but in fact it has its own independent interpretation of the feelings, irrespective of the meanings and the spoken words being delivered therein.

1. B. The Dimensions of Body Language
Our bodies are ambassadors of our inner self. They convey more than our tongues. Research has shown that 35% of the messages are carried verbally, while 65% are conveyed non – verbally (Birdwhistell). Mehrabian put forward that communication is 7% verbal, 38% vocal and 55% non-verbal. The truth is that more communication takes place by the use of gestures, postures, position and distance than by any other way.

A human being communicates through verbal and non-verbal language. Exchange of words refers to verbal communication while non-verbal communication refers to all external stimuli other than spoken or written words and includes bodily gestures, postures, facial expressions, personal appearance, eye contact, modulations in voice and the use of space and distancing.

Our bodies are rarely still. Our feet, hands, eyes and heads are moving all the time. Our expressions change. We pull faces, rub our noses, run our hands through our hair and do all sorts of things which, when taken in isolation, seem very odd. However, what is happening is quite straightforward – our bodies are ‘talking’. We can guard our tongues- but not so easily shut off our body language.

Body language and kinesics are based on the behavioral patterns of non – verbal communication. Although a developing science, kinesics has added a new dimension to human understanding. Sigmund Freud observed, “He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chats with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore.”

1. C. Our Bodies, Emotions and Modern Life
Emotions are basic to human beings. Being emotional is a part of being human. A human being has a rich vocabulary of emotion cues showing how he feels about himself and others. In the realm of emotions, the cues are usually unintentional, involuntary and unconscious. Body language and emotions are almost inseparable as body movement is central to emotional expressiveness. The intensity of emotions charges the non-verbal brain to dictate its commands; the body obediently follows the commands and presents its choreography on the screen.

In view of accelerated tempo of life, the modern man has to face with a pronounced exposure of emotional stress. Today the modern man has become a speed merchant, driving the motor of his life. Chronic time shortage, changing patterns of activity, greater load of information and more active interpersonal relationships – have affected the verbal communication. The need to pay attention to non-verbal one has, hence, considerably increased. One of the major aspects of Body Language is the expression of emotions. Emotions refer to such states as happiness, depression and anxiety, and milder ‘moods’ such as feelings of pleasure and displeasure, varying degrees of excitement or drowsiness, and the arousal and satisfaction of hunger, sex and other drives. There are three components in each case: a physiological state, a subjective experience, and a pattern of non-verbal signals – in the face, voice and other areas.

Emotions are recognized from a whole pattern of non-verbal signals, which are usually consistent with each other and with the expectations created by the context. They provide information about intensity, and about the tense versus the relaxed dimension. A tense person sits or stands rigidly, upright or leaning forward, often with hands clasped together, legs crossed, and muscles tense. In such a case, the hands and feet display the emotions while the face tries to conceal.

Infants have their own ‘language’ to express their emotions and moods. A mother recognizes when her child is happy through facial gestures such as bright eyes, bulging (smiling) cheeks, giggles, squeaks and belly-laughs accompanied by joyful sound (monosyllabic). Whereas, when a child is sick, his mouth is twisted into a grimace, cheeks droop and he utters grunts and growls.

2. A. Elements of visible code:
The elements which are visually perceived and which perform role in communication are collectively termed as “visible code”.

Personal Appearance: Everyone wants to be “in the eye of the beholder.” Everyone is concerned with first impression. Every person has its own aura that vibrates, that pervades, that permeates and that renders its unique message to the outer world.

One’s appearance may put the others into a resistant or even a hostile attitude or induce in them a receptive mood. A physician has to understand how his patient reacts to him: positively, negatively or neutrally. The patient’s appearance and clothing need careful observation. Dirty look, crumpled clothing suggests alcoholism, drug addiction, depression, dementia, schizophrenia etc. Manic patients may wear bright colors, incongruous styles of dress or appear poorly groomed.

Six elements are considered in personal appearance; Clothes, Footwear, Hairstyle, Ornaments, Make-up and Aromas.

Posture: Refers to the way one stands, sits and walks. The movement of the body, the position of hands and legs and other parts of the body reveal individual’s personality-whether he is vibrant, alive and dynamic, nervous and jittery, confident and self-assured, etc. The posture of sitting may exude an air of optimism, or despondency or be indicative of a sense of failure or of inattentiveness. Walking posture may convey whether a person is confident, energetic, withdrawn, diffident or nervous.

Gestures: A gesture is a sign, signal or cue used to communicate in tandem with, or apart from, words. A gesture is the verbal or non-verbal body movement used to express or emphasize an idea, an emotion, or a state of mind. Gesture is defined as ‘visible’ bodily action by which meaning is represented (Kendon, 1983). Each gesture is like a word in a language.

Gestures play a significant role in making the communication effective. A well-timed gesture can drive a point home. Similarly playing with a ring, twisting a key-chain, or clasping one’ s hand tightly robs a speaker of the effectiveness of his communication. Sometimes gestures render elementary and short messages such as “yes”, “no”, “come here”, “go there”, “be silent”, etc. However, all oral communications are accompanied by gestures such as shrugging of the shoulders, flourish of the hands, movement of head, etc. In fact, without the accompanying gestures it would be difficult to speak. These gestures add a greater value to what is being said besides exercising a more powerful impact.

Facial Expressions: “Face is the mirror of life.” Our face a. defines our identity; b. expresses our attitudes, opinions, and moods; and c. shows how we relate to others. A face is every human’s visual trade mark, and is therefore, the most photographed part of the human body. Emotionally, the face is mightier than the word. So closely is emotion tied to facial expression that it is hard to imagine one without the other.

Our face is exquisitely expressive. Its features are incredibly mobile, more so than any other primate. A smile (friendliness), a frown (discontent), raising the eyebrows (disbelief), or tightening the jaw muscles (antagonism) can add to the meaning being conveyed through verbal means.

A wooden expression on the face may prejudice the listeners and it could also be an expression of parkinsonism, schizophrenia or depression; brightness in the eyes may keep their interest sustained and evoke an enthusiastic response. Biting the lips, blinking the eyes or raising the eyebrows at regular intervals often mar the smooth flow of communication. Anxious patients generally have horizontal creases on forehead, raised eyebrows, widened palpebral fissures and dilated pupils.

Eye Contact: Eyes reveal a great deal about our emotions, convictions and moods. Hess (1975) observes that the eyes give the most revealing and accurate of all human communication signals because they are a focal point of the body and the pupils work independently. Whiteside (1975) describes the eyes as ‘the windows of your soul….. and the mirrors of your heart…… and the gauges showing fleeting feelings and changes.’ One can see the anatomical importance of the eye as “an extension of the brain.” Gazing at another’s eyes arouses strong emotions. ‘The eye can threaten like a loaded and levelled gun; or can insult like hissing and kicking; or in its altered mood by breams and kindness, make the heart dance with joy’ (Emerson).

The eyes can be steely, knowing, mocking, piercing, shifting….. They can level a ‘burning’ glance or a ‘cold’ glance or ‘hurt’ glance or again, they can be wise, knowing, inviting, scary, disinterested, and so on.

Space and Distancing: A fascinating area in the non-verbal world of Body Language is that of spatial relationships or proxemics – the study of people’s appreciation and use of space. Each person maintains a personal territory around himself. He normally does not allow it to be invaded at the time of communication. This has reference also to ‘standing-seated position.’ Space distancing differs from culture to culture, from individual to individual. The amount of space a person needs is determined by his personality.

It is important to observe the way a patient sits in the chair. A puffy, egoistic person having lust for power is not happy with one chair. He may occupy more space by extending his arms. On the other hand, a shy and reserved patient occupies himself in less space.

Modulations of voice: Tone of voice reflects psychological arousal. Speech is an indispensable means for sharing ideas, feelings, and observations and for conversing about the past and future. A significant number of voice qualities are universal across all human cultures.

a) Interpretation of voice

  • Speaking loudly and rapidly = Anger or lack of interest in the other person’s view. The speaker has run out of the logical support for his view.
  • Clear controlled steady voice = Confidence
  • Lively, bouncy, well modulated speech=Enthusiasm. Politeness.
  • Lowered volume, reduced pitch, rate and intonation = Negative attitude.
  • Nervousness
  • To mumble or gabble = Excitement. Fear
  • Hesitation = Lower confidence
  • Crying, Moaning and Sighing = Sighing. Silent grief. Complaining nature
  • Hiss and boo = Disapproval
  • The softer pitch = Friendship

b) Reading mind through laugh
Human laughter varies greatly in form, duration and loudness. One can ‘read’ laughter from the sounds that ensue. ‘Ha-Ha’ is laughter that is genuine, coming straight from the heart. It expresses pure joy and self-fulfillment. ‘He-He’ is mocking laugh, usually issuing from a condescending remark or a joke about a person. ‘Hee-Hee’ suggests a secret giggle or a snigger that is emitted when a person is being cynical or spiteful. ‘Ho-Ho’ communicates surprise, even disbelief, by a person who is critical, protesting, or challenging.

c) Speech and psychiatric illness
Speech may be fast, as in mania or slow, as in depression. Depressed patients may pause for a long time before replying to questions and may then give short answers, producing little spontaneous speech; the same among shy people or low intelligence patients. Sudden interruptions may indicate thought blocking or may be effects of distraction. Rapid shifts from one topic to another suggest flight of ideas, while general diffuseness and lack of logical thread may indicate thought characteristic of schizophrenia.

2. B. Basic modes
John Mole (1999) gives graphic description of the four basic modes of Body Language.

There are 4 basic modes- Open, Closed, Forward and Back. In Open mode gestures indicate ‘open’ attitudes – open palms, open arms, open body; (no physical gestures like crossed arms or crossed legs) and face-to face interaction. Extroverted persons show this mode more. In Closed category fall the most obvious gestures and postures, like crossed arms, crossed legs, body turned away. Introverts fall here more. Forward mode involves postures that indicate activity in communication. Leaning forward, strong eye-to-eye contact, pointing the finger emphatically, loud voice etc. In Back category we find leaning-back postures, staring at the ceiling, doodling, or cleaning one’ s glasses, signalling whether the person is passively absorbing or ignoring the message.

There are four combinations of posture groups in four basic modes. The Responsive mode (Between Open and Forward), The Reflective mode (Between Open and Back), The Fugitive mode (Between Closed and Back) and The Fugitive mode (Between Closed and Back).

If a homoeopath keeps in mind these basic modes and apply them correctly, it is easy to understand the utility of body language. The remedies could be categorized for the sake of their application. But one must understand that the mode of a patient must be the crucial factor, it must define the personality, it must explore the inner self in an unambiguous and convincing way.

2. C. Decoding nonverbal messages: some examples
Lifting one eyebrow
: disbelief, shock, surprise, feeling of moral/value assault on them, judgement (of a person, what they said, or the situation they find themselves in)

Pointing the finger: emphasis, attacking, assaulting the other person, aggressive move, wants to control the situation between the two people, arrogant, i know more/better than you do

Singing a song / tune: distraction / music–nervousness, unable to relax, feels out of place or not part of what is going on, outside the clique

Enlarging the eyeballs: astonishment– shock, surprise, feeling of moral/value assault on them

Rubbing the nose: puzzlement, wanting time to think or feel more about it, buying time to search for the answer they don’t have at the moment

Shrug the shoulders: indifference–i don’t care, it’s not my responsibility (issue or event that is being discussed or that the person finds herself/himself in), detachment (healthy type in that you know it’s not your business to stick your nose in, or you should not be involved because it isn’t wise/healthy to do so), understanding whatever is the issue/event, it is not mine to get involved with (this is a double-sided comment. If the person is healthy, they realize they shouldn’t be involved. However, if the person is co-dependent/victim personality, they may do this to escape or get out from beneath a controlling/abusive individual/situation).

Tapping of fingers: impatience, hurry up!

Body in motion: anti-rest, nervous (legs crossed, flicking foot back and forth as an example), restless (doesn’t want to sit still for one of a thousand reasons), escape! (Person may feel inadequate, threatened, fears the other individual)

It is important to note that a single gesture may convey many meanings. It is necessary to interpret the gesture in the context of the totality of data and individuality of the patient.

3. A. Body language and Homoeopathy
Homoeopathy recognizes a man as the multi-dimensional, composite entity where mind, body and spirit are viewed upon through indivisibility. The study of a human being in totality involves paying attention to both verbal and non-verbal communication. It is not always that the patient will speak with a physician in a ‘free’ way. Patient’s nature, his dispositions, his composure, the frame of reference (the environment in which setting physician== patient interaction takes place), the experiences in the life of a patient etc. have a role to play in communication block.

3. B. Homoeopathic Interview
Imagine conducting an interview with a patient behind a two-way a mirror. We wouldn’t have the benefit of responding to their facial expressions and would feel quite unnerved by the experience. Every little frown or smile gives us the caution or confidence to make our next statement and it is a sublime skill which every human being has developed since childhood. In other words, if we do not look at the Body Language and take on interview only through verbal exchange, such an interview would be a dry one. Somehow, the feeling will be that there is no life or soul in the interview.

Homoeopathic interrogation is an intricate and complex process of making our patients talk; for, the aim is not only to come out with a nosological diagnosis but to understand the patient through his emotions, intellectual faculties, delusions, dreams, life-space account and the kinesics of the patient which add flavor to each response of the patient.

3. C. Resemblances between Homoeopathy and Body Language
When I compare the two fields of body language and homoeopathy, I am astonished to find some striking resemblances.

