Insecta are invertebrate animals – without back bone – and are included in arthropods. Arthropoda is the largest, most dominant group and includes about 80% of known animal species. They are capable of flying.
Entomology refers to study of insects. Insects are grouped in the kingdom under phylum arthropoada & the class insecta.
PHYLUM : ARTHROPOADA
CLASS : INSECTA
Man had started the use of insects and insect products since time immemorial even at the cost of animal’s life. Insects have been under use in human civilization since prehistoric period as mentioned in our religious literatures like Vedas, puranas , the ramayana, mahabharat and charka samhita. Some foreign travelers like Fahiyan and whenson had also discussed the use of insects and insect’s product as medicine.
As far as Homeopathy is concerned insects have a major role in the preparation of medicines.
Insect group is classified as follows :-
1. Hymenoptera 2. Lepidoptera
3.Coleoptera 4. Orthoptera
- APIS MELLIFICA – honey bee
- APIUM VIRUS – poison of bee
- FORMICA RUFA – crushed live ants
- VESPA CRABRO – common wasp
- BLATTA AMERICANA – Great American cockroach
- BLATTA ORIENTALIS – Indian cockroach
- BOMBYX CHRYSORRHOEA – brown tailed moth
- BOMBYX PROCESSIONEA – procession moth
- CANTHRIS VESICATORIA – Spanish fly
- COCCINELLA SEPTUM PUNCTATA – Indian lady bug
- DORYPHORA DECEMLINEATA – Colorado potato bug
- TRIATEMA – kissing bug
- CHENOPODIUM GLAUCI APHIS – plant lice from Chenopodium.
- CINEX ACANTHIA – Indian bed bug
- COCCUS CACTI – Coccineal insect (insect affecting Cactus).
- PEDICULUS CAPITIS – head louse
- PEDICULLUS COOTIES
- CULEX MUSCA – culex mosquito
- PULEX IRRITANS – common flea
Functions as haptens that form immunogenic conjugates host proteins. Life threatening anaphylactic response of a sensitized human appears within minutes after administration of specific antigen and is manifested by respiratory distress often followed by vascular collapse or by shock without antecedent respiration difficulty.
cutaneous manifestations : Pruitus and urticaria with or without angioedema. Localized, non-pitting, angioedema may occur which may be asymptomatic or cause a burning or stinging sensation.
Gastro intestinal manifestations: Nausea, vomiting crampy abdominal pain and diarrhoea.
Respiratory system: Manifestations laryngeal edema, experienced as a lump in the throat, hoarseness or strider. Bronchial obstruction is associated with a feeling of tightness in the chest of audible wheezing. Angioedema of the epiglottis and larynx and to some extend in the hypo pharynx and trachea, causes mechanical obstruction and death.
Cardiovascular system: Manifestable visceral congestion with a loss of intravascular blood volume leads to vascular collapse and death.
GENERAL FEATURES OF INSECTA
I. SIDE AFFINITY
1. Apis Mellifica 1. Cimex Acanthia
2. Blatta Americana 2. Pulex Irritans
3. Cantharis Vesicator 3. Vespa Crabro
4. Coccinella Septumpunctata
5. Formica Rufa
II. BURNING PAIN
1. Apis mellifica: Burning, stinging, lancinating pain with excessive swelling , > Cold application, <By heat, slightest touch or pressure
2. Formica Rufa : burning pain renewed from cold washing.
3. Vespa crabro:- Burning > bathing with vinegar. Cold water applied first > then <.
4. Bomyx Processionea:- Burning heat of skin
5. Doryphora decemlineata:- Burning in mouth, throat, stomach, rectum and urinary passages. <Warm room > open air
6. Cantheris Vesicator:- Raw, sore, burning & a sharp lancinating pain <slightest tough, >Warm application
1. Apis Mellifica:- Great sensitiveness to touch.
2. Cantharis vesicator :- Over sensitiveness of all parts. The slightest touch or approach aggravates the mental symptoms.
3. Coccus cacti :-General sensitiveness to touch and pressure. Fauces are very sensitive. Brushing teeth causes cough.
4.Doryphora Decemlineata: < touch and pressure
1. Apis Mellifica: Thirst less except during chill stage of intermitted fever.
2. Cantharis Vesicator: Burning thirst with aversion to drinking (picture of hydrophobia). In fever, thirst only after the shivering.
3. Coccinella septum punctata: Symptoms of hydrophobia.
4. Cocus cacti: Mouth and tongue dry, with much thirst. After dinner much thirst and when he drinks water, then chilliness.
5. Cimex acanthia: Thirst during apyrexia, but little during chill stage, still less during heat stage and none during sweating.
6. Pulex Irritans:- Thirsty , especially during headache
V. SWELLING, DROPSY, ASCITES:
1. Apis mellifica:- Oedema of skin and mucous membrane. Swelling or Puffiness up of variance parts. Pale waxy oedematous swelling with a red rosy hue. Ascites and anasarca. Dropsy of Apis is characterized by thirstlessness, transparency of skin and scant urine. Bag like swelling under the eyes. Dropsy of right ovary and right testicle.
2. Blatta Americana:- Ascites, various forms of dropsy, yellow complexion. (Jaundice)
3. Doryphora decemlineata:- Elastic swelling of whole body which will not pit on pressure. (applicability in myxoedema). Swelling of feet with burning.
