Monthly Archives: June 2012

headache

Utility of Synthesis Repertory in the treatment of Migraine

headacheDr  Suman sankar. A. S.
Department of Case taking Repertorisation
Sarada krishna Homeopathic Medical College. Kulashekarak. Tamil Nadu

Under the guidance of  Dr. SHASHI KANT TIWARI

The definite cause of the migraine is yet to be known; the condition may result from a series  of  reactions  in  the  central  nervous  system  due  to  changes  in  the  body  or  in  the environment.  There  is  often  a  family  history  of  the  disorder  suggesting  that  the  migraine  sufferers may inherit sensitivity to triggers like alcohol, hunger, lack of sleep, stress, foods that   contain  caffeine,  monosodium  glutamate  &  nitrates  and  hormonal  changes  in  woman  that produce inflammation in the blood vessels & nerves around the brain causing pain.

The  physical  &  neurological  examinations  as  well  as  laboratory  studies  are  usually  normal  and  serve  to  exclude  other  more  ominous  causes  of  headache.  Though  there  are  many  modes of treatment, no method can give satisfactory result in all cases of migraine.

Migraine   is   a   manifestation   of   constitutional   disorder   and   as   such   it   requires constitutional  treatment  for  its  cure.  Medicines  covering  symptoms  of  headache  only  may  give  temporary relief from time to time but a complete cure there by may not be possible unless the Homoeopathic constitutional medicine is prescribed in appropriate doses.

Homoeopathy  is  a  better  mode  of  treatme nt  in  such  cases,  since  it  can  remove  the  disease  in  its  whole  extent  in  a  reliable  and  the  most  harmless  way.  Although  the  efficacy  of  omoeopathic   medicines   in   treating   migraine   are   studied   in  different     perspectives,  no  systematic  study  has  been  conducted  in  this  subject  in  relation  to  the  role  of  homoeopathic  Repertories.

Synthesis  a  modern  repertory  is  the  product  of  continuous  teamwork  with  superb   technology;  It  is  the  printed  version  of  RADAR  (Rapid  Aid  to  Drug  Aimed  Research)  Computer program.   This   repertory   has   set   a   new   standard   by   adding   information   and   continuous  verification by its users.

This   study   is   to  facilitate   a  clear   unde rstanding   of  the  applicability   of  synthesis  repertory in migraine disorder.

Aims and objectives
Utility of Synthesis  repertory in treatment of migraine.  To study the rubrics related to migraine in Synthesis and other main Repertories.

Summary
This  study  shows  the  different  presentations  of  mig raine  and  help  to  understand  the  migraine  in  a  detailed  way.  In  this  study,  the  sex  incidence  of  the  disease  shows  that  the  disease  affects  predominantly  females.  The  age  incidence  in  the  study  showed  more  people  in  the age group of 31-40 years and 21-30 years.  In this study, common migraine is predominant  among  the  types  of  migraine.  It  has  been  observed  in  the  study  that  most  of  the  cases  presented with psoric manifestations.

All the cases showed good improvement after treatme nt. Repertorization using synthesis repertory was found to be very effective in finding the simillimum. The result of the treatment in  the  study  reveals  that  there  is  broad  scope  for  homoeopathy  in  the  treatment  of  migraine,  as  majorities of the patients were relived of their complaints after the treatment.

Download full paper : www.homeobook.com/pdf/migraine-homeopathy.pdf

research3

Quantitative Methods Human Pathogenetic Trials in Homoeopathy

research3Dr.A.B.Ram Jyothis.MD (Hom) Pharm.

Background:
Homoeopathy is a unique form of drug therapy which is capable of stimulating the body’s own power of self healing in a special way. In order to understand what symptoms potential Homoeopathic medicines can provoke in healthy individual, Homoeopaths conduct ‘Drug proving or Human pathogenetic Trials .They are the pillars of Homoeopathy. Hahnemann was one of the first to give medicines to healthy people in order to understand its effects in the sick. He was not the first, however to have had the idea. Albrecht von Haller, a Swiss doctor advocated it in1771 and Anton Storck, Head of a Viennese Hospital experienced with pharmaceutical substances on himself. But what was unique about Hahnemann was his systematic approach.  In the beginning, Hahnemann used mainly mother tinctures and low potencies for drug proving, he later switched on to centesimal Potencies and many of his followers did the same. In modern HPTs, the substances have been given in the form of ultra high succussed dilution, avoiding any risk of toxicity. The question of whether HPTs using ultra high succussed dilution, yield symptoms which differ from placebo is unresolved.

Considering the great importance of Human pathogenetic Trials in Homoeopathic theory and practice, it is surprising to see that very little scientific work has been done on the particular subject. This is a weak point in research which has already taken up by critics of Homoeopathy. The debate has to focus on the weakness of traditional proving methods and steps to reform it.  

HPT versus Clinical trials:HPTs have certain similarities to phase I trials for new pharmaceutical products, they are conducted on healthy volunteers, but there are key differences. HPTs are clinical trials designed to investigate the effect of the exposure of human volunteers, good in health, to potentially toxic or pathogenetic substances, diluted and serially agitated according to homoeopathic pharmacopoeial methods.    

Necessity of placebo controls:
For more than 100 years proving have been done without placebo control. The Placebo control in a HPT is only useful, if introduced as an intra – individual control, i.e, a crossover design. Parallel – group designs are of no value in HPT. There are so many variables which govern the variance of individual symptoms that in parallel – group designs only very large numbers ( several 100 or so) may give a chance of controlling them by randomization. But if we use intra – individual control, we have to be aware of carry over effects. If there are carry over effects, the design is compromised, and only the first half of the experimental period can be used. So the crossover design with all its inherent difficulties remains the candidate of choice, but it is vital to control the carry-over effect either by a washout period. (1)

Methodological Quality Index for HPTs:
A Methodological Quality Index is introduced to assess the reliability of HPTs. It is based on key components of methodological quality including internal and external validity items. The MQI includes aspects such as randomisation, inclusion and exclusion criteria, blinding and criteria for selection of pathogenetic effects with values ranging from 1 to 4 for each component, giving arrange from 4 to 16.Scoreweredivided into 4 methodological classes, where class I is the worst and class IV is the best, with arbitrary cutoff points (< 6 for class I, 7-10 for class II, 11-13for class III, > 14 for class IV). 

Statistical methods:
Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) are used to verify relationships between validity and reliability of information from HPTs, including association between Methodological Quality Index and subjective judgments by reviewers. Kappa statistics are used to evaluate agreement between reviewers on judging methodological quality components and to estimate the disagreement on global judgments of quality.

The application of Quantitative Techniques adopts a scientific approach to Human Pathogenetic Trials. The use of proving data in a systematic manner and constructing it into a Materia medica for future use is major function Human Pathogenetic Trials. This processing and manipulating of raw data into meaningful information is the heart of scientific analysis. The aim of the quantitative methods is to improve detected symptoms and gain a finer resolution of observed symptoms by implementing the proving method developed by Hahnemann and his followers. We should combine this phenomenologically accurate method with rigorous methodological standards.

Dr.A.B.Ram Jyothis.MD (Hom) Pharm.
Department of Homoeopathic Pharmacy,
Fr.Muller Homoeopathic Medical College
Derelakatte, Mangalore

 Download full article : www.homeobook.com/pdf/human-pathogenetic-trials-homeopathy.pdf

Physico-chemical evaluations of Mimosa pudica tincture

Milind Pande, Anupam Pathak 

Physico-chemical evaluations of homeopathic mother tincture of Mimosa pudica Linn. (lajvanti)

Abstract
Homeopathic formulations do not have much more of standardization in our country. Even the pharmacopoeial standards for mother tinctures are far from complete. The objective of this work was to provide some additional parameters to test the mother tincture so as to determine the identity and quality. For this purpose, the mother tincture of Mimosa pudica Linn (Mimosae) roots was selected as a model tincture and investigated for the following parameters. Viz. organoleptic properties, physical properties, and chemical properties, HPTLC studies and quantification of active constituents.

Key words: Mimosa pudica, lajvanti, chuimui, mimosine, HPTLC, tubulin.

Introduction
Mimosa pudica Family Mimosae known as sensitive plant in English and Lajvanti or Chuimui in local Hindi language. The plant is distributed through out in India in moist locality. A diffuse prickly under shrub, is about 45 – 90 cm in height. Leaves bipinnately compound, pinnate 2-4, delicately arranged with 10 -20 pairs of leaflets, rachis clothed with ascending bristles. Flowers pink, in globose heads, peduncles prickly, usually in auxiliary pairs all along the branches. Fruits bristly pods, flat, straw coloured, consisting of 3-5 one seeded segments. The roots and leaves are commonly used in treatment as bitter, astringent, acrid, cooling vulnerary, alexipharmic, diuretic, antispasmodic, emetic, constipating, and febrifuge.

They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, leucoderma, vaginopathy, metropathy, ulcers, dysentery, inflammations, burning sensation, haemorrhoids, jaundice, asthma, fistula, small pox, strangury, spasmodic, affections and fevers.1

The leaves are bitter, sudorific and tonic, and are useful in hydrocele, haemorrhoids, fistula, scrofula, conjunctivitis, cuts, wounds, and hemorrhages. The whole plant is used internally for vesicle calculi and externally for odema, rheumatism, myalgia and tumors of the uterus. 2     

Literature survey on Mimosa pudica suggest various therapeutic use of plant reported such as urolithiasis3, ovulation4, vibriocidal5, antidepressant 6, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities7, antiimplantation and antiestrogenic activity8, effects on oestrous cycle and ovulation 9, hyperglycemic10, anticonvulsant activity11, hyaluronidase and protease activities. 12 The biomolecules isolated from Mimosa pudica were isolation of tubulin13, isolation of C-glycosylflavones 14, phenolic ketone15, a novel buffadienolide 16, analysis of 27 aromatic amino acids 17, and chemical constituents of C-glycosylflavones. 18

Experimental
The roots of Mimosa pudica Linn. were purchased from local drug supplier and their identity was confirmed by comparing with herbal specimens preserved in Department of Pharmacy, Barkatullah University (BUPH/4041 E). The roots were first dried in shade and then dried in an oven at 40-50oC for five hours.

Simple percolation method was used for manufacturing of mother tincture in laboratory. This process was divided in three stages as

a) Imbibition: The dried plant material was then subjected to size reduction to obtain fine powder (Mesh size 80) using grinding mill. The imhibition of drug powder was carried out for four hours in closed vessel. The moistened drug was packed in percolator and sufficient quantity of menstrum ie. Ethanol. When liquid coming out from the outlet of percolator, the outlet was closed.

b) Maceration: The moistened drug was left in contact with menstrum for 24 hours.  During this period the menstrum was dissolved in the active constituent of drug and became almost saturated with it.

c) Percolation: This stage was marked by the downward displacement of the saturated solution formed in a maceration and extraction of the remaining active constituent present in the drug by slow passage of the menstrum through the column of the drug.  After collecting ¾ th volume of the mother tincture, the mark was pressed. The expressed liquid and percolate was mixed together. (Batch A)

d) The alternative way of preparation of mother tincture was maceration method by using wide mouth bottle was kept separately for extraction process with shaking at least once a day for seven days (Batch B). Each time after extraction the mark was pressed for complete recovery of solvent and again washed with next lot of solvent.

The mark was pressed manually after complete extraction. After that complete mother tincture subjected for filtration and volume was adjusted with washings of fresh solvents. These mother tinctures of Mimosa pudica subjected for various evaluations.

Along with this mother tincture of other marketed brand were procured from market and used as mfr. 1(Ramakrishna Homeo Pharma, Calcutta), 2 (Father Muller Charitable Institution, Mangalore) and 3(Allen Homeo Pharma, Calcutta).

The experimental works was divided in two parts.

Part I: Qualitative work done on mother tincture
All mother tincture was subjected to TLC evaluation Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water (70:25:5) and detection reagent as Dragendorff,s reagent. The TLC plat was observed for development for orange brown colour spot. The final solvent system was selected by optimization and best results and further subjected to HPTLC screening.

Part II: Quantitative work assay of mother tincture

Part I:

Sample preparation:

1) The standard mother tincture (as per Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia) was supplied by Neulife Homeo Pharma, Bhopal

2. Marketed mother tincture

Characterization of sample was done by
1) Physical evaluation19, 20. The parameters carried out on mother tincture samples included determination of viscosity, surface tension, specific conductance, optical activity, pH, alcohol content, specific gravity, refractive index, and total solids (Table I). The all-volumetric measurement used in the study were calibrated and validated21.

2) Chemical evaluation: Samples of the mother tincture were subjected to various chemical tests22, 23 to confirm the nature of phytoconstituents as reported in literature.

PART II

Analytical method development

An accurate and sensitive HPTLC method was developed for estimation of mimosine present in mother tincture.

Standard preparation: The 5 mg of mimosine (reference standard) was accurately weighed dissolved in about 6 ml of ethanol in a 10 ml volumetric flask and the solution adjusted to volume to represent 500 µg/ ml of substance. One ml of this solution was then diluted to 10 ml with ethanol to make a solution of 50 µm/ml. This solution was then used for subsequent steps of analysis.

Analytical procedures:
i) Equipment:
Camag HPTLC system equipped with sample applicator Linomet IV, twin trough developing chamber, TLC scanner III and integration software system; Cats 3.0. The plate used was HPTLC 366 nm silica gel 60 (E. Merck).

i) Chemicals: Different developing systems were tried in the preliminary trials. Chemicals used as ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, (HPLC Merck grade).

ii) Final experiment with due validation: HPTLCF 366 Silica gel 60 (E Merck), analyzed by HPTLC for its chief phytoconstituents. The accurately weighed mother tincture was dissolved in sufficient solvent (10 mg / 5 ml of ethanol) and used as sample. (Graph I).

The plate was allowed to run in Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water (70:25:5). The plate was sprayed with Dragendorff,s reagent of alkaloid compound confirmed again with orange brown colour spot. The reference standard and ethanolic mother tinctures were taken in known volume (50µl each spots) and response is measured in terms of peak area.

Result and Discussion
From the qualitative work done on the samples of mother tincture, it was concluded that significant differences exist in sample of mother tincture. Considering the physical parameters, it was observed that pH and optical activity of mother tincture samples of manufacturer 2 and 3 differed considerably. In the case of total solids the values obtained for manufacturer 1 (both batches) were to be very variably from the values obtained for manufacturers 2, 3, 4 and standard mother tincture. It was also clearly observed that the values of physical parameter for manufacturer 3 and standard sample were similar. A drop in specific conductance implies a low content of inorganic mater in the sample. The standard sample exhibited specific conductance of 1005 in comparison to other manufacturers (1072, 1092, 1034, 1045, 1078).

Alcohol content influences the viscosity of the sample. It was observed that samples with higher alcohol content as in the case of standard mother tincture, exhibited high viscosity too. However manufacturer 1, in spite of low alcohol content, exhibited high viscosity, which could be attributed to its high total solid content. Study of inter batch variations with respect to manufacturer 1 was successful. Significant variation in viscosity and refractive index were observed between batches A and B of manufacturer 1. (Table 1) The chemical test also revealed some interesting results. The positive results obtained in chemical tests and thin layer chromatographc evaluation showed presence of flavonoids, phytosterol, alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, bitter glucoside, fatty acids, were prominently observed.

Thus it may be concluded that manufacturer 1 (batch A), 3 and 4 are qualitatively matching and comparable. With reference to Graph I slight variation obtained on quantification of Mimosine content in different samples of mother tincture confirms the fact that different varieties of Mimosa could be responsible for variations because they separate out at different Rf values. Mother tincture from manufacturer 2 had lower Mimosine content when compared with the other samples. Thus, the values of Mimosine content in different samples of mother tincture are in no way close to value obtained for standard mother tincture.

Conclusion 
In conclusion it may be stated that the approach given for standardization of homeopathic mother tinctures including physical and chemical evaluation and comparison with the preparation developed in house as reference standards should be followed by standardization of all mother tinctures. For developing an analytical method pure reference standard of reported active ingredient may have be procured or isolated. Using these reference standards, it will be possible to quantitatively determine the active ingredient in the mother tincture. Further structural elucidation was not possible due to puer state compound and paucity of time. This study is suggested as future line up for research in this study.

References
1. Vaidyaratanm, P.S., (2001). Indian Medicinal Plants database, 1st edn, Vol. II, Orient Longman, Arya Vidyashala, Kottakkal, pp 36-37.
2. Sharma P.C., Yelne, M.B. and Dennis T.T. (2001). Database on medicinal plants, Govt. of India, Janakpuri Delhi. pp 369-379.
3. Joymma S, Rao S.G., Hrikeshvan H.G., Aroop A.R., Kulkarni D.R. (1990). Biochemical mechanisms and effects of Mimosa pudica on experimental urolithiasis in rats, Indian J. of Experimental Biology, 28(3) 237-240.
4. Valsala S, Muthayya N.M., Sivakumar S., (1992). Effect of Mimosa pudica Linn. Root extract on ovarian weight, the size and number of pre-graffian follicles and ovulation. Proc. International Conference on Fertility Regulation, Bombay, India. 5-8 Nov. 122-125.
5. Akinsinde K.A., Olukoya D.K. (1995). Vibriocidal activities of some local herbs, J Diarrhoeal Dis Res., 13(2) 127-9.
6. Molina M, Contreas C.M., Tellez-Alcantara P. (1999). Mimosa pudica may posses antidepressant action in the rat, Phytomedicine, 6 (5) 319-323.
7. Valsala S., (2000). Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of Mimosa pudica on Rattus norvegicus, Journal of Ecotoxicology, 10(1) 25-29.
8. Jamuna Devi Y, Devi S.P., Singh H.T. (2001) Antiimplantation and antiestrogenic activity of the leaf extract of Mimosa pudica L. in female albino rats, Indian Drugs, 38(8) 414-417.
9. Valsala S, Karpagaganapathy P.R. (2002) Effect of Mimosa pudica root powder on oestrous cycle and ovulation in cycling female albino rat Rattus norvegicus, Phytotherapy Research, 16(2) 190-192.
10. Amalraj T, Ignacimuthu S., (2002) Hyperglycemic effects of leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn. Fitoterapia, 73(4) 351-352.
11. Ngo Bum E, Dawack D.L., Schmutz M, Rakotonirina A, Rakotonirina S.V., Portet C, Jeker A, Olpe H.R., Herrling P., (2004) Anticonvulsant activity of Mimosa pudica decoction. Fitoterapia, 75(3-4) 309-14.
12. Girish K.S., Mohanakumari H.P., Nagaraju S, Vishwanath B.S., Kemparaju K. (2004) Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract, Fitoterapia, 75(3-4) 378-80.
13. Pal M, Roychaudhury A, Pal A, Biswas S., (1990) A novel tubulin from Mimosa pudica. Purification and characterization, Eur J Biochem., 192(2) 329-35.
14. Englert J, Jiang Y, Cabalion P, Oulad-Ali, A., Anton R., (1994) C-glycosylflavones from aerial parts of Mimosa pudica Planta Medica., 60(2) 194-7.
15. Josewin B, Ramachandrapai M, Suseelan M.S. (1999) A new phenolic ketone from the leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn, Indian J. of Chemistry, 38B (2) 251-253.
16. Yadava, R.N., Yadav S., (2001) A novel buffadienolide from the seeds of Mimosa pudica Linn., Asian J. of Chemistry, 13(3) 1157-1160.
17. La S, Kim A, Kim J.H., Choi O.K., Kim K.R., (2002) Profiling and screening analysis of 27 aromatic amino acids by capillary electrophoresis in dual modes, Electrophoresis, 23(7-8) 1080-9.
18. Yuan-Ke, LuJieLi, Yin-MingWen., (2006) Chemical constituents of C-glycosylflavone from Mimosa pudica, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 41 (5) 435-438
19) Muzumdar, K.P., (1998). Pharmaceutical Sciences in Homeopathy & Pharmacodynamics, Parmanand Prakashan,Delhi, 3rd vol., pp 24-25.
20) Mandal & Mandal, (1997). A textbook of Homeopathic pharmacy, New Central book agency, Calcutta, pp 75-76.
21) Indian Pharmacopia, (1996) Govt of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare published by The controller of publication New Delhi, Vol. II, ppA 97.
22) Trease G.E. & Evans W.C. (1991) Pharmacognosy, English Language Book Society, 12 th edition, pp 28-29.
23) Kokate C K., (1991). Practical Pharmacognosy, Vllabh Prakashan, 3 rd edition pp 28, 29,191,
24) Kirtikar, K.R. & Basu B.D., Indian Medicinal Plants, Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, 1975, 2 nd edition, pp 1884-1886.

Physical Essence of Information-including Remedies

Kamyar Esmaeili, M.D.
Viremedy Development Center
Tehran Iran

Citation:
Kamyar Esmaeili: Physical Essence of Information-including Remedies. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009. Volume 6 Number 2.

Keywords: Viremedy, Homoeopathy (Homeopathy), Energy Therapy, Free Electron, Tunnel Effect, Matter Waves

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • “Free Electrons” & “Tunnel Effect” Phenomenon
  • The Physical Essence of the Mentioned Remedies
  • The Mechanism of Changing Carrier Substances to Remedies
  • The General Effect Mechanism of such Remedies on Living Organisms
  • Explanation of some other Relevant Facts
  • More Studies in the Future
  • References 
Abstract
Physical essence of Viremedy, Homoeopathic remedies and some Energy Therapy remedies, as kinds of “Information-including Remedies”, is a questionable subject. Here it has been attempted to attain a persuasive explanation of the existing realities, by presenting a convincing theory in physical essence of such remedies.
The presented theory is emphasizing on the role of some particular wave-particles. These particles are relatively free electrons, which are freed, particularly in the “Tunnel Effect” phenomenon, which is partially known in Quantum Mechanics.
Generally, in these kinds of remedies, the amplitude of the mentioned free electrons’ vibration indicates the remedy type, and the frequency indicates the remedy potency.
As well, the mechanism of changing “carrier substances” to the remedies, manner of “information exchange”, description of the influences of some physical phenomena on these remedies, and elucidation of some relevant facts and findings in this field, have been also mentioned in this paper.

Introduction
The physical essence of the remedies as Homoeopathic remedies and some remedies prepared via a usual manner in the course called as Energy Therapy have ever been a questionable subject.

Up to now, various hypotheses have been presented to explain the essence of these remedies and their mechanisms of effects on living beings.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] Some of them point to a part of the fact; but, none of them could persuasively explain the existed realities and experiences in this field.

Because of high dilution of these remedies (that sometimes pass the Avagadro’s limit), some have denied existence of any effect for them, and have attributed all of the reported cases to factors like inculcation, advertisements, and the likes! In this way, they indeed deny many objective effects of these remedies in spite of frequent existing evidences. The effects of these remedies on living beings, and some particular acts of these remedies alongside some phenomena are such realities, which are provable through controlled experiments too.

In opposite, some resort to various pseudo-scientific theories and fantasy mentalities instead of realistically explaining existing phenomena in this field. (In this way, they practically assisted to strengthening first group non-scientific positions.)

Concerning the high dilution of most of Homoeopathic remedies, because of the production and multiplication procedures[9], and the possibility of absence of any additional material in carrier substances of Homoeopathic remedies and Energy Therapy remedies, some have denied the effects of these remedies…!

Here it has been attempted to attain a persuasive explanation of the existing realities and phenomena in this field, by presenting a convincing theory for the physical essences of such remedies.

The mentioned theory could also be used for methodically predicting some events in this field. By relying on that and the outcome regulations, it is possible to analyze and forecast the said events and phenomena.

Considering some relevant reports and findings, and regarding the possibilities and limitations, the mentioned theory has been tested through some experiences and experiments as much as possible. The investigating influences of some physical phenomena on these remedies (particularly, on Viremedy) and studying the effects of some of the mentioned affected remedies on the living being have been among these repeatable experiments.