1. The concept of totality – One of the warning signals of body language is that it must not be interpreted in isolation. It must be studied in clusters. In homoeopathy also one must study on the basis of totality and not on fragmentary data.

2. The Man behind sickness – It is the Man who moves the body. The whole process of interpretation of body language revolves around the man; homoeopathy too advocates the same principle.

3. Commonality – In homoeopathy data commonality is a universal feature, so also in body language. What is important in both fields is to look for individualistic symptoms / gestures.

4. Contradictoriness – Often the gestures and verbal language do not go harmoniously and in homoeopathy too, anomalies or contradictory symptoms are presented by a patient.

5. Judgment – Judgment plays a pivotal role in both – the study of body language and homoeopathy. The caution is that one must avoid going for prejudgment. One must judge only after gesture – cluster / totality have been perceived.

6. Perceptive field – The whole process of homoeopathic interrogation and patient’s observation of visible code is through sharpening of the awareness by relying on facts.

7. Analytical process – Both body language and homoeopathy extensively utilizes the analytical process in order to derive a concrete reality.

8. From ‘gestures’ / symptoms to a ‘person’ – Just as the symptoms are external manifestations of an internal malady, body language core elements exhibit the internal man which one has to explore.

9. The phenomenological concept – In phenomenon we discuss cause —- effect relationship, chronological sequence, origin, zenith and nadir under time-space continuum. Both body language and homoeopathy utilize the phenomenological concept.

3. D. Utility of Body Language for a Homoeopath
• One-sided diseases.
• Psychiatric difficulties.
• Semantic difficulties.
• Pediatrics cases.
• Contradictory / ill-defined data.
• Deaf, dumb, imbecile cases.
• Understanding ‘inner’ personality in a better way.
• Evaluating mental expressions, dispositions and mental state.
• Giving gradation to mental symptoms by appreciating the associated body language.
• Enriching and simplifying the intricate study of Materia Medica and Repertory.
• Explaining the rubrics with the help of body language.
• Living Materia Medica – adding ‘life’ in the drugs
• Body language serves to act as a facilitator in conversation.
• Body language may unlock the issue under exploration and may unlock, thus, the entire case too.
• Saves the valuable time.

3. E. Homoeopathic Materia Medica and Body language
The study of Materia Medica encompasses within its domain the study of a human being in totality. It encompasses the study of perceiving Man in all of its fields, ramifications, and through all angles possible. The study of a human being can’t be a dry subject because human personality is multi-dimensional, manifold, sensitive, and vibrant and gives out through so many colours and hues that his study becomes a highly fascinating one.

Each remedy is a wealth of thousands of symptoms, and there are thousands of remedies which, taken together, represent the enormous gamut of human suffering. The thousands of symptoms at emotional, intellectual and physical levels, the clinical information allow us, with the utilization of various faculties, to regard each Homoeopathic remedy, at least the polychrest variety, as a full-blown human being. This is the concept of ‘living’ Materia Medica. The remedy talks, vibrates, throbs, and shows all human emotions.

Within the span of 200 years enormous work has been added from various sources. Apart from clinically verified data which now outweigh the proving data, we find additions coming from physical appearance (make-up), attire, craving for a particular object, color or issue, linking of gestures which has been observed by a physician in his clinic and the behavioural responses which our patients (their counterpart drugs also) exhibit and the research in various fields which is occurring by leaps and bounds is utilized.

3. F. Linking Remedies with Basic Modes
Some polychrest remedies are presented below by linking their dispositional characters with the basic modes of body language.

Some of the drugs of Materia Medica are presented through the study of Body Language. ‘The core rubrics which define the personality of a remedy’ are regarded as parameters to link Body Language. The unifying principle that binds the components of a remedy together is the base as also the pattern of energy fundamental to that specific remedy to understand the body language.

3. G. Linking personality of drugs to Body Language
1. Platina: The core issues concern impression, beauty, sexuality and projecting the self. The energy is utilized for the same and the body assumes the role of showing off.

a) High self image / superiority / Egoistic / Pride: Head high with chin pointing upwards. Look is contemptuous. Legs are crossed and arms folded with erect posture. Giving jerks to neck with eye to eye contact for that moment.

b) Disdain / Arrogance: Contemptuous upward movement of neck with head high and eye-brows raised.

c) Gayness / Beauty consciousness: Appearance – excessive use of ornaments; make-up and dressing, sense of expensive type. Showy type. Also gaudy. Constantly taking care of make-up and hair-style. Hair – style of modern type and usually not suitable to the age of patient.

d) Nymphomania: Sexual eyes. Making lascivious gestures. Looking through. Too much learning forward and blinking of eyes. Kissing or embracing.

2. Lycopodium: Inflated ego, need of more space, more power, taking hold of the situation, encroachment on others and manipulation are the core issues. The inner weakness also gets reflected in body language.

a) Confidence, want of: Eye to eye contact less. Fingers on mouth frequently.

b) Haughty: Eye-brows raised with head tilt back. Blinking. Looking up while

c) Contradiction is intolerant of and anger < contradiction: Frowning. Wrinkling of eye-brows. Direct eye contact with flushing of face. Clenched fist with stroking on table. Pointing index finger frequently. Constantly re-questioning to physician. Continued eye contact with dilatation of pupils, contracted brows Memory, weakness of. Forgets names of places and of closely related persons while talking in interview.

d) Dictatorial: Chin upwards with head backwards. Good eye to ye contact occurs but direct piercing book. Blinking over sensitive issues. Leaning backwards, with one ankle resting on other knee. Commanding voice.

e) Anticipatory anxiety: In waiting chamber: Restlessness. Constantly asking questions to a receptionist. Punctual of time.

f) Boasting: Hands behind head. Head high. Steeping gestures.

g) Superiority complex: Standing up-right, sitting with arms spread apart on chair, hands behind neck, eyebrows, raised, loud, dictatorial voice.

h) Lies, inclination to tell: Touching nose with hand especially at the end of sentence with poor eye to eye contact and robbing of eyes.

i) Malicious: Raising of eye-brow with side glances especially when talking about the person concerned.

3.Lachesis: Tremendous energy. The emotions are at high pitch and must be ventilated. The body synchronizes with the energy and more choreography is represented.

a) Suspicion: Failing to make eye to eye contact. Glancing sideways. Rubbing or touching nose. Frequent cleansing of glasses.

b) Dictatorial: Proud erect body stance with chin forwards. Leaning back with hand behind head. Resting feet on desk. Continued eye contact with less blinking. Stands with erect body and legs apart. While sitting one ankle is resting on the other knee. While answering frequently pointing index finger.

c) Excited: Excessive forward leaning. Dilated pupils. Voice loud and bouncing.

d) Anger-violent: Flushed face. Pointing fingers while talking. Dilated pupils. Anger usually associated with abusive language. Body rigid. Fists clenched. Lips closed and held in a light thin line. Body in motion due to intense emotional energy.

e) Sarcastic: While answering smiling from one corner and raising of eye-brows. Arguing with the physician, aiming to discourage him by certain words.

f) Inquisitive (Children): Constantly asking number of questions. Flash-bulb type of eyes. Handling and desire to know the working mechanism of toys or instruments present over desk.

g) Aggressive: Leaning forward. Finger pointing. Fists clenched. Talks with loud voice as if not interested in other’s view. Encroaches upon others.

h) Loquacity: Jumping from one point to other without head or tail. Voice loud and bouncy. Suffocating other during talk.

i) Exaggerated / Over-enthusiastic: Constantly moving hands while expressing enthusiastic complaints. Appearance – dark. Make-up with use of fluorescent colors in dressing and showy (unsuitable to the age).

4. A. Some suggestions for physicians

  • Simply, be ‘open.’ Be aware of your own body posture.
  • Do not cross arms in front of you, or cross your legs away from the person you are talking with.
  • Maintain eye contact. Glance away periodically to prevent intimidation but not at crucial moments. Converse at patient’s eye level.
  • ‘Touch.’ It helps patient know that you view them as ‘people.’ A pat on the back, a light touch on the shoulder can be reassuring to patients. But beware of its universal application.
  • ‘Barriers.’ Masks, safety glasses, gloves, bibs etc. Communicate ‘barrier free’ with the patient.
  • ‘Facial expressions.’ Openness, smile, eagerness, interest yet serious and sincere.
  • ‘Tone of voice.’ Polite tone. Speak slowly, articulately. Proper enunciation and pronunciation of words.
  • ‘Body Movements.’ Avoid excessive, repeated movements of body, legs, hands, fingers etc.
  • The FIRST person you need to impact with positive Body Language is not others, but YOURSELF.

4. B. Epilogue
Both nature and nurture (e.g. culture) play a role in body language. Hence ‘movements’ need interpretation. They are highly unique, succinct and individual. They deal with nuance, with feeling, with degree. One has to recognize them. ‘All movements of the body have meaning. None is accidental.’ The specific meaning of body movement may be different from person to person. Sometimes body language may not coincide with verbal language. The interpretation requires high skill and perspective vision. Hence, it is always better to see the body language in conjunction with verbal language and not in isolation; together they comprise a dual dialogue. If they match and are consistent with each other, they strengthen and underscore the meaning.

One swallow doesn’t make a summer and one body language signal doesn’t necessarily make a message. It is estimated that humans are capable of producing more than 650, 0000 nonverbal signals. Body language is full of ambiguities. To have clarity, one must focus on the cluster of signals and upon those signals that are persistent, pervasive, repeated and characteristic. The words (i.e. verbal language) themselves are produced by articulated body movements of the vocal tract is also a point to be noted.

Body language opens up new vistas of perceptions heretofore unexplored. The language of symbols, the language of universal symbolism is blended with holistic philosophy of homoeopathy and a homoeopathic physician will miss a lot if he neglects the important information flowing from the cluster of symbols, signs and cues. Hence the issue of ‘non-verbal consciousness’ has a great scope in homoeopathic practice. It is a peep-hole into patient’s hidden conflicts and feelings and will certainly help a homoeopath in knowing an elusive and indefinable mind. The concept of totality which is central to homoeopathic prescribing will be redefined if we include appropriate appreciation of body language. At the same time, a homoeopath must know its limitations and he should be wary of its exclusive clinical application. Body language must be interpreted in reference to the situation, the context, and the culture of the people involved and there can be variations.

Dr.Ajit Kulkarni

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Homoeopathic Education – Changing trends

Dr Mansoor Ali
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College. Calicut

If you neglect making an effective teaching…the students will be the first sufferer …then your college will suffer from it…then patients…and ultimately homoeopathy also 

A student has to spend 4800 hours in a homeopathic institute.

  • 1 BHMS : 1610 hours
  • II BHMS : 1065 hours
  • III BHMS : 950 hours
  • IV BHMS : 1175 hours

But the quality of homeopathic education is decreasing day by day. Professionally honest educators, who are genuinely interested in teaching, are decreasing day by day. Teachers are more interested in private practice and fabricated seminars which increase their income and popularity rather than regular classroom or clinical teaching. More than 80% death in faculty. The love respect relationship between students and teachers are also at the minimum. There are many factors to blame.

Many teachers think that, he/she is a paid employee and therefore his duty is only to teach in the prescribed period without knowing the pulse of the student. Thus students lose interest in the particular subject that is being taught.

The guidance and counseling does not exist anymore. The students after completing the course are in the dark and unable to decide upon the future. If the teacher takes interest and give some guidance and counseling this problem will be solved. Also those who come out will be better equipped to combat in the fierce fighting field of today’s.

Knowledge is expanding so fast that a teacher, however well informed, cannot clear all the doubts of the students. But students could be guided to the source from which the requisite details are obtainable.

Instead of feeding the students with standardized text book based knowledge, teachers could insist in inquisitive learners, real thirst for self-learning. Teachers should be facilitators for self-learning than dictators of pre- fabricated notes. We have to give something extra or that which is not available in text books.

In every class, teacher is likely to come across a few bright students, who could outsmart the teacher. This should not disturb the teacher’s ego. Rather it should remind him to be a lifelong learner.

Your teaching should be like the miniskirt, large enough to cover the subject but short enough to make it interesting. We have to convey large amount of information within the prescribed time by maintaining the interest of the students.

One of the basic requirements for a good teacher is his ability to retain the interest of the students. Most of us don’t pay much attention to acquiring skills for effective communication with students. Many teachers fail miserably in spite of their superior knowledge in the subject. To ensure greater and more successful interaction with students, it is necessary to acquire skills of communication.

Good working atmosphere: Involvement of all the members requires for success of any institute. Means Principal should lead teachers & students and walk behind them. A regular training by the management experts are essential to the administration. Many of the Principals & Supdts have less ability in dealing with subordinates- that creates so many irresolvable problems and ‘groupisms’  in colleges. A principal must believe in team work through participation.  The way the principal & staff plays as a whole determines the success of college.

Difference in perception
The same thing is often perceived differently by different students _ this may be because of difference in age, socio-cultural circumstances and life experience _ the communication may not serve the intended purpose.

Here lies the importance of feed back. If you skillfully encourage group participation, you would be able to obtain a feed back, so that the gap in the shared information can be identified and doubts removed.

Poor motivation & interest
If the person you are talking to is not interested in what is being said, the message gets lost without making an impact. They may be physically present with you; their mind may not be with you. You must be aware of these aspects. To interest and motivate the receivers to come and listen to you requires tremendous communication skill. So plan your classes in such a way that it is appealing and also generates interest and curiosity.

Look for reactions of students you are communicating with. Watch for their changing expressions, gestures and non verbal clues as these would give you some idea about   how they are reacting. 

