Pathology Questions for Competitive Examinations


DW = Differentiate

DW:    Caseation and coagulation necrosis.

DW:    Coagulation and liquefaction necrosis.

DW:    Metastatic and dystrophic calcification.

DW:    Necrosis and autolysis.

DW:    Dry and wet gangrene.

DW:    Reversible and irreversible injury.

DW:    Necrosis and apoptosis.

DW:    Hyperplasia and neoplasia.

DW:    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

DW:    Labile cell and stable cell.

DW:    Metaplasia and dysplasia.

DW:    Granulation tissue and granuloma.

DW:    Healing by primary and secondary intentions.

DW:    Granulomatous inflammation and granulation tissue.

DW:    Transudate and exudates.

DW:    Healing by primary and secondary intention.

DW:    Exudate and transudate.

DW:    Thrombus and post mortem clot.

DW:    Thrombus and pm clot.

DW:    Infarction and gangrene.

DW:    Renal and cardiac edema.

DW:    T helper and T suppressor cells.

DW:    Class I and Class II histocamptibility antigens.

DW:    T and B lymphocytes.

DW:    Type I and Type III hypersensitivity reactions.

DW:    Primary and secondary amyloidosis.

DW:    T and B cell.

DW:    Type I and II hypersensitivity.

DW:    Acute and chronic rejection of renal transplant.

DW:    Hyaline and amyloid material.

DW:    Helper and cytotoxix T cells.

DW:    Ig allotype and idiotype.

DW:    Benign and Malignant tumours.

DW:    Carcinoma and sarcoma.

DW:    Neoplasm and hamartoma.

DW:    Proto-oncogene and anti-oncogene.

DW:    Tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy.

DW:    Primary and reinfection TB.

DW:    Kwashiorkar and marasmus.

LQ:      Define cell injury. Describe the brief mechanism hypoxic cell injury.

LQ:      Describe the process of wound healing by primary intention. What are the factors which influence wound healing.

LQ:      Define inflammation. Name and discuss the mode of action of chemical mediators in acute inflammation.

LQ:      Define inflammation. Describe the cellular events an types of acute inflammation.

LQ:      Define granuloma, list causes of granulomatosus inflammation, describe the dev. Of tubercular granuloma.

LQ:      Discuss pathogenesis of thrombus formation. What is the fate of the thrombus?

LQ:      Define and classify shock. Discuss the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock.

LQ:      Discuss the etiopathogenesis of thrombosis. Describe the morphology and fate of a thrombus.

LQ:      Enumerate the different types of edema. Give the pathogenesis of cardiac edema.

LQ:      Define and classify shock. Discuss the pathogenesis of septic shock.

LQ:      Define thrombus. Discuss the etiopathogenesis of thrombus and its fate.

LQ:      Enumerate the different types of emboli. Describe the etiopathogenesis and complications of pulmonary embolism.

LQ:      Classify amyloidosis. Discuss its pathogenesis and characterization.

LQ:      Give immunochemical and clinical classification of amyloidosis. Describe the gross and microscopic autopsy findings in a case of reactive systemic amyloidosis.

LQ:      Define hypersensitivity. Describe the mechanism of action of type II hypersensitivity.

LQ:      Define hypersensitivity. Give the mech. of action of type II hypersensitivity reaction with examples.

LQ:      Define neoplasia. Describe the altered growth properties of malignant cells and their mode of spread.

LQ:      Enumerate the viruses implicated in human neoplasia. Discuss the mechanisms of action of RNA viruses in inducing neoplastic change.

LQ:      Classify epithelial tumours and describe the gross and microscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma.

LQ:      Define carcinogenesis. Describe briefly the role of various carcinogens in causation of human malignancy.

LQ:      Discuss the role of viruses in carcinogenesis. Enumerate the important laboratory techniques used in diagnosis of cancer.

LQ:      Classify chemical carcinogens. Discuss the sequential steps involved in chemical carcinogenesis.

LQ:      Define neoplasia. Describe the mech. of DNA viral carcinogensis.

LQ:      Describe briefly the MOA and biological effects of ionizing radiations.

SN:      Apudoma.

SN:      Hemochiomatosis.

SN:      Pathogenesis of fatty liver.

SN:      Coagulative and caseous necrosis.