Besides to objective observations and benefiting some materials, tools and apparatuses, in some of the experiences and experiments, the useful help of some individuals too sensitive to such remedies for evaluating the remedies and their effects and changes, is also benefited. Some of them could report particular tastes, colors, smells, etc, different in quality and/or quantity for miscellaneous types and/or potencies of these remedies.

These highly sensitive persons could sometimes be very useful and at hand indications and guides. [For example, one of the most sensitive before-mentioned persons, called as Aura-sighted, expressed a kind of branched spread pattern after trickling a drop of the water including Viremedy, in the tap water not including Viremedy….] “Nevertheless, their reports are not necessarily being precise, exact, or even reliable.” These kinds of experiences should be repeated several times, in diverse ways. Meanwhile, the primary results could be controlled through other appropriate ways, such as studies over living beings and the influences of remedies on them, using some apposite technologies, etc.

However, most of the said experiences and experiments have been repeated many times.

“Free Electrons” & “Tunnel Effect” Phenomenon
The presented theory is emphasizing on importance and the role of the vibration manner of particular wave-particles. These particles are relatively free electrons, which are continuously freed (throughout a kind of equilibrium process), particularly in the phenomenon named as “Tunnel Effect”.

The mentioned vibrations, as kinds of waves called as Matter Waves or “De Broglie Waves”, are partially known in Quantum Mechanics. “De Broglie Matter Waves”, “Tunnel Effect Phenomenon”, and the related equations, have been also discussed in the academic texts and references of the Modern Physics (“Quantum Mechanics”).[10,11,12]

Based on the issues mooted and accepted in Quantum Mechanics, some of electrons in the so-called orbits of Atom could pass through the potential barrier, and relatively become free.

Naturally, the relatively freed electrons during this phenomenon as any other materialistic particles have their own peculiar vibration characteristics, such as amplitude and frequency, which are dependent on several factors. [In fact, any particular vibration as a phenomenon, finds its peculiar existence, in accompaniment with other phenomena, simultaneously….]

For each particular simple or compound material in each particular condition; depending on elements’ types and their peculiar particles arrangements in relation with each other, and the mutual effects of complex of the related electromagnetic domains and other peculiarities on each other…, the vibratory characteristics of the mentioned relatively free electrons are “specific to that particular material in the particular condition”.

The mentioned waves can be according to the case demonstrated by “Diffraction Phenomenon”….

In Quantum Mechanics, Tunnel Effect phenomenon and the related issues (such as permeability power and the partial abilities of reflection or transparency in potential barrier) are being discussed in detail, considering the Uncertainty Principle and Schrudinger equation, electron’s potential kinetic energy and related de Broglie matter waves, particle structure of energy, Planck’s Constant, etc.[10,11,12]

However, this phenomenon (as some others in Atomic Physics) has some ambiguous points…. Even though considering Probability Rule, Wave Mechanics and the related equations, in spite of the Conservation of Mass and Energy Principle, the probability of electrons’ passing through the potential barrier is not zero, yet the reason why some electrons possess this ability and particular peculiarity should be clear….

Upon the mentioned theory; reciprocal induction of the characteristics of the said electrons’ vibrations (as physical information) takes place via exchange of the type of “Information Quanta” among the electrons.[13,14,15,16] In this regard, the electrons always tend to obtain the highest possible vibration energy level considering the receiving information quanta and existing effective energy.

In this way, there is a kind of information interchange among the particles and electrons, such as the electrons having higher vibratory energy and those having lower energy; which lets some electrons receiving the existing energy in environment in a particular, systematic manner, leads to finding higher vibratory energy and thus, higher possibility of passing through the potential barrier. [Generally, Vibratory Energy has a direct correlation with the square of multiplication of Vibration Amplitude by its Frequency.]

This interpretation also points to the existence of a type of “Information domain”, non-separate from other related domains of particle. Indeed, each particle (wave-particle) is a multifaceted complex of various, non-separate characteristics, “as a being”.

The Physical Essence of the Mentioned Remedies
Upon the mentioned theory, the amplitude of the mentioned relatively free electrons’ vibration could indicate the remedy type, and the frequency of these wave-particles’ vibration could indicate the remedy potency. [14,15,16]

The potency indeed means the particular so-called position and depth of the main primary influence of the used remedy in living organism. Thus, whatever the potency of a remedy be higher, its primary effect will be in the more effective sections of the non-bodily part of the organism. [It is worthy of mentioning that increasing the potency of such remedies, could lead to the more effects of them on the living being receiving the remedy, only to a limited extent. This extent depends on the grade of the so-called Vital Aura development or advancement. For example, increasing the potency of Viremedy “more than a particular limit”, doesn’t lead to more effects on the plants. Nonetheless, such increase could lead to more effects on the human beings. Although, it seems that we have finally a certain limit for increasing the effectiveness of Viremedy in the case of human being too.]

Therefore, each one of these remedies includes a type of physical “information”, particular to it and in the form of the mentioned electrons’ vibration characteristics.

In this regard:
– “Viremedy” (Bio-remedy or Unique remedy) includes the physical information correspondent with the particular dynamic, harmonic general course or proceeding named as “Health Current” in living beings. On the other hand, the mentioned relatively free electrons in the material including Viremedy have their special, high vibration amplitude correspondent with the Health Current in living beings. (The particular dynamic, wide-ranging and thriving course, named generally as “Health Current” is fundamentally so-called common in all of living beings….)

The materials including Viremedy have pertinently been in an special “information domain”, which is related to the common dynamic state (current) in living beings, called generally as Health Current. The said particular information domain could also be more in some especial places, times and situations…. [Nonetheless, also every human being has generally “potential ability” for producing Viremedy, in its turn….]

Viremedy could be also reproduced and concentrated in the carrier substances as water, some minerals such as agate, etc, via using the information-including materials, in the presence of sufficient effective energy. Indeed, these remedized materials, include the mentioned information also in physical form of the vibration characteristics in the said relatively free electrons.

– As well, the Homoeopathic remedies, similar to some particular Energy Therapy remedies, each one includes the information correspondent with an special unhealthy general state in living beings, in an special vibration of the mentioned particles.

During the production of “Homoeopathic remedies”, the vibration characteristics (as vibration amplitude and frequency) of the free electrons’ vibrations in the original materials of such remedies (mineral, herbal, animal, etc) are induced in a large number of the free electrons of carrier substances. Applying effective energy during potentization of these remedies, increases the frequency of the mentioned electrons’ vibrations.

Indeed, the usual dilution in the procedure of reproduction and multiplication of Homoeopathic remedies[9] mainly causes purification and detoxification of these remedies, according to the case.

– And in the mentioned “Energy Therapy remedies”, the so-called healer in practice performs this induction (as particular information, according to the healer) on the free electrons. [These so-called remedies are prepared via a usual manner in the course called generally as Energy Therapy, and their general physical essence is similar to Homoeopathic remedies, and Viremedy too…. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about what is called as Energy Therapy and so-called remedies; not only about their essences and effects mechanisms, but also about their influence fact…!]

The Mechanism of Changing Carrier Substances to Remedies
In some substances such as water, alcohol, sugar and agate “crystal” (as a particular type of “Quartz Crystal”), etc, because of their atomic and molecular structures and concerning the Ionization Energy of the mentioned particles, the formation probability of the afore-said free electrons, is relatively more. These materials could be used as carrier substances of such remedies, according to the case.

Meanwhile, “being carrier substance for each particular remedy” necessitates “lesser primary vibration energy” in the free electrons of the mentioned substance before being (changing to) the remedy, in comparison with the vibration energy of the mentioned free electrons in that remedy. Thus, the capability of being remedy varies according to the remedy and the mentioned substance.[13,14,15,16]

For instance; it is possible that a particular material such as salt could be a good carrier substance for a remedy as Viremedy, but not for the others as many remedies in Homoeopathy or Energy Therapy…, and could even according to the case, abolish them.

It should be said that reaching the partial number of the free electrons having the mentioned vibrations to a “Concentration Threshold” is necessary for changing the carrier substance not including the remedy, to the carrier substance including the remedy. This concentration depends on the several factors such as the kind of remedy, the kind of carrier substance, the environment’s circumstances, and so on.

In some done experiments, remedization or being remedy (in case of Viremedy) could be transported through the carrier substances (such as agate, salt, sugar, some metals, water, paper, etc) during the particular time according to the case. (This time depends on the mentioned factors in the previous paragraph.)

Moreover, inducing the character of being the remedy only by laying alongside the carrier substance including the remedy, and the carrier substance not including the remedy, was been experienced. By the way, increase of distance between the carrier substance including the remedy, and the carrier substance not including the remedy, and/or placing a material barrier between them decreased this inducing influence.

As it was stated before; compared to the others, the mentioned free electrons in Viremedy have the highest vibration energy. Therefore, while placing the Homoeopathic remedies near Viremedy for enough time could finally change them into Viremedy.

It is worthy of saying that according to the related conditions…, each remedy, which is being considered with a supposed particular potency, could also include some other potencies and/or even, some other remedies, in fewer extents. This could be due to some mentioned relatively free electrons with the same vibration amplitude, but having other vibration frequencies, and/or some mentioned relatively free electrons, with different vibration amplitudes, in the remedy. “Usually, through passing the time and because of the information exchange among the mentioned free electrons, the remedy tends to a particular remedy with a particular potency….”

Meanwhile, in case of mixing several remedies of different types and potencies, after passing the particular time (according to the case…), there will be only one remedy. For instance, in case of mixing a homoeopathic remedy prepared from the plants with another homoeopathic remedy in the same potency, prepared from the minerals, after passing the particular time, we will only have the mineral remedy. In general, the mentioned time depends on the type of carrier substances of those remedies, the type and potency and amount of each of those remedies, existing effective energy (or the manner of energy applying) and other environmental conditions, etc.

These phenomena could be simply explained by relying on the stated issues about physical essence of such remedies, and information exchange among the mentioned free electrons.

In the picture 1, the containers containing Viremedy in the mentioned carrier substances, as the instances, have been shown.

Examples of the Containers Containing Viremedy (The Carrier Substances are Water, Salt, Sugar, and Agate Crystal)
Here, it should be mentioned that as it was said before; “Information domain” is not separate from other domains of particle. Indeed, each particle (wave-particle) is a multifaceted complex of various, non-separate characteristics, “as a being or creature” (with dynamic partial existence). [In Homeopathy, we have different remedies, which their origins are Sunlight, Moonlight, X-Ray, etc. We had a remedy, which its origin was “Gamma-Ray”. As well, the Magnets have their particular remedies…. It means that the information field is not separate from electromagnetic field and the other fields…. Nevertheless, they are not the same. Indeed, the information field could be considered as a “basic” language, which could be according to the case translated or converted to various fields, in various kinds of existence. (In this way, information field could get various presentations….)]

The General Effect Mechanism of such Remedies on Living Organisms
As it was mentioned in the related literature[13,14,15,16]; exposure of the mentioned relatively free electrons having special vibrations (physical information) to the type of living being sensory domain or so-called perceptive domain, mostly, on more sensitive regions related to the domain or field named as Vital Aura (Bio-aura)[17,18,19], could “reciprocally” induce and establish the special general state correspondent with that special vibration, on the living organism. Therefore, direct contact of these remedies with body is not necessary for their influence on organism.

For instance; in an experienced method of Viremedy use, the carrier substances including the remedy, are wrapped and sealed completely (as the packs with no infiltration) before placing them on the mentioned relatively more sensitive regions over the body.[14,20]

This event could also be experienced with all kinds of “information-including remedies” such as Homeopathic remedies, some so-called Energy Therapy Remedies, some of the drugs and materials used in various courses of Traditional Medicine, etc.

On the whole, each one of these remedies has its particular “information”, indicating the vibration amplitude and frequency of the carrier substance’s relatively free electrons. Indeed, each general state (as a particular perceptional-functional unit)[21,22,23,24] in living being can be accompanied by an special vibration amplitude (which is correspondent with that) in the said relatively free electrons.

Identical translation of the mentioned vibrations to the correspondent vital information, and motivation (provocation) of the related vital processes, is performing with the mediators of non-bodily regulator and controller systems (in Vital Aura).

In this way, the degree of fulfilling these processes will be also in accordance with the development grade of the mentioned systems as the so-called Vital Aura, concerning living being’s so-called evolution & development level. Thus, each one of these remedies could directly and indirectly lead to its particular related general state in the living being.

Considering the regular functions of the mentioned systems and their well-organized, mutual and multilateral interactions (associations) with various sections in the living creature, different events resulted from the information induction and the related consequences happen. The processes such as Proving, Changing, Aggravation, Reacting Modification, and Inducting Modification of disorders and symptoms & signs, Induction and Promotion of “Health Current” (in the case of using Viremedy), and procedures like “Emergence” and “Discharge”, are among them. These processes are happening according to the case, and in a systematic manner in different levels of the living organism.[13,14,15,16]

Here, it’s worthy of mentioning that the particular existence of so-called Vital Aura is different from the existence kind of body….[14] Vital Aura in the broad sense (which includes chakras, nadis, and so on) and its components and relationships have been also pointed and discussed in the fields such as so-called Energy Therapy, Ayurveda, Yoga, Acupuncture & Acupressure, Reflex Therapy, Gem Therapy (Stone Therapy), etc.[17,18,19] [Meanwhile, about diverse kinds of being or existence and their correlations, some issues and theories as “String Theory” in modern physic, could be taken into consideration too.]

Concerning the mentioned issues, we could also explain many phenomena in various courses of the so-called Unconventional Medicine.[17,25] For Example, the materials and methods, which lead to partial increase of activity in the related centers in Vital Aura, according to the affected centers, called as Warm materials and maneuvers in Iranian Traditional Medicine.[25,26] The materials and maneuvers, which lead to partial decrease of activity in the related centers in Vital Aura, called as Cold materials and maneuvers. The materials and maneuvers, which lead to a kind of partial closeness (decrease of the activity field) in the related centers in Vital Aura, called as Dry materials and maneuvers. The materials and maneuvers, which lead to a kind of partial openness (increase of the activity field) in the related centers in Vital Aura, called as Wet materials and methods. Indeed, every thing could according to the numerous factors have its particular so-called temperament…. In this way, materials (such as foods, herbal and non-herbal medicines, oils, minerals and stones, etc), maneuvers (such as Wet Cupping[25] or Dry Cupping[25] on special more sensitive regions, some particular massages, pressures and stimulations on the mentioned more sensitive regions and points, some special phlebotomies on the particular veins, some physical positions), behaviors (such as some particular Hypnosis and Meditations), thoughts, feelings, citations, situations (such as places, times, Astral situations, etc), and so on, could cause or aggravate the related temperaments in the living creature.

As it was mentioned; only placing Homoeopathic remedies, or some drugs and materials also used in some courses of Unconventional Medicine (such as some herbs and materials used in Iranian Traditional Medicine) in the said more sensitive regions (“related to the Vital Aura”), via affecting the Vital Aura could lead to some particular effects on the totality of the living organism.

As well, the main effect mechanisms of some drugs and materials used in various courses of Traditional Medicine could also be similar to the main effect mechanisms of Homoeopathic remedies. Many times, the indications of employing them are similar too. For instance, “Arnica” is one of these drugs.

It seems that one of the main sources of Homoeopathic remedies have been the materials used in the Traditional Medicine and the likes.

Many of these drugs and materials, in the first instance, mainly influence on the Vital Aura. Nevertheless, many of methods and devices used in the Traditional Medicine, in the first instance, mainly influence on the bodily part or both bodily and non-bodily parts of the living creature.

Subsequent to use of any preventive or therapeutic device (such as drugs, materials, maneuvers, etc), and according to the factors as employed device, application method, the living being nature, and so on, we could have a wide spectrum of various kinds of so-called proving, aggravation, reacting or inducing modifications, disorders’ pictures alterations, etc, in various parts and levels of the living organism.

Naturally, the manners of these general processes could be different.

However, not only in the Iranian and Arabic Traditional Medicine, but also in the Chinese and Indian Traditional Medicine and the likes, the non-bodily part of the living creature and the related sections, functions and relationships, are indeed very important.

In this way, systematically making the expedient alterations on the non-bodily part (by employing various devices), in order to access to a so-called holistic balance in the system, is a basic strategy. Commonly, the strategic goal in various courses of Unconventional Medicine is balance establishment in the human being, through kinds of “Inducting and/or Reacting Modification”.

– More issues and discussions in this regard, have been presented in the related literature.[14,15,16]

In the picture 2, insertion of the sealed packs containing Viremedy in some more sensitive areas or spaces (related to the Vital Aura), as the instances, have been shown.[14]

Examples in Inserting the Large and Little Sealed Packs Containing Viremedy in some Relatively More Sensitive Areas or Spaces (Related to the Vital Aura)
In this way, Viremedy is also a material including specific information, whose translation to correspondent vital information and processes will lead to the rise of vitality in living being. This proceeding takes place in the framework of the living creature’s nature, considering the grade of development or advancement of its Vital Aura. This effect has been objectively experienced in various kinds of living beings.[14,15,16]

Explanation of some other Relevant Facts
Based on the said theory and issues, the influences of some physical phenomena on these remedies (particularly, on Viremedy) investigated. These phenomena were among them:

Exposing to various electrical and electromagnetic domains and high energetic photons (as microwaves and particularly, Gamma Rays), electricity flow and static electricity with negative and positive charges, high-speed electrons, ultra sound waves, air and water flows, temperature changes (as boiling and freezing), shaking in diverse ways, contact with different materials such as various crystals like the crystals of different metals, agate, sugar, salt, Battery’s coal, etc, and floating these materials into remedies….

– Some of these, like “floating” the mentioned crystals (particularly, “agate”, gold, silver, copper, salt and sugar), and some material having negative static electrical charge “into” Viremedy, increased the remedy’s concentration in various extents. [Here, the concentration means the number of the mentioned relatively free electrons having the information, in the volume unit of the carrier substance.]

Meanwhile, in similar conditions, floating gold in the water including Viremedy led to more increase of the concentration, compared to floating the iron into the water including this remedy.

As well, it seems that the materials having the physicochemical peculiarities of Pyroelectric and/or Piezoelectric (like Tourmaline Crystal as a type of Quartz Crystal), could increase the remedy concentration….

– Some other techniques, such as stirring, shaking, heating and boiling, exposing to ultra sound waves, electromagnetic domains and energetic photons (as microwaves, and particularly, “Gamma Ray”), and “high-speed electrons”, as the diverse ways of applying energy, increased the potency and concentration of Viremedy, which has been in accordance with the manner of applying energy, and the amount of applied “effective” energy in each case. (All of the mentioned ways of applying energy generally increase formation probability of the free electrons in the material.)

In this regard, Gamma radiation strengthened Viremedy in the carrier substance including Viremedy. [Meanwhile, this radiation could produce a particular remedy in the distilled water not including the remedy (before exposing to Gamma Ray). Indeed, the type of the said remedy produced in the distilled water not including Viremedy after exposing to Gamma Ray, also points to the origin of that ray in the related conditions….]

Increasing of potency via the mentioned methods, particularly by applying Gamma Ray and high-speed electrons, was done in the previous generations of Viremedy.

– Some of the said methods of applying energy could lead to weakening or even disappearing of the Homoeopathic remedies and some particular Energy Therapy remedies. Indeed, they can cause severe disturbances in the particular vibrations’ patterns of a large number of the mentioned free electrons having the information, in the afore-said remedies, according to the case. Even in case of Viremedy and for instance; after hardly shaking or stirring the water including Viremedy, its concentration becomes partially weaker at first. Nevertheless, after a brief pause and partial stability, the concentration becomes gradually higher again, even compared to its concentration before the shaking or stir.

It seems that the occurrence probability of the disturbances in the vibrations’ patterns of mentioned free electrons (having the information) of the remedies with higher potencies, is more than those with lesser potencies in similar conditions. Since, generally, lesser potency indicates lesser frequency of the mentioned free electrons’ vibrations. Meanwhile, the occurrence probability of the disturbances in the vibrations’ patterns of mentioned free electrons of the remedies having higher amplitudes, is lesser than those having lower amplitudes in similar conditions.

Thus, in Viremedy, concerning high vibration “amplitude” of the mentioned free electrons, the said disturbances cannot lead to the disappearance of the remedy, in total.

As well, the probability of disappearance of these types of remedies due to the afore-said disturbances will be partially diminished in the higher concentrations of the free electrons having the mentioned particular vibration (information).

* Moreover, cooling these remedies, floating some materials having positive static electrical charge “into” them, and exposing (not floating) the remedies to positive or negative static electrical charges or electricity flow (particularly with high frequency) weakened the remedies.

These phenomena could be simply explained by relying on the stated theory.
Besides, according to the case, exposing these remedies to air and water flows, exposing (not floating) materials with negative or positive electrical charges, and some other materials such as some metals…, could in particular conditions lead to decrease of the remedies’ concentrations, or even disappearance of the remedies. This takes place due to the exchange of the free electrons having the mentioned vibrations (information) in the remedies with the relatively free electrons having different vibrations in those materials. For example, because of usually higher vibration energies of the mentioned free electrons in the remedies in comparison with the vibration energies of the free electrons in the air, water or some metals not including remedy, the formation probability of the afore-said free electrons in the remedies, is more than this probability in those materials. Therefore, the mentioned atoms’ nuclei in the remedies could have more positive charges than the likes in those materials. Thus, attraction of the free electrons (with lesser vibration energies) in the materials by the mentioned nuclei in the remedies causes the said exchange, and results in the remedies’ concentrations fall. As well, in case of each remedy, noticing the potency and type of the remedy and carrier substance, and considering the existing conditions (such as temperature, etc), decrease of the concentration from a particular threshold, leads to disappearance of the remedy. [Meanwhile, the afore-said process will have a negative acceleration too.]

Indeed, in all cases of weakening the remedies, the number of the free electrons acquiring the particular vibrations (during a particular time) will be less than those of losing these vibrations in remedies, as kinds of dynamic systems.

– As well, concerning the said theory and the relevant issues, some particular alterations in the molecular arrangement of the water including such remedies (compared to the water not including such remedies) is possible.

Meanwhile, difference in such alterations in various remedies could in its turn affect the manner of crossing polarized light through the various types of these remedies too.

These alterations could be simply due to the alterations in the length and angles of bonds among the related atoms in the carrier substance (such as O & H in water). They could be caused by the established changes in the attraction & repulsion forces among the related electrons and nuclei, thanks to the increase of the formation probability of the mentioned free electrons (with partially more vibratory energy), in particular manners according to the case….

As a simple instance, more occurrence of Tunnel Effect Phenomenon could lead to more positive charges in the related nuclei, and more positive charges in the nuclei could in its turn cause more attraction between those nuclei and the related electrons….

For example, it’s expected that in the water including such remedies (particularly, Viremedy), because of more occurrence of Tunnel Effect Phenomenon (mainly in the case of electrons in the last orbit of the Oxygen,) the positive charges of the nuclei increase. In this way, the length of the bond between O and H will be partially shorter than that of in the water not including the remedy, and the relevant angle in the H2O will be partially wider in the water including the remedy. (As well, these phenomena affect the structure of Hydrogen bonds.) In this way, there will be a direct relationship between the mentioned shortness of the bonds and wideness of the angles with the free electrons’ vibratory energy.

On the whole, concerning the mentioned information quanta and existing effective energy, the rise of the free electrons’ vibratory energy could partially increase the occurrence probability of Tunnel Effect Phenomenon in the material, in total. And, higher probability of Tunnel Effect Phenomenon occurrence could in its turn lead to more alterations in the molecular arrangement of the carrier substance including the remedy.