Communication is sharing if you share something personal about yourself, it can encourage others to become more open. This will establish a   bond for effective communication & understanding. That is why case presentation is more useful for teaching clinical subjects. If we are teaching practice of medicine, repertory or organon through case presentation, it will be retained for a long time in the memory of students.

Listen to others without criticism or comments; you must listen with an unbiased open mind. Don’t display your authority or knowledge excessively, for then the others tends to get defensive. A good teacher always tries to reduce the defensive behavior in others thus promoting a better communication.

Be sensitive to the reactions of the students towards you and to your style of communication. If you sense their reaction to be negative, then introspect and reflect upon yourself and see where you may be making mistakes.

Viva Voce  : Current oral examination has been a tool to exam thinking power of a student rather than assessing the depth of the knowledge and student feels that this amassment is based on  a chance factor. No measures have evolved so far to improve viva in medical examinations. Its main objective should be test the professional competence of the student. A viva should contains closed questions, open questions, initial questions, probing questions, hypothetical questions, challenge questions, context questions and interactive questions.

Institutional Linkage: National or international programme collaboration with innovative medical institutes. Also inter departmental collaboration with in the college is essential. Network learning encourage active communication & learning among attendees. 

Teachers role in curriculum planning: Even after many revisions by CCH, our syllabus didn’t bring any required out come because of the lack of the teachers or academicians involvement in curriculum planning.. For example : 25 remedies were included in I BHMS of which only two polychrests, rest are rear remedies. How a student can suggest a remedy in 2nd or 3rd year clinical posting without have knowledge about commonly used remedies. Similarly SPM should be taught in 2nd year. So that students may have more clinical exposure than theory in final BHMS.  It is better to have semester based syllabus. English and computer training should be included in the syllabus.

Incentives: Many of the homeopathic medical colleges are giving comparatively less salary to teachers. That result in dissatisfaction among faculty.

Clinical practice:   A teacher without clinical skills or practice will not arouse faith of the students especially if he is teaching clinical subjects. We have to demonstrate it in our IPD & OPD. Always remember that students will not believe in what you say but what you do. Teachers are role models.

Reading: A teacher without in-depth knowledge is not able to maintain the standard of education. Wide and in-depth reading is highly essential for teachers. We must have good libraries with internet facility.  “A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continuous to burn its own flame.. So also a teacher never truly teach unless he is still teaching himself..   Rabindra Nath Tagore.

Organon teachers : It is not possible to teach Organon without in-depth knowledge in that subject. They have to demonstrate the applied organon in OPD & IPD. eg. Concept of miasm,12 observations of Kent, hering’s law of cure etc. Without it, teaching organon is merely a waste of time. Once a student master Organon, it is very easy to practice , but it depends on the teachers who teaches Organon.

We have to teach basic text books like organon, chronic disease, lesser writings of Hahnemann by Dudgeon, materia medica pura etc.  both in UG and PG level. Without these books it is very difficult to get basic idea of homoeopathy and students become confused by different schools of homeopathy or seminar people.

Student centered teaching encourages them to find solutions by themselves with appropriate guidance. Teaching is case centered where the clinical cases help formulate directives for learning. This encourages students to refer to the relevant and related subjects in the syllabus. Integration is achieved through exposition and discussion of these experiences with reference to different related subjects in the curriculum.

Case presentations by students followed by discussions, help them to develop the analytical skill and the capacity of synthesis.

To achieve this, deeper insights into the syllabus helped us to develop a very finely tuned curriculum along with a well trained staff and cooperation of all the departments involved.

The teaching also involves a group discussion method aiming to integrate the teaching and faculty from different departments.

Department of AYUSH under the leader ship of Dr.Eswara Das now doing tremendous efforts to uplift the quality of homeopathic education by ROTP ( Re-orientation training programmes) for teacher at various institute all over India. This programme will cover the teaching of the entire subject at the undergraduate and postgraduate level with special emphasis on methodology of teaching. They are sending the abstract /study materials in advance through e-mail. So the learning will be directly proportional to participants’ preparation before the session and active interaction during the session. This scheme provides sufficient TA,DA and accommodation to participants and resources persons. A really commendable effort.

Teacher training make a teacher more mature, more confident & more effective. We don’t have BEd or MEd like courses. Only a trained teacher is able to raise the standard of education and reduce the failure rate. It is better to have regular teacher training programmes since teaching methodologies are changing and updating yearly. We have very good teachers and very good students but poor teaching skills. Even the best medical curriculum or perfect syllabus would remain dead unless quickened in to life by the right method of teaching.  

LECTURE – A different approach
Lecturing is a traditional and most popular method of communication and is especially useful when information has to be communicated to a large group. The communication in the lecture method is largely one way and is often information oriented.

Since the lecture method is basically a one way communication, you can convey a large amount of information in a short time without any interruptions. You can also decide the sequence of information to be imparted.

The successful use of this method will depend on your competence and skill. If you have access to correct & adequate information, and have rehearsed and timed delivery of the content, you would be successful. Lecturing is very demanding for the new speakers and preparations are a must. Remember it is a skill that can be mastered only through practice. 

Lectures, tutorials and bed side clinics are conducted keeping problem based learning at the centre. Students are encouraged to find the answers themselves through a guided programme.

Organising a Lecture

 Plan your lecture session under 4 heads

  • Introduction
  • Body of the talk
  • Recapitulation
  • Summary

First give a brief introduction, this link the topic of your lecture with the previous knowledge of the receivers.

The content to be talked about form the body of the lecture.

The information to be provided and its logical sequence must be planned well so that you don’t go back and forth.

To make your lecture more effective, you must repeat the main points lectured by you _ this is recapitulation

After recapitulation, you may ask receivers to summaries the Main learning points. This is essential as it reinforces points and also gives you a feedback as to how much the receivers have understood your lecture.

Suggestion to improve lecture method
1. Ask questions in between your lecture to encourage participation. This will stimulate the audience to think and they will be more attentive.

2. Plan your lecture such that there is enough time at the end of the lecture to clarify the doubts of the audience.

3. While imparting information, try to illustrate what you say through examples.

4. Try to introduce quotations and humorous anecdotes in your lecture. It helps to hold the interest of the listeners, there by promoting better bondage and communication. But it should be appropriate to the circumstances.

5. Combine different methods with the lecture to make the communication more participatory. Use methods like demonstrations, case study presentation, audio & video aids etc. in conjunction with the lecture method. This will go a long way in fostering better understanding of the subject under discussion.

6. Examine the true purpose of each lecture and consult with others where appropriate, in planning a lecture.

Role of communication aids
The role of communication aids in education is to make learning real, practical and fun through seeing, hearing, discovering and doing.

Advantages of aids:

  • Communication aids help to reduce the talking verbatim of the communicator.
  • They help to make communication situation interesting.
  • They help to increase the receiver’s participation.

Preparation depends and varies on the type of students. Make your own contribution while using any aids, display the key points only in the slides, the rest you have to explain – otherwise the students may sit like watching a movie- not listening to the speaker or content. The teacher should be the center of attraction and not the screen.

Internship: Currently we have only internship, no internship training. Many Interns and PGs are merely wasting their time even though CCH has designed a good protocol for them.

Evaluation: Long term or short term evaluation/assessment both at the class room level and college level with a good college calendar is essential in all institutes.

Empty your cup.  A full cup cannot accept anything more.  Similarly, a teacher who believes that he had learnt a lot, cannot learn anything else & will stagnate quickly and not move to higher levels. Even the teachers have teachers.

Attitude of teachers determines the altitude of homoeopathy.
A small change in attitude of teachers makes very big difference. So come out from the conventional method of teaching and introduce innovative concepts so that teaching & learning become more interesting. Teachers must have good vision, loyalty and dedication. Only teachers can able to raise the standard of homoeopathy.

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Medical professionals must update knowledge,skills,attitude

There is an imminent need for all teachers, in particular medical professionals, to update themselves periodically on knowledge, skills and attitudes, S.P. Thyagarajan, Pro-Chancellor-Research, Sri Ramachandra University

Pointing out the differences between continuing medical education (CME) and a train the trainers (TTT) programmes, Professor Thyagarajan said the latter must be modular and structured, interactive and participatory, and more of practice versus theory. He was speaking at the inaugural of the CME programmed organised jointly by the Indian Society for Gastroenterology Tamil Nadu chapter and the World Gastroenterology Organisation here. The CME was preceded by a TTT programme, the first such in India conducted by the WGO.

The TTT programme, which had the twin objectives of building knowledge, skills and practices, and additionally to achieve a cascade of skill dissemination, had gained prominence over the last decade, he added.

R. Veeramani, chairman, GEM Granites, said the field of diagnostics had improved rapidly, so much so, it could be said the diagnosis was the cure. However, in gastroenterology, some challenges remained — primarily conditions relating to the liver. He hoped the experts would focus on high-quality research, perhaps in association with the top medical institutions of the world, in coming up with innovative breakthroughs in the field of medicine. K.R. Palaniswamy, organising chairman, explained the key features of the TTT and CME programmes. Eamonn Quigley, past president, WGO; Ashok Chacko, president, India Society of Gastroenterology; and V. Balasubramanian, conference secretary, spoke.

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The practice & teaching medicine must be based on competence

teachersCan we get back to Hippocrates for a change?
The practice of medicine must be based on competence, character and compassion.

Sir William Osler, a legendary medical teacher and physician of yesteryear wrote: “The practice of medicine is an art based on science, working with science, in science and for science.”

Through the last nearly 75 years the medical world has seen significant advances in basic sciences and, therefrom, clinical sciences. Nevertheless, we are only reaching a stage at which we are aware of how little we know. No wonder, many a discerning patient understands the doctor’s dilemma in difficult cases.

George Bernard Shaw, who authored The Doctor’s Dilemma, wrote in style and humour and debunked the pomposity of the medical profession.

Medicine in Hippocrates’ period was an exercise by the doctor using his special senses — ‘smelling’ disease e.g., acetone breath in diabetic coma, sewer breath of lung abscess, ammoniacal smell in uraemia etc., the eyes ‘saw’ oncoming death in the face of the patient — The Hippocratic Facies, hearing ‘the death rattle’ in the chest.

Discoveries in the 18{+t}{+h} and 19{+t}{+h} centuries improved physical examination of sick individuals and teaching of the art and science of medicine was often to small groups of students, often by catechism.

To go back to Hippocrates — ethical issues in practice must be part of medical teaching, he said. “There should be perfect harmony between the appearance and character of a doctor. Character is important. Patients put themselves in the hands of their physician and he constantly meets women, maidens and possessions, very precious indeed and towards all these self-control must be used,” Hippocrates (460-375 BC) said. Is this not relevant today what with ‘sex doctors” and doctors advertising in subtle ways in the press, television, etc?

The evolution of methods of assessment of disease was a remarkable translation of common and day-to-day events to their application in medicine. For example, Leopald Auenbrugger, a continental physician of the 19{+t}{+h} century, used to observe his father, a wine merchant, tap barrels of wine to check how much they contained. Auenbrugger applied this technique to ascertain whether the patient’s chest had collection of fluid (pleural effusion) and thus was born percussion in medical practice.

Likewise, Laennec, a French physician, observed two children at play in a park. One child was scratching the plank at one end and the other put its ear to the plank at the other end. Laennec translated this observation by hearing the heart sounds of a woman patient with a paper rolled as a tube. He could not put his ear directly to the chest of the lady! A stethoscope ultimately evolved.

We have come a very long way since Auenbrugger and Laennec’s days and today there is a bewildering variety of tests — biochemical, in molecular biology, radiological, etc.

As Richard Asher, a critical medical writer, has said: “It is in the ordering of laboratory or radiological investigations that rational thinking is so necessary. It is a salutary exercise in mental discipline to catechise oneself when ordering any medical investigation. Why do I order this investigation? What do I look for in the result? If I find it, will it affect my diagnosis? How will it affect management of the case? Will this ultimately benefit the patient?”

Recently, there has been considerable discussion on reform in medical education. Most of the issues that have been highlighted involve changes that have students as the focus of attention. Far less emphasis is being paid to the changes that need to happen among teachers also.

In this context, the findings of a study that we conducted nearly 30 years ago are revealing. Forty-five students, 22 house staff members and 20 senior professors were asked about medical teaching, its content and also to suggest changes. The senior professors stated that most classes were unwieldy, favoured small groups for discussions, were not averse to symposia and seminars and generally supported internal assessment. The students too agreed that most classes were large, welcomed lectures with audio-visual aids and feared that the likes and dislikes of teachers may impact their performance in internal assessments.

Reform in medical education must improve the skills of the teachers and aim at upgrading their skills through courses that help teachers teach. It is worth reiterating, as Napoleon said, that there are no bad soldiers, only bad captains. Teachers in medicine should be chosen for their aptitude and commitment to teaching since not all doctors are naturally endowed with skills to teach as is currently assumed. Teachers should be evaluated continuously to ensure that the quality of teaching is assured and the evaluation process should include the consumers — the students.

A welcome move by the Medical Council of India is the introduction of medical ethics through formal teaching in the curriculum. However, didactic lectures alone may rob the subject of its interest and, worse still, may encourage students to actively avoid them. On the other hand, bedside discussions may help students grasp the nuances of ethical issues faced by modern day practitioners. The structuring of postgraduate courses needs to be given considerable thought. The recent move to introduce a two-year degree course followed by an additional year that will confer a three-year degree in medicine and allied subjects should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

In conclusion, the practice of medicine must be based on competence, character and compassion on the part of the medical man.

