Role of Homoeopathic Mother Tinctures in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Experimental Study

Role of Homoeopathic Mother Tinctures in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Experimental Study 

JOURNAL REVIEW byDr Bhagyasree B  MD(Hom)
Medical Officer, Department of Homoeopathy, Govt. of Kerala 

JOURNAL NAME: Indian Journal of research homoeopathy V olume-9
Issue 1 Jan-Mar 2015
www.ijrh.org  

Conducted by:Surender Singh, Ritu Karwasra, Prerna Kalra, Rohit Kumar, Shalu Rani et al 

Dr.Surender Singh,
Department of Pharmacology,
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, NewDelhi110029, India  

Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) is a progressive, disabling, chronic multisystem disease which is characterized by pain, swelling and stiffness of the synovial joints, which is often worse in the morning and after periods of inactivity. 

There are many medicines reported in the literature for RA but there are very less preclinical or clinical data for these mother tinctures. 

Objective
The objective of present preliminary study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic effects of some homoeopathic mother tinctures viz. Ricinus communis (RCMT), Rauwolfia serpentina (RSMT), Bellis perennis (BPMT), Curcuma longa (CLMT), Terminalia arjuna (TAMT) and Tribulus terresteris (TTMT). 

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out in the Department of Pharmacology with the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. 

Animals–Wistar albino rats 

Drugs and Chemicals 

1.The homoeopathic drugs in the form of mother tinctures, on the request of Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, New Delhi were supplied by Dr. Willmar Schwabe India Pvt Ltd, Noida, U.P, India. 

2.Indomethacin (NSAID)was used as standard drug (Merck Chemicals, India)
3. λ-Carrageenan (inflammation inducer) was purchased from 

Sigma-Aldrich,USA 

4. Complete Freund’s adjuvant-(immunopotentiser) (CFA) fromDifco Laboratories, USA 

Dose Calculation 

Recommended dose given for rats is 20 μl/100 g body weight (20 0μl/kg body weight), 

Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rats 

Eight groups of male Wistar albino rats (N = 6) were used in this study (6 test drugs, one standard and one control group). 

The baseline paw volume was determined in the overnight fasted animals by using a plethysmometer. 

Paw oedema was induced by administration of 0.1ml 1% Carrageenan in normal saline into right hind paw 

Results were expressed as percentage of inhibition of oedema
Group I received normal saline (0.1ml/10g p. o) and served as Control. Group II received Indomethacin (3mg/kg p. o) and served as standard group. Group III received Bellis perennis
Group IV received Curcuma longa 

Group V received Rawolfia serpentina Group VI received Ricinus communis 

Group VII received Tribulus teresteris 

Group VIII received Terminalia arjuna 

Eddy’s Hot Plate Induced Thermal Algesia in Rats 

The animals were placed on the Eddy’s hot plate (55 C) and the time until the animal either licked its paw or jumped was recorded by using a stop watch. 

Drugs/vehicle was then administered by gavage. 

Animals were then retested at 20, 60, and 90 minutes following drug/vehicle administration and the reaction latency was recorded. 

Adjuvant Induced Arthritis 

Thirteen groups of male Wistar albino rats (N = 6) were used in this study Arthritis was induced by sub-plantar administration of 0.1ml of Complete 

Freund’s Adjuvant. 

Group I received Indomethacin (3mg/kg p. o) and served as standard, Group II received BellisMT, Group III received same percentage of alcoholic solution as of mother tincture (65% v/v) which served as respective control for BPMT and indomethacin, Group IVreceived Curcuma longaMT, Group V received same percentage of Alcoholic solution as of mother tincture (60% v/v) which served as respective control for CLMT and indomethacin, Group VI received RawolfiaMT 

received same percentage of Alcoholic solution as of mother tincture (77% v/v) which served as respective control for RSMT and Indomethacin, Group VIII received RCMT, Group IX received same percentage of alcoholic solution as of mother tincture (94% v/v) which served as respective control for RCMT and indomethacin, Group X received TTMT, Group XI received same percentage of alcoholic solution as of mother tincture (62% v/v) which served as respectivecontrol for TTMT and Indomethacin, Group XII received TAMT, Group XIII received same percentage of alcoholic solution as of mother tincture (82% v/v) which served as respective control for TAMT and Indomethacin. 

30 minutes after administration of the vehicle/drug, arthritis was induced by sub-plantar administration of 0.1ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant 

Joint diameter of the injected paw was again measured on 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, after 30 minutes vehicle/drug administration. 

RESULTS 

1. Anti-inflammatory Activity
Administration of BellisPMT, Rawolfia SMT, Ricinus CommunisMT and Terminalia Arjuna MT did not produce any effect on hind paw swelling, thus indicates lack of anti-inflammatory activity in tested dose 

Curcuma longa and Tribulus teresteris produced a significant reduction in paw oedema at 3 and 6 hours post carrageenan administration. 

Maximum percentage of inhibition of paw oedema was seen in Indomethacin (41%) 

Curcuma Longa MT (39.70%)
Tribulus T MT (36.76%)
groups, revealed potent activity against inflammation. 

2.Analgesic Activity
Evaluation of analgesic activity of test drugs using eddy’s hot plate induced thermal algesia demonstrated an increase in reaction latency (paw licking and jumping behavior) in drug treated animals. 

These observations suggest the involvement of higher centres in development of analgesia. 

3.Anti arthritic activity 

Maximum reduction of joint swelling was produced by groups Curcuma longa MT and Tribulus Teresteris MT on day 21, whereas the groups RCMT and TAMT showed slight increase in joint diameter on day 21. 

Bellis MT and Rawolfia Serpentina MT groups showed initial decrease in joint diameter from 7–14 days and there was an increase in joint diameter on day 21. 

DISCUSSION
In this study, the effect of six homoeopathic mother tinctures viz. RCMT, RSMT, BPMT, CLMT, TAMT,and TTMT were investigated in inflammatory disorders. 

The major findings of study were that Curcuma LMT and Tribulus Terresteris MT possess significant disease modifying activity as compared to control. 

The exact mechanism by which mother tinctures exert their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity is not determined yet and need further investigation to elucidate the active compounds and underlying mechanism (s). 

CONCLUSION
From the results observed from the current investigation, it is concluded that the homoeopathic mother tinctures of plants viz Ricinus communis,Rauwolfia serpentina, Bellis perennis, Curcuma longa,Terminalia arjuna and Tribulus terresteris possesses potentially useful analgesic activity. 

Curcuma longa and Tribulus terresteris groups showed potent activity against Carrageenan induced paw edema model . 

In adjuvant induced arthritic model. Based on our results,we conclude that these mother tinctures (Curcuma Longa MT and Tribulus Teresterris MT) have potential to be used as anti-inflammatory in the treatment of RA and could be further explored as safer alternative in treatment of RA. 

Tribulus teresterris  – an East Indian drug useful in urinary affections, especially dysuria, and in debilitated states of the sexual organs, as expressed in seminal weakness, ready emissions and impoverished semen. 

Prostatitis, calculous affections and sexual neurasthenia. 

It meets the auto-traumatism of masturbation correcting the emissions and spermatorrhœa. 

Partial impotence caused by overindulgence of advancing age, or when accompanied by urinary symptoms, incontinence, painful micturition, etc. 

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