Considering this issue, it is expected that:

– The mentioned alterations in the water including Viremedy, be more than those of in the water including the Homoeopathic remedies, in similar conditions.

– And in the case of Homoeopathic remedies;

. These alterations in the water including Homoeopathic remedies as Aurum metallicum or Natrum muriaticum, be more than those of in the Homoeopathic remedies as Belladonna or Stramonium, in the same potency and conditions.

. In the case of a particular Homoeopathic remedy; the said alterations in the water including the mentioned Homoeopathic remedy with more potency, be more than those of with lower potency, in the similar conditions.

Nonetheless, detection of the mentioned alterations needs a precise technology, with noticing to the effect of the used device on the ultimate result.

Finally, it is worthy of mentioning that the stated theory could also explain “some relevant findings[8] and considerable facts”, which have been pointed during the presentation of some other hypotheses[1,2,3,4,5,6,7] about the physical essence of such remedies.

More Studies in the Future
More studies about the presented theory and issues are of interest for the future. The mentioned subjects can pave the path towards further studies and progressions in the relevant fields.

Naturally, more access to some appropriate technologies may be useful in similar investigations. For instance; some recently modern technologies such as an especial Ultra-Laser, may be useful in partially estimating the mentioned electrons’ positions (with noticing to the “Uncertainty Principle”), or some existent technologies (as “GDV”; Gas Discharge Visualization) for photographing the Vital Aura or indeed, for recording and analyzing some physical and/or bodily “influences” of the so-called Vital Aura on the body and physical atmosphere of the body, could be among these useful technologies, according to the case.

It seems that by using the appropriate technologies with standard carrier substances in standard situations, it could be also possible to distinguishing the carrier substance including Viremedy from the carrier substance not including Viremedy or including other remedies.

As well, in this regard, it is suggested that any alteration in the molecular arrangement of the water including Viremedy, and the pattern of crossing polarized light through the water including the remedy, in the standard situations, be precisely evaluated. (Naturally, this should be done, noticing to the effect of the employed device on the ultimate result….)

Acknowledgment
It is necessary to be appreciative of all people, who helped in reaching the presented theory, and testing them, in various ways…. Their precious helps are greatly acknowledged.

References

1. Samal S., Geckeler K.E. “Unexpected Solute Aggregation in Water on Dilution”, Chem Commun, Nov. 2001, 7 (21): 2224-5.

2. Ronald G. W., Perazzo F., Rodriguez S., Pinto S. C., Storace J.E. “Virtual Extreme the High Dilutions and Its Structures”, Ärztezeitschrift für Naturheiverfahren, Hamburg (Germany), OAK J.C.T., 2005, Vol. 46 (No. 10): 614-618.

3. Silva W. R. G., Rodrigues S. C. P., Storace J. E. O., Carvalho J. C. T. “The Ultra High Dilutions and Its Virtual Structures”, http://www.homeopathy.org (North American Society of Homeopaths; NASH), 2005.

4. Achmma Lenu T. “Homoeopathy Explained”, http://www.homeobook.com (Virtual Medical World of Postgraduate Homoeopaths), 2006.

5. Callinan P. “How Does Homeopathy Work?”, http://www.marlev.com (Marlev Homeopathy), 2008, [http://www.marlev.com/HowItWorks.htm]. Or: “Homeopathy: How Does it Work? “, http://www.yourremedy.co.uk (Yourremedy.co.uk).

6. Bonamin L. V., Lagache A., Bastide M. “Signals and Images”, 1st Ed., 2008, Springer (Netherlands).

7. Bellavite P, Signorini A. “The Emerging Science of Homeopathy”, 1st Ed., 2002, North Atlantic- Berkeley (USA).

8. Rey L. “Thermoluminescence of Ultra-high Dilutions of Lithium Chloride and Sodium Chloride”, Physica A (Publisher: Elsevier), 2003 (Vol. 323): 67-74.

9. Khalvati, B. “A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy (Preparation and Producing Methods of Homoeopathic Remedies)”, 1st Ed., 2002, Darugostar Razi (Iran).

10. Sheikholeslami M. “Quantum Physics”, [Translation from “Quantum Physics” by Gasiorowicz, Stephen, 2nd Ed., 1996, John Wiley & Sons (U.K.)], 4th Ed., 2005, Iran University Press Center- Tehran (Iran).

11. Falsafi H. “Quantum Physics”, [Translation from “Quantum Physics”, by Wichman E. H., (Berkely Physics Course? Vol. 4), 1971, McGraw-Hill (U.S.A)], 1st Ed., 2002, Iran University Press Center- Tehran (Iran).

12. Rahimi M. F., Sarbishei M. “Quantum Physics”, [Translation of “Quantum Mechanics”, by Cohen-Tannoudji C., Diu B., Laloe F., (Vol.1), 1977, Wiley-VCH (U.S.A)], Vol. 1, 2nd Ed., 2006, Tehran University Press (Iran).

13. Esmaeili K. “Physical essence of Homoeopathic remedies, some similar remedies prepared with the so-called Metaphysic-healing (Energy Therapy) method and the Unique Remedy, and their general mechanism of effects on organism” , Abstracts of the 1st International Congress on Traditional Medicine & (6-9 Nov. 2000, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti Medical Science University, Tehran-Iran): P219.

14. Esmaeili K. “What’s Viremedy: How Does It Affect, and How It Is Used” (as a new general review), The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine (http://www.ispub.com), 2008 (Vol. 6, No. 1).

15. Esmaeili K. “A Concise Review on Vitherapy and Viremedy, and some Conducted Experimental Studies about the Viremedy Effect on Vitality”, Darmangar Quarterly (Iran), Spring 2006 (Vol. 3, No. 9): 24-32. (Persian)

16. Esmaeili K. “What Is Viremedy, and How It affects”, Holistic Medicine Magazine (Iran), Autumn 2007 (Vol. 4, No. 13): 53-64. (Persian)

17. Fulder S. “The Handbook of Alternative and Complementary Medicine”, 3rd Ed., 1996, Oxford University Press (England).

18. Oschman J. L. “Energy Medicine; the Scientific Basis”, 8Rev Ed., 2000, Churchill Livingstone (England).

19. Brennan A. B. “Hands of Light; A Guide to Healing through the Human Energy Field”, 1988, Bantam Books (USA).

20. Esmaeili K. “Some Clinical Notes in Viremedy Use”, Darmangar Quarterly (Iran), Summer & Autumn 2007 (Vol. 4, No. 14-15): 63-72. (Persian)

21. Sankaran R. “The Spirit of Homeopathy”, 3rd Ed., 1999, Medical Homoeopathic Publishers (India).

22. Sankaran R. “The Substance of Homeopathy”, 4th Ed., 1999, Medical Homoeopathic Publishers (India).

23. Sankaran R. “The Soul of Remedies”, 1997, Medical Homoeopathic Publishers (India).

24. Vithoulkas G. “The Science of Homoeopathy”, 2002, B. Jain Publishers (India).

25. Vavidi A. A., Ghasemi Soleymanieh Kh. “Encyclopedia of Holistic Medicine; Traditional and Modern Methods in Medicine”, 2002, teimourzadeh Pub. (Iran).

26. Ahmadieh A. “The Secret of Cure”, 3rd Ed., 2003, Eghbal Pub. (Iran)

Homoeopathic Principles Vis-A-Vis Modern Research Methodology

Prof. (Dr.) Niranjan Mohanty 

Introduction:
Two centuries back, a German physician called Dr.C.F.S Hahnemann who amazed this medical world with his astounding discovery of this scientific technique, to establish the curative power of substances in infinitesimal dilutions. The most brilliant minds of this era flocked to him. During the course of his life time he introduced ideas and principles of standardization which were trail blazers of that time. The methods were brilliant considering the technological limitations of that time. However technology has advanced astronomically but today’s scientific research methodology can run smoothly with the principles of homoeopathy or not is the subject of my discussion.

Let us delineate the principles of homoeopathy around which it is revolving. From advent of the Hahnemann’s era to the present era many erudite, veterans& scholars of Homoeopathy have contributed for the growth & development of homoeopathy and have evolved many principles for the purpose of practices. The major axioms which are universally accepted by classical Homoeopathy are as follows:-

  1. Law of Similia
  2. Law of Simplex
  3. Law of Minimum Dose
  4. Doctrine of Drug Proving
  5. Theory of Chronic Disease
  6. Theory of Vital Force
  7. Doctrine of Suppression
  8. Doctrine of Individualization
  9. Obstacles to Cure
  10. Doctrine of Analogy
  11. Doctrine of Concomitants
  12. Doctrine of Generalization & Others
  13. Totality of symptoms & others.

The principles required for clinical practices and necessarily relates directly for adoption of Research Methodology are as follows:

  1. Law of similia
  2. Law of simplex
  3. Law of minimum

Indirectly for building of totality of symptoms, principle involved  are as follows:

  1. Individualization
  2. Doctrine of analogy
  3. Doctrine of concomitant
  4. Doctrine of generalization
  5. Totality of symptoms (1)

The principles involved during treatment & follow up of the cases are as follows:

  1. 1) Theory of chronic disease
  2. 2) Doctrine of suppression
  3. 3) Obstacles to cure

Now let me briefly describe few lines on research and research methodology.

Research is a quest for knowledge through diligent search or investigation or experiment aimed at the discovery and interpretation of new knowledge. (2)

Research is an art of scientific Investigation.

While conducting research in homoeopathy above axioms are to be adhered to  “A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of nowledge.” (3)

A systematized effort to gain new knowledge. (4)

Research methodology is a systematic body of procedures and technique applied in carrying out our investigation or experimentation targeted at obtaining new knowledge (WHO).

Research techniques that are used for conduction of research are three types such as

  • Library Research.
  • Field Research.
  • Laboratory Research.

 It is a way to systematically solve the research problem.

 It is a science of studying how research is done. 

Mainly research approaches are two types which are as follows:

a) Quantitative

  • Inferential
  • Experimental
  • Simulation

b) Quantitative

Looking to the categories of research we visualize following types such as:

A.  Empirical and theoretical Research:
The philosophical approach to research is basically of two types

a) Empirical.

b) Theoretical / Conceptual.

a) Empirical: – Health research mainly follows the empirical approach.

  • It is based on observation and experience more than upon theory and abstraction.
  • For example, Epidemiological research depends upon the systematic collection of observations on the health related phenomenon of interest in defined population.
  • Empirical research can be qualitative or quantitative in nature.
  • Health science research deals with information of a quantitative nature.

For the most part, this involves

  • The identification of the population of interest.
  • The characteristics (variables) of the individuals (units) in the population.
  • The study of variability of these characteristics among the individuals in the population.
  • Quantification in empirical research is achieved by three numerical procedures

i)   Measurement of variables.

ii)  Estimation of population parameters.

iii) Statistical testing of hypothesis.

  • Empirical research relies on experience or observation without due regard to system or theory.
  • We can call it experimental type of research.

b) Theoretical / Conceptual Research

  • It is related to some abstract, idea(s), theories.

Examples are

  • In abstraction with mathematical models.
  • Advances in understanding of disease occurrence and causation cannot be made without a comparison of the theoretical constructs with that which we actually observe in populations.
  • Empirical & theoretical research complements each other in developing an understanding of the phenomena, in predicting future events.

B. Basic and applied:

a) Basic / fundamental / pure:

  • It means formation of theory or generalization.
  • Basic research is usually considered to involve a research for knowledge without a defined goal of utility or specific purpose.

b) Applied / Action:

  • To find out the solution for immediate problems.
  • Applied research is problem oriented. 

C.   Other categories of Research:

            a)    Longitudinal / one time research.

            b)    Field setting / laboratory / simulation research.

c) Clinical / diagnostic research.

d)  Historical research.

e)   Conclusion oriented / decision oriented research.

(5) Beliefs / attitudes / practice in society by man)

Several fundamental principles are used in scientific inquiry.

A)  Order

  • Scientific method is not common sense.
  • In arriving at conclusion “common sense” can’t be employed e.g. – Draft of air causes Allergic Rhinitis.
  • To arrive at conclusion an organized observation of entities or events which are classified or ordered on the basis of common properties and behaviors are required.
  • It is this commonality of properties and behaviors that allows predictions which carried to the ultimate, become laws e.g. A number of Allergic Rhinitis cases are studied and it is found a number cases are having a group of common causes from which prediction is made and there after etiology become conclusive as from ‘Allergens’.

B)  Inference and chance

  • Reasoning or inference is the force of advances in research
  • In terms of logic, It means that a statement / or a conclusion ought to be accepted because one or more other statements / premises (evidence) are true.
  • Inferential suppositions, presumptions or theories may be so developed, through careful constructions, as to pose testable hypothesis.
  • The testing of hypothesis is the basic method of advancing knowledge in science.
  •  Two distinct approaches or arguments have evolved in the development of inferences. They are such as:  deductive and inductive.
  • In deduction, the conclusion necessarily follows from premises (evidence) / statements, as in syllogism e.g. [All ‘A’ is ‘B’, all ‘B’ is ‘C’ therefore all ‘A’ is ‘C’] or in algebraic equations.
  • Deduction can be distinguished by the fact that it moves from the general to the specific.
  • It dose not allow for the elements of chance or uncertainty.
  • Deductive inference, therefore are suitable to theoretical research.

Induction: –      Inductive reasoning is distinguished by the fact that it moves from the specific to the general (from sample to population). It builds

Health research being primarily empirical depends entirely upon inductive reasoning.

The conclusion dose not necessarily follows from the premises or evidence (facts). We can say only that the conclusion is more likely to be valid it the premises are true, i.e. there is a possibility that the premises may be true but the conclusion is false.

Chance must, therefore, be fully accounted for.

Mill’s canons of inductive reasoning are frequently utilized in the formation of hypothesis. These methods include:

a) Method of difference – When the frequency of a diseases is markedly dissimilar under two circumstances (For example, the difference in frequency of Lung Cancer in Smokers and Non-smokers.

b) Method of agreement – In a factor or its absence is common to a number of different circumstances that are found to be associated with the presence of disease, the factor or its absence may be casually associated with the disease (e.g. the occurrence of Hepatitis A is associated with patient contact, crowding & poor sanitation and hygiene, each conducive to the transmission of the Hepatitis virus).

c) Method of concomitant variation, or the dose response effect –

Example –        – Increase expression of goiter with direct level of iodine in the diet.

Increasing frequency of leukemia with increasing radiation exposure.

Increase prevalence of elephantiasis in areas of increasing filarial endemicity.

d)  Method of analogy – The distribution and frequency of a disease or effect may be similar enough to that of a some other disease to suggest commonality in cause (e.g. Hepatitis B virus infection and Cancer of the Liver). (6)

Designing and methodology of an experiment or a study consists of a series of guideposts to keep one going in right direction and sometime it may be tentative and not final.

The steps are as follows:

1.  Introduction:
Definition of the problem: – Define the problem you intend to study such as Smoking and Lung   Cancer, Cholesterol & C.A.D etc.

  • Relevance of the problem with fields of application of proposed research result.
  • Rationale of the study: – What necessitate to carry out the study.

 2 .Review of literature: – Critically review the literature on the problem under study

  • Any such work done by others in the past
  • Clarify
  • Want to confirm the findings
  • Challenge the conclusion
  • Extend the work further
  • Bridge some gaps in the existing knowledge

3. Aim & Objectives: –

  • Define the aims and objectives of the study.
  • State whether nature of the problem has to be studied or solution has to be found by different methods.
  • Primary
  • secondary

4. Hypothesis:-

  • State your hypothesis.
  • After the problem and purpose are clear and literature is reviewed.
  • You have to start precisely with an assumption positive or negative, e.g. constitutional medicine is more effective for ‘Lymphangitis’ than pathological prescription with    Hydrocotyle ‘Q.’

5. Plan of action: –  “Prepare an over all plan or design of the investigation for studying the problem and meeting the objectives.”

A) Definition of the population under study
i)  It may be country / state / districts / town / village / families / specific groups.

ii) Age group

iii) Income group

iv) Occupation

v)  Sexes

vi) Define clearly who are to be included and who are not to be included, i.e. (Inclusion and exclusion criteria)

B) Selection of the sample

a) It should be unbiased.

b) Sufficiently large in size to represent population under study.

a) Sample size
The size of sample is very vital in an scientific study. Ordinarily should not be less than 30. A sample small in size, is a biased one & should never be depended upon for drawing any conclusions, therefore however a large sample is considered as large enough. Normally cut off is taken as 30. A sample of size greater than 30 is considered large enough for statistical purpose.

For Qualitative Data
In such data we deal with proportions such as morbidity rates and cure rates. For finding the suitable size of the sample, the assumption usually made is that the allowable error does not exceed 10% or 20% of the positive character. The size can be calculated by the following formula with a desired allowable error (L) at 5% risk that the true estimate will not exceed allowable error by 10% or 20% of ‘p’            n=4pq/L2

Where ‘p’ is the positive character, q =1-p and L= allowable error, 10% or 20% of ‘p’

For Quantitative Data
In such data we deal with the means of a sample and of the universe. If the SD (s) in a population is known from the past experience, the size of sample can be determined by the following formulae with the desired allowable error (L). At 5% risk the true estimate will lie beyond the allowable error (variation).

Hence, the first step is to decide how large an error due to sampling defects can be tolerated or allowed in the estimates. Such allowable error has to be stated by the investigator.

The second step is to express the allowable error in terms of confidence limits. Suppose L is the allowable error in the sample mean and we are willing to take a 5% chance that error will exceed L. so we may put:

            L=2s/Ön or Ön=2s/L or  n= 4s2/L2

Sample size for analytical studies:

a.   Testing equality of two proportions: p1 = p2
The sample measures used are the sample proportions, and the sampling distribution used in testing this null hypothesis is either the standard normal distribution (z), or equivalently the chi-square (c2).

  • Set type I error:a;
  • Determine ‘minimum clinically significant difference’:d;
  • Make a guess as to the ‘proportion’ in one group (usually ‘control’): p1;
  • Determine the power required to detect this difference: (1-b).

The sample size required is:                             

For example, suppose we are interested in determining the sample size required in a clinical trial of a new drug that is expected to improve survival. Suppose the traditional survival rate is 40%, i.e., p1 = 0.4. We are interested in detecting whether the new drug improves survival by at least 10%, i.e., d = 0.10, therefore p2 = 0.50. Suppose we want a type I error of 5%, i.e.,a  = 0.05, therefore Z1-a = 1.96; we also want the type II error (b) to be 5%, or we want to detect a difference of 10% or more with a probability of 95%: therefore Z b   = -1.645.

Substituting these values in the above equation given n = 640. Thus the study would require 640 subjects in each of the two groups to assure a probability of detecting an increase in the survival rate of 10% or more with 95%certainty, if the statistical test used 5% as the level of significance.

b. Sample size for a case – control study
Suppose that long term use of oral contraceptives (OC) increased the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and that one wished to detect an increase in relative risk of at least 30% (equivalently, OR>1.3) by means of a case control study, What would be the proper sample size?

The test of hypothesis in the study will be equivalent to testing if the proportion of women using (OC) is the same among those with CHD and those without CHD. We need to determine what proportion of women without CHD (controls) use OC; let us say 20%. Then we decide what will be the minimum difference that should be detected by the statistical test. Since we need to detect an OR >1.3, this translates to an increased use (24.5%) among the CHD patients to give a difference of 4.5% to be detected. Choosing a and b to be 5% each, the sample size, using the above formula, would be 2220, i.e., we need to study 2220 cases and 2220 controls for the disease.

Sometimes the ratio of cases and controls may not be one one, e.g., when the disease is rare then the number of cases available for study may be limited, and we may have to increase the number of controls ( I-2,1-3 etc.) to compensate. In such cases, the calculation of the sample size will incorporate these differences. Computer programmes such as EPIINFO allow for these variations.

c. Comparison of two population Means.
When the study involves comparing the means of two samples, the sample measure that is used as the difference of the sample means. This has an approximately normal distribution. The standard error of difference depends on the standard deviations of the measurements in each of the population, & depending on whether these are the same or the different, different formulae have to be used. In the simplest (and most commonly used) scenario, the two standard deviations are considered to be the same. We will illustrate the procedure.

We need to determine, as in case a, the minimum difference (d) in the means that we are interested in detecting by statistical tests: The two types of statistical errors (a and b) and the standard deviations (s). Then the sample size required is calculated using the following formula:       n = [(Z1-a – Zb) s / d ]2

For example, suppose we want to test a drug that reduces blood pressure. We want to say the drug is effective if the reduction in blood pressure is 5mm of Hg or more, compared with the ‘ placebo’. Suppose we know that systolic blood pressure in a population is distributed normally with a standard deviation of 8 mm of Hg. If we choose a = 0.05 and

b = 0.05, the sample size required in this study will be: n=[(1.96 + 1.645) 8/3 ]2 = 34 subjects in each group.

If the design is such that the two groups are not independent (e.g., matched studies or paired experiments) or if the standard deviations are different for the two groups, the formulae should be adjusted accordingly. 

d. Comparison of more than two groups and methods
When considering sample size calculations for studies involving comparisons of more than two groups, either comparing proportions or means several other issues (e.g. which comparison is more important than others; whether errors of paired comparison, or for the study as a whole are more important, etc.) have to be taken in to account. Accordingly the formulae for each of the situations will be much more complicated.

In multivariate analysis, such as those using multiple linear regression, logistic regression, or comparison of survival curves, simple formulae for the calculation of sample sizes are not available. Some attempts at estimating sample sizes using nomograms, or by simulating experiments and calculating sample sizes based on these simulated experiments, have recently appeared in the statistical literature. We will not discuss these here. When planning experiments, one of the crucial steps is in deciding how large the study should be, and appropriate guidance should be sought from experts

b) Sampling methods:

1) Simple random sampling – Choose random number from the table.

ii) Stratified sampling –  (Selecting 50% male & 50% female)

iii) Systemic sampling – Systematically it is chosen.

iv) Cluster sampling –  Cluster may be identified (households) and random samples of cluster.

v) Multistage sampling – In several stages.

c) Specifying the nature of study:

i)     Longitudinal studies

  • Prospective study
  • Retrospective study

ii)  Cohort studies: – A group of persons exposed to some sort of environment e.g. new born & mother exposed to radiation.

  • Prospective
  • Retrospective

iii) Interventional studies: – In these there are three phases.

  • Diagnostic / Identification
  • Intervention by treatment
  • Assessment phase for result

iv) Experimental studies

  • Experimental or trial are made
  • A drug is given and results are wanted

v) Cross sectional studies (Non experimental):- Such studies are one time or at a point of time study of all persons in a representative sample. It is conducted in field and not in laboratories.

Example: – Examination of children 2- 12 yrs and classify their nutritional grade.

Prevalence of pregnancy in age group of 20-25 yrs.

vi)  Control studies: – Most of the experimental studies need a control as a yard stick of evidence.

Example: – Growth of child with constitutional medicine & control group with no medicine. Control group must be identical.

To rule out subjective bias in subjects under study single or double blind trial should be made. (7)

C) Research strategies & design:
The selection of a research strategy is the case of research design and is probably the single most important decision the investigator has to make:

Research strategy must include the followings:

1) Use of controls

2) Blinding – double or single

3) Study of instruments

4) Case recording format

5) Categorization – a) test group and b) control group

6) Parameter to assess the improvement – positive and negative response

7) Observations / Results

8) Presentation of data

9) Result analysis / Statistical evaluation

Statistical tools or tests of significance:-
For testing of hypothesis there is a large no. of tests available in the statistics. The most commonly tests for clinical study are follows:

Z – test, t – test and c2 – test. The other tests are also being used e. g. Variance ratio test and Analysis of Variance test.

 Z – test:

It has two applications:

a)       To test the significance of difference between a sample mean (X) and a known value of population (m).