He should try to understand the patient who has the disease and should not concentrate on the disease alone.

He should not consider investigational results the prime factors in decision making, relegating clinical features including history to the background. That would be the wish of Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine.

(K. V. Thiruvengadam is a former Professor of Medicine, Madras Medical College, and V. Kumaraswami is a former Director- in- charge, Tuberculosis Research Centre, National Institute of Epidemiology.)

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The GER needs to be enhanced substantially Prof K Mohandas

The GER needs to be enhanced substantially to be able to catch up with the developed countries –  Professor K. Mohandas – Vice Chancellor, Kerala University of Health Sciences

Professor K. Mohandas, Vice Chancellor, Kerala University of Health Sciences in an exclusive interview with India Education Review shares his views on current system of Indian Higher Education system and the trends he has observed over the years in the education sector in India.

Q. What do you think about the current Education system in India?

Prof. Mohandas- Since Independence, there has been a leap-frogging in Higher Educational (H.E.) facilities – an exponential, even explosive, growth in the number of students, colleges and universities. This was both essential and expected as it was absolutely crucial that higher education in independent India moved from an elitist to an egalitarian system. However in this quantum jump, quality became a casualty. Even after the expansion of the Higher Educational facilities and despite concerted efforts in recent times, GER still hovers around 12. So we are faced with the problems of less than desirable accessibility and quality.

Q. You have been associated with the Indian Higher Education system for a long time. What changes have you observed?

Prof. Mohandas- In the past 16 years, during which I have been associated with H.E. as head, first, of the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (an institution of national importance established by an act of parliament) and now, the Kerala University of Health Sciences, there has certainly been a heightened awareness, among the academia and the powers that be, that the twin issues of quality and access must be addressed with much greater urgency and commitment; that the prevailing attitude of ‘business as usual’ is indeed suicidal; that we must move out of the world bank-IMF driven mindset that H.E. is not a priority area for Governments; that the GER needs to be enhanced substantially to be able to catch up with the developed countries; that the world has moved to a knowledge economy. Several efforts and initiatives have since been made and there was a marginal increase in GER. However, neither the rate of progress nor the quality improvement programmes have been satisfactory, partly due to a certain disconnect between the central and state governments. The example of the fate of the ‘model colleges’ that IER published recently is one of the prime examples of this problem. Issues of autonomy and accountability also contribute to this state of affairs. There are several good recommendations in the reports of the Knowledge Commission and the Yashpal Committee. What is needed is a concerted and committed effort on the part of the Central and State Governments to work in tandem to translate the recommendations to a time bound, result oriented action plan.

Q. Your university is a domain focused university, how do you see the importance of the emergence of such university for the Indian education system?

Prof. Mohandas- I am afraid that the jury is still out on this. I suspect (and this is a purely personal view) that uni-disciplinary and affiliating universities are not the answer to our educational vows in the longer run. Perhaps unitary and residential multi disciplinary universities of the order of 1500 to 2000 in the next two decades could be the answer for bringing about equity, quality and access.

Q. How your university is incorporating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning processes?

Prof. Mohandas- We plan to use ICT extensively in both academic and administrative areas. The former should help us to overcome the severe infrastructure crunch, both human and physical, that plagues professional healthcare education, and the latter, to bring about efficiency and transparency in administration. Since this university is new, ITC implementation is in the planning stage.

Q. What are the challenges before your university?

Prof. Mohandas- Our main challenge is to bring about the sustainable improvement in the standards of education, training and evaluation in all the disciplines in health care professional education as Modern Medicine, Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Siddha, Dentistry, Nursing, Pharmaceutical Science and Paramedical courses.
We also need to improve the quality and quantum of research output, encourage interdisciplinary research with a view to integrating best practices in other disciplines as well as for advancing the frontiers of knowledge in human health and ill-health.
We should also strive for true autonomy in administrative, financial and academic areas with a view of making the University a seat of knowledge and enquiry.

Q. What are the ways to ensure that higher education remains both affordable and accessible to all?

Prof. Mohandas- This is a million dollar question. I have no ready answers. I believe that education and health must remain the priority areas for governments. Therefore, they will have to continue to invest heavily in these areas. Public-Private Partnership with optimal financial support system for the less advantaged students, so as to make it ‘need-blind’, is essential to maintain equity and access without compromising on quality. Priority must also be given for setting up H.E. Institutions in districts where the enrollment ratio is currently unacceptably low, as proposed by the MHRD.

Q. What are the measures required to promote and enhance world-class research in India?
Prof. Mohandas- Several measures need to be adopted. Incentives and disincentives for the faculty, coupled with training in research methodology, funding options and project preparation for competitive bidding are necessary. We also need to encourage colleges to improve research infrastructure, if necessary, as a mandatory requirement for accreditation/affiliation/financial support. We should establish and maintain laboratories with world class facilities for cutting-edge research in the areas of interest. We must take steps to attract and retain research oriented persons in the faculty, if necessary, with differential pay and other incentives. We need to nurture a research mindset among the students, starting with undergraduate education itself. We have to initiate doctoral and post-doctoral programmes with adequate scholarships.

Kerala University of Health Sciences

Q. What are your views on the semester system? 

Prof. Mohandas- Since health care education is still not semester based, I do not wish to comment on it.

Q. What are the future plans of your University?

Prof. Mohandas- We are focusing to establish robust systems of governance and administration to enable the establishment of a student friendly, student centric and academic oriented   university. We are also planning to construct the university campus and buildings designed on ‘green’ principles. Establishing schools of research and constituent colleges is also on our agenda.

Interview Originally published in :
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child (7)

Homeopathic and conventional treatment for ARI & Ear complaints

child (7)Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: a comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting.

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting.

The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (≤ 7 days) runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8), Germany (8), the Netherlands (7), Russia (6), Spain (6), Ukraine (4), United Kingdom (10) and the USA (8) and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing ‘complete recovery’ or ‘major improvement’ in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy.

Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H) and 720 conventional (C) treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing). In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients) similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; = 0.0019). Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5%) and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22) in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34) in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic treatment both in children (= 0.0488) and adults (= 0.0001). Adverse drug reactions occurred more frequently in adults of the conventional group than in the homeopathic group (C: 7.6%; H: 3.1%, p= 0.0032), whereas in children the occurrence of adverse drug reactions was not significantly different (H: 2.0%; C: 2.4%, = 0.7838).

In primary care, homeopathic treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints was not inferior to conventional treatment.

Source :

Effectiveness of homeopathic – objective and shared indicators

Source : Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e Perfezionamento Sant’Anna di Pisa, Italy.

To test a methodology to evaluate, at population level, the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment through standard objective public health indicators. METHODS AND SETTINGS: Indicators of hospitalization and drug use were obtained from the Health Statistical Documentation System of Tuscany for two homeopathic centers in the Local Health Authority of Pisa, Italy. We compared homeopathic users with the general population in the same area and by comparing patients before and after homeopathic treatment.

The homeopathic patients used less drugs than the reference population, this effect was more evident for patients with repeated homeopathic consultations. A significant decrease in drug use was found on comparing the same patients before and after homeopathic treatment. Hospitalization indicators tended to favour patients who had received homeopathic treatment but were not always statistically significant.

This paper demonstrates a new methodological approach to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic modality, without ad-hoc clinical trials. This methodology can be used by public health institutions in which non-conventional medicines are integrated into the public health care system.

Source :

Short term homeopathy course to Allopaths

Dr.Sushil Vats
Co-editor- Vital informer
Email :

In a bid to integrate the medical education in India ,Dept. of ISM & Homoeopathy ; ministry of health and family welfare Govt. of India has written a letter to CCH to start a one year diploma course for graduates of modern medicine. Matter has been long pending since it was first discussed in CCH in 1984. In 1988 a sub committee of education committee of CCH had recommended a diploma course :the licentiate course in homoeopathic medicine [L.H.M.] for the graduates of modern medicine .However Dr.K .G . Saxena had dissented this recommendation .CCH in its letter dated 16 August 1988 has forwarded a draft course of one academic year to the ministry consisting of the two terms of 12weeks each.

Matter had been discussed between CCH &dept. for almost a decade when CCH in its letter dated 2 march 1994 informed the ministry that no such course is possible for the graduates of modern medicine ,sighting the lack of reciprocity for giving admission to homoeopathic doctors in various courses framed and enforced by MCI . IN the year 2000.CCH Executive Committee had recommended a modified course for with more studies hours .But this recommendation was withdrawn from the GBM held on 28-29th March 2000.

Mrs.Malti Sinha ,Secretary ,Dept. ISM & Homoeopathy. in her letter dated 2.01.2003.asked CCH to reconsider the matter. Education committee in its meeting held on 03/02/2003.discussed the matter at length and it did not agree for the need of any course in homoeopathy for the graduates of modern medicine as no such reciprocal course for homoeopathic doctors exist or prescribed .

Letter by Secretary ISM & H .broadly expressed the need to design a homoeopathy course for the graduates of the modern and Indian systems of medicine. She suggested that council introduce a one year diploma course for these graduates and submits suitable regulations in this regard on the lines of the one year diploma course of MF LONDON. SHE has written that till date Homoeopathy could not be introduced in the National Health programmes , family welfare programmes and in various other schemes mainly because of lack of understanding among the professionals of the modern & Indian systems of medicine and homoeopathy.

IN the agenda item no.98,26 of the executive committee Dr.K.K. Juneja proposed that a short term course will certainly enhanced the creditability of homoeopathic system of medicine in India and Abroad……..but at the same recipient of such qualification may pose a threat in the carrier opportunity of the people in the emlpoyment. Therefore executive committee recommends that such a course may be introduced with the main objective of developing a cadre of researchers and teachers in homoeopathy .According it is recommended to introduce ONE YEAR certificate course for the doctors possessing M.B.B.S. This proposal was seconded by Dr.R.J.S.Yadav
Article Originally published in Vital Informer 2009

Teachers can now evaluate students online with TRS softwares

TRS Forms and Services, a leading provider of educational technology in India has launched two unique softwares ‘E-Valuator’ and ‘E-Asses’ for educational institutions. Both the softwares aim to facilitate the assessment process and thereby provide technical assistance to teachers. The highly advanced solutions designed exclusively for Indian Higher Education sector would address vital issues of subjective exam valuation and difficulties in the assessment process.

 Speaking about the unique features of E-Valuator, N. Subramanian, Founder, TRS Forms and Services said, “Every year the volume of students appearing for exams is swelling and 20% of them ask for re-evaluation. TRS provides a solution ‘E-Valuator’ which is cost effective and helps in easing this process. It saves time for the institutions in completing their process of evaluation and re-valuation. This will enable web-based online evaluation software in which scanning, indexing and evaluation modules are integrated together that helps to correct subjective-type answer sheets with acute precision. Also it helps in establishing great level of confidentiality and transparency in the process.”

There are features like answer book digitization which helps in automatic archiving of the answer booklets. Others include option of sending a copy of the answer booklet to the students through email for high level of transparency; automatic suppression of student identity for high level of confidentiality; option of multiple evaluations for one answer booklet; marks can be awarded, viewed and corrected for individual question with ease.

The other software “E-Assess” is an innovative & interactive solution for test creation and assessment. Teachers can use it to create objective as well as subjective type of testing. It provides a user-friendly and unique platform to the individuals and institutions for creating, publishing and evaluating examinations, both online and offline using state-of-the-art interactive software backed by an advanced technology system.

R. Ramkumar, Strategic Partner, TRS Forms & Services said, “Daily, weekly assignments and projects can be sent out to students anytime and the later post logging in through an unique user id can take the test and submit the answers online. Security features available to detect and prevent any unethical means of taking the test. Collection, Display and Management of test results are all integrated in eAssess which lets users view results in popular data formats (like .xls) as well as in picture formats (like Charts and Bar-graphs). Candidates can receive help for any wrong answer by an expert trainer through video clipping option”.

The E-line of products has immense applications for schools, Universities and colleges.  – This can be used by any professor who can quickly create a test or assignment and publish the same for the students to come and answer them online.  – This platform can be used by the universities for a online evaluation – (Extensive experience in providing scanning and digitizing solutions)

All the above products are available online and can be tested.The softwares are customized products, schools and colleges can get solutions from the company as per their institution’s requirement.

TRS Forms and Services Pvt. Ltd uses OMR, OCR and ICR methods in providing globally accepted advanced technology and customized support to Government departments, Educational institutions. It motto is bringing transformation to the Indian education system is only possible through technology adaptation and acceptance today.
Source :

Voluntary certificate scheme for AYUSH products & hospitals

 Voluntary certificate scheme (VCS) for AYUSH products & Accreditation of AYUSH hospitals

Increasing shift from Modern medicine to Traditional herbal medicines worldwide can be well evidenced by increasing size of world market for Herbal / Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani(ASU)drugs.

However, India is unable to take full advantage of this growth due to Quality related concerns of these ASU drugs. Department of AYUSH has taken a major initiative to improve quality standards in the AYUSH sector by partnering with Quality Council of India (QCI) in the areas of AYUSH Products, Hospitals, Drug Testing Labs and AYUSH Educational Institutes.

The following achievements have been made so far by the Department:

1. Voluntary certificate scheme (VCS) for AYUSH products

The scheme has been started since Oct, 2009, which has two levels of certification – For domestic market and international market, AYUSH standard and AYUSH premium marks are available respectively. The Voluntary certification scheme for product certification of AYUSH product would result in Quality seal being awarded to those who opt for third party evaluation. Till now 125 Premium marks and 95 standardmarks has been awarded to ASU products.

