Dr. Amrutha Manoharan B.H.M.S, M.D(Hom), Dip.Yoga
Dental caries is the decay of teeth, characterized by demineralization of inorganic substance and decomposition of organic structures.
KEY WORDS :Dental caries,homoeopathy.
Dental caries simply means decay or rotting of the teeth. It is a from of progressive destruction of the enamel, dentine and cementum initiated by microbial activity at the tooth surface.
The word caries derived from the Latin word meaning rot or decay. 
FACTORS AFFECTING DENTAL CARIES
- Age – mostly in children less than 12 years of age.
- Gender – females are affected more .
- Familial – siblings of individuals with high caries are greatly affected.
ETIOLOGY OF DENTAL CARIES
- Miller’s chemo parasitic theory or acidogenic theory – caries are produced by microorganisms of mouth.
Dental decay is a chemoparasitic process consisting of two stage
- Decalcification of enamel and dentin
- Dissolution of the softened residue.
- Role of carbohydrates
The bacteria and sugar act on teeth and form organic acids that result in the caries of tooth.
3.Dental plaque or microcosm – forms on the tooth surface that is not constantly cleansed , the enamel caries begins under the dental plaque.
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF DENTAL CARIES
- ACCORDING TO MORPHOLOGY OR ANATOMICAL SITE
- Pit or fissure caries
- Smooth surface caries
(B) DEPENDING ON THE RATE OF CARIOUS PROGRESION
1.Acute dental caries
2. Chronic dental caries
(C) BSAED ON NATURE OF ATTACK
- Primary or virgin caries
- Secondary or recurrent caries.
(D) BASED ON CHRONOLOGY
1. infancy caries
2. Adolescent caries.
PIT AND FISSURE CARIES
Primary type develops on the occlusal surface of molars and premolars in the palatal surface of the maxillary incisors. They may appear brown or black and with feel slightly soft and catch a fine explorer point.
SMOOTH SURFACE CARIES
Develops on the proximal surface of the teeth or on the gingival third of the bucal mucosa and lingual surface .
ACUTE DENTAL CARIES
Which runs a rapid clinical course and results in early pulp involvement by carious process. Occurs mostly in children and young adults presumably because the dentinal tubules are large and open and show no sclerosis.
CHRONIC DENTAL CARIES
Chronic dental caries is that from which progress slowly and tends to involve the pulp much than the acute caries . it is most common in adults . the entrance to the lesion is invariably larger, because of this there is not only less food retention but also greater acces of saliava.
NURSING BOTTLE CARIES
Also called baby bottle syndrome, which is mainly attributed due to
Nursing bottle contains milk or milk formula or sweetened water , breastfeeding and sugar or honey –sweetened pacifiers.
Most commonly four incisors are affected followed by first molars.
Occurs mainly 11 – 18 years of age, these are usually seen in teeth and surface that are relatively immune to caries with a relative small opening in the enamel with extensive undermining enamel.
METHOS USED TO STUDY DENTAL CARIES
- Ground sections
- SEM and TEM
- Histochemistry and radioisotopes
APPROACHES TO CARIES PREVENTION
1. plaque control – mechanical, chemical and immunological
2. dietary control – reduced intake of carbohydrate , sucrose substitute and addictive.
3. increase the resistance of the tooth
Pre- eruptive methods – adequate nutrition and systematic fluoride
Post – eruptive method – topical fluorides, fissure sealants and remineralizing solutions.
MECHANICAL MEASURES FOR CARIES CONTROL
- Oral prophylaxis by a dentist
- Tooth brushing
- Mouth rinsing
- Use of dental floss or tooth picks
MIASM OF DENTAL CARIES
|tartar and other improper substance in gums, painful teeth and easy bleeding||dental caries and fistula, teeth decay as soon as they appear and irregular teeth|
Dental caries mainly comes under psoro-syphilitic miasm.
MOUTH – TEETH – Caries
3mark remedies – ant-c, bell, borax, fl-ac, merc, mez, natc, plb, sep, staphy.
Diabetes mellitus – sulphuric acid
Internal – selenium
Crown – merc, staphy
Decay as soon as they appear – kreos, staphy
Gums edge – calc, syph, thuja
Internal – selenium
Premature in children – calc fl, calc ph, flac, kreos, staphy, sil, mez,
Roots – mers, mez, sil, syphy, thuja
Sides of teeth – mez, staphy, thuja 
MEDICINES FOR DENTAL CARIES
Caries of teeth after abuse of mercury with drawing pain in the jaws and copious salivation.
Rapid caries , toothache in decayed tooth before menses or from cold. Toothache worse when thinking about it.
Dental caries premature in children . caries of teeth and upper jaw.
4. FLUORIC ACID
Rapid caries of teeth , violent pain at the root of the right eye tooth with frequent discharge of pus. Mouth and teeth coated with mucous morning.
Rampant caries with periodontitis , spongy and bleeding gums. Rapid caries as soon as the teeth erupt . tooth shows dark spots , begins to decay . premature greying of milk teeth aching and pain in diseased teeth. Bad odour from decayed teeth.
Crown of teeth except incisors decay, teeth feels elongated . toothache in decayed teeth. Drawing stinging pain in whole side of face extending to ears.
Caries at roots and sides of teeth while crown remains sound. Rapid caries , sensation as if even the healthy teeth are plucked out of socket. Teeth decay on sides above the gums.
Rapid caries in chlorosis, teeth black and crumbling cavitation submaxillary glands swollen necrosis of teeth. Tearing pain shooting to ears. Teeth decay early in children; cannot be kept clean.
Rapid caries , drawing pain in upper molars extending to ears decay of teeth in clorosis. Taste salty, putrid. Pain in teeth from 6 pm till midnight; worse on lying.
Teeth decay at gum; edges serrated, dwarfed. Tongue coated, teeth-indented; deep longitudinal cracks. Ulcers smart and burn. Excessive flow of saliva; it runs out of mouth when sleeping. 
Teeth decay at the roots , crown remain sound , crumble and turn yellow. Toothache from tea drinking.
Along with indicated medicine, proper diet and regimen are needed for the correction of dental caries. A frequent dental examination is also advised for the patient along with compulsory night time brushing also help in reducing the risk of developing dental caries.
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Dr. Amrutha Manoharan B.H.M.S, M.D(Hom), Dip.Yoga
Department Of Physiology
White Memorial Homoeopathic Medical College. Attor. Tamil Nadu.