Z = X – m / SE (X)

Where X = Sample mean

m = Population mean

SE = Standard error

b)  To test the significance of difference of two sample means or between experiment sample mean and a control sample mean.

Z = observed difference between two sample means / Standard error of difference between two sample means.

Requirements to apply Z – test:

1. The sample or samples must be randomly selected.

2. The data must be quantitative.

3. The variable is assumed to follow normal distribution in the population.

4. The sample size must be larger than 30. 

t – test: 

Requirements to apply t – test:

1. The sample or samples must be randomly selected.

2. The data must be quantitative.

3. The variable is assumed to follow normal distribution in the population.

4. The sample size must be less than 30.

            t = X – m / SE (X)

Where X = Sample mean

m = Population mean

SE = Standard error

Chi – square test (c2 – test): 

It is a non-parametric test not based on any assumption or distribution of any variable. It is very useful in research. It is most commonly use when data are in frequencies such as in the no. of responses in two or more categories.

It has got the following three very important applications in medical statistics as tests of:

  1. Proportion – To find significance in same type of data.
  2. Association between two events.
  3. Goodness of fit – To test fitness of an observed frequency distribution of qualitative data to a theoretical distribution.

The test determines whether an observed frequency distribution differs from the theoretical distribution by chance or if the sample is drawn from a different population.

To apply c2 – test three essential requirements are needed such as:

  1. A random sample
  2. Qualitative data
  3. Lowest expected frequency (value) not less than 5

c2 = å (O – E)2 / E

Where O = Observed value

                        E = Expected value

 Variance ratio test: (F – test):

This means comparison of sample variance. It is applied to test the homogeneity of variances.

F = S12 / S22                                          S12 = Variance of first sample

                                                                        S22 = Variance of second sample

(S12 > S22)

ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance test):
This test is not confined to comparing two sample means but more than two samples drawn from corresponding normal population. (8)

10) Discussion

11) Conclusion

12) Summary

13) Bibliography

A model case of scientific paper presentation on the caption “ Psoriasis in Homoeopathic practice” of the author will be projected to justify that homoeopathic principles can run hand in hand in conducting research work on homoeopathy as per the modern Research Methodology.

Bibliography:-

1, Roberts, A.Herbert, The Principles and art of cure of Homoeopathy, reprint edition 1997.

2,5,7. Health Research Methodology, A guide for training in research Methods,2 nd   edition.W.H.O.regional office for the Western Pacific, Manila 2001,page-1.

3. Collin’s cobuild English Dictionary for advanced learners major new edition, Harper Collins publishers, 1995.

4. English Dictionary, Read man.

6. Klinbanm D.G., Kupper L.L, Morgenstern H.,, Epidemiological Research Principles and auantitative methods London, Life time Learning Publication 1982.

7,8. Mahajan B. W., Methods in Biostatistics,Jaypee brothers Medical Pub., New Delhi,6 th  edition,reprint-1994.

Prof. (Dr.) Niranjan Mohanty. M. D. (Hom.)
Dean of the Homoeopathic Faculty, Utkal University, Orissa.
Principal-cum-Superintendent, H.O.D, P.G Department of Repertory
Dr. A. C. H. M. C. & H, Bhubaneswar.
National President, I. I. H. P.
Member C.C.H New Delhi.

disease1 (2)

Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA Sequences

disease1 (2)Electromagnetic  Signals  Are Produced by Aqueous  Nanostructures Derived  from  Bacterial  DNA Sequences

Jean-Luc MONTAGNIER,  Claude LAVALLEE

Abstract:    A  novel  property  of  DNA  is  described:   the  capacity  of  some  bacterial  DNA  sequences  to  induce   electromagnetic  waves  at  high  aqueous  dilutions.    It  appears  to  be  a  resonance  phenomenon  triggered  by  the  ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves.  The genomic DNA of most pathogenic bacteria  contains  sequences  which  are  able  to  generate  such  signals. This  opens  the  way  to  the  development  of  highly   sensitive detection system for chronic bacterial infections in human and animal diseases.

Key  words:  DNA, electromagnetic signals, bacteria.

Download original paper : www.homeobook.com/pdf/nano-homeopathy.pdf

Turmeric in turmoil of tumerogenesis

Dr. Krishnendu Maity

Introduction: – Turmeric powder and also Oleoresin are permitted for general use and as a natural food-colour in several countries – like India, USA, UK, Indonesia, Netherlands etc. and they are exempt from certificate.

The major colour pigment derived from turmeric is Curcumin. It is given the EEC number E100. The CAS number is 8024-37-1. The Colour Index number is CI NP 75300 and natural yellow 3.

The Joint Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) & World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee, Geneva, in the 8TH Report on Food Additives (1964) permitted it as a food colour. The WHO Food Additives Series No. 97 (1976) also certified it as a safe natural food colour. It is also listed in the Food Chemical Codex. A daily intake of 0.1 mg of Curcumin and 25 mg of Turmeric powder / Kg. of body weight is a safe accepted level. It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration, India, for general food use.

Curcumin is known to possess antioxidant properties. Curcumin is a non-nutrient blocking agent inhibits gene-toxic compounds. It has inhibitory effects on the Arachidonic Acid [A-A] Cascade. It prevents tumerogenesis. It inducts drug metabolizing enzymes like Glutathione-s-transferase. Induction of this enzyme may result in more efficient detoxification of cytotoxic or carcinogenic compounds.

Curcumin identified as a free Radical Scavenger. It has been shown to possess a property to scavenge free radicals. Researchers at the Bowling Green State University (OHIO) and Manchester University, UK – used pulse radiolysis to generate radicals and excited states of curcumin and studied their reactions with O2 & other molecules on time scales of less than one millionth of a second. These researchers have shown that Curcumin is an excellent Radical Scavenger. This is probably what makes it effective against carcinoma.

Curcumin easily forms a free radical which is particularly unreactive towards O2. It removes damaging radicals that may react with O2 in lipid perioxidation like vitamin C & vitamin E – the two main antioxidants responsible for inhibiting free radical damage in biological systems. Curcumin removes dangerous radicals, producing a stable radical of curcumin. More significantly vitamin C & vitamin E repair the curcumin radical – regenerating the curcumin molecule, which can repeat the cycle. Curcumin molecules thus acts like a shuttle or scavenger continuously removing damaging radicals that may react with O2 in lipid perioxidation. Curcumin does not react with singlet oxygen unlike other phenol material. It will not promote oxidative stress.

Work conducted in the Department of Clinical Immunology and Biological therapy. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, indicated that CUrcumin inhibits the growth of several different kinds of tumour cells. Curcumin is a potent & selective inhibitor of Phosphorylase-kinase – a key regulatory enzyme involved in the metabolism of Glycogen. This has important implications for the anti-carcinogenic effect of curcumin.

Curcumin kills S. typhimurium, E. coli and S. aureus completely within 15 minutes. It also has beneficial action in liver metabolism and in lowering the Cholesterol level.

An Overview on Curcumina Longa

Curcurmina Longa

  • Botanical Name      :           Curcuma longa Linn.
  • Hindi                           :           Haldi.
  • English                        :           Turmeric.
  • French                        :           Curcuma.
  • Family                         :           Zingiberaceæ.
  • Parts used                   :           Rhizome.
  • Preparation                  :           According to Class IV of Hahnemannian method.
  • Drug Power     :           1/10.
  • Active Principles          :           Zingiberen, Cucurmina, Ciclocurcumina.
  • Prescribed dose           :           θ and higher.

 History & Authority: It was introduced and proved by Arya, Balachandran & Augustine [Hahnemannian Gleanings, XLIV, No. 7, 1977, 320-330].

Main indications: – It is a powerful anti-inflammatory and effective in certain conditions of arthritis. Internally, it is administered for prevention of malignant tumors and for biliary-lithiasis syndrome, dyspepsia & in rheumatism diseases. The indications of its topical administration are ulcers, skin infections, acne etc. Curcuma is used in food as flavoring, as constituent of spice called ‘curry’, as well as colouring for cheese & mustard for lunch.

Probably Effective Dosage: – 5 to 3 gm daily, administered before meals.

Contraindications: – Antitrombotica therapy and Gastric immunosuppressive therapy during pregnancy.

The turmeric has been used in Ayuverda, in the situations viz. biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, wounds in diabetes, liver ailments, rheumatism, sinusitis etc. 

Recently the literatures have shown that Curcumina has the following effects: –

  • Anti-cancer – Increases the effect of chemotherapy in cases of resistance to multiple drugs.
  • Anti-arterosclerotic.
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Reduces cholesterol.
  • Reduces oxidation of LDL.
  • Inhibits aggregation of platelets.
  • Decreases the size of thrombosis in Myocardial Infarction.
  • Diabetes type II – It has hypoglycæmic effects; reduces levels of glycosylated hæmoglobin and micro-albuminuria.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Alzheimer’s disease – It slows down the degenerative process.
  • Cystic fibrosis – it corrects some defects.
  • Inflammatory diseases of the eye – Anterior Uveitis; Chronic, idiopathic orbital pseudo-tumour.
  • Reduces the pain in rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Diseases of skin – Psoriasis, Dermatitis etc.
  • Stimulates muscle regeneration.
  • Improves the regeneration of injured part.
  • Healing scabs.
  • Protects the liver and kidneys from toxic injury.
  • Increases the biliary secretion.
  • Decreases the formation of gallstones.
  • Effect in inflammatory diseases of intestine.
  • Protects against the formation of cataracts.
  • Protects the lung from fibrosis.
  • Inhibits the replication of HIV.
  • Inhibits the replication of Leishmania.

Effects of Curcumina in Cancer: – The curcumina has a number of effects in the prevention and treatment of cancer. It is the phytochemical that inhibits the greatest number of ways of signaling transduction & transcription and therefore has as potent anti-proliferative effect on cancer, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic.

 Mechanisms of Action in Curcumina :

  • Inhibits via Growth Factor.
  • Inhibits the activity of Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) of the EGF receptor.
  • EGF inhibits the Tyrosine Phosphorylation caused by EGF receptor and intrinsic kinase activity of the EGF receptor.
  • Inhibits “Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase” (MAPK) – which inhibits the signaling pathway of c-Jun Nterminal Kinase (JNK).
  • Inhibits the activation of IL-1 on MAP kinase
  • Decreases the expression of MMP gene
  • Suppresses the transcription of transcription factor “Early Growth Response” -1 (EGR-1).
  • Decreases the expression of androgen receptor.
  • Inhibits the Threonine Protein Kinase, Protein Kinase C (PKC), Protein Kinase A (PKA) and Phosphorylase Kinase (PhK).
  • Inhibits the protein kinase dependent on cyclic AMP.
  • Inhibits AP-1 (activator of the protein-1)
  • Inhibits the expression of proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc induced by TPA (tumor-promoting agent).
  • Inhibits the expression of c-Jun protein and c-Fos induced by TPA and ultraviolet ray.
  • Inhibits IL-1 & TNF induced by AP-1, activation of AP-1 induced by TPA, release of AP-1
  • Decreases the expression of MMP gene.
  • Inhibits NF-kappa B.
  • Suppresses the activation of transcription of NF-kappa B in the nucleus.
  • Inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines by blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages.
  • Regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
  • Inhibits the activity of the Ikappa B kinase, which is activator of NF-kappa B .
  • Inhibits angiogenesis induced by MMP-9 (Matrix Metalloproteinase) and FGF-2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor).
  • Reduces the expression of Endothelial Tissue Factor Gene.
  • Inhibits the transcription & expression of COX2.
  • Inhibits the expression of the enzyme induced Nitric Oxide Synthaze (iNOS) and decreases the production of HNO3.
  • Induces the expression of p21 gene.
  • Suppresses the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK), the cyclin D1; inhibiting cell cycle.
  • Inhibits the activity of Phospholipase D in mammalian.
  • Inhibits Ca-ATPase of Sarcoplasm Reticulum.
  • Increases the rate of accumulation of intracellular calcium ion.
  • Inhibits the activity & expression of LOX and COX.
  • Induces increased activity of Glutathione S-transferaze (GST)
  • Modulates the activity of Cytochrome P450 & P-glycoprotein and induces sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Stimulates the expression of stress proteins.
  • Inhibits protein transferase (FPTase).
  • Removes molecules of membership by removing metastases.
  • Suppresses the formation of inflammatory cytokines viz. TNF, IL-1, IL-12 and Quimocinas.
  • Inhibits the activity of Telomerase.

Effects of Curcumina in Cancer “in vitro”: – The curcumina suppresses the proliferation of various types of tumour cells in vitro e.g. Carcinoma of Breast, Carcinoma of Colon, Prostate Carcinoma, Basal cell Carcinoma, Melanoma, Acute Myeloid Leukæmia, T-cell Leukæmia and β-Lymphoma cells.

The curcumina interfere with malignant cell proliferation in several ways. It inhibits the effects of factors of tumor growth; inhibit proteins involved in cell-cycle and inhibits Ornithine De-Carboxylase (ODC).

Researchers showed: – “Inflammation is involved in carcinogenesis and curcumina is a potent agent anti-inflammatory” – Dr. Joe in 1997 showed that 10 micromoles of curcumina inhibited by 82% the incorporation of arachidonic acid in the cytoplasmic membrane of macrophages from mouse peritoneum. Also inhibited by 45% the amount of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 to 61% next to 40% increase in the secretion of 6-keto PGF1a.

Dr. Chen in 1997 showed that curcumina inhibits FPTase, which prevents the formation of Ras protein p21 and consequently prevents the proliferative effects.

References: –

  • Encyclopædia of Homœopathic Pharmacopœia – by Dr. P. N. Verma and Dr. Indu Vaid  [1ST edition, 1995; B. Jain].
  • www.medicinacomplementar.com.br
  • www.tratamente-naturiste.ro/plante-medicinale
  • www.amastore.com
  • www.naturalayurvediccare.com

A study on the efficacy of Homeopathic remedies in Urticaria

Dr. Sreedevi
Fr. Muller Homeopathic Medical College. Mangalore

Introduction
GOD helps us in all out troubles, so that we are able to help those who, have all kinds of troubles, using the same help that we ourselves have received from GOD.

Skin is an organ on which we all take a greater or lesser pride, the one that receives the greatest amount of attention, the one for which more pains are taken to beautify and is adored than all others and this is the one in which any change is readily noticed and hence a relief is most promptly sought.

Urticaria is a hypersensitivity reaction caused by either external or an internal cause. The signs and symptoms sometimes annoy the patient to a greater extent and leads to both mental and physical disturbance.

Another aspect to be taken into consideration is that these symptoms will have a effect on the psychic aspect of the patient. Since the manifestations are external, people are in a hurry to conceal the disease and hence go in for topical applications which take the disease further deep into the body.

Skin diseases have been earnestly treated by Homoeopathic medications for a long time with good results. Applying the vital principles of Homoeopathy and wholistic approach in skin diseases should not be considered as local diseases. The use of external application should be strictly avoided. These disease should be regarded as the ones resulting from internal derangement of vital force and disharmony and it should be treated with internal medicine.

To cure an urticaria case the basic pathology should be understood, so that the scope of Homoeopathy is known in these cases. This also entails the patient in maintaining the dosage and repetition schedule. A clear understanding of the cause of the disease helps the physician to be aware of the obstacles to cure the patient.

Aims and Objectives

  1. To study the effectiveness of acute as well as constitutional remedies in the treatment of urticaria.
  2. To illustrate the importance of wholistic approach

Survey of literature
Skin is synonymous with “life” in the phrase “to save my  skin”; human sensibilities are measured by “thin-skinned” or thick –skinned; a shallow person is “skin-deep” and a miser is a “Skin flint”; a friendly greeting is “give me a little skin” and an unfriendly feeling is “skin him alive”; relief is expressed by “the skin of my teeth”, unconcern by “no skin of my back’, and annoyance by “getting under my skin”. For some the skin is merely the body’s largest organ; to others, it is the most fascinating.

WHY SHOULD URTICARIA BE TAKEN MORE SERIOUSLY?
Urtiicaria is life threatening when it is a part of anaphylaxis. When angioedema involves the upper respiratory tract or when it is part of the systemic immune complex disease and is associated with more dire pathology such as meningo coccal septicaemia or lupus erythematosus. The later type of urticaria is recognized by its more persistent lesion lasting at least 1-2 days and often tender and often ultimately purpuric. It should be remembered that all acute urticaria may be very wide spread and be accompanied by joint pains, stomach aches and fever. However if the individual lesion lasts for only a few hours, it is less likely to be due to a noxious circulating trigger such as immune complex or Infective organisms.

SOME IMPORTANT HINTS ON URTICARIA

  • Urticaria disappears in summer and reappears in winter – psorinum
  • Urticaria walking in cold air – sepia
  • Urticaria at sea shore – Ars.alb, Mag.mur
  • Urticaria in everyspring – Rhus.tox
  • Urticaria after bathing – Phosphorus, Urt. Urens
  • Urticaria better in cold air – Calcarea
  • Urticaria after excitement – Bovista
  • Urticaria after violent exercise – conium, Nat.mur, Psorinum, Urt, Urens
  • Chronic urticaria in children – copaiva officinalis
  • Urticaria from pressure of clothes – Medorrhinum
  • Urticaria after vaccination – Sarsaparilla
  • Chronic urticaria with nettle rash on whole body with itching – Astacus fluviatilis
  • Swelling of whole body due to urticaria- Fragaria.
  • Urticaria fever during – Apis, Ignatia, Rhus.tox
  • Urticaria after eating meat – Ant.crud, Ruta
  • Urticarial rash is attended by severe headache with redness of face – belladonna
  • Urticaria alternating with asthma – Calad
  • Urticaria alternating with Rheumatism – Urt. Ure

MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIALS
The materials used for this studies are

  • Standardized Case Record (SCR)
  • Case Concept Form (CCF)
  • Case Concept Exposition (CCE)
  • Standardized Paper in Homoeopathic Prescribing (SPHP)

SCR:  it helps in the collection of data, processing of data and to plan out a definite therapeutic plan. A detailed follow up helps in the further management of case.

CCF: This form directs us to proceed from particular case to general concept which guides us to understand the reason behind the physician action.

CCE:  This gives us an elaborate study of the above, which enables us to demonstrate the application of theory and practice.

SPHP:  This form demands the reason for every action of physician. Hence it helps in the logical understanding of the case.

This study includes five cases that have been selected from homoeopathic out patient department of Father Muller Homoeopathic Medical College. These cases have been analysed, prescribed and follow ups have been taken with the help of SCR, CCF, CCE and SPHP.

LIMITATIONS

  1. The number of cases for study were limited
  2. Time for the study was limited
  3. A standardized uniform criteria was not followed
  4. The follow-ups were taken by others, not by the primary physician
  5. Follow-up lack proper details on the examination findings and investigations
  6. study was limited only to the cases of Father Muller Homoeopathic medical college out patient department.

CONCLUSION
This study has dealt with 5 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic urticaria and chronic urticaria. Through this study we are able to learn the role of homoeopathic management in cases of urticaria.

Urticaria is designed as hypersensitivity reaction due to various causes. Due to some exciting cause in chronic conditions. eruptions may flare up, in this phase our line of treatment is to treat that phase with acute short acting remedy followed by constitutional remedy or an antimiasmatic remedy.

Our dynamic system has a great role to play for the treatment of urticaria. This would only be possible when a physician follows the principles were laid down by our master Dr. Samuel Hahnemann.

Download full article : www.similima.com/pdf/homeopathy-in-urticaria.pdf

research4

Towards a Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Homeopathy

research4Michael H.F. Wilkinson

A quantum interpretation of the homeopathic method is presented. It is shown that provided  neither  the  medication  itself, nor  the  patient  is  observed,  a  net  effect  is  expected,  even  at  homeopathic dilutions. The temporal dilution in homeopathic exercise is explained in terms  of Heisenberg’s theory  of energy-time indeterminacy. The results  are fully compatible with thought experiments of the eminent physicist and cat specialist Erwin Schrödinger.

Introduction
Homeopathic medicine  contains fewer than  one molecule per  dose on  average  (2,  8).  Such preparations   are  made  by    diluting  the  active  ingredient  in  a  solvent,  usually  water,   and shaking, not stirring, vigorously at each step. Though Bond (1) found evidence that shaking has  a  different  effect  from  stirring  a  liquid,  few  scientists  accept  the  “memory  of  water” theory  (2,  8) used to  explain the  effect of  a  fraction of  a molecule  on  a patient  (5). In the pages of this distinguished journal, there has been a lively discussion of the effect of extreme time-dilution in the  case of homeopathic  exercise (4, 7). It  is proposed  that  exercise in the order of minutes down to nanoseconds per month shows distinct health benefits. This paper shows that quantum mechanics gives a sound basis to explain these phenomena.

Quantum theory and spatial dilution.
The famous thought experiment of Erwin  Schrödinger describes how according to quantum mechanics a cat may be in an indeterminate state between living and dead, until a conscious observation is made. Likewise, Reitz (6) has shown that the location of a cat inside or outside a garage is unspecified until the creature is observed. This phenomenon explains the curious “tunneling” of  electrons  and  even  entire  cats  (6)  through  a  region  of  space  in  which  they cannot exist. If we take the case of a homeopathic dilution of a single molecule over N flasks of solvent, quantum mechanics tells us that the molecule is not located in a particular  flask until  a  conscious  observation  is  made.  In  quantum  parlance,  the  “wave  function”  of  the particle  is  said  to  “collapse”  into  a  specific  state  (or  flask)  due  to  the  act  of  observing.

Incidentally,  this  is  why  cats  resent  people  staring  at  them:  the  constant  collapse  of  theirwave function is a strain on their delicate senses.

Download : www.similima.com/pdf/quantum-homeopathy.pdf

Michael H.F. Wilkinson
Centre for High Performance Computing,
University of Groningen, Landleven 1,
9747 AN Groningen, The Netherlands
URL:http://rc.service.rug.nl/~michael/mhfw.html
E-mail: michael@rc.service.rug.nl

Physical and Chromato Evaluations of Ocimum gratissimum

Physical and Chromatographic Evaluations on Homeopathic Mother Tincture of Ocimum gratissimum  (Ram Tulsi)

Abstract
Homeopathic formulations do not have much more of standardization in our country. Even the pharmacopoeial standards for mother tinctures are far from complete evaluation. The objective of this work was to provide some additional parameters to test the mother tincture to determine the identity and quality. For this purpose the mother tincture of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Labiatae) was selected as a model tincture and investigated for the following parameters. Viz. organoleptic properties, physical properties, and chemical properties, HPTLC studies and quantification of active constituents.