2. Accreditation of AYUSH hospitals

This scheme became operational since January, 2010. Accreditational and Structural standards for AYUSH hospitals have already been published (copy attached). Till now one Ayurveda hospital named Ayurvaid Hospital, Bangalore, has been accredited and 6 AYUSH Hospitals are under process.

3. Gap Study of AYUSH Drug Testing Labs

QCI has done Gap Study of Six State Drug Testing Labs viz Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad,Thiruvananthapuram, Joginder Nagar (H.P.) and West Bengal. The gaps have been brought to the notice of State Governments for bridging gaps either through Public Sector investment or through Public Private Partnership (PPP).

For details :

NIH launches first online genetics course for social scientists

A new genetics educational program will provide social and behavioral scientists with sufficient genetics background to allow them to engage effectively in interdisciplinary research with genetics researchers. The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health, partnered with the National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics to create the free, Web-based project.

Increasingly, scientific outcomes are not fully explained by genetic, environmental, or social factors alone or as independent contributors. Instead, public health advances and scientific breakthroughs tend to rely on transdisciplinary teams of social scientists and genetic researchers. This creates a greater need among social and behavioral scientists for an understanding of the complexity of the genetic contribution to health, disease and behaviors.

The overarching goal of the course, Genetics and Social Science: Expanding Transdisciplinary Research, is to improve these scientists’ genetics literacy in several key areas, broadly grouped into conversation, imagination, evaluation and integration. The course will provide sufficient knowledge to support the integration of genetics concepts in the behavioral or social scientist’s own research and will allow for collaborative studies with geneticists. The course will provide users with the ability to conceive of progressive but feasible studies. Scientists will develop the skills necessary to assess genetics research for validity and utility.

Because behavioral and social scientists have a very large breadth of expertise, the course focuses on core concepts that are applicable to most scientists, no matter where they are in their careers or training. The course was developed by an advisory committee with experts from a wide range of areas, including addiction, psychiatry, anthropology, obesity, clinical genetics, and race and ethnicity. The core areas are: variation (e.g., sources of genetic variation, biological pathways); gene-environment interaction; population issues; clinical issues (e.g., family history) and research issues (e.g., data sharing). The course was developed based on adult learning theory, which focuses on active learning and self-direction, allowing for users to choose their own path through the interactive content.

Scientists using the online course can choose to learn through four case studies — tobacco, obesity, major depression, and breast cancer. The interactive case studies build the scientist’s knowledge and comfort with the concepts in a stepwise manner. The general structure for each case study includes a statement of the problem, an interactive review of the pertinent literature, a discussion of the approach to research in this area, exercises to develop the next research question, opportunities for collaboration and a discussion of the clinical implications. Each case study will link to specific core concepts (variation, gene-environment interaction, population, clinical or research issues) to allow the user to determine his or her learning style.

Please visit to experience the online course

Source :


Dr Batras’ requires Homoeopathic Consultants

job17They are looking out for Homoeopathic Consultant for branches

At Hyderabad / Secunderabad & Mumbai.

Qualification: BHMS

Attractive Salary

Job Description & Desired Candidate Profile :
1) Good case taking
2) Good clinical and therapeutic knowledge
3) Knowledge to develop patient doctor relationship
4) Rational and logical understanding of human emotions and reactions
5) Good business driver
6) Independent and proactive
7) Decision making
8) Adaptable & Innovative
9) Good communication and listening skills, confident and presentable

If interested please forward your CV to

They have new openings in following locations also : Vizag, Vijaywada, Vadrodra, Aurangabad. Other locations  in Bangalore & Mumbai. 

Why be a doctor at Dr Batra’s? :

Posted on : 04.01.12

Dr Batras' requires Homoeopathic Consultants

They are looking out for Homoeopathic Consultant for branches

At Hyderabad / Secunderabad & Mumbai.

Qualification: BHMS

Attractive Salary

Job Description & Desired Candidate Profile :
1) Good case taking
2) Good clinical and therapeutic knowledge
3) Knowledge to develop patient doctor relationship
4) Rational and logical understanding of human emotions and reactions
5) Good business driver
6) Independent and proactive
7) Decision making
8) Adaptable & Innovative
9) Good communication and listening skills, confident and presentable

If interested please forward your CV to

They have new openings in following locations also : Vizag, Vijaywada, Vadrodra, Aurangabad. Other locations  in Bangalore & Mumbai. 

Why be a doctor at Dr Batra’s? :

Posted on : 04.01.12

FAIMER/WFME Distance Learning Modules in Medical Education

The Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) together with the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) and The FAIMER Centre for Distance Learning at CenMEDIC [The Centre for Medical Education in Context – formerly, the Open University Centre for Education in Medicine] have collaborated to produce Distance Learning Modules in Medical Education which have already been successfully running for 2 years with over 250 students.

FAIMER Distance Learning Modules in Medical Education are designed to provide health professions educators with in-depth training in all aspects of medical education through the convenience of web-based learning. The skills and knowledge acquired can help you advance health sciences education at your own institution to the highest international standards.  In 2012, modules are offered in the four themes below.

Theme 1: Self-Review and Accreditation
Theme 2: Educational Management and Leadership
Theme 3: Student Assessment
(this theme has been designed as a series, so modules should be taken in order)
Theme 4: Research and Evaluation (this theme has been designed as a series, so modules should be taken in order)

Many modules can be taken as stand-alone courses, so you can choose the modules that are right for you.  The following modules from each theme are available in 2012 (please find a brochure with full details attached):

START 9 JAN 2012

  • Module 1.1 Standards for Medical Education
  • Module 2.5 Leading and Managing Projects
  • Module 3.1 Assessment Overview
  • Module 4.1 Introduction to Research Methods and Design


  • Module 1.2 Organising a Self-Review
  • Module 2.6 Managing Meetings and Group Decision Making
  • Module 3.2 Designing an Assessment System: Blueprinting
  • Module 4.2 Literature Review and Writing a Research Question


  • Module 1.3 Gathering, Analysing and Presenting Evidence for Self-Review
  • Module 2.7 Team Building
  • Module 3.3 Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs)
  • Module 4.3 Research Designs and Sampling

START 8 OCT 2012

  • Module 1.4 Self-Review in Low Resource Circumstances
  • Module 2.8 Managing and Leading Change
  • Module 3.4 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
  • Module 4.4 Quantitative Research Methods

Course Description
Each module takes approximately one hour per week for 10 weeks. The modules can be downloaded or used on-line. You will be provided with course materials and supporting documentation, and assigned a Learning Advisor to stimulate and discuss your progress in an on-line discussion forum. You will be expected to complete two one-hour assignments (within the 10-hour allocation) on which you will receive detailed feedback.

Certificate of Completion
Upon successful completion of each module, you will receive a credit-rated certificate that can be used as evidence of continuing professional development (CPD) which can be used as accredited prior learning towards other qualifications.

Future Plans
FAIMER will be presenting a distance learning Certificate, Diploma and Master’s course in Medical Education: Assessment and Accreditation in the next year. Study of the current modules will give you a head start, but will not currently count towards these new qualifications.

Payment and Registration
The cost of each module is $135 USD. For further details and payment instructions, please use the FAIMER website on  Once you have paid your course fee(s), the CenMEDIC office will be in touch with a registration form for you to complete to finalise the registration process or you can complete the registration form now (attached above) if would like register for any of the modules listed with a view to your payment being made soon after.

We do hope you see the many benefits of studying our modules as many students already have.  Lastly, we would be most grateful if you could forward this email onto any colleagues or friends who may also be interested.

Jo Rew (nee Marshall)
Consultant Administrator for Centre for Medical Education in Context [CenMEDIC] & FAIMER Centre for Distance Learning
Address: CenMEDIC, Unit 36, 88-90 Hatton Garden, London, EC1N 8PN
Tel: [+44] 01908 663844
Email: or


AYUSH Research Portal

research8AYUSH Research portal is meant for dissemination of Research findings in the domain of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Yoga & Naturopathy and Homeopathy researchers and allied faculties.

Main aim of the portal is to show case the research findings in an organized fashion  and preempt duplication of work to encourage interdisciplinary research and generate evidence for wider acceptance of these systems worldwide.

Portal provides information under the headings
1. Standard Treatment Guidelines
2. Preventive promotive health
3. Preclinical and Clinical Studies
4. Literary and Fundamental Research
5. Drug standardization
6. Local health traditions
7. Drug monographs
8. Formulary of India and other formularies 9. References from Classical text books and
10. Plant monographs.

The information provided is categorized as per individual AYUSH medical systems against standard set of Medical conditions, based on WHO disease classification ICD-10, and navigation is provided  according to ICPC’s (International Classification of Primary Care) in 17 disease categories.

The Portal provides the relevant indigenous name of the medical conditions pertaining to each medical system, which further adds to clarity. The users can browse from a dashboard which provides access to all the  categories with visually clear buttons meant for the purpose. On selection of the displayed results, the user will get information in the form of an abstract, and where ever possible, full text of the article.

An important value addition of the portal is categorization of Clinical Research work into Grade A,B,C based on “General Guidelines for methodologies on Research and Evaluation or Traditional  medicine published by World Health Organization (WHO). The grading allows the researchers and also policy makers to assess the current R&D status of AYUSH and plan further to fill in the gaps.

The portal content development is a three tier exercise involving rigorous collaborative content uploading and editing process to ensure high quality content. The application has been developed by  Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), and the content is being provided by all AYUSH Research councils, Drug standardization laboratories, and National Institutes.

AYUSH  Research Portal accessible through :

In the wake of stiff competition at home as well as worldwide for a legitimate recognition for AYUSH systems, the portal will serve as platform to further the cause of Strengthening these systems.

Homoeopathic Women Health Care Centres at Kerala

Dr Mansoor Ali
SEETHALAYAM – A project by the Department of Homoeopathy, Government of Kerala – Homoeopathy helps the victims of gender-based violence

Health Minister inaugurated the project on 6th December 2010 at Trivandrum

(Women Health Care Centre) is the new scheme of Department of Homoeopathy to handle the gender based issues.


Seethalayam is envisaged to provide medical, psychological, legal and social support to women suffering from domestic and social violence.


In the first phase department starting 3 districts at selected hospitals in

The project has a budgetary support of Rs.48 lakh. It provides for the training of doctors and nurses in preventing gender-based violence and handling such cases

Each Centre is equipped with
Two female Homeopathic Doctors
Female nurse
Homeopathic Softwares
IP facility

Gender based violence
The level of gender-based violence that women and girls are encountering has recently increased to alarming proportions
Gender based violence includes a wide range of violations of women’s human rights, including pornography, trafficking in women, rape and wife abuse, and issues of “structural violence” such as lack of access to schooling, education and resources.

Gender-based Violence Throughout the Life Cycle
Prenatal Sex : selective abortion, battering during pregnancy (emotional and physical effects on women; effects on birth outcome)

Infancy : Female infanticide, emotional and physical abuse; differential access to food and medical care for girl infants.
Childhood : Child marriage, genital mutilation; sexual abuse by family members and strangers; differential access to food and medical care; child prostitution.
Adolescence : Dating and courtship violence, sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution; trafficking in women.
Reproductive : Abuse of women by intimate male partners; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; sexual abuse in the workplace; sexual harassment; rape; abuse of women with disabilities.
Old Age : Abuse of widows, elder abuse

Seethalayam Provides
Counseling services and medical and legal assistance for victims of gender-based violence
The centre have a Homoeopathic medical officer, woman counselor, legal experts, police and social welfare organizations to provide legal assistance for the victims.
The centre also give information about various state & national schemes related to girl & women.

Psychosocial Care

Survivors of sexual violence commonly feel fear, guilt, shame and anger. They may adopt strong defense mechanisms that include forgetting, denial and deep repression of the events. Reactions vary from minor depression, grief, anxiety, phobia, and somatic problems to serious and chronic mental conditions.
Extreme reactions to sexual violence may result in suicide or, in the case of pregnancy, physical abandonment or elimination of the child.
Children and youth are especially vulnerable to trauma. Health care providers, relief workers and protection officers should devote special attention to their psychosocial needs.
Survivors should be treated with empathy, care and support. In the long term, and in most cultural settings, the support of family and friends is likely to be the most important factor in overcoming the trauma of sexual violence.

Role of Homoeopathy

Homoeopathic doctors are well versed in the counselling, legal,preventive and social aspects of health as is evident from their syllabus prescribed by CCH (Central Council of Homoeopathy).Moreover BHMS syllabus has been integrated with aspects of modern medicine like Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology,FMT, Medicine, Surgery, ENT, Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Paediatrics, Geriatric Care, Psychiatry etc.. Preventive and social medicine (Community Health)is a full fledge subject in the 4th professional of BHMS curriculum, which includes training on all aspects of Public Health like Personal Hygiene, Nutrition, School Health Services, Biostatistics, National Health Programmes, MCH care, Adolescent health, Occupational health etc.

For sensitizing the homeopathic doctors to handle such cases and prepare them for handling these diverse issues successfully the department conducting a training programme for 3 days on 6,7 and 8th of December 2010 at Trivandrum. Handbooks and training modules had been developed for doctors and nurses.

This workshop will provide

  • Development of specific protocols on domestic violence highlighting clinical profiles of victims; referral systems; screening questions and legal information.
  • Training of staff to enable them to acquire skills in counselling, examining victims and collecting legal evidence for prosecution
  • Efforts incorporating such protocols and training related to all forms of genderbased violence
  • Incorporation of gender-based violence as a topic in the homeopathic curriculum
  • Establishment of partnerships with community-based experts and resource persons involved in gender-based violence programmes and services.