SN:      Metastatic and dystrophic calcification.

SN:      Free radicals in cell injury.

SN:      Mech. of fatty change in liver.

SN:      Fat necrosis.

SN:      Mallory’s bodies.

SN:      Free radical injury.

SN:      Causes and morphology of fatty liver.

SN:      Fat necrosis.

SN:      Free radical injury.

SN:      Mech. of fatty change of liver.

SN:      Fat necrosis.

SN:      Free radical injury.

SN:      Mech. of fatty change of liver.

SN:      Fat necrosis.

SN:      Dystrophic calcification.

SN:      Dysplasia.

SN:      Interleukin- 1.

SN:      Lymphokines.

SN:      Phagocytosis.

SN:      Transudate and exudates.

SN:      Chemotactic factors.

SN:      Vascular changes in acute inflammation.

SN:      Granulomatous inflammation.

SN:      Phagocytosis.

SN:      Brown location of lungs.

SN:      Fate of thrombus.

SN:      Phlebothrombosis.

SN:      Classification and morphology of infarcts

SN:      Fat embolism.

SN:      Amniotic fluid embolism.

SN:      Venous thrombosis.

SN:      Paradoxical embolism.

SN:      Renal oedema.

SN:      Nutmeg liver.

SN:      Klinefelter syndrome.

SN:      Turner’s syndrome.

SN:      Lyon’s hypothesis.

SN:      Glycogen storage disease.

SN:      Barr body.

SN:      Down syndrome.

SN:      Hermaphroditism.

SN:      Hypercholesterolemia.

SN:      Barr body.

SN:      Arthus phenomenon.

SN:      Acute graft rejection.

SN:      Staining properties of amyloid.

SN:      Sago spleen.

SN:      Type IV hypersensitivity reaction.

SN:      Interferon.

SN:      Delayed hypersensitivity.

SN:      T and B lymphocyte.

SN:      Significance of HLA complex.

SN:      Coomb’s test.

SN:      Antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

SN:      Lymphokines.

SN:      Immunologic tolerance.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of AIDS.

SN:      Cytokines.

SN:      Basis of immunodeficiency in AIDS.

SN:      Interferon.

SN:      Opportunistic infection in AIDS.

SN:      Graft vs host disease.

SN:      Alfafetoprotein.

SN:      Carcinoma in site.

SN:      Tumour cell markers.

SN:      Role of cytology in early detection of cancer.

SN:      Procarcinogens.

SN:      Frozen section.

SN:      Co-carcinogen.

SN:      Tumour markers.

SN:      Teratoma.

SN:      Cytological diagnosis of cancer.

SN:      Oncofoetal antigens.

SN:      DNA oncogenic viruses.

SN:      Oncofoetal proteins.

SN:      Viral oncogenesis.

SN:      Philadelphia chromosome.

SN:      Alfafetoprotein.

SN:      Role of cytology in tumour diagnosis.

SN:      Lepromin test.

SN:      Lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy.

SN:      Ghoan focus.

SN:      Ghon’s complex.

SN:      Primary complex.

SN:      Kwashiorkar.

SN:      Radiation injury.

SN:      Diet of cancer.

SN:      Hazards of radiation.

SN:      Hemolytic diseases of newborn.

SN:      Neuroblastoma.

SN:      Hemolytic disease of newborn.


DW:    Tuberculous and pyogenic pericarditis.

DW:    Rheumatic and bacterial endocarditis.

DW:    Vegetations of rheumatic heart disease and bacterial endocarditis.

DW:    Megaloblast and normoblast.

DW:    Chronic myeloid leukemia and leukemoid reaction.

DW:    Bronchopneumonis and lobar pneumonia.

DW:    Centriacinar and panacinar emphysema.

DW:    Features of benign and malignant gastric ulcer.

DW:    Tubercular and typhoid ulcer intestine.

DW:    Ulcerative and amoebic colitis.

DW:    Hepatocellular and obstructive jaundice.

DW:    Obstructive and hemolytic jaundice.

DW:    Chronic active and chronic persistent hepatitis.

DW:    Amoebic and pyogenic liver abscess.

DW:    Hepatitis A Hepatitis B.

DW:    Renal changes in benign and malignant nephrosclerosis.

DW:    Features of chronic pyelonephritis and chronic glomerulonephritis.