Key words: Ram tulsi, mother tincture, menstrum, Ocimum gratissimum, HPTLC

Introduction
Ocimum gratissimum (Labiatae) is a shrubby, perennial 0.2-1.2 meter in height, much branched, woody, below stems and branches sub quadrangular. Flowers were in simple or branched rather short racemes, in tolerably close whorls, rachis quadrangular, softly pubescent; bracts sessile, longer than the calyx, softly pubescent. Calyx 3 mm long in flower, becoming twice as long as in fruit, pubescent and glandular; upper lip rounded, veined, scarcely mucronate, curved upwards in fruit, longer than lower; lower lip strongly nerved, the two central teeth short subulate, the lateral teeth shorter and broader, lanceolate. Leaves are 6.3-12.5 cm by 3.8-1.8 cm in size along with elliptic lanceolate shape. Leaf has acute apex, coarsely crenate serrate margin with more or less pubescent. Corolla 4 mm long, pale greenish yellow, pubescent outside; upper lip 3 mm broad with 4 rounded teeth; upper filaments with graded tooth at the base. This plant is distributed throughout India and often cultivated. It is popularly known as Ram tulsi in Hindi. The plant has pungent taste with some characteristic flavour [1]. Eugenol isolated from leaf oil was found as chief chemical constituent along with beta caryophylene, germacrene, alpha copaene, humutene, beta elemene, beta bourbonene, gama murolene, identified as minor component in oil by GC-MS spectroscopy method. [2] A new sequiterpene gratissimine is also isolated from leaf. [3]

The plant is reported useful in alexiteric, vomiting, fits, “vata” and “kapha”, skin diseases, erysipelas, inflammations, strangury, causes insomnia according to Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has also used as carminative, aphrodisiac, and in diseases of brain, heart, liver and spleen; removes foul breath; strengthens the gums; good for griping and piles. Aromatic bath or fumigations prepared with the plant are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. A strong decoction of leaves has been found effective in apathies of children, in cases of seminal weakness and as remedy for gonorrhea. The seeds are given in headache, neuralgia. Considered digestive and pectoral in La Reunion. On the Gold coast, the leaves are mashed and used in enema by newly delivered women. It is also used for young infants.  Very popular remedy in Madagascar, it is considered as aromatic, digestive, tonic, antiemetic, antispasmodic, and neuralgic. Antileishmanial activity of Eugenol-rich essential oil is also reported from Ocimum gratissimum. [4] The leaf is also found useful in various pharmacological activities as antibacterial,[5] antifungal, [6] hypoglycemic, [7] increase sexual behavioral activities in mice,[8] antidiarrhoeal [9], and analgesic. [10] There is incomplete information available in Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia for all mother tincture and hence more data on standardization and validation of these tinctures is to be generated. [11]

Materials And Methods
The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum collected in and around Bhopal were identified in Department of Pharmacy, Barkatullah University, Bhopal. A voucher specimen (No BUPH/4041B) was deposited in the department. Simple percolation method was used for manufacturing of mother tincture in laboratory. This process was divided in three stages as

a) Imbibition: The dried plant material was then subjected to size reduction to obtain fine powder (Mesh size 80) using grinding mill. The imhibition of drug powder was carried out for four hours in closed vessel. The moistened drug was packed in percolator and sufficient quantity of menstrum ie. Ethanol. When liquid coming out from the outlet of percolator, the outlet was closed.

b) Maceration: The moistened drug was left in contact with menstrum for 24 hours.  During this period, the menstrum was dissolved in the active constituent of drug and became almost saturated with it.

c) Percolation: This stage was marked by the downward displacement of the saturated solution formed in a maceration and extraction of the remaining active constituent  present in the drug by slow passage of the menstrum through the column of the drug.  After collecting ¾ th volume of the mother tincture, the mark was pressed. The expressed liquid and percolate was mixed together. (Batch A)

d) The alternative way of preparation of mother tincture was maceration method by using wide mouth bottle was kept separately for extraction process with shaking at least once a day for seven days (Batch B). Each time after extraction the mark was pressed for complete recovery of solvent and again washed with next lot of solvent.

The mark was pressed manually after complete extraction. After that complete mother tincture subjected for filtration and volume was adjusted with washings of fresh solvents. These mother tinctures of Ocimum gratissimum subjected for various evaluations.

Along with this mother tincture of other marketed brand were procured from market and used as mfr. 1(Ramakrishna Homeo Pharma, Calcutta), 2 (Father Muller Charitable Institution, Mangalore) and 3(Allen Homeo Pharma, Calcutta).

The experimental works was divided in two parts.

Part I: Qualitative work done on mother tincture

Part II: Quantitative work assay of mother tincture

Part I:

Sample preparation:

1.   Preparation of in house (standard) mother tincture

2.   Marketed mother tincture

Characterization of sample was done by
1)  Physical evaluation [12-14]: The parameters carried out on mother tincture samples included determination of viscosity, surface tension, specific conductance, optical activity, pH, alcohol content, specific gravity, refractive index, and total solids (Table I) . All the volumetric used in the study were calibrated and the instrument calibrated/validated.

2)  Chemical evaluation: Samples of the mother tincture were subjected to various chemical tests [15-16] to confirm the nature of phytoconstituents as reported in literature. [17]

PART II
Analytical method development
An accurate and sensitive HPTLC method was developed quantitative estimation of Eugenol present in mother tincture.

i) Standard preparation: The leaf oil of tulsi viz Eugenol was first subjected to validation and confirmation of identity through UV, IR, DSC and GC/MS technique. To 5 mg of Eugenol (reference standard) was accurately weighed, dissolved in about 6 ml of ethanol in a 10 ml volumetric flask and the solution adjusted to volume to represent 500  µg/ ml of substance. One ml of this solution was then diluted to 10 ml with ethanol to make a solution of 50 µm/ml. This solution was then used for subsequent steps of analysis.

Analytical procedures:
i) Equipment: Camag HPTLC system equipped with sample applicator Linomet IV, twin trough developing chamber, TLC scanner III and integration software system; Cats 3.0. The plate used was HPTLC 254 silica gel 60 (E. Merck).

ii) Chemicals: Different developing systems were tried in the preliminary trials. Chemicals used as toluene, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, acetone (HPLC Merck grade).

Final experiment with due validation: HPTLCF 254 Silica gel 60 (E Merck), developing solvent being Toluene: Ethyl acetate (93:7) and Vanilin Sulphuric acid (2%) as detecting reagent.

iii) Procedure:
The standard Eugenol was first validated with respect to the parameters given in official standard book. The validation parameters determined included limit of detection (LOD) 250 ng, limit of quantification (LOQ) 400 ng, linearity range 400-1200 ng (response measured in terms of peak area). Its concentration in different mother tincture sample was estimated.

Result and Discussion
From the qualitative work done on the samples of mother tincture, it was concluded that significant differences exist in sample of mother tincture. Considering the physical parameters, it was observed that pH and optical activity of mother tincture samples of manufacturer 2 and 3 differed considerably. In the case of total solids the values obtained for manufacturer 1 (both batches) were to be very variably from the values obtained for manufacturers 2, 3, 4 and standard mother tincture. It was also clearly observed that the values of physical parameter for manufacturer 3 and standard sample were similar. A drop in specific conductance implies a low content of inorganic mater in the sample. The standard sample exhibited specific conductance of 995 in comparison to other manufacturers (1076, 1192, 1232, 1045, 978).

Alcohol content influences the viscosity of the sample. It was observed that samples with higher alcohol content as in the case of standard mother tincture, exhibited high viscosity too. However manufacturer 1, in spite of low alcohol content, exhibited high viscosity, which could be attributed to its high total solid content. Study of inter batch variations with respect to manufacturer 1 was successful. Significant variation in viscosity and refractive index were observed between batches A and B of manufacturer 1. (Table 1) The chemical test also revealed some interesting results. The positive results obtained with various tests revealed that Ocimum gratissimum leaves contain alkaloid, phytosterol, fixed oil, flavonoid and volatile oil. (Table 2) Thus it may be concluded that manufacturer 1 (batch A), 3 and 4 are qualitatively matching and comparable. With reference to Graph I slight variation obtained on quantification of (Graph 1) Eugenol content in different samples of mother tincture confirms the fact that different varieties of Ocimum could be responsible for variations because they separate out at different Rf values. (Image 1) Mother tincture from manufacturer 2 had lower Eugenol content when compared with the other samples. Thus, the values of Eugenol content in different samples of mother tincture are in now way close to value obtained for standard mother tincture.

Conclusion
In conclusion it may be stated that the approach given for standardization of homeopathic mother tinctures including physical and chemical evaluation and comparison with the preparation developed in house as reference standards should be followed by standardization of all mother tinctures. For developing an analytical method pure reference standard of reported active ingredient may have be procured or isolated. Using these reference standards, it will be possible to quantitatively determine the active ingredient in the mother tincture.

Reference
1) K. R. Kirtikar, B.D. Basu, Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol III, 2 nd Edn., Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, 1935,  1964-1965.

2) Izv Timiryazev. S- KH, Akad., 159, Chem. Abst. 1981, 95,103133m

3) N.T. Udea, Menddonca, R.R. Filho, Antileishmanial activity of eugenol rich essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum, Parasitol. Int., 2006, 55(2), 99-105.

4) S. R. Sardesai, A.S. Borkar,  M. E. Abraham, Effect of short term administration of tulsi leaves on sexual behavior in female rats, Indian J Physiol. Pharmacol., 1999, 68(1-3), 327-330.

5) Mohmad Ali, Text Book of Pharmacognosy, 1 st Edn. CBS Publisher and Distributors, Delhi, 1994, 81,116,372,447.

6) N.K. Dubey, T.N. Tiwari, D. Madin, H. Andriamboavonjy, J. P. Chaumont, Antifungal properties of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil (ethyl cinnamate chemotype), Fitotherapia, 2000, 71(5), 576-579.

7) J.C. Aguiyi, C.I. Obi, S.S. Gang, A.C. Igweh, Hypoglycemic activity of Ocimum gratissimum in rats, Fitotherapia, 2000, 71 (4), 444-446.

8) V.N. Offiah, U.A. Chikwandu, Antidiarrhoeal effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in experimental animals, J. Ethanopharmacol, 1999, 15:68 (1-3), 327-330.

9) L.O. Orafidiya, A.O. Ovadele,  A.O. Shittu, A.A. Elujoba, The formulation of an effective topical antibacterial product containing Ocimum gratissimum leaf essential oil, Int. Journal Pharm., 2001, 14, 224 (1-2), 177-183.

10) P.I. Aziba, D. Bass, V. Elegbe, Pharmacological investigation of Ocimum gratissimum in rodent for analgesic activity, Phytother. Res., 1999, 13 (5), 427-429.

11) Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India, Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Published by the controller of publications, New Delhi, 1971, first edition, 1,48.

12) K.P. Muzumdar, Pharmaceutical Sciences in Homeopathy & Pharmacodynamics, Parmanand Prakashan,Delhi, 1998, 3rd vol., 24-25.

13) Mandal & Mandal, A textbook of Homeopathic pharmacy, New Central book agency, Calcutta, 1997, 75-76.

14) Indian Pharmacopeia, Govt of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare published by The controller of publication New Delhi, 1996, Vol. II, A 97.

15) G.E. Trease, W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, English Language Book Society, 1991, 12 th edition, p no 28-29.

16) C.K. Kokate, Practical Pharmacognosy, Vllabh Prakashan, 1991, 3 rd edition p no 28, 29,191,

17) K.R. Kirtikar, B.D. Basu, Indian Medicinal Plants, Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, 1975, 2 nd edition, p no. 1884-1886.

Milind Pande#, Dhansingh Chandel **, Anupam Pathak*
Email : milindpandey2006@rediffmail.com
#NRI Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3 Sajjansingh Nagar, Raisen Road, Bhopal, 462022
** President, Bhopal Homeo Chkitsak Sangh, MIG 107, 2A, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)
*Department of Pharmacy, Barkatullah University, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal (MP) 462026

mansoor (757)

Efficacy of Homoeopathic Medicines in Motion Sickness

mansoor (757)Dr Ashok Kumar Dantkale

Acknowledgement
In a work of this magnitude, it is natural for the sole author of a book to solicit help and co-operation from others. Couple of people have taken part in this course, helping me to frame the issues more clearly in my own mind. This small page is being attempted in the shadow of the above sentiment.

I take this opportunity to thank my affectionate Father Late Sri.RamchandraRao Dantkale who parted me unexpectedly surrendering to the God’s Grace during my studies who always inspired me to achieve higher things in life and my Mother Vijayabai for her encouraging words and constant blessing in all my works and my dearest wife Chandrakala and my loving children Vivek and Vishal Dantkale whose love, support and constant encouragement for higher goals in life which provided me strength to go ahead successfully. I would like to thank to all my family members especially my sister Latabai, her family, my brother Prakash, his family, for their love and encouragement and my teacher and AYUSH director Dr. B. N. Prakash, my principal at GHMC Bangalore Dr. A. L. Patil and my colleagues and students who are my source of motivation.

I thank my guide, Principal Dr.M.A.Udachankar.M.D. a person of firm ideals, integrity, sincere efforts, an excellent academician, whose meticulous attention and constant inspiration, encouragements through out the course of my post-graduate study has created enough self confidence in me to complete the dissertation for which I find no words to express my profound gratitude. I owe not only this work, but also great part of my personnel comfort and a big share of his positive influence on me. Indeed a role model for the generation of homoeopaths.

I owe an incalculable debt to Dr. G. M. Moogi. PG-Coordinator, Dr. S. M. D’souza and Dr. S. S. Pujar Guides who stand out as judicious steady and pervasive influence in my PG study & Dissertation work.

I am indebted to my PG teachers Dr. S.N. Pattan, Dr. Sunil Parse, Dr. S. M. Udachankar, Dr. C. N.Tugashetti, Dr.B.Bargundi, Dr.Geeta Pangi,Dr.M.B. Ashwathpur,Dr. Afsha Balekundri, Dr.Naheeda Mulla, Shri. R.S. Hegde, Shri. S.B. Doni and also the staff of Dept of Organon of Medicine ,Dept. of Materia Medica and Dept. of Repertory, who motivated me immensely during my studies.

My special thanks to Dr. B. P. Belaldavar ENT Surgeon and Professor, JNMC Belgaum, Dr. A. P. Krishna Associate. Professor of Physiology, K.S.Hegde Medical Academy Mangalore for their valuable guidance and providing necessary references for my work. A word of praise and thanks also goes to the management of A. M. SHAIKH HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL for the freedom granted to me in availing all the institutional facilities during my PG studies and for the role played by each of them for guiding me in the right path and for the completion of the Dissertation and also Shri Abu A. Shaikh, Managing Trustee for his inspiring presence in the campus.

The word of praise is due, to my friends and my senior and Co-PG’s for their valuable guidance and encouragement during my studies and work.
I also thank, the patients whom I subjected to my study.
I am truly thankful to Mr. Chandshah Office Superintendent for his support and selfless service to carry out my official commitments.
I thank, Mr. R. P. Patil, Librarian and his colleagues for their co- operation in times of need.
I like to thank Mr. Anand S. Kathare my brother-in-law for his innovative ideas of typing work of this dissertation.
I express my sincere thanks to Miss. Veena & Mr. Deepak of Sai Xerox & DTP Centre for designing, printing and binding of my dissertation.
I have great pleasure in presenting the book to the earnest and thoughtful profession.

Abstract
Background and objectives: Seasickness, airsickness, carsickness, trainsickness, amusement-park-ride sickness, camel sickness, and the like are collectively called motion sickness. The symptoms are apathy, headache, stomach awareness, pallor, perspiration, salivation, nausea, vomiting, and prostration, in roughly that temporal order.

Motion sickness is one of the more humbling experiences of travel, be it on a plain, train, bus, boat or whatever and suddenly turning green, sweaty, becoming nauseated and developing an uncomfortable urge to throw up. Although this condition is fairly common and only a minor nuisance for the occasional traveler, it may be incapacitating for people with an occupation that requires constant movement such as a flight attendant, pilot astronaut or ship crew member. In addition anticipating  movement can cause anxiety and symptoms of motion sickness. The incidence varies depending upon the magnitude of the stimulus and the susceptibility of the individual.  Even though motion sickness has been mentioned in the homoeopathic literature; a systematic, scientific and a detailed study has not been done. Hence this condition needs to be studied. Quite a number of remedies in Homoeopathic Materia Medica and references from Philosophy books give a ray of hope for Homoeopathic treatment for this common but incapacitating disorder.

In most cases treatment with homoeopathic drugs is therefore necessary and in some cases it is the only method of treatment as conventional treatment cannot offer a cure always. Merely treating Motion sickness on symptomatology basis has failed to give permanent relief. So a holistic approach considering the individualistic treatment to provide an improved understanding of the patient’s situation and to make it easier and possible to avoid recurrences in the future has to be kept in mind in treating such diseases.

In this context, we the homoeopaths have some valid conclusions, regarding the holistic and individualistic approach to motion sickness. All these factors have encouraged me to take up this study on the efficacy of homoeopathic medicines in the treatment of motion sickness. The aims and objectives of the study were as follows.

  • To know and perceive the efficacy of homoeopathic medicines in the treatment of motion sickness.
  • To access the miasmatic background of the condition for enhancing the scope of homoeopathic therapeutics for a permanent cure of the condition taken up for the study.
  • Assessment of the role of acute remedies in the treatment of this condition.
  • To bring out therapeutics on motion sickness for easy reference in clinical practice.
  • To bring out Repertory on motion sickness for easy reference in clinical practice.

The present study consisted 30 patients of Motion sickness who attended the O.P.D. at A.M. Shaikh Homeopathic medical college and Hospital, Belgaum and O.P.D. of village camps. The 30 cases of Motion sickness were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria. Patients who were known cases of Motion sickness and whose symptoms of motion sickness get provoked during traveling and patients of all age groups irrespective of their sex and occupation were taken up for study. After selecting the samples the case taking was done keeping the holistic and individualistic concept in mind to ascertain homoeopathic totality for prescription of similimum.

All the cases were reviewed once in 15 days for the 2 months, after the journey and were told to report the changes, then once in 15 days for the remaining period of study or as per the demand of the case and the progress was recorded. The treatment was based on the basis of homoeopathic principles and auxillary measures were indicated as and when required. In this study it was seen that 27cases i.e.90% showed improvement with Homoeopathic treatment and 3 cases i.e. 10% failed to show any improvement.

An analysis of the results revealed statistically significant efficacy of the Homoeopathic remedies in the treatment of motion sickness. Studying motion sickness with miasmatic background  and its treatment with Homoeopathy not only helps in understanding the further progression and worsening of the condition but also reduces the emotional and psychological impact caused due to motion sickness and makes the patient travel with comfort, enjoyment and pleasure and no more embarrassment. The miasmatic background in 86.66% of cases was found to be Psora. Hence, it can be stated that mostly in Motion sickness PSORA is the dominant miasm. Most of the cases have totally responded to a set of drugs Coc-Indicus, Ipecacuanha, Nux vomica,  Petroleum, followed by  Ars alb ,Graphites, Kali carb,   Lycopodium, Nitric acid, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Tabaccum and Tuberculinum.

Motion sickness is an exceedingly common disorder about which Homoeopathic physicians are likely to be consulted for advice and treatment. Appropriate management is based on patient characteristics and the type and length of the exposure and includes general preventive recommendations. Education for patients about the causes of motion sickness and how to prevent it can alleviate anxiety and enhance their enjoyment of travel and recreation.The proper Homoeopathic medicine taken at the right time can increase resistance to motion sickness and assure a pleasant journey in place of a traumatic experience. Hence now most of the motion sickness sufferers need no longer face frustration as Homoeopathy has come for their relief. Thus, the present study has been confirming one keeping the holistic approach as the pedestal of treatment and the role of Homoeopathic remedies has been the most effective. A more comprehensive study comprising of more subjects, different professionals with different modes of travel and spread over a longer duration is needed to follow-up on the results of this study.

Keywords: Motion sickness, Nausea, Vomiting, Giddiness, Vestibular apparatus, Balance disorder, Equilibrium, Excessive sweating and salivation, The sensation of rotation, Vertigo, Dizziness, Car sickness, Train sickness, Air sickness, Otorhinolaryngologist.

Age incidence:
Highest incidence was seen in the age group of 20-40 years the eldest among the patients was 61 years old the younger was 4 year old.

Sex incidence:
From the study it was observed that Females were found to be suffering more than Males. Of total 30 cases 23 were Females and 7 cases were Males. Male: Female ratio is 1:3 This corroborates the fact that, Females are more prone than Males.

Various clinical presentations:
It is evident from the study that the various clinical presentation of motion sickness is with the acute exaggerbation that is 43.33% (13) cases closely followed by chronic presentation in 56.66% (17) cases.

Acute and chronic remedies:
From the study it is seen that cases received Nux vomica (7), Cocc. Ind(11) , Petroleum(8)and Ipecacuanha(4) cases as acute remedies, and Ars alb(2)Graphites(3), Kali carb(5), Lycopodium(2), Nitric acid(2), Platina(2), Pulsatilla(4), Sepia(5), Tabaccum(2), Tuberculinum(3)  cases as chronic remedies.

Indicated remedies:
Nux vomica, Cocc. Ind, Petroleum and Ipecacuanha were indicated as acute remedies and Ars alb, Graphites, Kali carb, Lycopodium, Nitric acid, Platina, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Tabaccum, Tuberculinum were given as chronic remedies in all the 30 cases.

Dr. Benerjee says “The difference between acute and chronic prescription is that, in chronic the medicine has to be miasmatic while in acute it need not be so. The medicine is indicated by the totality of symptoms of the miasm predominant will have to be selected and not the medicine indicated by the totality of mere symptom of whole case. In brief the prescription must be miasmatic”.

Miasmatic background:
It was observed that it is Psoric background in the maximum cases that is 26 out of 30 cases that is 86.66%; followed by Sycotic background in 6.66% (2) cases and then followed by Psoro-sycotic background in 6.66% (2) cases.

As the individual develops from embryonic stage to death so does his predisposition to disease goes on developing, due to its genetic cause, controlled, guided and modulated by the miasmatic cause inherited as well as acquired, causing various changes from innermost symptom to outermost symptoms.

Potencies used:
It was observed that the potencies varied from 200 to 1 M, 10 M as per the demand of the case.

Result of treatment: The conventional treatment aims in only treating the symptom rather them removing the tendency to get it, i.e. the disease is either maintained or pushed back into the organism and to complicate the condition. But in this study, the individual was considered as a whole. And the whole individual was treated rather than treating his disease or symptom. Holistic approach was carried out. Hence, the internal being has to be assessed and in the present study the patient was treated as a whole by dynamic internal homoeopathic medications.

In the present study efforts were made to make the journey period of the patients more enjoyable, pleasurable, symptom free. Hence, on the basis of the above discussed points we can conclude that the homoeopathic management in motion sickness has a good scope and it is efficacious. The study was worked out using Paired ‘t’ test a statistical method, which again shows the efficiency of Homoeopathy in the management of Motion sickness.

With proper and scientific understanding of the Psoric background Motion sickness which is a debilitating, persisting, disturbing and non-responsive condition can be managed successfully by Homoeopathic medication.

Conclusion
30 different cases of motion sickness of either sexes ranging from 4-61years, which satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were considered to study the response of Homoeopathic treatment in motion sickness.

1.  The most common age group suffering from motion sickness was found to be between20-40 Years.

2. Females were found to be more prone to suffer from motion sickness. Male to Female ratio was: 1:3

3. The most common symptoms of motion sickness observed were nausea, vomiting, giddiness, sweating, blurring of vision and a sense of feeling unwell.

4. It has been a common problem in peoples traveling by Bus and Car.

5. Commonly seen aggravating factors were found to be s Fear, anxiety, and poor ventilation and smell of  petrol, over crowding during traveling in  Bus which increase the likelihood of experiencing motion sickness.

6. Common family history was Motion Sickness.

8.The miasmatic background in 86.66% of cases was found to be Psora. Hence, it can be stated that mostly in Motion sickness PSORA is the dominant miasm.

9.Most of the cases   had consulted ENT specialists and were on Allopathic medication, withdrawal of which the patient used to get the same symptom of motion sickness every time on traveling. But with homoeopathic medication in 4-5 weeks the patients did not use any allopathic drugs and felt completely better each time they were traveling.

10. Cocc-Indicus, Ipecac, Nux vom, Petroleum, were acute remedies      prescribed in this study.

11. The potencies of all the remedies used ranged from 200 to 10 M as per the need of the case but 200 potency was the most commonly used potency.

12. Miasmatically it is mainly a PSORIC condition because Hypersensitiveness of labyrinth of the Ear and always presents with Nausea, Vomiting, Giddiness, Vertigo, and intolerance to motion, conflicting signals between ear and eye, brain are always PSORIC.