For more details :

Director of Homoeopathy
Directorate of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala
East Fort, Thiruvanathapuram.695023, Kerala.
Email :
Mob : +91 9447170342
Web :

Government Homeopathic Medical College Calicut

Dr Mansoor Ali

The Government Homeopathic Medical College Calicut was started in 1975-76
First Homeopathic Degree College in Asia
Largest number of IPD & OPD patients in India
Largest physiotherapy unit in Govt. Sector in Kerala
Largest Homeopathic pain and palliative ward in India
With CCU & Isolation wards, x-ray, ECG, USG, Color Doppler etc

Courses Offered

  • BHMS  : 50 admission per year
  • MD(Hom) : 18 admission per year
  • Nurse Cum Pharmacist : 50 admissions at a time
  • D.Pharm Homoeopathy (will start soon)

Govt Homoeopathic Medical College Calicut


  • 06 KMs from Indira Gandhi Mofussil Bus stand
  • 08 KMs from Kozhikode Railway Station
  • 30 Kms from Kozhikode Air Port

Principal : Dr.C.T.Anila Kumari

Govt. of Kerala decided to start homoeopathic medical colleges in the state for imparting homoeopathic medical colleges so as to produce qualified graduates and post graduates, and to extend the benefit for a cost effective system of treatment in all its spheres to the mass. Accordingly the first institution was started at Kozhikode in 1975 vide GO. Ms. No – 237/75/HD dated 8-10-1975 under the directorate of homoeopathy. Dr. K.S. Prakasam was appointed as the first principal. This college was inaugurated on 24-1-1976 and started functioning at the Govt.  homoeo hospital, Vellayil. The admission to the first batch was conducted on 12th and 13th December 1975. The calluses for the first batch were started on 1976.

This college was bifurcated from the department of Homoeopathy vide G.O No. 286/80/HD dated 31-10-1980 and made as a separate department.

The college was shifted to the present location at Karaparamba during November 1976 acquiring a mansion that belonged to the manager of the Pearce Leslie Cashew Factory during the British Raj. The present college building was later constructed in the same area. The original mansion, which was used for many years, was demolished in 2002The foundation stone for the first block of the present building at Karaparamba was laid on 1982. Initially the preclinical classes were engaged at Medical college, Calicut. Later two blocks of Govt. District Hospital (Beach Hospital) was allotted for providing the facility to para-clinical and clinical departments. The Govt. Homoeo Hospital was shifted to the Beach Hospital buildings on 29-6-1979. The building of Govt. Homoeo Hospital at Vellayil was converted to Men’s Hostel.

The Outpatient section started functioning at Karaparamba during 1984. The para-clinical and clinical departments were shifted to present site during 1987.

Initially 30 students were admitted to BHMS course which was later increased to 50. The BHMS (direct) degree course is extending over a period of 5 ½ years including 1 year internship.

MD (hom) in the subjects of Materia medica and Homoeopathic philosophy were started in 1991 and MD(hom) degree course in Repertory was introduced in 1996. From the year 2005 MD (hom) degree courses were started in two more subjects ( homoeopathic pharmacy and Practice of Medicine). The duration of MD(hom) degree course is 3 years including 1 year house job. The student intake is 6 in each subject.

Admission to all these courses are done through entrance examinations conducted by the Commissioner of Entrance examinations , Govt. of Kerala. BHMS and MD(Hom) degree courses in Materia Medica, Homoeopathic philosophy and Repertory are affiliated to the University of Calicut.

  • Nurse – cum- pharmacy course started in 1989 . The duration of the NCP course is 1 year.
  • The attached hospital has a 150 beds and eight outpatient sections with more than 1000 patients per day
  • There is a minor operating theater and multigym in the hospital.
  • The critical care unit has five beds for seriously ill patients.

Address : Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College.
Karaparamba.P.O, Calicut.10, Kerala
Web :
Phone : 0495-2370883

Rural based Community Orientation for Homeopathy

Dr.Munir Ahammed
Rural based Community Orientation for Future Practitioners of Homeopathy

Community health is an evolving and dynamic sector in healthcare domain that aims to protect, promote and revitalise people’s mental, physical and social well-being. It underlines prevention rather than cure through collective actions to address the fundamental causes of disease and foster conditions and contexts in which communities or population groups can lead healthy lives.

The International Conference on Primary Health Care Alma-Ata in 1978 underlined the importance of primary health care as effective means of achieving comprehensive worldwide health. In the meanwhile, Homeopathy has emerged as viable option for the health policy planners to position its services in the community health context. Recent efforts to deploy homeopathy in epidemic situations like Chkungunya and H1N1 have showcased the resolve of health policy makers to trust homeopathy in community health care.

To match this emerging trend, the homeopathic undergraduate curriculum in India has laid sufficient emphasis on the community orientation of homeopathic practice. In this regard, a radical restructuring of the rural postings of BHMS internship is suggested to assess the impact of homeopathy in community health. Therefore, a structured internship program for rural based community orientation for the future practitioners of homeopathy is highly substantiated.

The purpose of this orientation is to provide a structured process that will help newly qualified homeopathic doctors who are in the internship phase of their training to function effectively in their future roles, with an overall goal of fostering individual, organizational, and community effectiveness in improving community health through homeopathy.

Objectives : At the end of the posting, the learners will be able to –

  • Explain the influence of social-culture aspect on the individual perception of health and illness
  • Discuss how community development affect changes in the lifestyles and epidemiologic transition of disease pattern
  • Describe health promotion aspects for prevention of chronic disease
  • Determine the social factors which may influence the prognosis of specific diseases
  • Demonstrate the patient education skills as part of the management of patient’s problem.
  • Demonstrate relevant, effective communication skills when talking to the patient, patient’s family and other medical staff
  • Identify verbal and non-verbal behaviour when communicating with the patients, their family and the medical staff

Number of base clinics, Number of mobile units, Faculty available, Transportation facility, any other;

The procedure is aimed at introducing the internees to the community, its people, their health care needs, and the process of working as a community based team by the following activities –

  • Clinical services in the form of taking the cases, analysing them in the context of socio-environmental factors and providing therapeutic care
  • Health education to population on disease prevention and health promotion including nutrition and lifestyle counselling
  • Sensitisation to research projects like ‘slow learners’, ‘women’s health’, etc.
  • Seminars, Poster presentation and Journal club on medical humanities, social and clinical research methods, etc. 

A 360° evaluation – continuous and end-of-the-posting, including self-, peer-, supervisor- and external-evaluation, as per the evaluation parameters prepared for the purpose.

Outcomes:  At the end of the posting, the internee would –

  • have become sensitive to community health needs and identify him/herself with such healthcare delivery
  • apply the principles of homeopathy for the individual and epidemic morbid expressions in the community
  • develop team spirit for the promotion of community health
  • make proactive efforts to actively assist community health efforts
Dr.Munir Ahammed
Email :

All rights reserved @ similima


Laws Relating to Women in India

WomenNeena Jose. A  Advocate
Vanchiyoor, Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala

Presented at Seethalayam Training Programme Kerala

Inequality against woman and cruelty towards them had been at many occasions in our Parliament as well as in other sectors came up for discussions at length ended up with achievement of no goals.  Many of them found a theoretical solution but their practical effects were almost nil.  It is a shame on us that in a democratic country like India lacks infrastructure,  support system to implement the laws made by us.  In the circumstances even in this 21st century, it is again an exercise over the same issues unless and until we make aware of the people  about their special rights, obligation and legal support which is available to them.  Some progressive moves on   the  existing laws  and introduction of certain special laws try their maximum input aiming for the development of Indian women.  We could put forward and identify many of the human rights as well as gender issues from the Vienna Accord of 1994 and the Beijing Declaration which acknowledged the necessity of protection of human rights especially that of women and children .

This is an effort to make you people aware of the present scenario of legal side of the issues and the support and machinery which is available as such.  There are certain legal provisions as well as special laws which address the gender issues with  practical support and structure.  Yet, the remedies are not in capsules but in action with  determination and  persistence.


INDIA is a sovereign, socialist,  secular, Democratic  Republic.

The constitution ensures to secure all citizens;

JUSTICE     – social, economic and political

LIBERTY     – of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship

EQUALITY   – of status and of opportunity  and to promote among  them all

FRATERNITY– assuring dignity of the individual and  the unity and Integrity  of the Nation

The basic provisions in Articles 14,15,16,19 and 21 help us to identify our rights ensured by the constitutional law.

ARTICLE 15 is the prohibition of discrimination on grounds  of religion   race, caste, sex or place of birth.

15 (3) says that nothing in this articles shall prevent the state from making any special provision  for women and children.

Article 15 (1)   is  against discrimination of citizen on grounds  of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.  State is prohibited from such discrimination.

Article 15 (2)
No citizen on the above grounds, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to their access to public places or the use of government machineries or places dedicated to the use of general public.

Article 16    is with regard to the equality of opportunity in matters of public employment on the above grounds.

Articles 21  is an extensive provision of our constitution which addresses many issues  from beauty contests to employment of AIDS patients.  It includes right to life in various forms,

(1) the right to live with human dignity like in   P. Nalla Thampi  V. Union of India,   1985 SC 1133 

(2) Right to healthy environment in M.C. Metha   V. Union of India,  AIR 1987  SC1086 

 (3)  Free education up to 14 years of age in  P.Unnikrishanan V.State of Andra Pradesh,  AIR 1993 SC 2178

It is a penal law as it seems which is also subject of discussion here in  the context of offences against and by woman and their punishments.  The sections like section 268 (Public Nuisance), 271 (Disobedience to Quarantine rules), 274 (adulteration of drugs), 275 (sale of adulterated drugs) 278 (making atmosphere noxious to health) 294 (obscene acts and songs), 304 B (dowry death), section 311 to 318 with regard to causing of miscarriages, of injuries to unborn children, of the Exposure of infants of the concealment of Births, 342 (wrongful confinement)

Section 359 (Kidnapping) 361, 362, 366A, 366B, 372, 373 like kidnapping from lawful guardianship, Abduction, procuration of minor girl, importation of girl from foreign country, selling minor  for the purpose of prostitution, Buying minor for the purpose of prostitution.

Then 375 to 376 D about rape against women in different circumstances and their punishment.  Requirement of the offence is seems to be strange.  Keep in mind that rape is a degradation of the very soul of the helpless female who is subjected to the offence.  Rape victim demands more care and protection than any victim of other offences.

Offences relating to marriage in section 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498 about cohabitation caused by a man deceitfully inducing belief of lawful marriage, marrying again during lifetime of husband or wife, marriage ceremony fraudulently gone through without lawful marriage, adultery, enticing  or taking  away with criminal intent a married woman.

And finally and in great importance section 498-A with regard to cruelty of husband or relatives of  husband.

Out of these provisions section 304 B and 498 A, 354 attracts our attention in our context.  We are proud of our heritage and civilization.  But the  Quantum of cases shocks us to make a realization that we are such  a bunch of  barbarians.

Section 304 B
Dowry death –(1) where the death of a woman is caused by any burns or bodily injury or occurs otherwise that under normal circumstances within 7 years of her marriage and it is shown that soon before her death she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her  husband or any relative of her husband for, or in connection with any demand for dowry, such death shall be called “dowry death” and such husband or relative shall be deemed to have caused her death. Kaliya perumal V. State of Tamilnadu , AIR 2003 SC  3828.

Sec 498 –A
Husband or relative of husband  of a woman subjecting her to cruelty whoever being husband or the relative of the husband  of a woman subjects such woman to cruelty shall   be punished with  imprisonment  for a term which may be extend to three years and shall also liable to fine.

Cruelty means any willful conduct that drives the woman to committ should be with a view to get any property or valuable  security B.S.JOSHI.V. STATE OF HARYANA,  AIR 2003 SC 1386

Section 354
Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty-  whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby  outrage her modesty, shall be punished with imprisonment  of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine,  or with both.   Roopan Deol Bajaj V. KPS Gill, 1995 (6) SCC 194 

Domestic  violence undoubtedly a human rights issue and a serious deterant to development.  The phenomenon of domestic violence is widely prevalent but has remained largely invisible in the public domain.  Where a woman is subjected to cruelty by her husband or his relatives, it is an offence under section 498 A of the Indian Penal Code.  The civil law does not address this phenomenon in its entirety.  The Domestic Violence Act covers those women who are or have been in a domestic relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity,  marriage or through a relationship in the nature of marriage or adoption.  In addition,  relationships with family members living together as a joint family are also included.  Even those women who are sisters, widows, mother, single woman or living with the abuser are entitled to legal  protection under the  Act.
Section 2 deals with definition of “aggrieved person,”  child, compensation order, custody order,  domestic incident report, domestic relationship, domestic violence, dowry, Magistrate, Medical facility, monetary relief,   service  provider, shared household  and shelter  home.

  • Section 3 is all about   the  kinds  of abuses like  physical, sexual, verbal/emotional and economic abuse.
  • Sec.7 is about  duties of Medical facility
  • Sec.12  Application to Magistrate for getting reliefs for an aggrieved person.
  • Sec.17  Right to reside in a shared household.
  • Sec.18  Protection orders.
  • Sec 19    Residence orders
  • Sec 20   Monetary reliefs
  • Sec 21   Custody orders
  • Sec 22   Compensation orders
  • Sec 23  Power to grant interim exparte orders.

Aggrieved person & Sec 12 Chithrangathan V.Seema 2007 (4) KLT 424.