DW:    Benign and malignant hypertension.

DW:    Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic pyelonephritis.

DW:    Minimal changes and membranous nephropathy.

DW:    Nephroblastoma and renal cell carcinoma.

DW:    Hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma.

DW:    Mature and immature teratoma.

DW:    Follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma thyroid.

DW:    CSF findings in tuberculosis and pyogenic meningitis.

LQ:      Describe the risk factors pathogenesis and complications of atherosclerosis of aorta.

LQ:      Classify endocarditis. Describe the etiopathogenes pathology and complication of infective bacteria endocarditis.

LQ:      Enumerate the causes of MI. Describe in brief the pathology and complications of acute MI.

LQ:      Describe pathogenesis of MI. give the gross and microscopic features and complications of MI.

LQ:      Discuss the etiopathogensis of rheumatic fever. Describe the autopsy findings in the case of mitral stenosis.

LQ:      Discuss the etiopathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease. Describe the autopsy findings in the case mitral stenosis.

LQ:      Describe the gross and microscopic features and I diagnosis of acute MI.

LQ:      Classify hemolytic anemia. Describe the hematologic lab findings in beta-thalassemia.

LQ:      Classify purpuras. Describe the peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in a case of idiopathic thrombus cytopenic purpura.

LQ:      Classify megaloblastic anemias. Give the pathogenesis and lab diagnosis of pernicious anemia.

LQ:       Enumerate the causes of iron deficiency anemia. Describe its pathogenesis and lab investigations.

LQ:      Classify hemolytic anemia. Give the lab diagnosis of thalassemia.

LQ:      What are the microcytic anemias. Describe the clinical features and lab diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia.

LQ:      Define and classify hemolytic anemia. Describe the lab diagnosis of sickle cell disease.

LQ: Outline a scheme for investigating a probable patient of hemolytic anemia. Give the pathophysiology and clinical features of beta thalassemia major.

LQ: Enumerate the causes of iron deficiency anemia. Describe the hematological findings in a case nutritional iron deficiency anemia.

LQ: Classify leukemias. Describe the clinical features and lab findings in a case of chronic myeloid leukemia.

LQ: Describe the salient clinical features, lab findings and prognostic factors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

LQ: Classify leukemia. Describe the clinical and lab findings in a case of acute myeloid leukemia.

LQ: Enumerate the causes of generalized lymphadenopathy in young adults. Describe the gross and microscopic features of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

LQ: Classify leukemias. Give the clinical and lab findings in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

LQ: Classify acute leukemias. Discuss the clinical features, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

LQ:  What is bronchiectasis? Describe the predisposing factors, pathogenesis morphology and sequelae of bronchiectasis.

LQ:  Enumerate the causes of hemoptysis. Describe the autopsy findings in a case of fibrocaseous TB lung.

LQ:  Classify pneumonias. Describe the etiopathogenesis, pathology and complications of lobar pneumonia.

LQ:  Describe the primary complex in pulmonary tuberculosis and types of reactivation lesions of the lung and its complications.

LQ:  What is bronchiectasis. Discuss the pathogenesis, pathological features and complications of bronchiectasis.

LQ:  Name the cavitating lesions of lung. Describe the predisposing factors, pathogensis, morphology and sequelae of bronchiectasis.

LQ:  Classify lung tumours. Discuss the etiological factors for lung cancer and describe the morphology of squamous cell cancer of the lung.

LQ:  Classify pneumoconiosis. Describe the etiopathogenesis, pathology and complications and silicosis lung.

LQ:  Classify tumours. Discuss the etiopathogenesis and pathology of squamous cell carcinoma lung.

LQ:  Enumerate the ulceroinflammatory lesions of small intestine. Describe the pathology and complications intestinal tuberculosis.

LQ: Enumerate the ulceroinflammatory lesions of large intestine. Give the gross and microscopic features are complications of amoebic colitis.

LQ:  Discuss the etiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer. Describe the pathology and complications of chronic gastric ulcer.

LQ:  Classify the tumours of stomach. Describe the bri etiopathogenesis, gross and microscopic features gastric carcinoma.

LQ:  Discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, pathology and sequelease of acute viral hepatitis.

LQ:  Classify cirrhosis. Discuss brief, the pathology, pathogenesis and complications of posthepatic of cirrhosis.