13. Most of the cases have totally responded to a set of drugs Coc-Indicus, Ipecacuanha, Nux vomica,  Petroleum, followed by  Ars alb ,Graphites, Kali carb,   Lycopodium, Nitric acid, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Tabaccum and Tuberculinum  .

14. The scope of Homoeopathic medicine is significant in giving relief to  patients suffering from Motion sickness as it is confirmed by systematic, scientific and a detailed study based on Homoeopathic principles.

15.  This study was conducted with limited subjects and for limited time duration. A more comprehensive study comprising of more subjects, different professionals with different modes of travel and spread over a longer duration is needed to follow-up on the results of this study.

Summary
Motion sickness is a common experience for many people involving almost all forms of transport, including aviation. It is one of the more humbling experiences of travel, be it on a bus, car, train, boat or plain whatever and suddenly turning green, sweaty, becoming nauseated and developing an uncomfortable urge to throw up due to i) over stimulation of vestibular apparatus ii) Conflictions of the sensory inputs thus in motion sickness there is lack of accord between information brought by the vestibular apparatus and by the visual apparatus, to the brain and is one of the most common problems seeking attention of several ENT specialists. The results of management by various system of medication have been not satisfactory. The Allopathic medication has been the commonest measure but has its own bad effects and relapses are seen invariably in all the cases after stopping the medication.

In my humble attempt to treat patients with motion sickness I have been quite successful because I worked keeping in mind the ‘Universal truth’, the universal truth which Dr. Hahnemann propagated i.e., every individual is a different individual and the animated body or organism is ultimately governed by the life force.

Most of the cases had consulted ENT specialists and were on Allopathic medication, withdrawal of which the patient used to get the same symptom of motion sickness every time on traveling. But with homoeopathic medication in 4-5 weeks the patients did not use any allopathic drugs and felt completely better each time they were traveling. The scope of Homoeopathic medicine is significant in giving relief to patients suffering from Motion sickness. Homoeopathic medicines along with the general management are found to be highly efficacious in the management and treatment of motion sickness, as majority number of patients was found to improve and hence a positive relationship is established in the study conducted to test the experimental hypothesis by applying paired ‘t’ test. It was seen that the frequency, severity and recurrences of complaints of motion sickness were reduced through Homoeopathic management thus improving the quality of life of individual while traveling mentally and physically.

Studying motion sickness with miasmatic background, its treatment with Homoeopathy not only helps in understanding the further progression and worsening of the condition but also reduces the emotional and psychological impact caused due to motion sickness and makes the patient travel with comfort, enjoyment and pleasure and no more embarrassment. In the Homoeopathic Materia medica we find many remedies indicated for motion sickness and many rubrics are found in repertories which are very useful in selection of remedies. The proper Homoeopathic medicine taken at the right time can increase resistance to motion sickness and assure a pleasant journey in place of a traumatic experience. Homoeopathy offers a long term healing of a person due to its individualistic and wholistic approach. Hence now most of the motion sickness sufferers need no longer face frustration as Homoeopathy has come for their relief.

Dr. Ashok Kumar Dantkale BHMS, M.D(Hom)
Assistant Professor,Dept. of Physiology &Biochemistry,
Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College,
Basaveshwarnagar, Bangalore -79
Email: ashokdantkale@yahoo.com
Mob: 09844231936

 Download full paper : www.similima.com/pdf/motion-sickness-homeopathy.pdf

Application of Homeopathic Medicine from a distance

Dr M K  Sahani 

Health and disease remained a subject of research and study from the very early inception of human civilization. All attempts are made to find out the real cure but the complexity of life still need more understanding. Initially with meager knowledge of resources available in nature the earliest man during sickness must have sought the help of some divine power, which gradually developed into systemic medicines. With further accumulation of information these healing method got manifested in the medicinal substance and plant available in abundance in nature. Thus materialistic search for medicine began which has now taken a very deep-rooted faith in them. Life is the manifestation of dynamic energy animating the material. Material being the visible aspect drew more attention and dynamic energy remained buried in few thoughts only. When we talk of Holistic concept of health, it has to be viewed with integration of both material and dynamic.

Great philosopher Hippocrat, who is also considered as father of medicine, gave principle to application of material medicine- either on similar or on dissimilar presentation of symptoms produced by medicinal substance. These are the steps for formalization of medicine into system. While the dissimilar medicine gained popularity with their quick effect the similar medicine faded for want of acceptability of its logic.

It was Dr.Hahnemann now some 200 years ago who rediscovered that medicine when applied on similar principle have lasting effect of cure and he developed it as a system of Medicine- Homoeopathy. He discovered that causation of all sickness lies within the person who is sick. It is well accepted by many that some dynamic force governs Life, which is unique for each individual. As such any sickness before manifesting on the physical body has to weaken the strength of this dynamic force, which was called as Vital Principle by Dr.Hahnemann. Thus only Vital principle is responsible for all sickness. If cure has to be established one must make an attempt to restore the Vital Principle. Search for medicine for the vital principle is also the discovery of Homoeopathy. Dr.Hahnemann developed a unique method to develop a medicine for the Vital Principle by extracting out the dynamic principle of the medicinal substances. He diluted them to such an extent where no material of medicinal substance existed. This is well known in Homoeopathy, as Potentisation.It is a method of diluting the material property and developing the Energy property. It is curious to note that there is not a single molecule of medicinal substance in all of the Homoeopathic medicine beyond 6th to 12th Potency. Still their efficacy is well known for many and time tested for the last two hundred years.

Dr.Hahnemann tried to explain this phenomenon and he was aware of the nature of medicine available in potentised medicine, thus he wrote that administration of these medicine may be done either by oral, tactual or olfaction. He even went on comparing the action of Homoeo medicine to that of the Mesmerism. Thus Homoeopathy is only medicating the Vital Principle.

One can wonder how a dynamic substance can be swallowed by mouth, how it can be eaten. Some 40 years back Dr.B.Sahni with his vast experiences and philosophical background could not digest this logic. He told that this energy medicine could only be transmitted to the patient. Never in the past they were swallowed, they were only transmitted by direct touch.

Dr.B.Sahni with these thoughts on transmission developed the idea of remote application, which he called Transmission of Homoeo Drug Energy From a Distance. All dynamic energy substance has the property to be transmitted from a distance. We are aware of these facts as light, sound electrical energy are transmitted from a distance and has varied application in our society. As the transmission need a medium Dr.Sahni tried to use natural belongings of the person as medium and he was successful in transmitting medicinal energy through them.

With experimentation on various types of patient it is now proved beyond doubts that Homoeopathic medicines are not a commodities to be fed by mouth. They can be transmitted from any distance using the natural belonging of the person. Hair being very convenient it became the ideal medium for transmission and is being used by all. Now there are thousands of followers of Dr.Sahni who are using this unique mode of transmission.

Question may still arise how Dr.Sahni’s Transmission method is different from Reiki and other pranic healing. While in Drug transmission of Dr.Sahni there is transmission of definite known energy pattern of medicines obtained from the natural sources, in Reiki or others, indefinite sources are used. They are not using the medium of the patient. In Dr.Sahni’s Transmission well-proved medicines are transmitted.

How it is possible to transmit the medicine energy. Different logic can be given. Scientific explanation will take time to explain this phenomenon, and it is proved fact that medicines of Homoeopathy are still a mystery for science. They are yet to be explained as no laboratory yet has detected the existence of medicine in a potentised homoeo medicine. It is assumed that stored information of the medicines is passed on to subsequent molecules of the carrier substance thus getting magnified in potency. It is presumed that each individual is unique in them selves. They have their own identity, which can never be duplicated, thus their Vital dynamic plane of body too have individual vibration of wavelength working on definite frequency. This is individualization. In Homoeopathy too this individualization is tried to be found out through symptoms manifestation to match the similarity with medicine. Homoeopathic potentised medicine also represents a particular energy pattern with definite wavelength. Thus when a hair of the patient is brought in contact with the dynamic medicine, it assume the frequency of hair and it is transmitted to the person. We can assume that natural belonging of the person when it is separated from the body still retain the same frequency. Thus with this we can say there are as many individual wavelength of person as many of the person available in this globe. Each medicine too represents a particular type of wavelength. To the science only a few of the wavelength are discovered still more need to be discovered.

Dr.B.Sahni too tried to explain this phenomenon of transmission of medicine in his book-Transmission Of Homoeo Drug Energy From A Distance and took logic of Raman’s effect to explain. Quite a numbers of explain are being tried. But as the mystery of potency require unfolding the truth we can explain more in future with more accumulation of experience.

Practical experiences are now accumulating on with more and more miraculous results. It has been now tried on all types of individuals as well as on animal to prove that its effect is not mesmerism nor psychological. Hard tumors to the malignant cancer have responded to these methods and now thousands of practitioners are adopting it as their mode of administration of medicine.

There are many advantages for these methods – the expert physician can treat Patient seated at far distance place, only a strand of hair is needed. In grave emergency and where doctor are not available this method proves to be a boon. In case of medicinal aggravation, which is quite common, simply detachment of hair from the medicine will bring down the effect giving relief and no antidote will be required. Overdosing which are hazards of all types treatment can be well checked with drug transmission and only required energy can be passed on to the patient.

Dr.Sahni’s Method has much potentiality of further researches and he during his own lifetime-established Research Institute of Sahni Drug Transmission And Homoeopathy with headquarter at Patna. Since then this Institute is carrying on the research work on different aspect of Drug Transmission. This Institute with the present Chairman  Dr.M.K.Sahani is now working on Research, Teaching and Clinical Help to patient by this method. It has come out with a postgraduate course in Drug Transmission for the medical graduates, which is of three months duration..

Institute is also working on the project of Tele medical Center with satellite center in different places, with facility to treat patient with Drug Transmission.

Transmission of Medicine Energy from a distance has great potentiality of being a medicine for the future. Person seated in their own place seek all comforts simply by use of remote technology, the why not health can be provided by remote technology. Drug Transmission therapy has come out with it.

hair

Hair Transmission – How to Transmit Homeopathic Medicine.

hairDr.Ravi Singh, Dr.Pragati Singh

Here, I am introducing you a new method of administering homoeopathic remedy named as HAIR TRANSMISSION or SAHANI EFFECT. Some of u is probably aware of this method but probably hesitating to adopt in your practice for want how to use this method. I was in same situation when I first heard about it. But I decided to try it and hence obtained brilliant results from this method.

This method was invented by well known homoeopath of India Late Dr. B. Sahani of Patna. He was thinking that homoeopathic medicines are in the form of energy and energy is not a commodity to be fed by mouth? Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can only be transformed in other form. Obviously energy can be transmitted like radio or mobile signals. Dr. Sahani never claimed how it works, he has given many postulates about his theory( Ref. Transmission of Homoeo Drug energy from a Distance by Dr. B. Sahani B. Jain Publishers.

Methodology adopted is as follow:

1.Patients is told for this type of application of this system.

2.Case history is collected from the patients as per the case taking most classical to Homoeopathy.

3. Each case history is then analyzed for selection of proper rubrics for the selection of the Homoeopathic Medicines.

4.Each case is then repertosized using the RADAR software available at the centre and a medicine is selected.

5.A strand of HAIR is taken out either cut or uprooted from the head of the patient.

6.Selected medicine is taken in fifty millisimal potency and diluted in water in a 5ml vial and ten stroke was given

7.This vial is ready for putting the hair in it.

8.Strand of hair taken out from the patient is inserted in the vial containing diluted medicine. This is termed as “Transmitting set”. It is put in safe cupboard after putting name of medicine, date and patients name OR code number allotted to the patient.

9.When the hair is put in the vial of transmitting set it is termed as Transmission “ON” and when the hair is detached from it is termed as Transmission “OFF”

  1. Patient is advised to report for progress after fifteen days.
  2. Follow-up progress is noted when the patient revisited the clinic after fifteen days.
  3. 12.  Homoeopathic observation of the caseis followed up and change in medicine is made considering the action. Following changes are made depending on the result.
  4. No change in symptoms- ten stroke were given to the transmitting set.
    1. Positive progress- No change is made in the transmitting set.
    2. c.       Aggravation in symptoms- Either hair is detached from the transmitting set  or waited without any change depending on the progress noted.
      1. Adverse changing symptoms- Transmission is put OFF and waited for change.

e. When need of change in medicine is felt either due to wrong selection or for use of complementary medicine. Hair was taken out from the first transmitting set and inserted in the new transmitting set containing new medicine. Has to be properly wiped out before inserting in new medicine.

f. Medicine used for transmission is selected from the general pool of the Homoopathic medicine in fifty millisimal potency.

g. Principle of complementary, follow-up, inimical, antidote as per Homoeopathy was adopted.

The advantages of this method are as follows

  1. Distance of patient is no bar for patient either in first or subsequent consultations.
  2. In case of aggravation simply detaching the hair will check agg.
  3. It is a continuous process, patient receives medicine till the vial contain his hair.
  4. It is the quickest method of effects obtained by homoeopathy which I have witnessed in my practice several times.
  5. Change of medicine is so simple that after washing hair put it in another medicated vial. Patient need not to come your office, he has only to inform us by telephone or massage.

So, I offer to profession the wordings of few stalwarts what has been said about homoeopathy, similar is applied to hair transmission.

Try my method and fearlessly publish the failure -Dr. Hahnemann

Do not accept anything without investigation, but still less, do not reject anything without trying it. – Dr. Luc De Schepper

It has been my rule through life never to accept anything as true, unless it came as near mathematical proof as possible in its domain of science; and, on the other hand, never to reject anything as false, unless there was stronger proof of its falsity. Dr. C. Hering 

I have listened in many homoeopathic seminars by senior homoeopths or honorable guests that homoeopathy requires RESEARCHES. Will u please investigate hair transmission method by trying it in your practice or will leave your responsibility to shoulders of other?

I have tried this method in my practice and found brilliant results, gradually I am switching over to this method over oral doses. I have got results in every type of cases in my  practice.

You can see  few cured cases of my practice by this method be following link  http://homoeopathic-cure.com/forum/viewforum.php?f=3 besides these cases thousands of patients of different diseases have been benefited hence I recommend this method to profession. Any one who want to know in detail about this method can visit website , refer Dr. B. Sahani’s book or contact me personally.

Dr.Ravi Singh, Dr.Pragati Singh
Dr.Ravi’s Multispecialty Homoeopathic Clinic
Lucknow 226016 Ph: 0522 4042243
Web : drravilucknow@gmail.com,  www.homoeopathic-cure.com

A study on the Efficacy of Homeopathy in Bleeding Haemorrhoids

Dr  Thanka R

Haemorrhoids is one such disease which challenges the modern treatment namely local medication and surgical removal. Half the population suffers from this disease with bleeding, pain, itching, prolapse or altered bowel habits. This causes extreme inconvenience which hurdles and hinders the patient’s daily routine with great mental agony and anxiety.

Haemorrhoids caused Napoleon to sit side- saddle, sent President Jimmy Carter to the operating room, and benched baseball star George Brett during the 1980 World Series. Over two thirds of all healthy people reporting for physical examinations have haemorrhoids. Unfortunately a haemorrhoidal condition only tends to get worse over the years, never better.

The concept of Ayurveda regarding Haemorrhoids states that it is one among the eight “Maha vyadis” of medicine, obstinate for management because of recurrence and prolonged suffering. They consider their origin to the fault in the “Tridoshas”- the vatha, pitha and kabha. The terminology in use is “Arshas”. They can be of sushka (non-bleeding) and ardra (bleeding) varieties. Regarding the aetiology, the concept is intertwined with the habit of bowel movement (constipation- ‘udavartham’). To the question of treatment it is listed under “Yapyam”- only manageable and not curable. 

In Homoeopathy, Haemorrhoids are treated as not local but as derangement in the dynamic vital force that are expressed out through signs and symptoms of bleeding, pain, itching and prolapse and are corrected only by means of dynamic medicines, which are capable of producing artificial similar diseases in healthy individuals, in a safe, gentle and effective manner.

As man is prior to his organs so is the derangement of vital force to the development of tissue changes. These tissue changes are the result of disease. These local tissue changes are not the disease but only the external manifestation of the disease on the material body which stem forth from the internal dynamic derangement of the vital force. Through this dynamic derangement, the man is affected in totum which rationally demands a constitutional  management  for the extirpation of the illness in its entirely  leading to a permanent  restoration of health which inevitably wards off its recurrence and transference to the progeny and  this can be achieved  only through the symptomatic  individualistic antimiasmatic  constitutional treatment  administered by Homoeopathic system.

Under these circumstances it is decided to conduct a clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of constitutional medicine in the management of bleeding Haemorrhoids. The detailed methodology and plan of action are discussed in the concerned section and the results are statistically analyzed to derive evident conclusions.

The present study has been ventured by me to verify the efficacy of constitutional management in bleeding Haemorrhoids emboldent by the statement made by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in his Materia Medica Pura-

“This doctrine appeals solely to the verdict of experience. Repeat the experiments ,  it cries aloud , repeat them carefully and accurately , and you will find  the doctrine confirmed  at every step ; and it does what no medical  doctrine , no system of physic ,no  so- called therapeutics ever did  or could do- it insists upon being judged by results.”     

To study the effectiveness of Constitutional Medicines in the treatment of Bleeding Haemorrhoids.

To verify statistically the results of the study through the analysis of clinical symptoms before and after treatment.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

  • General concept of health
  • Homoeopathic perspective of disease
  • Constitution and constitutional medicine
  • Anatomy of rectum and anal canal
  • Physiology of defecation
  • Haemorrhoids 

MATERIALS
Randomly selected 30 cases of Haemorrhoids from patients registered in the special OP for piles and fistula under the department of Homoeopathic Philosophy, Government Homoeopathic Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram.

The period of study was from July 2006 to January 2008. For analysis, I have taken the cases where follow-up was obtained for one year. Patients were reviewed on monthly basis for a period of 12 months. Each case was analyzed, evaluated and prescribed according to the principles of Homoeopathy. The repetition, change of potency and remedy were done according to the principle of Homoeopathy.The effect of remedy was studied on the symptomatic basis.

Sample of cases include bleeding types of first, second and third degree haemorrhoids and were judged by the seven international criteria for haemorrhoids which include haemorrhage, pain, constipation, prolapse of pile mass, mucus discharge, itching and anaemia.

INCLUSION CRITERIA
The study was conducted in both men and women under the age group 20-60 years. Only bleeding type of first, second and third degree haemorrhoids with any of these clinical symptoms such as haemorrhage, pain, constipation, prolapse of pile mass, mucus discharge, itching and anaemia were selected.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA
Non bleeding piles, prolapse of rectum and other conditions with similar clinical symptoms like fissure, fistula, anorectal abscess, malignancy, Chron’s disease, ulcerative colitis, polyp of rectum, diverticulitis and other diseases having rectal complaints as secondary phenomena were excluded. Other causes of pruritis ani and anaemia were also excluded. Cases which needed surgical intervention were also excluded. Cases outside the prescribed age group were also excluded. 

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
Clinical diagnosis was done by assessing the presenting signs and symptoms of seven international criteria for haemorrhoids such as bleeding, pain, difficulty in passing stool and protrusion etc. Confirmatory tests like digital rectal examination and proctoscopy were also done in each case.

METHODS
The study was a clinical trial. Each case was taken properly in an elaborate manner, as per the directions given by Dr. Hahnemann in aphorisms 83-104 of 5th edition of Organon of Medicine. All the symptoms including subjective and objective were considered. Separate case records were kept with detailed format for each patient and routine investigations were done according to the cases. Each case was analyzed, evaluated and repertorised according to the principles of Homoeopathy. If repertorisation was needed, it was done with the software RADAR. Remedies were selected based on individualizing constitutional totality of symptoms of each patient and not on pathological findings.

Diet and regimen – The patients were directed to follow dietary restrictions according to the aetiology of haemorrhoids. Apart from this, all the patients were restrained from taking other medications, internally or externally, strong and spicy foods, coffee, tea, increased quantity of milk and milk products, condiments and other food items supposed to be of possessing medicinal value during the study period. Advised to take regular proper fibrous diet and increased adequate quantity of water. Also the use of strong smelling perfumes and deodorants were advised to avoid. Regular proper exercise is also advised. However, 100 percent restriction of diet and regimen cannot be guaranteed.

Review and follow up
All the cases were reviewed every monthly and assessed using the following disease criteria. 

Disease criteria used for assessment

  • Haemorrhage per rectum
  • Pain with relation to defaecation
  • Constipation
  • Protrusion of pile mass
  • Mucus discharge
  • Itching of anus
  • Anaemia.  

The discussion that follows is exclusively based on the observation and results presented in the former section. Firstly, to discuss about the various attributes involved in this study.

1. Age incidence: Haemorrhoids are found to occur more among the age group from 31 to 40 i.e., 43.33%.

2.  Sex incidence: 53.33% were males and 46.67% were females.

3. Educational status:  prevalence is more in college level education. This can be considered as a reflection of the higher rate of literacy in our state

4. Occupational status:  higher incidence was found to be in house wives (23.33%) and next in labourers.

5. Economic status : 56.67% in middle class group which can be attributed to  higher concentration of aetiology in middle class population

6. Distribution of clinical features: 100% had bleeding, 83.33% had pain and constipation, 50% had prolapse and itching and 33.33% had anaemia at the first consultation. After treatment it was found out that there was marked reduction in symptoms which showed the efficacy of management.

7. Hereditary tendency: 80% of patients showed a history of piles in family.

8. Miasmatic predominance: 36.67% showed Psoric predominance though bleeding haemorrhoids come under tubercular miasm which was 33.33% in this study.

9. Order of effective medicines: A single medicine cannot be said as much effective for haemorrhoids when compared to others, which emphasizes the significance of individualization in Homoeopathy.

10. Evaluation of change in disease criteria :

a) Bleeding – Out of 30 cases ,26 cases (86.67%) were cured and 4 cases (13.33%) showed improvement

b) Pain –  Out of 29 cases, 22 cases (75.86%) were cured and 7 cases (24.13%) showed improvement

c) Constipation – Out of 29 cases, 21cases (72.41%) were cured, 7cases (24.13%) improved and 1case (3.45%) remained unchanged.

d) Prolapse – Out of 25 cases, 18 cases (72%) were cured, 6 cases (24%) improved and1case (4%) remained unchanged.

e)  Mucus discharge – Out of 11 patients, 8cases (72.73%) were cured and 3 patients (27.23%) showed improvement

f)  Itching – Out of 25cases, 21cases (84%) were cured and 4cases (16%) showed improvement.

g)  Anaemia – Out of 9 patients, 6 cases (66.67%) were cured, 2 cases (22.22%) improved and 1 case (11.11%) remained unchanged.

From the evaluation of results obtained after the statistical analysis of the pre-treatment and post-treatment disease intensity scores, it is obvious that constitutional medicines selected on the basis of the conceptual totality of symptoms are highly effective in the management of Haemorrhoids.

The mental generals and physical generals should be given prime importance. The tendency to the recurrence of piles can be controlled/ eradicated by the exact simillimum. Thus it is proved that any disease, even if it is a surgical one (provided they are within the reversible limit) can be cured by the intuitive and diligent adherence to the Homoeopathic principles.

Other factors observed in this study are high prevalence of Haemorrhoids is seen in age group 31-40, coming from middle class with an adequate educational status. Even though bleeding Haemorrhoids are coming under pseudopsora, my study verified its Psoric predominance of in these 30 cases.

Antimiasmatic deep acting constitutional medicines like Sepia, Natrum mur, Ignatia,  Phosphorus, Calc.carb, Lycopodium, Nux vomica, Sulphur, Pulsatilla, Silicea, Stapysagria etc were found to be effective for controlling both the acute attacks and also for preventing recurrence, when given after strict individualization.