4.Vespa Crabro: – Face swollen and puffy, skin transparent and blanched. Baggy swelling of conjunctiva. Face, mouth and throat oedematous.
5.Cantharis Vesicator:- burning redness and swelling of face, swelling and inflammation of lips. Dropsical swelling of hand, feet and abdomen.
VI. URINARY COMPLAINTS – BURNING AND FREQUENCY.
1. Apis mellifica :-burning and soreness when urinating. Can scarcely retain urine. When passed scalds severly. Incontinence of urine when coughing and sneezing. Frequent, painful, scanty, blody urine, stinging pain and strangury.
2. Blatta Americana:- pain in urethra while micturating.
3.Doryphora decemlineata:- burning in urinary passages, strangury, urethritis itching and burning. Inflammation of glanspenis. Urethritis due to local irritation.
4.Formica rufa :- urine bloody. Albuminous with urates. Paralysis of bladder. Double the quantity of urine, even at night. Urine like saffron bright yellow
5.Cantharis Vesicator:- Constant urging to urinate, passing but a few drops at a time, which is mixed with blood like molten lead. Intolerable urging before, during and after urination. Burning, cutting pain in urethra during micturation.
6.Cocus cacti :- Burning pain in urethra while urinating. Frequent urination. Black red sediment, urinary calculi, urates and uric acid, haematuria, dysuria, lassinating pain from kidney to bladder.
7.Chenopodii glauci Aphis :- Voluptuous feeling in the glands. Burning in urethra. Frequent copious frothy micturation.
8. Pulex Irritants:- Urine scanty with frequent urging with pressure on bladder and burning in urethra. Flow stops suddenly followed by pain, can’t retain urine. Irritable bladder before menses.
9.Vespa crabro :-burning micturation in females. Dysurea with backache.
VII . FEMALE COMPLAINTS – OVERIAN AFFECTIONS.
Apis mel:- Inflammation, induration, swelling and dropsy of the ovaries especially the right better by lying on right side. Sharp, cutting, stinging pain in the right ovary. Worse during menstruation. Ovarian tumours, with stinging pain like bees sting. Increased sexual desires. Tendency to abort at or before 3rd month. Amenorrhea of puberty. With congestion of head thirstlessness and intolerance of heat.
1.Cantharis:- Inflammation of ovaries, burning pain, extremely sensitive.
2. Cimex acantha :- Shooting pain from vagina towards left ovary.
3. Vespa crabro:– Left ovary markedly affected with frequent burning micturation. Menstruation preceded by a period of depression and constipation.
4.Cocus cacti:- Indicated in menorrhaegia and metrarrhaegia. Dark clots with dysuria.
VIII. SKIN MANIFESTATIONS – URTICARIA.
1. Apis mellifica:-Urticaria like bee stings or stings from other insects with intolerable itching at night. Swellings after bites are sore and sensitive. Erysipelas with sensitiveness and swelling, rosy hue. Carbuncle with burning stinging pain. Eruptions like nettle rash all over the body.
2.Formica rufa:- Nettle rash, red itching and burning. Profuse sweat without relief.
3. Vespa crabro:- Erythema with intense itching and burning > bathing with vinegar. Wheals, swelling and macules with stinging burning and soreness. Cold water application first >, then <.
4.Bomyx Processionoea :- Indicated in Urticaria- intense irritation, hard large areola formed. Tubercle with a red areola. Sensation as of a foreign body were under the skin. Itching <evening not relieved by anything. Burning heat of skin.
5. Cantharis Vesicator:- Vesicular eruptions with burning and itching.Vesicules all ones body Which are sore and suppurating. Erythema from exposure to sunrays. Burns, scalds with rawness and smarting relieved by cold application, followed by undue inflammation.
6. Pediculus:- Psoric manifestation in children,. Milliary eruption on inside of forearms and thigh. Horropilation all over.
1. Apis mellifica:- Dark hemorrhage from rectum, urine, uterus, respiratory organs.
2.Cocuscacti :- Hemorrhage in large black clots especially from kidneys and uterus. menses too, too profuse lasts too long.
3.cantharis:- hemorrhage from nose, mouth, intestine, genital and urinary organs. Emission of blood in drops from urinary organs. Menses early, copious, black blood.
1. Apis mellifica:- Intermittent fever where chill occurs at 3pm with thirst. < from warmth followed by burning heat of whole body with absence of thirst and comes sweat with complete absence of thirst. Indicated in exanthematic fevers and fevers complicated with suppression of eruptions.
2. Cantharis:- Cold & shivering. Thirst only after shivering cold. Perspiration especially on hands, feet & genitals. sweat smells of urine. Pulse full, hard and rapid.
2. Cimex acnthia:- intermittent fevers with weariness and inclination to stretch. Chilliness of whole body, pain in all joints as if tendons were too short, esp. knee joint. Chill < lying down. Thirst during apyrexia, but little during chill stage, still less during heat stage and none during sweat stage.
1.Formica rubra :- Rheumatic inflammation of eyes and spinal cord. Gout and articular rheumatism. Right side is more affected. Rheumatism comes with suddenness and restlessness. Patient desires motion, but pain worse from motion.
2. Apis mellifica:- Acute inflammatory rheumatism with burning, stinging and swelling. Pain < on any motion.