Alternative  ACCOMODATION SECTIORS 17 &19 S.R. Batra V.Smt. Taruna Batra , 2007 (3) KLT SN 8

Section 2(q) 18 & 19

Rima Mukkerjee. V.State of West Bengal,AIR 2009 (NOC) 2841 (cal)

With a view to uniformity in practice in the several branches of jurisdiction the Act   provides that the procedures of Code of Civil Procedure shall be followed.  It is the law relating to the divorce of persons professing Christian religion.

Sec. 10     Grounds for dissolution of marriage.

Sec. 10 A  Dissolutions of marriage by mutual consent

Sec. 41     Custody of children –  Unsubstantiated allegations of chastity and adulterous behaviour by husband amounts to cruelty.

James. K.Awaran V. Jhansy Reetamma George, 2009 (3) KLT 786.

 Sec . 2 – what is dowry ?

Any property or valuable security given or agreed to be given either directly or indirectly by one party to a marriage to the other party  to the marriage,   by the parents of either party to a marriage or by any other person to the either party to the marriage or to any other person,   at or before or anytime after the marriage in connection with the marriage of the said parties.

Does  not include  the  dower or Mahr in case of Persons to whom the Muslim Law applies.

  • Sec.  3-  Penalty for giving and taking  dowry.
  • Sec. 4 – Penalty for demanding dowry
  • Sec. 7 – Abetment of suicide.

Even if there is no marriage there can be demand of dowry and are not excluded from the purview of Sec 304 B and Sec 498 A of Indian Penal Code. AIR 2009 SC 2684

Hindu succession Act  as well as the marriage laws have not made any special protection or provision to a Hindu woman.  In earlier Indian society remarriage of Hindu widow was prohibited by custom.  This Act made the remarriage and inheritance of Hindu widows lawful.

Sec. 14- Inheritance from former  husband. Cherlotte Sugathan.V.Cherlotte Bharathy, AIR 2008 SC 1467

VII. Immoral traffic (prevention) act, 1956.
An Act to provide in pursuance of the international convention signed at Newyork for the prevention of immoral Traffic.

  • Sec. 2– Definitions
  • Sec. 3- Punishment of keeping brothel
  • Sec 5- Procuring, inducing , or taking person for the sake of prostitution
  • Sec.6- Detaining a person for prostitution
  • Sec. 9- Seduction of a person in custody.

Sexual intercourse with a male and female inside a room will amount to  prostitution only if sexual abuse or exploitation is done for a commercial purpose.

2009 (2) KLT 7 

VIII. Juvenile justice (care and protection of children) act, 2000
Deals with welfare of children mainly orphaned, abandoned and adopted.

  • Sec . 2-  Definition clause
  • Sec.3  –  Juvenile Justice Board
  • Sec  8- Child welfare committee
  • Sec 12, 15,16,49,53 are important.
  • Sec 49- Juvenile in conflict with law.  Whether the accused was a   Juvenile on the date of occurrence Voters list is not decisive .  2009(7) SCC 415.

IX. Medical termination of pregnancy act,  1971
Sec. 3 is very important

Ordinarily a pregnancy can be terminated only when a medical practitioner is satisfied that  a continuance of the pregnancy  would involve a risk to the life of the pregnant women or mental health or when there is a substantial  risk that if the child were  born, it would suffer  from such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped.

A welfare institution of Government cannot take a decision about termination of pregnancy of  victim even though she is an orphan/mentally retarded / rape victim etc.

Sujitha Sreevasthava and another V. Chandigrah Administration 2009 (4) KLT (SN) 29

X.  Maternity benefit act, 1961
Centre providing 100% funds. State not utilizing such funds

Sec. 28-  Modification and introducing of a New scheme.

Janani Suraksha Yojana

AIR  2008 SC 495

The employees are eligible  for 135 days leave with full salary and emoluments for a pregnant lady as maternity benefit.

The same benefits are available on MTP if it is claimed.

XI.  Muslim women (protection of rights on divorce)  act , 1986.
An Act to protect the rights of Muslim Woman who have been divorced by, or have obtained divorce from their husbands and to provide for matters connected there with or incidental thererto.

Sec. 2- Definition clause

Sec. 3- Mahr or other properties of Muslim  woman to be given to her at the time of divorce.

Sec.4  – Order for payment of maintenance.

Payment must be enough to take care of future needs of the woman in the prevailing socio economic scenario.

2009 (3) KLT 37

Maintenance is available for any woman divorced by way of Talaq, Khula or Mubarat.

XII. Pre-conception and pre-natal diagonostic techniques (prohibition of sex selection) act, 1994
Sec 5,6-  Maintenance of accurate records.

2009 (1) KLT (SN) 51

Sec 4 (3)

No procedural lapse but an independent  offence.

Sec. 28– A complaint can be filed by any officer authorized on that behalf by the appropriate authority
XIII.  Registration of marriages (common) act,  1908,

Registration of marriages (common) rules, 2008

Rule-17- solemnization & registration of marriages

Parties to the marriage-personal presence.

2009 (3) KLT  251

XIV.  The indecent representation of women (prohibition) act , 1986
Sec 2– Definition clause

Sec. 2 ( c)- Indecent representation of woman

Means the depiction in any in manner of the figure of a woman her form or body or any part thereof in such a way as to have the effect of  being indecent or derogatory to  or denigrating women or is likely to deprive, corrupt, injure the public morality or morals.

Sec. 7–  Offences by companies.

Sec.9 –  Protection of action taken in good faith.

XV.  Kerala womens commission act, 1990
To provide he constitution of a womens commission to improve  the status of women in State of Kerala and to enquire into unfair practices affecting women and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Sec. 4- Application of other laws not barred.

Sec.15- Powers of the commission.

I t is only a guideline.  You can research further about the above and other laws including Family Law, Criminal Procedure Code etc.


Homoeopathy E-Learning Programme by George Vithoulkas

computerIt is a unique chance to learn homeopathy AT HOME, save money for hotel and travel and study with George while you sit at home.

The program contains all you need to become an excellent homeopath because you will understand the rules of homeopathy and learn how to apply them. The program is also a challenge for every experienced homeopath to deepen the knowledge based on what was until now only available for those students who travelled to the Greek island Alonissos or booked the video training. You will understand what is important for prescribing within the patient and what is important within the Materia Medica to base the prescription onto.

The theory of the Levels of Health will enable you to deeply understand the process your patient is going through and you will understand when to apply what potency, how often to repeat it and what to expect as a reaction.

You will have the possibility to follow the long-term treatment of many cases, how George Vithoulkas takes the case, how he analyses and synthesizes the information in order to find the correct remedy, what strategies he uses to come to a prescription and how he differentiates the remedies.

In general, you will attend an absolutely high standard and quality of teaching.



Violence against women: a statistical overview

womenExpert Group Meeting   Organized by: UN Division for the Advancement of Women in collaboration with Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and World Health Organization (WHO) Conducting population-based research on gender-based violence in conflict-affected settings:  An overview of a multi-country research project Expert paper prepared by:Jeanne Ward  IRIN (Consultant).

There    has   been    increasing    concern     in  recent    years   among     humanitarian      aid organizations about the extent and effects of gender-based violence (GBV) in refugee, internally   displaced    and   post-conflict    settings.    There    has   also  been    increasing  recognition that GBV is an affront to public health, universally accepted human rights guarantees, and the restoration of refugee and internally displaced (IDP) families and communities.  The list below  illustrates women ís and girlsí vulnerability to violence during  and  following  some of the more recent  of the worldís conflicts.

 While war may  be  understood  as  a  contributing   factor,  all  these  manifestations  of  GBV are essentially based on  long-standing attitudes and behaviors that  sustain and reinforce GBV, whether in times of peace or of war.

  • 20,000 to 50,000 women were raped during the war in Bosnia and  Herzegovina in the early 1990
  • The vast majority of Tutsi women in Rwandaís 1994 genocide were likely exposed to some form of GBV; of those, it is estimated that a quarter to a half million survived rape
  • Approximately 50,000 to 64,000 internally displaced women in Sierra Leone have histories of war-related assault
  • In a 1995 survey of post-conflict Nicaragua, 50 percent of female respondents had been beaten by a husband, and 30 percent had been forced to have sex
  • 76 percent of prostitutes surveyed in post-genocide Rwanda in 1998 who had undergone HIV testing were seropositive
  • 66.7 percent of participants in a 1998 Sierra Leone survey on domestic violence had been beaten by an intimate partner
  • According to a 1999 government survey, 37 percent of Sierra Leoneís  prostitutes were less than 15 years of age, and more than 80 percent were  unaccompanied or displaced children·
  • An estimated forty thousand Burmese women are trafficked each year into Thailandís factories, brothels, and as domestic workers·
  • Findings from a study of Palestinian refugee women indicated 29.6% of women were subjected to beating at least once during their marriage with  the husband the main perpetrator and 67.9% of children had been beaten  at least once almost entirely by their parents.
  • 25 percent of Azeri women surveyed in 2000 by the Center ís for Disease Control acknowledged being forced to have sex:  those at greatest risk were among Azerbaij an ís internally displaced, 23 percent of whom acknowledged being beaten by a husband.·

Darfur  is yet  another  setting where history repeats itself, and where, once again, the failure   to  stem   the   explosively    high   incidents    of  GBV     will   have   far-reaching  consequences to  the  survivors  and  their  families,  as well  as to  the  communities  in which it is occurring.

Download the full report :

Health Sector Response to Gender-based Violence – Case Studies

The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent those of the UNFPA, the United  Nations (UN), or any of its affiliated organisations. The sharing of this report with external audiences is   aimed at sharing general guidelines and does not constitute an endorsement by UNFPA or institutions of  the United Nations system.

The photographs in this publication are used as illustrations only and do not  imply any opionions, behaviour or activity on the part of those portrayed.

The text and data in this report   may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes with attribution to the copyright holder.

Download the full report :

A better School Health through Homoeopathy

school healthDr Mansoor Ali

JYOTHIRGAMAYA – A Successful School Health Programme implemented by the Government of Kerala.

Joythirgamaya is a comprehensive approach aiming at uplifting the inherited intellectual, emotional, social and reproductive health of each adolescent seeking solace in the programme at Government and Aided High Schools of Kerala by the department of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala. A handbook is provided to the doctors participating in this project which intends to bring the uniformity in functioning, proper guidance, awareness of the various psychological aspects, of the common complaints faced in adolescents, mode of case taking, how to select the rubrics in the mental plane, miasmatic diagnostic ideas, understanding of basic statistical facts, schedule for the working pattern and appendix which contains all tables and data for this programme.

School health program, a concept that originally materialized in the mind of Dr. S. Gopikumar, is being implemented as a government approved project through out the state. The programme is being well appreciated and remarkable achievements obtained in many districts, the acceptance of the project among the scientific field is also encouraging.

Poor School Achievers
About 10 percent of children in early school performs poorly due various reasons apart from mental sub normality. The causes are not always apparent. The following are some of the causes of poor learning.

a. Child suffer from chronic illness with interruption in studies.

b. Too frequent relocation of parents

c. Some children with undetected error of refraction or mild deafness.

d. Cultural disharmony of child with his peers in the school.

e. Lack of adequate environmental stimulation in the home for school work.

f. Incompetent and harsh teachers, even brilliant students feel uninterested in class room

g. Child may be immature and not yet ready foe the instructions

Offering Effective Treatment for 

  • Adolescence problems
  • Ego Defense Mechanism.
  • Personality disorders
  • Learning disorders
  • Separation Anxiety
  • Anxiety Disorder
  • Disruptive behavior disorders (Conduct disorder, ADHD)
  • Impulse control disorder
  • Autistic disorder
  • Grief vs Depression
  • Depression in Teens
  • Substance Abuse
  • Mental retardation
  • Stammering
  • Stereo typic movement disorders
  • Eating disorders
  • Sleep disorders
  • Early onset schizophrenia

Three Handbooks

  • 1.For Doctors
  • 2.To be filled in detail by Parents
  • 3.To be filled in detail by Teachers

Hand book includes

  • Detailed case taking format with choices & suggestions
  • Related rubrics of questionnaire of students
  • Miasmatic symptoms
  • Mental status examination
  • Statistical principles
  • General out line in conducting School Health Programme
  • Philosophy of prescription
  • Principles of counseling

Feed back received from the concerned team of each district were elusive of scientific data and uniformity. So in order to obtain a uniformity in each and every stage of the implementation of this programme a team of doctors were selected by the director of Homoeopathy. The team of medical officers worked relentlessly to bring about necessary changes, alterations, inclusions and exclusions in the questionnaire and planning of activities after consultation with psychologist and statistician. So that the project can be carried out uniformly throughout the state and obtain scientific and statistical data which can be proudly presented to the scientific world.

The project entering its 8th year. After receiving several suggestions name  ” Joythirgamaya” was unanimously approved and hence forth the school health programme of department of Homoeopathy shall be known as ” Joythirgamaya”.  A central committee ,which is to be an authority in each and every aspect of the implementation of the programme is named as “STEP” ( School health Technical Expert Personnel) is also formed. An emblem and slogan were also approved. The slogan is “COMFORT TO THE MILLIONS AND HAPPINESS TO THE MULTITUDES”

General Outline in Conducting School Health Programme
The strength and effective output of any programme is basically determined by its uniformity in conduct and analysis of the data. So the school health programme also needs standardization. The suggestions given below are not rigid to comply in every aspect but should show attainable perfection with the suggested format.