Many cases, which are recommended to do surgery, can be effectively treated with Homoeopathic constitutional medicine. It can also be claimed that Homoeopathy is far more cost effective when compared with expensive drugs and other procedures like cryosurgery, banding etc used in other systems of medicines.

To conclude, limited reliability can only be guaranteed with such a study involving a chronic disease, with 30 cases, for period of one year follow up. A long term follow-up study will be more reliable as the disease is exhibiting recurrence. Comparative studies involving other systems of medicine can also be accomplished with better results.

Dr. Thanka.R
Trivandrum. Kerala
Email : drthankamd@yahoo.co.in

All rights reserved. (C)  No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from author and publisher.

Download full paper : www.similima.com/pdf/homeopathy-bleeding-haemorrhoids.pdf

Repertory of small remedies in Boerick’s Materia Medica

Repertory of small remedies in the Manual of Homoeopathic   Materia Medica by Dr.William Boericke

Dr. Jubin John  MD(Hom)

CONTENTS
Mind
Vertigo
Head
Eye
Vision
Ear

  • Hearing
  • Nose
  • Face
  • Mouth
  • Teeth
  • Throat
  • External Throat
  • Stomach
  • Abdomen
  • Rectum
  • Stool
  • Bladder
  • Kidneys
  • Prostate gland
  • Urethra
  • Urine
  • Genitalia
  • Genitalia female
  • Larynx and Trachea
  • Respiration
  • Cough
  • Expectoration
  • Chest
  • Back
  • Extremities
  • Sleep
  • Chill
  • Fever
  • Perspiration
  • Skin
  • Generalities 

 LIBRARY REFERENCE 

  1. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine.
  2. Oxford Text Book of Medicine.
  3. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine.
  4. Text Book of Medicine by Dr. K.V.Krishnadas.
  5. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease.
  6. Samsung Wrights Applied Physiology.
  7. Text Book of Medical Physiology Guyton.
  8. Clinically oriented anatomy by Keith.L.Moore.
  9. Gray’s anatomy.
  10. Grant’s method of anatomy
  11. Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica by William.Boericke.M.D.
  12. Repertory of Homoeopathic Materia Medica by Dr.J.T.Kent
  13. Miasmatic diagnosis by Subrata Kumar Banerjee.
  14. Homoeopathic Medical Repertory by Robin Murphy.
  15. A Concise Text Book of Surgery by S.Das.
  16. A Manual of Clinical  Surgery by Dr.K.Das..
  17. Bailey and Loves Short Practice of Surgery.
  18. Special Pathology and  diagnostic therapeutic hints by
  19. G.Raue.M.D.
  20. Review of Medical Physiology by William.L.Ganong
  21. Homoeopathic Therapeutics by Samuel Lilienthal. M.D.
  22. Repertorium Homoeopathicum Syntheticum edited by Dr. Frederick Schroyens
  23. Text Book of ENT by Maqbool
  24. Pocket Manual of 1000 Redline Symptoms
  25. Learning Materia Medica and Repertory in the Quiz way.
  26. A complete Handbook for everyday practice.
  27. Short cases in Medicine.
  28. Golden Beads.
  29. Homoeopathic Treatment of Constipation.
  30. Sexual Health.
  31. Vol I – George Vithoulkas – Materia Medica Viva.
  32. Vol II – George Vithoulkas – Materia Medica Viva.
  33. Medical Examination Review.
  34. Clinical Diagnosis.
  35. Kopikkar’s Clinical Experiences.
  36. Child Psychology.
  37. Diseases of Female and Children.
  38. Patient’s guide to Homoeopaths.
  39. Gunpowder as a war remedy.
  40. Wonders of Single dose in Homoeopathy.
  41. Homoeopathic treatment of Children.
  42. Indication from Kent selection arranged from Dr.Kent.
  43. Harper’s Biochemistry.
  44. Synthetic Repertory – Vol I
  45. New remedies- Clinical Cases.
  46. Sandy Silicea by Dr.Farokh.J.Master.
  47. Golwale –Medicine for students.
  48. Perceiving the rubrics of the mind by Dr.Farokh.J.Master.
  49. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homoeopathy by Gypser.
  50. Kent’s Lesser Writings.
  51. Minton’s Uterine Therapeutics.
  52. Women and Sterility by Burnett.J.C
  53. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines By S.R.Phatak.
  54. Skin Diseases by Douglas.
  55. Homoeopathic Psychology of various Constitutional types by Philip.M.Bailey.
  56. H.C.Allen’s Keynotes
  57. Essentials of repertorisation by Dr.Shashi Kant Tiwari.
  58. B.D.Chourasia’s Human Anatomy
  59. Hutchinson’s Clinical methods.
  60. Mudaliar and Menon’s Clinical Obstetrics.
  61. Y.M.Bende’s General Pathology.
  62. Textbook of Microbiology by C.K.Ananthanarayanan and Jayaram Panicker.
  63. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy
  64. Study of Materia Medica by N.M.Choudhari.
  65. Clinical Materia Medica by E.A.Farrington.
  66. Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica by Dr.James.Tylor Kent.
  67. A Dictionary of Practical Marteria Medica by Clarke.
  68. Boennninghausen’s Therapeutic Pocket Book by T.F.Allen.
  69. Principles and Practice of Homoeopathy by M.L.Dhawale.
  70. Boenninghausen’s characteristics and Repertory by C.M.Boger.
  71. Sensations as if by H.A.Roberts.
  72. Therapeutics of Fevers by H.C.Allen.
  73. Synthetic Repertory – Vol II
  74. Synthetic Repertory – Vol III
  75. Oxford Medical Dictionary.
  76. Stedmann’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary.

MIND

ABSENT-MINDED. (See Forgetful ) : agn.,arag.,calc-sil.,cench.,dub-h.,kali-sil.,poth.,

ABUSIVE every one to : gal-ac.,

ACTIVITY unusual : coff.,

AFFECTIONATE : croc.,joan.,

AGITATION (See Excitement).

APATHY (See Indifference).

AMBITION, Loss of (See Indolence).

ANGER( See Irritability): arag.,cere-s.,calc-ar.,croc.,sabal.,uran-n.,vac.,zea-i.;

          Easily : zea-i.;

          Sympathy from : sabal.,

Violent : cere-s.,

ANGUISH :adren.,chin-s.,coff.,poth./,

Tossing about with : coff.,

ANXIETY:Agn.,acon-f.,aml-ns.,ars-h.,antip.,bacis-10.,bufo.,but-ac.,carl.,chin-a.,coca.,coch.,calc-ar.,crat.,dys.,formal.,gala.,just.,kali-sil.,lat-m.,lol.,murex.,nyct.,pip-n., pic-ac.,lycpr.,still.,sulo-ac.;mag-arct.,
Anticipation events of : dys.,

Domestic duties on : carl.,

Going upstairs agg : but-ac.,

Headache with : but-ac.,

Health about : bufo.,morg.,

Mountaineer’s in : coca.,

Nervous : antip.,dys.,

Rapid motion agg : but-ac.,

Something would happen as if : aml-ns.,

Sleep during : gala.,

Trifles about : but-ac.,

APPREHENSION (See Fear,Anxiety ).

ATTENTION (See Concentration) diversion amel pains : pip-m.,

AVERSION in general : cinnb.,

Children especially girls : raph.,

BASHFUL (See Timidity).

BEAUTIFUL everything seems : eug.,

BED tendancy to escape with : oper.,

BEWILDERED (See Confusion).

BITING : bufo.,

BRAIN fag : anh.,arum-i.,pic-ac.,zinc-p.,zinc-pic.,

BUSY constantly herself : tarent.,

CAPRICIOUSNESS : rheum.,sacch.,

CAUTIOUS : lup.,

CHEERFULNESS : Coff.,croc.,jal.,sulfon.,

Alternating with depression and weakness : sulfon.,

Day child in :jal.,

COMPANY aversion to : arag.,ars-m.,bufo.,coca.,cycl.,oxyt.,tarent.,trinit.,

Desire for : calc-ar.,gal-ac.,gaert.,pall.,skat.,thymol.,

          Amel of complaints : gaert.,

COMPLAINING (See Lamenting) : asaf.,

Troubles her of : asaf.,

COMPREHENSION easy : coff.,

Difficult : guaj.,

CONCENTRATION

Difficult : alet.,arag.,aven.,beto.,dat-a.,irid-met.,onos.,pip-n.,pitu-gl.,rham-cal.,scut.,

Thought : irid-met.,

Lack of : ichth.,skat.,

Walking in: arag.,

Dr. Jubin John  MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Department of Homoeopathy
Govt. of Kerala
Email : jubin.john@yahoo.com

Download full repertory : www.similima.com/pdf/repertory-small-remedies.pdf

neck pain

Effectiveness of Homoeopathy in cervical spondylosis radiculopathy

neck painEffectiveness of Homoeopathy in the management of cervical spondylosis presenting with cervical radiculopathy

Dr. Smitha Madhavan

Introduction
Pain in neck and its associated complication is a regular feature to any orthopedic clinic4. Neck pain is commonly arises from diseases of the cervical spine and soft tissues of the neck.5. Degenerative changes of the cervical spine are one among the important causes of neck pain4. Key in 1838 probably gave the first description of a spondylotic bar.23

“SPONDYLO” is a Greek word meaning vertebra and   spondylosis generally mean changes in the vertebral joint characterized by increasing degeneration of the intervertebral disc with subsequent changes in the bones and soft tissues12.  About 50% of people over age 50experience neck pain and stiffness due to cervical spondylosis. Of these people, 25- 40% has at least one episode of cervical radiculopathy.12 Degenerative changes develop in the vertebral column with advancing age16. So these changes are found almost universally in some degree in persons over 50 years of age14.

The cervical spine is particularly susceptible to degenerative problems because of its large range of motion and its somewhat complex anatomy9. 1t is also likely that, subjects who develop cervical spondylosis have relatively narrower spinal canals16.

Neck pain arising from the cervical spine is typically precipitated by neck movements and may be accompanied by focal spine tenderness and limitation of motion. Cervical spine trauma, disk disease, or spondylosis may be asymptomatic or painful and can produce a myelopathy, radiculopathy, or both. The nerve roots most commonly affected are C7 and C6.5 Pain may be neurogenic when the spinal cord or nerve roots are compressed.7It is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in patients older than 55 years.19

Conservative treatment results in resolution of symptoms in great majority of patients with radiculopathy, but a few require surgery in the form of foraminotomy or disc excision.15

As radiculopathy is found to be a distressing disease and no scientific study and statistical analysis is known to be conducted  with Homoeopathic medicines for the management of this disease. So I  decided to take over a research study on the topic “Effectiveness of Homoeopathic medicines in the management of cervical spondylosis presenting with radiculopathy”  .

Aim
To study the effectiveness of Homoeopathic medicines in the management of cervical spondylosis presenting with radiculopathy.

Inference
The efficacy of Homoeopathic medicines in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis is evident by the reduction in the score after 6 months of treatment. Therefore the treatment is effective.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
In the present study 21 patients who attended OPD of Materia Medica of Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Calicut from June 2004 – to Sept 2005 were included. These patients belonged to various socio-economic statuses and of age group between 30-70 years. The results of the study were evaluated using statistical principles.

Maximum age group affected is between 31 – 40 years and the incidence more in middle class.  Psora was found to be the miasm in the background.

In this study the efficacy of homoeopathic treatment in cervical spondylosis presenting with radiculopathy was evaluated. Assessment was based on the changes in score noted before and after treatment using the cervical radiculopathy assessment tool.

After statistical analysis, the calculated value was 12.91 which were well above the tabled t value. Thus, this study provides an evidence to say that homoeopathic medicines are effective in managing this condition.

Medicinal management was found to be very much effective. Sulphur and Pulsatilla was found effective in 4 (19.04%) cases each. Calcarea carb in 3 (14.28%), Lachesis and Lycopodium  in 2 (9.52%) cases each, Silicea, Rhus tox, Lac caninum, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus and Bryonia was found effective in 1 (4.76%) case each. But Bryonia gave only amelioration of pain and there was no relief to the other presented features of the same patient and the same was the case with phosphorus also. 

CONCLUSION
The following salient conclusions have been drawn from the present study after summarizing its findings.

  1. Homoeopathic medicines are effective in the management of cervical spondylosis presenting with radiculopathy
  2. Age group mostly affected is between 31 – 40 years.
  3. Incidence of the disease is more in middle class
  4. Psora is the predominant miasm in the background.

Dr. Smitha Madhavan   B.H.M.S, MD(Hom)
Department of Organon Govt. Homeopathic Medical College.
Calicut.10  Kerala. India
Email : drsmithamadhavan@gmail.com

Download full paper : www.similima.com/pdf/cervical-spondylosis-homeopathy.pdf

MP Government to launch Homeopathy Malaria Programme

Madhya Pradesh government to launch campaign to prevent malaria by Homeopathy in Sidhi district from June 15

BHOPAL: The AYUSH Department of Madhya Pradesh government is launching a widespread campaign from June 15 with the objective of preventing recurrence of malaria outbreak like last year in Sidhi district.

Under the campaign launched by the state government, homoeopathic medicines will be administered door-to-door. The decision to distribute homeopathic was taken as it has provided effective in prevention of malaria.

Anganwadi and ASHA workers will administer doze of the medicines to about 60 thousand families in all the 244 villages of Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh.

The campaign will benefit around 2.75 lakh population of the district. Three dozes of the medicine will be administered on three days which is to start from June 15. The other dates for distributing medicin doze will be June 22 and 29.

One worker has been entrusted with the responsibility in each village. According to homoeopathy experts, the medicine is very effective in prevention of malaria. Besides, it has no side effects. Anyone can take the doze distributed by the state government under the campaign.

Villagers in the Sidhi district have been urged to take interest in taking this medicine’s doze to avoid any outbreak of malaria like it was happened in 2011.

Source : http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/Madhya-Pradesh-government-to-launch-campaign-to-prevent-malaria-in-Sidhi-district-from-June-15/articleshow/14132469.cms

Senior Research Fellow Homeopathy-CCRH Gorakhpur & Port Blair

Walk-in-Interviews for the engagement of the following positions purely on contract basis on viral Encephalitis at B.R.D. Medical College (Homoeopathy), (An Extension Unit of HDRI, Lucknow), Room No. ( 9 & 10, First Floor (Private Ward), Gorakhpur

The Clinical Trial on Leptospirosis at CHC Diglipur, Port Blair (an extension Unit of Clinical Research Unit (Homoeopathy), M.B.31, M.G. Road,Middle Point, Port blair-744101)

1. Clinical Trial Unit (Homoeopathy), (An Extension Unit of HDRI, Lucknow), Room No. ( 9& 10,First Floor (Private Ward) B.R.D. MEDICAL COLLEGE, GORAKHPUR.

Name of the Post : Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy)

Number of vacancy : 3

Salary :  Rs.20,000/- +HRA per month

Period : Initially for 06 months, likely to be extended.

Qualification
Essential: B.H.M.S or equivalent qualification recognized by Central Council of Homoeopathy.

Desirable qualification and experience:
a) PG in Homoeopathy recognized by CCH

b) Research Experience in any Govt. Organization or reputed institution.

c) Knowledge in Computer application.

Age: Maximum 35 years as on the date of Advertisement.

Place of posting: Extension Unit of HDRI, Lucknow at B.R.D. Medical College, Gorakhpur

Place of walk-in- Interview: Homoeopathic Drug Research Institute, National Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, 1, Viraj Khund, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow- 226010, UP

Date: 22.6.2012

Time: 10.00 a.m.

2. Clinical Research Unit (Homoeoopathy), M.B.31, M.G. ROAD, MIDDLE POINT, PORT BLAIR-744101.

Name of the Post : Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy) 

Number of vacancy : 4

Salary :  Rs.20,000/- +HRA per month

Period : Initially for 06 months, likely to be extended.

Essential qualification: B.H.M.S or equivalent qualification recognized by Central Council of Homoeopathy.

Desirable qualification and experience:
a) PG in Homoeopathy recognized by CCH
b) Research Experience in any Govt. Organization or reputed institution.
c) Knowledge in Computer application.

Age: Maximum 35 years as on the date of Advertisement.

Place of posting:  C.H.C., Diglipur, Port Blair

Place of walk-in- Interview:  Clinical Research Unit (H), M.B.31, M.G. Road, Middle point .Port Blair- 744101.

Date: 09.07.2012

Time: 10.00 a.m.

3. Homeopathic Pharmacist
Vacancy : 01 post

Salary : Rs.8,000/- p.m. (consolidated)

Period : Initially for 06 months, this may be extended on need basis.

Essential:

  1. Matriculation or equivalent.
  2. Certificate of Pharmacy of minimum of 2 years duration from a recognized Institution.
  3. 2 years’ experience preferably in dispensaries/hospital of Homoeopathy of repute

 Place of walk-in- Interview:

Clinical Research Unit (H), M.B.31, M.G. Road, Middle point, Port Blair- 744101.

Date: 10.07.2012

Time: 10.00 a.m.

General Conditions:

1. The posts are tenure/project-based.

2. The eligibility of candidate will be determined as on the date of advertisement.

3. The candidate who fulfills the requirements may attend the walk-in-Interview along with a application on plain paper with self attested photocopies of original certificates of qualification,experience, mark sheets, birth certificate and cast certificate, passport size photograph.

4. The candidate, if employed with any Autonomous/Govt. or private sector, may bring NOC from their employer at the time of interview.

5. No TA/DA will be paid for attending the interview.

6. Canvassing of any kind will lead to disqualification of the concerned candidate.

7. Although the place of posting is indicated against each post, however, if required, they may be transferred to other places.

8. The competent authority reserves the right to postpone/cancel the recruitment exercise for any/all posts in any stage.

9. In case of large number of candidates reporting for interview, the Director General, CCRH reserves the right to shortlist candidates by adopting appropriate criteria.

10. The selected candidate shall have no claim for appointment on regular basis by virtue of being appointed on contractual basis.

For more details : www.similima.com/pdf/ccrh-ghorakpur-port-blair-2012.pdf

Source : http://www.ccrhindia.org/advt_gorakhpur_portblair.pdf

doctors

Senior Research Fellow Homeopathy-CCRH Gorakhpur & Port Blair

doctorsWalk-in-Interviews for the engagement of the following positions purely on contract basis on viral Encephalitis at B.R.D. Medical College (Homoeopathy), (An Extension Unit of HDRI, Lucknow), Room No. ( 9 & 10, First Floor (Private Ward), Gorakhpur

The Clinical Trial on Leptospirosis at CHC Diglipur, Port Blair (an extension Unit of Clinical Research Unit (Homoeopathy), M.B.31, M.G. Road,Middle Point, Port blair-744101)

1. Clinical Trial Unit (Homoeopathy), (An Extension Unit of HDRI, Lucknow), Room No. ( 9& 10,First Floor (Private Ward) B.R.D. MEDICAL COLLEGE, GORAKHPUR.

Name of the Post : Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy)

Number of vacancy : 3

Salary :  Rs.20,000/- +HRA per month

Period : Initially for 06 months, likely to be extended.

Qualification
Essential: B.H.M.S or equivalent qualification recognized by Central Council of Homoeopathy.

Desirable qualification and experience:
a) PG in Homoeopathy recognized by CCH

b) Research Experience in any Govt. Organization or reputed institution.

c) Knowledge in Computer application.

Age: Maximum 35 years as on the date of Advertisement.

Place of posting: Extension Unit of HDRI, Lucknow at B.R.D. Medical College, Gorakhpur

Place of walk-in- Interview: Homoeopathic Drug Research Institute, National Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, 1, Viraj Khund, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow- 226010, UP

Date: 22.6.2012

Time: 10.00 a.m.

2. Clinical Research Unit (Homoeoopathy), M.B.31, M.G. ROAD, MIDDLE POINT, PORT BLAIR-744101.

Name of the Post : Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy) 

Number of vacancy : 4

Salary :  Rs.20,000/- +HRA per month

Period : Initially for 06 months, likely to be extended.

Essential qualification: B.H.M.S or equivalent qualification recognized by Central Council of Homoeopathy.

Desirable qualification and experience:
a) PG in Homoeopathy recognized by CCH
b) Research Experience in any Govt. Organization or reputed institution.
c) Knowledge in Computer application.

Age: Maximum 35 years as on the date of Advertisement.

Place of posting:  C.H.C., Diglipur, Port Blair

Place of walk-in- Interview:  Clinical Research Unit (H), M.B.31, M.G. Road, Middle point .Port Blair- 744101.

Date: 09.07.2012

Time: 10.00 a.m.

3. Homeopathic Pharmacist
Vacancy : 01 post

Salary : Rs.8,000/- p.m. (consolidated)

Period : Initially for 06 months, this may be extended on need basis.

Essential:

  1. Matriculation or equivalent.
  2. Certificate of Pharmacy of minimum of 2 years duration from a recognized Institution.
  3. 2 years’ experience preferably in dispensaries/hospital of Homoeopathy of repute

 Place of walk-in- Interview:

Clinical Research Unit (H), M.B.31, M.G. Road, Middle point, Port Blair- 744101.

Date: 10.07.2012

Time: 10.00 a.m.

General Conditions:

1. The posts are tenure/project-based.

2. The eligibility of candidate will be determined as on the date of advertisement.

3. The candidate who fulfills the requirements may attend the walk-in-Interview along with a application on plain paper with self attested photocopies of original certificates of qualification,experience, mark sheets, birth certificate and cast certificate, passport size photograph.

4. The candidate, if employed with any Autonomous/Govt. or private sector, may bring NOC from their employer at the time of interview.

5. No TA/DA will be paid for attending the interview.

6. Canvassing of any kind will lead to disqualification of the concerned candidate.

7. Although the place of posting is indicated against each post, however, if required, they may be transferred to other places.

8. The competent authority reserves the right to postpone/cancel the recruitment exercise for any/all posts in any stage.

9. In case of large number of candidates reporting for interview, the Director General, CCRH reserves the right to shortlist candidates by adopting appropriate criteria.

10. The selected candidate shall have no claim for appointment on regular basis by virtue of being appointed on contractual basis.

For more details : www.similima.com/pdf/ccrh-ghorakpur-port-blair-2012.pdf

Source : http://www.ccrhindia.org/advt_gorakhpur_portblair.pdf

Senior Research Fellow Vacancy CCRH Arunachal Pradesh

Clinical Research Unit for Homoeopathy – Under Central Council For Research In Homoeopathy
(An Autonomous Body of Deptt. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India)

Vivek Vihar, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh-791 113

Walk-in-Interview for one post of Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy) (General) who  fulfills the following educational qualifications and experience will be held

At Vivek Vihar, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh-791 113

At 10 A.M

On 23rd June, 2012

Qualification:
Essential: BHMS or equivalent qualification recognized by Central Council of Homoeopathy.

Desirable: i) P.G. in Homoeopathy recognized by Central Council of Homoeopathy.
ii) Knowledge in computer applications

Experience: Research experience in any Govt. organization or reputed Institution.

Age limit: Maximum 35 years as on the date of advertisement.

Place of posting: Clinical Research Unit for Homoeopathy, Itanagar but transferable any where in India.

Duration: Initially for a period of One year, but likely to be extended – subject to performance.

Emoluments: Rs. 20,000/-+ HRA per month as admissible under Rules.

General conditions:

  • The eligibility of candidate will be determined as on date of advertisement.
  • The candidate who fulfills the requirements may attend the Walk-in-Interview along with an
  • Application on a plain paper along with self attested photocopies of certificates of qualifications, experience, mark sheets birth certificates, caste certificates and recent pass portsize photograph, etc.
  • The candidates, if employed with any Autonomous/Govt. or private sector may bring “NOC” from their employer at the time of interview.
  • The competent authority reserves the right to postpone/cancel the recruitment/Walk-in-
  • Interview process for the post at any stage.
  • No TA/DA will be admissible for attending Walk-in-Interview.
  • Canvassing in any form or on behalf of a candidate will be a disqualification. 