LQ:  Enumerate the clinical manifestations of cirrhosis of the liver giving the pathological basis of portal hypertension.

LQ:  Enumerate the viruses that causes hepatitis. Describe the pathology of acute viral hepatitis B and its sequelae.

LQ:  Define cirrhosis. Describe the etiopathogenesis of pos necrotic cirrhosis and enumerate its complications.

LQ:  Define and classify cirrhosis. Give the gross and microscopic features of alcoholic cirrhosis.

LQ:  Define and classify cirrhosis. Describe the pathogenesis and pathology of postnecrotic cirrhosis. Enumerate the complications of postnecrotic cirrhosis.

LQ:  Enumerate the ulcerative lesions of large intestine. Describe the etiopathogenesis, morphological features and complications of postnecrotic cirrhosis.

LQ:   Discuss the etiopathogensis and complications of alcoholic cirrhosis.

LQ:   Describe the autopsy findings in a 65 year old male who has had DM for 20 years.

LQ:  Define nephritic syndrome. Enumerate the causes and discuss its pathogenic mechanism. Describe morphological features of membranous glomerulonephritis.

LQ: Classify glomerulonephritis. Describe the clinical features, etiopathogenesis and lab diagnosis of poststreptococcal glomerulophritis.

LQ:   Describe the pathology and the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.

LQ: Define nephritic syndrome. Enumerate its causes and describe the renal changes and lab diagnosis of minimal change glomerulonephritis.

LQ:   Describe the etiopathogenesis, clinical features and lab diagnosis of acute proliferative poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.

LQ:   Describe the etiopathogeneis, morphological features and urinary findings in poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.

LQ:   What are the types of urinary calculi? Discuss the pathogenesis, gross features and complications of renal calculi.

LQ: Define nephritic syndrome. Enumerate its causes, and describe the etiopathogensis and pathology of membranous glomerulonephritis.

LQ:   A- 55 year old man died of persistent long standing HT. Discuss autopsy findings.

LQ:   Describe the etiopathogenesis, morphologic changes and lab findings of chronic pyelonephritis.

LQ:   Enumerate the cause of thyroid enlargement. Describe the etiopathogenesis and pathology of multinodular goitre.

LQ:   Classify malignant tumours of the bone. Describe pathology of a common primary malignant bone tumour.

LQ:   Describe the etiopathogenesis and gross and microscopic features of chronic osteomyelitis. Enumerate complications.

SN:   Polyarthritis nodosa.

SN:      Complications of atheromatous plaque.

SN:      Mycotic aneurysm.

SN:      Thromboangitis obliterans.

SN:      Raynaoud phenomenon.

SN:      Sequelae of atherosclerosis.

SN:      Aneurysms of aorta.

SN:      Tubercular pericarditis.

SN:      Pathology of acute MI.

SN:      Complications of MI.

SN:      Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis.

SN:      Aschoff body.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of acute MI.

SN:      Aschoff nodule.

SN:      Causes of left ventricular hypertrophy.

SN:      Constrictive pericarditis.

SN:      Lab findings in myocardial infarct.

SN:      Sequelae of bacterial endocarditis.

SN:      Libman-Sach’s endocarditis.

SN:      Causes and morphological features of vegetations cardiac valves.

SN:      Viral myocarditis.

SN:      Libman-Sacks disease.

SN:      Constrictive pericarditis.

SN:      Lab anticoagulants.

SN:      Bone marrow picture of megaloblastic anemia.

SN:      Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

SN:      Lab diagnosis of sickle cell anemia.

SN:      Pancytopenia.

SN:      Hemophilia.

SN:      Foetal Hb.

SN:      Erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

SN:      Hemophilia.

SN:      Idiopathic thrombocytopic purpura.

SN:      Rh incompatibility.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia.

SN:      Blood transfusion reactions.

SN:      Causes of pancytopenia.

SN:      G6PD deficiency.

SN:      Pancytopenia.

SN:      Prothrombin time.

SN:      Blood transfusion.

SN:      Mech. Of platelet destruction in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura lab diagnosis of hemophilia.

SN:      Blood and bone marrow findings in folate deficiency anemia.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of thalassemia.

SN:      Peripheral smear changes in megaloblastic anemia.

SN:      Hemoglobin estimation.