1. The convener may first create an awareness about Joythirgamaya among the headmasters during their district level meeting and distribute the brochure. 

2. Criteria for selecting schools: District medical officer and the convener must jointly select three schools in a district , out of which one of the newly selected school is considered as control group where only survey form is given to understand the magnitude of the problem. This school is monitored at a fixed interval and note the changes with the help of a survey form. This school may be selected for medical intervention in the subsequent years. The other new school is meant for implementing the programme afresh. The third may be an existing one for the continuation of the previous year programme in ninth and tenth standard and a fresh case taking in eighth standard.

The total strength of the students in the high school section should not exceed 500, because quality of service rendered is likely to be unsatisfactory if the task is a not proportional with resource at your disposal. It is to be remembered that the control school must be identical in almost all aspects with the newly selected school.

3. Every year details of the school health programme should be briefed at the parent -teacher meeting which is likely to be held on the last Friday of June. If possible, District Medical Officer may attend the PTA meeting and discuss with the school authorities, to create rapport. This awareness class is most important for the newly selected school. The changes in the programme, importance of the age related problems, scope of Homoeopathy etc. may be highlighted to the parents as well as to teachers. The consent letter from the school PTA and the Headmaster must be obtained before starting the programme in the school. Explain the working schedule chart to the Headmaster.

4. As a next step, collect the academic performance and other activities of the school for the last three years, for e.g. success rate, socio economic status of family, general educational status of the parents , infra structural situation of the school, availability of studying materials etc.

5. Collect the list of name, class and division, of all the high school students

6. Maintenance of the Registration book by the Convener: – The registration book is to be prepared and maintained which shall contain all the details of the process, about every student, who has been enrolled in the programme. Details of the book is as follows. After getting the list of the students from the school, class and division wise, it is sorted in alphabetic order and enter the name of the student, followed by his register codes, which is unique to that student and it should not be a class number.

Write the Code Number given to the to each student (as per the register) in the allotted box of all case sheets. It should be done meticulously, since the bio data page of each student will be detached from the case records and it is kept under the safe custody of Convener in order to maintain secrecy and prevent possible misuse . A transparent cello tape should be affixed over the code number box in order to prevent probable manipulation on it by the students. The registration book contains activities of each phase of the schedule. (Ref, Excel File Name: Reg Form)

Here the first 2 box indicates the code of district second two boxes indicate year, third set indicates the registration number of school, (the selected school may be coded as 01, 02, 03) fourth set stands for class, subsequent boxes indicate division of class, register number given to the student, and last box is for gender. Code number is mandatory in the following case records J G 1 ; J G 2A, J G 2B J G 2C , J G 4 JG 5. It may be noted that in few instances the class division may be designated in two letters. In such situations team is entitled to give a single letter to the division according to their own discretion.

District codes are as follows : – Trivandrum 01, Quilon 02, Pathanamthitta 03,Alapuzha 04, Ernakulam 05, Kottayam 06, Idukki 07, Thrissur 08, Palakkadu 09, Malapuram 10, Kozhikode 11, Wyanadu 12, Kannur 13, and Kasargode 14. 

7. Introduction to case sheets: J G 1A, the check list, that is to be administered to the students at the beginning of the programme and same questionnaire in fresh form is subsequently given for review also. JG 1 B for the sociogram for students, J G 2A for parents, JG 2B for parents with problem children. JG 2 C for parents’ review , JG 3 for teacher, JG 4 is the proper case recorded for students, 7 G 5 to assess the socio economic status of the student’s family.

8. Administration of the JG 1 format to the student: JG 1A, the first format is given to the students . It is the primary survey on the student’s level of problems. It must be imparted with caution, not to share each one’s idea in filling the questions with other’s, and students should not have any preconceived idea about it before filling the format. The questions are graded from one to three as indicated in the form A B and C, (D stands for the value zero). Each part of the question must be summed up separately. The values obtained from all questions has to be entered on the excel format given (File Name is ANOVA1). The JG 1 format must be administered to the control group also, at the same interval and at simultaneous  time as far as possible. Total time taken to administer the JG 1 format is 15 – 20 minutes.

9. Parent form (JG 2A) is given to the students on the same day, so as to be filled by their parents and returned in sealed covers within two days. The receipt of this form should be entered on the registration book provided. It is better to admit the students for personal interrogation, only for those who come with duly filled JG 2A form.

I0. Administration of JG 3 for teachers.- This format is given to the teachers on the same day after giving an awareness to the teachers, regarding the project. This form maybe collected before personal interrogation, but surely before selection of medicine month.

11. Administration of JG 4 format: The JG 4 format is the actual case record for the students. After filling the code numbers in boxes and name of the student by the team members, a transparent cello tape should be affixed over the box in order to prevent probable manipulation on it. Then give the questionnaire to each student to fill it. Each question must be properly explained to them and at intervals simple psychological tests without stress or strain maybe employed.

12. Next phase is the group discussion on the filled case records among the team.  This is probably one of the most important aspects of this programme. Prior to discussion Convener must distribute case records (ie .JG 1A, JG 2 and JG 4) to individual doctors after noting their name in the registration book with date of issue. The doctors receiving the cases must study, each case thoroughly and present and discuss in group. For the discussion the teacher format may also be considered. By this the team members can get an overall idea about the problem cases and strategies to be taken to tackle the problems, which includes probable rubrics, cross references, diagnostic parameters etc.

13. Next step is to prepare for the interview with the students. A registration card should be issued to every student when they come for personal interrogation, that should contain name of the student, year of issue, registration number, name of school. Each student must be interviewed after noting down the preliminary data such as height, weight. Visual acuity may be checked with the help of snellen’s chart for selected cases, that is provided with you. It is to be noted that the question no 59 of part one of the students case record (JG 4) is likely to give some clue to the essence of the case. JG 5 must also be filled by the doctor at the time of interview but may be rated later.

14. After the personal interrogation, a sociogram form (JG 1B) is given to the students. It is cross checking exercise for the team, by the students. In this assessment, the team members must win the confidence of the group before exercising this test. It is also to be remembered that there is high risk of manipulating the data if it is performed non diligently.

15. If any student is suffering from serious behavioral problems or very low academic performance, a more serious intervention has to be carried out with the help the form JG 2B and personal interrogation with the parents to delineate the core of the problem.

16. After case taking, analysis and repertorization of the case has to be done. Children with problems that hinder his creativity and academic performance must be analysed more precisely by group discussion., so as to reach a perfect similimum. The philosophical approach to be made is already given in the chapter philosophy of prescription in this booklet. It is quite possible to reach a similimum in many ways but common, working methodology has to be evolved in due course of time.

17. Potency and dose: It is based on the principles of organon of medicine. In this programme medicine is prescribed to adolescents (stronger vitality and mostly based on mental general symptoms, so the selected remedy can be given preferably in 1 M potencies in single dose. The medicine must be administered to students the morning hours under the supervision of team of doctors in order to ensure its intake. Date of issue of medicine to the student must be noted in the registration book by the convener and in the case record. It is preferred to give 2 dram blank globules to take 4 pills at night for the next 15 days.

18. Follow up of the case: It is to be done in a preplanned way. It can be classified as phase one, two, and three. Phase one starts with the introduction of the scheme in the first PTA meeting and ends with the administration of the drug to students.

Second phase starts after the administration of drug in take, to the next 45 days. The team may visit the school couple of weeks after giving the medicines. At the end of phase two, a team of doctors should visit the school again and give the form JG 1 and obtain the result on the same day itself, homoeopathic evaluation may also carried out. The team should perform the same procedure on the control group school too. This mid test is done to assess the progress of the case. The data obtained at the end of the phase two must be noted in the registration book of the convener and in the excel sheet.( Excel file Name: Reg form, and ANVOA 2). The same procedure has to be followed in the phase 3 operation which that is on or after 45 days from the last day of second phase. Excel files to be used for it includes Reg form, and ANVOA3. During the third phase JG 4 has to be restudies , assess and improvements noted.

19.Adminstiration of JG 2C.– This is the review form for parents that is to be administered on the end of phase 3. It is given through the students and obtained the filled format after two days.

20. Students with serious physical ailments who are on life supporting drugs should be excluded from this project. But in conclusion report but it is reasonable to specify their problems, and can present as a specific cases among the team members and to the members of STEP. Similarly children with other chronic ailments can be included in the programme and can present as a specific cases among the team members and to the members of STEP.

21. Diet and regimen: Diet and regimen to each case depends upon the selected drug, and nature of pathology, if any, and according to the nutritional needs.

22.Transmission of data: The activity report should reach at directorate of Homoeopathy Trivandrum according to the given below schedule. The collected data on each phase of the programme should be transmitted in soft copy with necessary remarks by the convener.

Data to be transmitted are as follows:

a. Preliminary data about schools to be send in the format given (File Name Data Sheet, Excel file) and the details of the Phase one activities in ANVOA 1 Excel file. And ANOVA Excel file within 20 days after the completion of the phase one.

b. Details of the Phase two activities in ANVOA 2 Excel file within 20days after the completion of the phase two.

c. Details of the Phase three activities in ANVOA 3 Excel file within 20days after the completion of the phase three.

d. Details of the specific cases may send after one month after the conclusion of the phase 3

e. If there are diagnosed cases of ADHD, Conduct disorders, ODD etc., it may be reported in detail to Director of Homoeopathy for developing future strategies in the coming years.

f. Provisional diagnosis in psychological basis and miasmatic diagnosis

23. Every doctor attending in this programme should follow professional ethics and dedicate themselves to make this project successful.

24. Some important points to remember:

  • Code number given to each student is final throughout the programme and it should not be changed when student is promoted or failed
  • Convener is the sole responsible person to keep all the records and the contact person with the members of school health technical expert personnel.
  • District Medical Officer will be the controlling authority in overall activity of the programme and should monitor the working schedule by visiting the school.

Out Come
The programme is being well appreciated and remarkable achievements obtained in many districts, the acceptance of the project among the scientific field is also encouraging

For more details :

Director of Homoeopathy
Directorate of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala
East Fort, Thiruvanathapuram.695023, Kerala.
Email :
Mob : +91 9447170342
Web :

2.Dr.Gopikumar  Mob.+91  9746313300   Email :

3.Dr.Vijayakumar  Mob: +91 9847045032

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More US Consumers Seek Medical Advice via the Internet

More Than Two-Thirds of U.S. Consumers Seek Medical Advice via the Internet and Social Media, Accenture Study Finds

CHICAGO–(BUSINESSWIRE)- A new Accenture (NYSE: ACN) survey shows that U.S. consumers seeking medical advice are turning to medical websites, social media sites, online communities and informational websites in far greater numbers than the web sites of pharmaceutical companies. According to the survey, of the more than two thirds (68 percent) who go online for health information, slightly more than one in 10 (11 percent) regularly turn to a pharmaceutical company’s website to seek information about an illness or medical condition, compared to nine in 10 (92 percent) who look to other online resources more frequently.

The survey of more than 850 consumers suggests that pharmaceutical companies that are not fully leveraging multiple online channels are missing a real opportunity to address this captive audience. It also demonstrates that the fundamental shift from a predominantly one-way company-to-patient dialogue to enabling a patient-to-patient – and even a patient-to-physician dialogue – through the evolution of social networks and online communities, has resulted in fragmentation.

“Pharmaceutical companies that embrace innovations such as social networking and communications via mobile devices and integrate and align their communication strategy across multiple channels will be positioned to have a much greater influence on their patients’ choices and consequently, realize significant increases in revenue, profitability and sustained competitive advantage,” said Tom Schwenger, global managing director for Accenture’s Life Sciences Sales & Marketing practice.

According to the survey, 69 percent of respondents expect pharmaceutical companies to provide information about the medical condition or illness for which they are taking drugs. To address that expectation, Accenture believes pharmaceutical companies must not only provide the right information, but upgrade their websites to create a more dynamic, interactive experience, demonstrate an understanding of their patients’ needs, provide holistic solutions and clearly reinforce their brand identity in a two-way dialogue.

“While pharmaceutical companies are methodical in manufacturing their products, there is a clear disconnect in how they communicate with their patients,” Schwenger said. “Companies need to reevaluate their marketing campaigns to ensure they are integrated across all patient touch-points and channels to meet customer demand for health solutions, increase trust and brand loyalty and enhance customer perceptions.”

Accenture asserts that there will continue to be significant, disruptive innovations in the pharmaceutical sales and marketing model within the next five years driven by the creation of a more customer-focused business model, further cost-cutting initiatives and the quest by companies to gain a more competitive edge.

“The survey results clearly show that pharmaceutical companies must adopt a better understanding of their patient behavior through sophisticated analysis in order to fully capitalize on how patients interact with social media channels and websites,” said Schwenger. “With only 11 percent of survey respondents saying they most often use a pharmaceutical company’s web site to seek information about an illness or condition when looking online, pharmaceutical companies have a tremendous opportunity to better connect with patients through multiple digital venues in addition to their own website.”

The study was based on an online survey conducted by Accenture of 852 adult consumers in the U.S. between August 30, 2010 and September 3, 2010. The survey sample is representative by gender, age, and geography of the U.S. population. Consumers polled indicated they or someone in their household was currently taking prescribed medications.

About Accenture
Accenture is a global management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company, with approximately 204,000 people serving clients in more than 120 countries. Combining unparalleled experience, comprehensive capabilities across all industries and business functions, and extensive research on the world’s most successful companies, Accenture collaborates with clients to help them become high-performance businesses and governments. The company generated net revenues of US$21.6 billion for the fiscal year ended Aug. 31, 2010. Its home page is