For more details : www.similima.com/pdf/ccrh-arunachal-2012.pdf

Source : http://www.ccrhindia.org/srf_itanagar.pdf

DOCTOR

How Homeopaths effectively managed fever epidemics in Kerala

DOCTORDr Mansoor Ali

Study reports and facts
In the last 3 – 5  years, homeopathic medicines were found to be more effective both as a preventive and curative in epidemic fevers of Kerala – like viral fever, chikungunya, dengue, hepatitis etc.

Many of the Govt. homeopathic hospitals and private clinics are packed with patients suffering with various viral fevers.

Majority of the Kerala population now depending mainly on homeopathic medicines for PVF Squeal – post viral fever arthritis  and related symptoms and disabilities.

Homeopathy medicine offers effective cure with in the shortest time without any side effects comparing to other systems of medicine in viral fevers.

At Govt. Homeopathic Medical Colleges separate  OP and  IP departments started for treating Viral fever for children, male and female with required lab facilities, x-ray, ECG, USG etc..A separate PVF Squeal ward also started with Physiotherapy Unit.

All the OPD have separate facility for fever patients. Doctors are available round the clock.

Preventive medicine were distributed to more than 1.5 lakh people.

If chikungunya caused many deaths in Kerala, which it did not in most other places, the state had the unique opportunity to investigate the biology of the disease and reasons for death to contribute to medical science.
Obviously, medical science in Kerala is not prepared to investigate anything new.

Why should every ruling party go into a defensive mode when it is the collective problem of all political parties?
Why can’t all parties discuss this and make diseases the common enemy?
Why more deaths in Kerala compared to other states?
Was it mainly due to over medication at allopathic hospital?
Is homeopathy is effective as a preventive & curative?
Was the current upsurge of fever the unusual clustering of several diseases or was there a single cause for the outbreak?

Was there any hidden agenda by pharmaceuticals & media behind this panic?

If you would like to know How Homeopaths effectively managed fever epidemic in Kerala?
Read the following study reports and articles

Homeopathic Prophylaxis – methods and techniques
Link : http://www.homeobook.com/ppt/homeo-prophylaxis-methods-techniques.pdf

Why Viral Fever Epidemics  more in Kerala?
www.homeobook.com/why-viral-fever-epidemics-are-more-in-kerala

Effective Homoeopathic Management of viral fever epidemics
www.homeobook.com/effective-homoeopathic-management-of-viral-fever-epidemics

Study report on protective efficacy of Homeopathy preventive medicine
www.homeobook.com/pdf/chikungunya-kerala-report.pdf

Rapid Action Epidemic Control Cell – Homoeopathy
www.similima.com/ppt/general/rapid-action-homeopathy.pdf

Evidences…Facts Homeopathy in Chikungunya
www.similima.com/ppt/gynaecology/research-healthymother-child.pdf

A Study on the Prophylactic Efficacy of Homoeopathic Preventive Medicine Against Chikungunya Fever
www.homeobook.com/pdf/efficacy-chiunguna-kerala.pdf

Epidemic Case Taking
www.similima.com/ppt/communitymedicine/epidemic-case-taking.pdf

Get ready to Manage Monsoon Diseases with Homeopathy
http://www.homeobook.com/get-ready-to-manage-monsoon-diseases-with-homeopathy

Swine Flu – The Real Facts and Homoeopathy Perspective
http://www.homeobook.com/swine-flu-the-real-facts-and-homoeopathy-perspective

The Secret Behind Homoeopathy Prophylaxis
http://www.homeobook.com/the-secret-behind-homoeopathy-prophylaxis

Acute gastroenteritis – Homeopathic perspectives
http://www.homeobook.com/acute-gastroenteritis-homeopathic-perspectives

Efficacy of Homoeopathic Prophylaxis in Chikungunya – Managlore Study
www.homeobook.com/efficacy-of-homoeopathic-prophylaxis-in-chikungunya 

Emerging Infections in Kerala
www.similima.com/ppt/communitymedicine/communicable-disease-kerala.pdf

Monsoon Disease – How to conduct an awareness Effectively & lively
www.homeobook.com/monsoon-disease-how-to-conduct-awareness-effectively

CHIKUNGUNYA – Effective Homeopathic Prevention and Management
http://www.homeobook.com/chikungunya-homeopathic-prevention-and-management

Effective management & Homoeopathy medicines for swine Flu
www.homeobook.com/effective-management-homoeopathy-medicines-for-swine-flu 

Hidden Truth- SWINE FLU.
www.homeobook.com/hidden-truth-swine-flu 

Over-Prescription Turning Swine Flu Resistant to Tamiflu
www.homeobook.com/over-prescription-turning-swine-flu-resistant-to-tamiflu 

Effective Homeopathic Treatment of swine flu
www.homeobook.com/effective-homeopathic-treatment-of-swine-flu 

Where is the study on effect of Tamiflu against Swine Flu?
www.homeobook.com/where-is-the-study-on-effect-of-tamiflu-against-swine-flu 

Why Indians are so panic on Swine Flu?
www.homeobook.com/why-indians-are-so-panic-on-swine-flu 

Why Swine Flu and What we should be doing in India?
www.homeobook.com/why-swine-flu-and-what-we-should-be-doing-in-india 

Infectious diseases and the colonised mind
www.homeobook.com/infectious-diseases-and-the-colonised-mind

mosquito

CHIKUNGUNYA – Homeopathic Prevention and Management

mosquitoDr Sunila  BHMS, MD(Hom)
Email : babuabu@gmail.com

Article presented by the author in the scientific seminar conducted by Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College. Calicut on 18.09.06

The Chikungunya epidemic currently attacked millions of people in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhrapradesh and Kerala. Chikungunya is not considered to be fatal. However, in 2005-2006, 200 deaths have been associated with chikungunya on Réunion Island and a widespread outbreak in Southern India (especially in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Kerala). Chikungunya virus is highly infective and disabling but is not transmissible between people.( recent researches reported tramission from mother to foetus)

French researchers claims that viral strains isolated from the Reunion and the Seychelles clearly show a mutation from its East AND Central African origin, the reason for the widespread outbreak associated with it. There has been a specific amino acid mutation in EI gene of the virus making it more deadly.

Chikungunya (also known as Chicken Guinea) is a relatively rare form of viral fever resembling dengue fever; caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes Albopictus (Tiger mosquito). The name is derived from the Makonde word meaning “that which bends up” in reference to the stooped posture developed as a result of the arthritic symptoms of the disease.

Epidemiology
Chikungunya was first described in Tanzania, Africa in 1952 following an outbreak on the Makonde plateau. The disease was first described by Marion Robinson and W.H.R. Lumsden. An outbreak of chikungunya was discovered in Port Klang in Malaysia in 1999 affecting 27 people. In February 2005, an outbreak was recorded on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean. In Mauritius, 3,500 islanders have been hit in 2005. There have also been cases in Madagascar, Mayotte and the Seychelles.

In 2006, there was a big outbreak in the Andhra Pradesh state in India. Nearly 200,000 people were affected by this disease. Some deaths have been reported but it was thought to be due mainly to the inappropriate use of antibiotics and anti inflammatory tablets. As this virus can cause thrombocytopenia, injudicious use of these drugs can cause erosions in the gastric epithelium leading to upper GI bleeding (due to thrombocytopenia). According to the National Institute of Virology, Pune out of362 samples from Kadappa district in Andhrapradesh state 139 were found positive for chikungunya.

Over 2000 cases of chikungunya fever were reported from Maharashtra state, in March 2006. In Orissa state 5000 cases of were reported in February 2006. In Bangalore, there was an outbreak of Chikungunya in May 2006. In Tamilnadu, 20,000 cases were reported in June 2006. Earlier it was found spreading mostly in outskirts of Bangalore, but now it has started spreading in the city also.Over 800000lakh cvases were reported from Karnataka state. Over 20000 cases were reported from Thiruvananthapuram, Aleppey, Kottayam, Ernakulam, Palakkad, Malappuram and Kozhikkode district in Kerala state. 10 deaths have been reported from Aleppy district. 800 cases were reported from Cherthala of Aleppy district.300 cases were reported from Kollam district.

National Institute of Virology in Pune says that the strain in India this tie is different from what was found during 1963(the first outbreak was recorded in 1963 in Calcutta) and 1974 epidemic and 98% similar to the one found in Reunion. The NIV says the new outbreak is from the African Genotype introduced to India 5yrs back.  More seropositivity is found among the age group between 51- 55 years.

Chikungunya fever is caused by Chikugunya virus. They are spherical enveloped virions, 60 nm diameters and have single stranded positive sense RNA genome.

Characteristics of CHIKUNGUNYA virus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Togaviridae
Genus: Alphavirus
Species: Chikungunya virus

Chikungunya virus is closely related to O’nyong’nyong virus. O’nyong’nyong virus caused a major epidemic of arthritis and rash involving at least 2 million people in Eastern and Central Africa in 1960s. After its mysterious emergence the virus virtually disappeared leaving only occasional evidence of its presence in Kenya.

The chikungunya virus is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person infected with the chikungunya virus. Monkeys, and possibly other wild animals, may also serve as reservoirs of the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other humans when they bite.

Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito), a household container breeder and aggressive daytime bitter which is attracted to humans, is the primary vector of chikungunya virus to humans. Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) may also play a role in human transmission is Asia, and various forest-dwelling mosquito species in Africa have been found to be infected with the virus.

Aedes breeds in artificial accumulations of water. It needs only 2ml of water for breeding. It lays eggs singly. They do not fly over long distance, usually less than 100 metres. Eggs can resist desiccation for upto 1year. The eggs will hatch when flooded by deoxygenated water.Aedes can spread the infection to next generation.

Aedes is the first proved vector of a virus disease- Yellow fever. Human blood is preferred over other animals with ankles as a favourite bite area.

Symptoms
After an incubation period of 3-12 days there is a sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including a severe headache, chills, fever (>40°C, 104°F), joint pain, backache, nausea, vomiting, petechial or maculopapular rash usually involving the limbs and trunks. Migratory polyarthritis mainly affects the small joints of the hands, wrists, ankles and feet with lesser involvement of the larger joints. Joints of the extremities in particular become swollen and painful to the touch. Haemorrhage is rare. There can also be headache, conjunctival infection and slight photophobia.Redness of eyes may be the first symptom. There may be difficulty in looking upwards

In the present epidemic in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, high fever and crippling joint pain is the prevalent complaint. Fever typically lasts for two days and abruptly comes down. The disease has a biphasic course also. Following 1-6 days of fever, the temperature returns to normal for 1-3 days and then there is a second period of fever for a few days. In the second phase of illness 80 % of people develop maculopapular rash on the trunk and extensor surfaces of the limbs. After 6 to 10 days patients recover completely. However joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days. Rarely arthralgia and morning stiffness may persist for months.

However joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days.

Dermatological manifestations observed in a recent outbreak of Chikungunya fever are as follows:

  • Maculopapular rash like ulcers over scrotum, crural areas and axilla.
  • Nasal blotchy erythema
  • Freckle-like pigmentation over centro-facial area
  • Flagellate pigmentation on face and extremities
  • Lichenoid eruption and hyperpigmentation in photodistributed areas
  • Multiple aphthous ulcers
  • Lympoedema
  • Multiple ecchymotic spots (Children)
  • Vesiculobullous lesions (infants)
  • Subungual haemorrhage.

Investigations

  • A few patients develop Leucopenia.
  • Elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferace (AST) and C-reactive protein
  • Mildly decreased platelet counts.

Diagnosis
1.Isolation of the virus from blood. It is possible in the first 4-5 days of illness.  Sudden severe headache, chills, fever, joint and muscle pain are the commonest symptoms. The diagnostic tests include detection of antigens or antibodies in the blood, using ELISA (or EIA – enzyme immunoassay) or molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibodies detected by serological assays like ELISA require an IgM capture assay to distinguish it from dengue fever

Differential Diagnosis
1. Dengue Fever
Of all the arthropod- borne viral diseases, Dengue fever is the most common. This infection may be asymptomatic or may lead to
1. Classical Dengue Fever
2 .Dengue Haemorrhagic fever without shock
3. Dengue Haemorrhagic fever with shock

The main vector is Aedes aegypti mosquito. The illness is characterised by a incubation period of 3 to 10 days. The onset is sudden with chills and high fever, intense headache, muscle and joint pains which prevent all movement. Within 24 hrs retro-orbital pain and photophobia develops. Other symptoms include extreme weakness, anorexia, constipation, colicky pain and abdominal tenderness. Fever is typically but not inevitably followed by a remission of a few hrs to2 days. The rash may be diffuse flushing, mottling, or fleeting pin point eruptions on face, neck and chest during the first half of the febrile period and a conspicuous rash that may be maculopapular or scarlatiform on 3rd or 4th day. Fever lasts for about 5 days.

Dengue haemorrhagic fever is confined exclusively to children less than 15 yrs of age. There may be plasma leakage and abnormal haemostasis, as manifested by a rising haematocrit value and moderate to marked thrombocytopenia.The fever may rise again producing a saddle-back fever curve. There may be generalised lymphadenopathy.

In dengue shock syndrome shock is present along with all the above criteria.

2. Yellow fever
It is a zoonotic disease affecting principally monkeys and other vertebrates. It shares clinical features of dengue fever but is characterised by more severe hepatic and renal involvement.. So death is more common in yellow fever than chikungunya.

3. Other viral fevers
Many of the viruses produce encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever or arthritis in various combinations. There may be high fever with backache and joint pain. Clinical features depend upon the type of virus causing infection.

a. SINDBIS virus infection: Transmitted among birds by mosquitoes. The disease begins with rash and arthralgia. Constitutional symptoms are not marked and fever is modest or lacking altogether.

b. MAYARO fever: Transmitted by Haemagogus mosquitoes. It causes a frequently endemic or epidemic infection of humans and appears to produce a syndrome resembling Chikungunya.

c. Epidemic Polyarthritis (ROSS RIVER virus infection): Constitutional symptoms are absent in many cases. Many patients are incapacitated by joint involvement.

d. Influenza: It is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with influenza virus. Respiratory tract infection is accompanied by systemic signs and symptoms such as fever, headache and myalgia

4. Eruptive fevers like measles and German measles

5.West Nile Fever: West Nile Virus was recovered from the blood of a fever patient in Uganda in 1937. This virus is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes among wild birds. Humans are incidental hosts. Human infections are usually asymptomatic. Disease may present as a dengue like febrile illness with or without rash. Headache, myalgia, anorexia, nausea, epigastric pain, diarrhoea, lymphadenopathy may accompany the fever which lasts up to a week. The rash is maculopapular and non pruritic; unlike dengue. In its severe form it may cause aseptic meningitis or encephalitis especially in elder people and children. Rare complications include myocarditis, hepatits and pancreatitis.

6.Japanese Encephalitis: First occurred in Japan as asevere epidemic in 1924. Japanese Encephalitis virus has been isolated from the culex mosquitoes and mansonia. Onset is rapid. Encephalomyelitis developes within 2-4 days. There may be fever, headache, altered sensorium, coma, convulsions, neck rigidity, C S F pleocytosis etc

Complications

  • Super added infection with bacteria
  • Meningo encephalitis
  • Death occurs in immunocomprised patients.
  • Myocarditis
  • Pneumonias

Complications were observed due to injudicious application of certain anti-inflammatory drugs (as reported by www.chikungunya.co.uk)

Prevention
The best way to avoid CHIKV infection is to prevent mosquito bites.
There is no vaccine or preventive drug except homoeopathic medicines. Preventive tips are similar to those for dengue or West Nile virus:

  • Use insect repellent.
  • Wear long sleeves and pants.
  • Have secure screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out.
  • Get rid of mosquito breeding sites by emptying standing water from flower pots, buckets and barrels. Change the water in pet dishes. Drill holes in tire swings so water drains out. Keep children’s wading pools empty and on their sides when they aren’t being used.
  • Additionally, a person with chikungunya fever or dengue should limit their exposure to mosquito bites in order to avoid further spreading the infection. The person should stay indoors or under a mosquito net.       Mix coconut oil and neem oil and external application of it will prevent mosquito bite.

Immunity
One attack confers life long immunity.

Homoeopathic Prophylaxis
As per the guidelines laid down by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in the Organon a Genus epidemics has to be found out in the specific area and it could be the best to be found out in the specific area and it could be the best prophylactic remedy.

Many homeopaths consider Eupatorium perfoliatum as a preventive medicine for Chikungunya. The most commonly suggested potency as prophylaxis is 200C of Eupatorium perfoliatum. As per the reports the homoeopathic remedies useful for propylaxis are – Eupatorium Perfoliatum, Gelsemium, Rhustox, Bryonia Alba, Ars alb ,Aconite and Polyporus.

The Karnataka Board of Homoeopathic System of medicine announced Rhustox 200 & Pyrogen 200 as the Genus Epidemicus for Chikungunya cases. In Tamil Nadu Homoeopathic physicians distributed Rhustox and Eupatorium for more than 4000 persons as a preventive prescription.in Andhrapradesh Government distributed medicine to 2 Lakh people.

Treatment
Chikungunya fever is usually self-limiting and will resolve with time. Symptomatic treatment is recommended after excluding other more dangerous diseases. There is no vaccine currently available for Chikungunya. Supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms.

Homoeopathic Treatment
Aphorism 100-102 is dealing with the treatment of epidemic diseases. According to Dr.Hahnemann, a carefully observing physician can arrive so nearly at knowledge of the true state of the epidemic from the examination of even the first and second patients and can even find a suitable homoeopathic remedy for it. Dr. Hahnemann recommends investigating each epidemic disease as a new and unknown case and selecting medicine according to its symptom similarity.

Homoeopathy has a very good scope in the treatment of chikungunya. Initially indicated acute remedies may give relief which may be followed by constitutional remedy in order to get rid of post fever arthralgia

Homeopathy offers many medicines which may help in Chikungunya. These include medicines like Eupatorium-perf, Pyroginum, Rhus-tox, Cedron, Influenzinum, China, Arnica, Belladona, Bryonia, Nux vomica, Sulphur etc. Eupatorium Perfoliatum Q (tincture, 3 to 5 drop dose) will remove the debilitating joint pains and cut short the intensity and duration of the disease. Other potencies may be used according to the intensity of the case. In Andhrapradesh medicines such as Eupatorium200 & Belladonna has cured number of cases.

Important rubrics that can be selected based on symptom totality (Synthesis Repertory)

1. FEVER CHILLINESS with
2. FEVER ERUPTIVE fevers
3. EXTREMITIES PAIN fever during
4. EXTREMITIIES PAIN joints
5. GENERALS SWELLING joints of
6. BACK PAIN fever during
7. HEAD PAIN heat during
8. STOMACH NA– USEA fever
9. STOMACH VOMITING heat during
10. GENERALS WEAKNESS fever during

Medicines:
Nux vomica – 19/8
Natrum mur – 17/9
Bryonia – 16/7
Eup. Per – 15/6
Pulsatilla – 14/7
Rhustox – 11/5

Predominant Miasm: Psora

Indications of some important Homoeopathic remedies:
1. Eupatorium perfoliatium: – Pain in the limbs and muscles with fever. There may be severe bone pain. Swelling of ankles and feet. Aching pain in bones of extremities with soreness of flesh.great thirst, perspiration relieves all symptoms except head ache.200 potency is found to be more effective. This medicine is highly effective in post fever arthralgia (Mother tincture 5 drops tds for 3-5 days)

2. Gelsemium: – associated with severe headache and coryza. Thirstlessness, slow pulse, muscular pains. There may be drowsiness, dullness and dizziness. < In damp weather.

3. Rhustox: – Fever with polyarthritis and maculopapular rashes. Pain and stiffness in joints. < first motion. Rheumatism in cold seasons. Restlessness. < Cold. Wet, Rainy weather.200 potency is most effective

4. Bryonia: – Fever with aching in every muscle. Dry mouth with excessive thirst, knees stiff and painful. Joints red, swollen, and hot with stitching and tearing pain. < by motion; better rest. Bursting, splitting headache as if everything would be pressed out.

5. Ars Alb: – Restlessness and anxiety during fever, severe weakness. Unquenchable thirst, nausea and vomiting. Fever< mid day or midnight.

6. Pulsatilla:- Fever with chilliness,thirstlessness and wandering joint pains

7. China: – Pain in the limbs and joints as if sprained. < slight touch.
> Hard pressure. Swollen joints. Debilitating night sweats.

8. Belladona: High fever with burning heat. No thirst with fever. Joints swollen, red, shining with red streaks radiating. Heat, redness, throbbing and burning.

9. Pyrogen: Septic fevers, temperature rises rapidly. Great heat with profuse hot sweat. But sweating does not cause a fall in temperature, aching in limb and bones.

10. Nux vomica: fever with chilliness, nausea vomiting, ineffectual urging for stool.

11. Sulphur: used as an intercurrent.

Recently a homoeopathic doctor claims that he will cure chikungunya with a single dose of  Polyporus Pinicoloa 1000x

News From Sri Lanka
Ledum Pal
It is specific for the stings of insects and relates closely to the migrating arthralgia, chills, headache etc which are manifesting symptoms of dengue/chikungunya.

Prophylaxis administered in Sri Lanka is as follows:
01 dose (01 drop or 3 globules) – LED PAL 200 once a week (first day)
03 doses (01 drop or 3 globules) – EUP PERF 30 tid (first day)
01 dose (01 drop or 3 globules) – POLYPORUS PINICOLA/OFFICINALIS 200 once a week (second day)
01 dose (01 drop or 3 globules) – PYROGENIUM 200 once a week (second day)
Source : Dr Usuf Email : drusuf@eureka.lk

REFERENCES:
1. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine.
2. Homoeo Times – International Journal on clinical evidence
3. Vital Informer – Monthly Medical News Letter
4. Homoeopathic Materia Medica and Repertory by W.Boericke.

Internet:
1. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikungunya
2. www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Pathogens/CHIK.html
3. www.phacaspc.gc.ca/msdsftss/msds172e.html
4. www.hpathy.com
5. www.chikungunya.co.uk

Homoeo Express Homeopathy Conference at Indore

On dated 8th July 2012

At Indore (M.P)

The extract of conference are:
1) To discuss the development of co-operative research / teaching
2) Role of homoeopathic medicine and nano technology
3) Homoeopathic management in life threatening diseases and modern era.
4) Scope of homoeopathic medicines in acute complaints with emphasis on its limitations.

Renowned speakers from all over India have been invited to participate in this important event which will be intellectually stimulating for the participating students and delegates.

Speakers :

  • Dr. Subhas Singh                  (Kolkata)
  • Dr. Tanveer Hussain            (Punjab)
  • Dr. Saurabh Kumar             (Indore)
  • Dr. Gaurav Kacker              (Ujjain)
  • Dr. Ajay Yadav                     (Mumbai)
  • Dr.G.D.Patil                            (Jabalpur)
  • Dr.Pankaj Srivastava           (U.P)

Guest of Honour

  • Dr.Ramjee Singh (President CCH)
  • Dr.Aayesha Ali (Registrar M.P state Homeopathy council)
  • Dr.Anurudh Verma (Member CCH U.P)

The programme will include invited talks, oral presentations of the aforesaid extracts. On this occasion we are going to publish the “ souvenier cum extract volume “ incorporating articles contributed by scholars working in this field as well as allied fields.

Registration Fee: Just 250/- Before 30th June
Just 500/- 1st July Onwards

For more info. Contact: Dr.Saurabh Kumar (09755555008)