SN:      Bleeding time.

SN:      Significance of ESR estimation.

SN:      Bombay blood group.

SN:      Hodgkin’s disease.

SN:      Fibrocongestive spleen

SN:      Agranulocytosis.

SN:      Lab investigation of multiple myeloma.

SN:      Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s disease.

SN:      Histological features of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

SN:      Peripheral smear and bone marrow findings in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of multiple myeloma.

SN:      Burkitts lymphoma.

SN:      Multiple myeloma.

SN:      Hodgkin’s lymphoma –mixed cellularity.

SN:      Cytochemical differentiation of acute leukaemias.

SN:      Emphysema lung.

SN:      Oat cell carcinoma of lung.

SN:      Viral pneumonia.

SN:      Role of alpha-1 antitrypsin in emphysema.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma.

SN:      Complications of bronchietasis.

SN:      Asbestosis.

SN:      Lab diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma.

SN:      Oat cell carcinoma lung.

SN:      Pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

SN:      Viral pneumonia.

SN:      Complications of lung abscess.

SN:      Lung abscess.

SN:      Primary atypical pneumonias.

SN:      Utility of broncho-alveolar levage.

SN:      Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

SN:      Complications of bronchiectasis.

SN:      Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland.

SN:      Pleomorphic adenoma.

SN:      Carcinoid tumour.

SN:      Coeliac disease.

SN:      Carcinoid syndrome.

SN:      Gross and microscopic appearance of amoebic coli.

SN:      Hirschprung’s disease.

SN:      Typhoid ulcer of intestine.

SN:      Complications of ulcerative colitis.

SN:      Complications of amoebic colitis.

SN:      Malabsorption syndrome.

SN:      Crohn’s disease.

SN:      Carcinoid tumour of intestine.

SN:      Precancerous lesions of git.

SN:      Acute appendicitis.

SN:      Benign gastric ulcer.

SN:      Typhoid ulcer.

SN:      Complications of peptic ulcer.

SN:      Villous adenoma of colon.

SN:      Typhoid and tuberculous ulcer of small intestine.

SN:      Morphological features and complications of ulcerative colitis.

SN:      Acute appendicitis.

SN:      Chronic active hepatitis.

SN:      Indian Childhood cirrhosis.

SN:      Hepatitis B virus.

SN:      Amoebic liver abscess.

SN:      Gallstones.

SN:      Obs and hepatic jaundice.

SN:      Complications of gallstones.

SN:      Delta hepatitis.

SN:      Portal hypertension.

SN:      Non-A Non-B hepatitis.

SN:      Alfatoxin.

SN:      Lab findings in obstructive jaundice.

SN:      Mech. of ascites of cirrhosis of liver.

SN:      Amoebic abscess of liver.

SN:      Morphologic features of alcoholic cirrhosis.

SN:      Chronic active hepatitis.

SN:      Hepatocellular carcinoma.

SN:      Cholelithiasis.

SN:      Dubin-Johnson’s syndrome.

SN:      Hereditary hyperbilirubinemia.

SN:      Acute pancreatitis.

SN:      Zollinger-Ellison’s syndrome.

SN:      Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas.

SN:      Diabetic neuropathy.

SN:      Glucose tolerance tests.

SN:      Ketoacidosis.

SN:      Diagnostic significance of urinary casts.

SN:      Renal infarct.

SN:      Renal lesions.

SN:      Benign nephrosclerosis.

SN:      Urinary casts.

SN:      Acute tubular necrosis.

SN:      Rapidly progressive glomerulobnephritis.

SN:      Urinary findings in chronic glomerulonephritis.

SN:      Wilms tumour.

SN:      Kidney in hypertension.

SN:      Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

SN:      Renal changes in DM.

SN:      Acute lobar necrosis.

SN:      Urinary casts.

SN:      Morphologic lesions of diabetic nephropathy.

SN:      Malignant nephrosclerosis.

SN:      Renal infarct.

SN:      Benign and malignant hypertension.

SN:      End stage kidney.

SN:      Renal changes in DM.

SN:      Renal changes in malignant hypertension.

SN:      Urothelial tumours of urinary bladder.

SN:      Seminoma.

SN:      Nodular hyperplasia prostate.

SN:      Seminoma testis.

SN:      Carcinoma prostate.

SN:      Hydatiditiform mole.

SN:      Choriocarcinoma.

SN:      Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

SN:      Teratoma ovary.

SN:      Vesicular mole.

SN:      Krukenberg tumour.

SN:      Choriocaricnoma.

SN:      Leiomyoma uterus.

SN:      Benign cystic teratoma, ovary.

SN:      Endometrial carcinoma.

SN:      Uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

SN:      Yolk sac tumour.

SN:      Hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma.

SN:      Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

SN:      Dermoid cyst ovary.

SN:      Yolk sac tumour of ovary.

SN:      Fibrocystic disease of breast.

SN:      Paget’s disease of the breast.

SN:      Fibrocystic disease of the breast.

SN :    Cystosarcoma phylloides.

SN:      Fibroadenoma breast.

SN:      Fibroadenoma.

SN:      Cushing’s syndrome.

SN:      Pheochromocytoma.

SN:      Thyroiditis.

SN:      Multinodular goitre.

SN:      Pheochromocytoma.

SN:      Hastimoto’s thyroiditis.

SN:      Grave’s disease.

SN:      Medullary carcinoma thyroid.

SN:      Papillary carcinoma thyroid.

SN:      Craniopharyngioma.

SN:      Adenomatous goitre.

SN:      Adenoma thyroid.

SN:      Craniopharyngioma.

SN:      Pheochromocytoma.

SN:      Malignant melanoma.

SN:      Basal cell carcinoma.

SN:      Rodent cancer.

SN:      Sequestrum.

SN:      Tuberculous osteomyelitis.

SN:      Osteoclastoma.

SN:      Osteomalacia.

SN:      Ewing’s sarcoma of bone.

SN:      Bone changes in rickets.

SN:      Fibrous dysplasia of the bone.

SN:      Osteogenic sarcoma.

SN:      Gross and microscopic features of giant cell tumour bone.

SN:      Pathogenesis of tuberculosis osteomyelitis.

SN:      Osteogenic sarcoma – newer concepts.

SN:      Pathogenesis of pyogenic osteomyelitis.

SN:      Etiopathogenesis of acute pyogenic osteomyelitis.

SN:      Giant cell tumour of bone.

SN:      Tubercular osteomyelitis.

SN:      Rickets.

SN:      Osteosarcoma.

SN:      Pathology and clinical features of chondrosarcoma.

SN:      CSF findings in acute pyogenic meningitis.

SN:      CSF in viral meningitis.

SN:      Astrocytoma.

SN:      CSF findings in tubercular meningitis.

SN:      Hydrocephalous.


LQ:      Long question

SN:      Short Note

DW:    Difference between


           Number of spots = Five spots 

  1. Bone marrow aspiration needle.
  2. Lumbar puncture needle.
  3. Specimen of kidney (amyloidosis).
  4. Ileocecal tuberculosis (specimens).
  5. Matted lymph nodes.
  6. Seminoma testis.
  7. Clinical case (history and questions).
  8. Cirrhosis of liver.
  9. Sago spleen.
  10. Typhoid ulcer.


  1. Fatty liver.
  2. Amyloidosis kidney.
  3. Cirrhosis of the liver.
  4. CVC liver.
  5. Tuberculosis lung.
  6. Tuberculosis of intestine.
  7. Thrombus artery.
  8. Squamous cell papilloma.
  9. Squamous cell carcinoma skin.
  10. Lobar pneumonia.
  11. Brochopneumonia.
  12. Fibrocystic disease of breast (FNAC).
  13. Duct carcinoma of breast (FNAC).
  14. Calloid goitre thyroid (FNAC)
  15. Seminoma testis.
  16. Glomerulonephritis (Acute).
  17. Peptic ulcer.
  18. Lymphadenitis.
  19. Atheromatous plaque.
  20. Arteriosclerosis.
  21. Cavernous hemangioma.
  22. Lipoma.
  23. Breast carcinoma.
  24. Toxic nodular goitre of thyroid.
  25. Bone tumors.


Hemoglobin estimation.

Total leucocyte count calculation methods.

Differential leucocyte counting method.

Provisional diagnosis on the basis of :

    • Hb estimation
    • TLC
    • History and results of other investigations provided with blood samples.

Courtesy : Professor Dr Sanjay Bedi
President IAMI
Professor in Pathology

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